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Abaza
[abq] Karachay-Cherkessia republic and Stavropol krai. Population: 37,800 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 43,300 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 49,800. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ashuwa. Autonym: абаза‎ (Abaza), абаза бызшва‎ (Abaza byzšva). Dialects: Tapanta, Ashkaraua (Ashkar, Ashxar), Bezshagh. Some dialects partially intelligible of Abkhaz [abk]. Classification: Abkhaz-Adyghe, Abkhaz-Abazin.

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Adyghe
[ady] Adygea republic; Karachay-Cherkessia republic, Krasnodar krai, and Stavropol krai. Population: 117,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). No monolinguals (Ministry of Education, Adygea Republic). Ethnic population: 129,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 568,300. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Adyghea Republic (1995, Constitution, Adyghea Republic, Article 2). Alternate Names: Adygei, Adygey, Kiakh, Kjax, Lower Circassian, Lowland Adyghe, West Circassian, Western Adyghe, Western Circassian. Autonym: Адыгабзэ‎ (Adəgăbză), Кӏах Адыгабзэ‎ (Kiakh Adəgăbză). Dialects: Shapsug (Sapsug, Shapsugi), Xakuchi, Bezhedukh (Bzedux, Bzhedug, Chemgui, Temirgoj), Abadzex (Abadzakh, Abadzeg), Natuzaj (Natukhai). Similar to Kabardian [kbd]. Classification: Abkhaz-Adyghe, Circassian.

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Aghul
[agx] Dagestan republic: Agulsky and Kurakhsky districts; Moscow city; Stavropol krai. Population: 29,300 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 34,200 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Aghul-ch’al, Agiul Shui. Autonym: агъул‎ (Aġul), агъул чӀал‎ (Ağul ҫ̇al). Dialects: Agul, Koshan (Q’ushan), Keren, Gequn (Burkikhan), Tsirkhe, Fit’e. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic.

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Akhvakh
[akv] Dagestan republic: Akhvakhsky district, 6 villages; Kakhib district, 3 villages. Population: 210 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,930 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: ’Aqwalazul, Ashvado, Axvax, Ghahvalal. Dialects: Kaxib, Northern Akhvakh, Southern Akhvakh (Tlyanub, Tsegob). Diverse dialects. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Avar-Andic, Andic.

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Aleut
[ale] Kamchatka krai: Komandor Islands, Bering island, Nikolskoye settlement. Population: 5 in Russian Federation (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 200 (Dorais 2010). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Unangam tunnu, Unangan, Unangany, Unanghan. Dialects: Beringov (Atkan, Bering). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Aleut.

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Aleut, Mednyj
[mud] Kamchatka krai: Komandor Islands, Copper island. Population: 350 (2010 census). Census includes Aleut [ale]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Attuan, Copper, Copper Island Aleut, Copper Island Attuan, Creolized Attuan, Medny. Classification: Mixed language, Russian-Aleut.

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Altai, Northern
[atv] Altai krai, Altai republic, and Khakassia republic; Gorno-Altai Ao mountains, along China and Mongolia border. Population: 57,400 (2010 census). 2,000 Tuba, several thousand Kumandy, 2,000 Chalkan (Salminen 2007). Census includes Southern Altai [alt]. Ethnic population: 74,200 (2010 census). Includes Southern Altai [alt]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Telengit, Telengut, Teleut. Autonym: Алтай тили‎ (Altay tili). Dialects: Tuba (Tubalar), Kumandy, Chalkan (Chelkan). No comprehension of Southern Altai [alt]. Considered a separate language. Teleut may be a separate language. Classification: Turkic, Northern.

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Altai, Southern
[alt] Altai republic: Gorno-Altai Ao mountains, along China and Mongolia border. Population: 57,400 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 74,200 (2010 census). Includes Northern Altai [atv]. Status: 2 (Provincial). Alternate Names: Altai, Oirot, Oyrot. Autonym: алтай тили‎ (Altay tili), алтайча‎ (Altajča). Dialects: Altai Proper (Altai-Kizhi, Altaj Kizi, Maina-Kizhi, Southern Altai), Talangit (Chuy, Talangit-Tolos, Telengit), Teleut. No intelligiblility of Northern Altai [atv]. Classification: Turkic, Northern.

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Alutor
[alr] Kamchatka krai: Khailino and Vyvenka villages, northeast Kamchatka peninsula, Rekinniki, Tilichiki and Tymlat; some scattered. Population: 25 (2010 census), decreasing. Some monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aliutor, Alyutor, Olyutor. Dialects: Alutorskij (Alutor Proper). Considered a dialect of Koryak [kpy] until recently. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor.

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Andi
[ani] Dagestan republic: Botlikhsky district, 9 villages. Population: 5,800 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Andii, Andiy, Khivannal, Qandisel, Qwannab. Autonym: къIaваннаб мицци‎ (Qwavannab Micci), мицци‎ (Micci). Dialects: Munin, Rikvani, Kvanxidatl, Gagatl, Upper Andi/North Andi (Andi, Ashali, Chanho, Gagtl, Gunho, Rikvani, Zilo), Lower Andi/South Andi. Dialects appear quite divergent. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Avar-Andic, Andic.

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Archi
[aqc] Dagestan republic: Arsha community, 8 villages on upper Risor river. Population: 970 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Archib, Archin, Archintsy, Archsel, Arshashdib. Dialects: None known. One of the most divergent Lezgian (Lezgic) languages. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Lezgic, Archi.

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Armenian
[hye] Dagestan republic. Population: 661,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 1,180,000 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Dialects: Astrakhan (Astrachan). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian.

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] Krasnodar krai. Population: Status: 5* (Dispersed). Dialects: Hamshen (Hamschen, Khemshil). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian.

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Avar
[ava] Dagestan republic: Sulak and Terek river areas; some in Chechnya republic. Population: 715,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 912,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 766,500. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Avar is used in many areas of Dagestan as a lingua franca among different ethnic groups. Alternate Names: Avaro, Bolmac, Khundzuri, Maarul Dagestani. Autonym: Авар мацӏ‎ (Avar maⱬ), Магӏарул мацӏ‎ (Maⱨarul maⱬ). Dialects: North Avar (Andian Avar, Bolmats, Khunzakh, Salatav, Unkratl), South-West Avar (Batlukh, Hid Kaxib, Hid Keleb), South-East Avar (Andalal, Andalal Shulanin, Andalal Untib), Antsukh (Ancux), Qarakh (Bacadin, Karakh), Qusur, Zaqatal (Char). Antsukh, Qarakh, Andalal (South-East Avar), and Batlukh (South-West Avar) may be separate languages. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Avar-Andic, Avar.

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Azerbaijani, North
[azj] Dagestan republic: south Caucasus mountains, Caspian coast. Population: 473,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 603,000 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani.

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Bagvalal
[kva] Dagestan republic: Akhvakhsky district, Tlibisho and Tlissi; Tsumadinsky district, Gimerso, Khushtada, Kvanada, and Tlondoda; a few other communities. Population: 1,450 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bagulal, Bagvalin, Bagwalal, Barbalin, Kvanada, Kvanadin. Dialects: Kvanada-Himerso, Tlondoda-Khushtada, Tlissi-Tlibisho. Reportedly similar to Tindi [tin]. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Avar-Andic, Andic.

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Bashkort
[bak] Bashkortostan republic; Chelyabinsk province, Kurgan province, and Sverdlovsk province; between Volga river and Ural mountains; beyond the Urals. Population: 1,150,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,590,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,249,240. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory provincial language in Bashkortostan Republic (1925, Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bashkir, Bashqort, Basquort. Autonym: Башҡорт теле‎ (Başqort tele), Башҡортса‎ (Başqortsa). Dialects: Kuvakan (Mountain Bashkir), Yurmaty (Steppe Bashkir), Burzhan (Western Bashkir). Reportedly similar to Tatar [tat]. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian.

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Bezhta
[kap] Dagestan republic: Babayurt district, Kachalai and Kara-Usek; Tsuntinsky district, Bezhta, Khasharkhota, and Tlyadal villages. Population: 6,100 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 9,000 (2014 NCRP). Total users in all countries: 6,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bazht’, Bazht’al, Bechitin, Bexita, Bezheta, Bezhita, Bezhituri, Bezht’alas mits, Bezhti, Bezhtin, Kapuch, Kapucha, Kapuchin, Kapuchin-Gunzib, Kapuchuri, Khvanal, Kiburabi, Kupuca. Autonym: бежкьалас миц‎ (beƶⱡʼalas mic). Dialects: Bezhta proper, Tlyadaly, Khocharkhotin. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Tsezic, East Tsezic.

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Bohtan Neo-Aramaic
[bhn] Krasnodar krai: Krymsk; Stavropol krai: Novopavlovsk. Population: Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern.

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Botlikh
[bph] Dagestan republic: Botlikh and Miarsu villages. Population: 210 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Botlix, Buykhadi. Dialects: Botlikh, Zibirkhalin. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Avar-Andic, Andic.

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Buriat
[bua] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 326,500. Includes: China Buriat [bxu] (China), Mongolia Buriat [bxm] (Mongolia), Russia Buriat [bxr].

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Buriat, Russia
[bxr] Buryatia republic; Irkutsk province; Zabaykalsky krai; Siberia, east of Lake Baikal, Mongolia border. Population: 219,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 461,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory provincial language in Buryatia Republic (1994, Constitution of the Republic of Buryatia, Article 67). Alternate Names: Buriat-Mongolian, Buryat, Northern Mongolian. Autonym: буряад хэлэн‎ (buryaad xelen). Dialects: Ekhirit-Bulagat, Selengin, Unga, Ninzne-Udinsk, Barguzin, Tunka, Oka, Alar, Bohaan, Bokhan, Khori. Less influenced by Russian [rus] east of Lake Baikal; more similar to Mongolia. Literary dialect differs considerably from those in Mongolia and China, which are influenced by other languages. Khori is the main dialect in the Russian Federation. Speakers in Russian Federation appear to understand each other well. A member of macrolanguage Buriat [bua]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat.

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Chamalal
[cji] Chechnya republic, 8 villages; Dagestan republic: Tsumadinsky district, 14 villages. Population: 500 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Camalal, Chamalal mitsts, Chamalin. Dialects: Gadyri (Gachitl-Kvankhi), Gakvari (Agvali-Richaganik-Tsumada-Urukh), Gigatl (Hihatl), Tsumada, Kwenkhi. Dialects quite distinct. Gigatl (Hihatl) and Chamalal proper (with Gadyri, Gakvari, Tsumada and Kwenkhi dialects) are considered to be sublanguages. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Avar-Andic, Andic.

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Chechen
[che] Chechnya republic, Dagestan republic, and Ingushetia republic; Stavropol krai; north Caucasus, most in rural areas. Population: 1,350,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 233,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,430,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,502,350. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Chechen Republic (2003, Constitution of Chechen Republic, Article 10(1)). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Galancho, Nokchiin Muott, Nokhchi, Nokhchiin. Dialects: Ploskost, Itumkala (Shatoi), Melkhin, Kistin, Cheberloi, Akkin (Aux). The Akkin people in western Dagestan have a strong self-identity and consider themselves distinct from Chechen. Chechen partially intelligible with Ingush [inh]. Melkhi transitional dialect to Ingush. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush.

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Chukchi
[ckt] Chukotka autonomous district, Kamchatka krai, and Sakha (Yakutia) republic. Population: 5,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 15,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chuchee, Chukcha, Chukchee, Chukot, Luoravetlan. Autonym: Ԓыгъоравэтԓьэн йиԓыйиԓ‎ (Ḷygʺoravėtḷʹėn jiḷyjiḷ). Dialects: Uellanskij, Pevekskij, Enmylinskij, Nunligranskij, Xatyrskij, Chaun, Enurmin, Yanrakinot. Closely related to Alutor [alr], Kerek [krk] and Koryak [kpy]. Itelmen [itl] is more distantly related. Chukchi may be mutually intelligible with some varieties of Koryak (1988 B. Comrie). Literary dialect and gender dialects also exist. Gender differences largely phonological. Women’s dialect largely ignored in language development. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Chukot.

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Chulym
[clw] Khakassia republic: Ob river tributary, Chulym river basin north of Altay mountains. Population: 44 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 360 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chulim, Chulym Tatar, Chulym-Turkish, Melets Tatar. Dialects: Lower Chulym, Middle Chulym. Reportedly similar to Shor [cjs]; some consider them one language. The government considers them separate. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian.

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Chuvash
[chv] Chuvashia republic: east of Moscow, near Volga river. Population: 1,243,000 in Russian Federation, all users. L1 users: 1,043,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). L2 users: 200,000. Ethnic population: 1,440,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,282,270 (as L1: 1,082,270; as L2: 200,000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory provincial language in Chuvash Republic (1937, Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, Article 8). Alternate Names: Bulgar. Autonym: Чӑваш чӗлхи‎ (Čăvaš čĕlȟi), Чӑвашла‎ (Čăvašla). Dialects: Anatri, Viryal. Classification: Turkic, Bolgar.

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Dargwa
[dar] Dagestan republic. Population: 486,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 589,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 496,110. Status: 4 (Educational). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Dargan Medz, Dargi, Dargin, Darginski, Dargintsy, Dargva, Khiurkilinskii, Uslar. Dialects: Cudaxar (Tsudakhar), Akusha (Akkhusha, Aqusha-Urakhi, Urakha-Akhush, Uraxa-Axusha, Urkarax), Kaitag (Kaitak, Kajtak, Kaytak, Sanchi, Xajdak), Kubachi (Kubachi-Ashty, Kubachin, Kubachintsy, Ughbug), Muirin (Muira), Sirxin (Sirhwa, Tanty), Itsari (Sanji-Icari), Chirag, Gapshima, Megeb, Amuzgi-Shiri, Amuq (Qunqi Xuduc), Mugi. Chirag, Kaitag, Kubachi, Gapshima, Megeb, Muirin, and Tsudakhar may be separate languages from Dargwa. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Dargi.

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Dido
[ddo] Dagestan republic: Tsuntinsky district, several villages. Population: 12,500 in Russian Federation (2012 UNSD). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cez, Didoi, Tsez, Tsezy, Tsuntin. Dialects: Sahada. Sahada most distinct. May be a separate language. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Tsezic, West Tsezic.

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Dolgan
[dlg] Krasnoyarsk krai: Dudinka and Khatange counties; perhaps Sakha. Population: 1,050 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,890 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dolgang. Classification: Turkic, Northern.

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Enets, Forest
[enf] Krasnoyarsk krai: Potapovo (mostly), Dudinka, and other Taimyr settlements. Population: 40 (2010 census). Includes Tundra Enets [enh]. Ethnic population: 230 (2010 census). Includes Tundra Enets [enh]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bay Enets, Pe-Bae, Yenisei Samoyedic. Dialects: None known. Forest and Tundra Enets [enh] barely mutually intelligible. Transitional between Nenets [yrk] and Nganasan [nio]. Formerly officially considered part of Nenets. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed, Enets.

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Enets, Tundra
[enh] Krasnoyarsk krai: Karepovsk and Vorontsovo settlements; some nomads near Tukhard. Population: 40 (2010 census). Includes Forest Enets [enf]. Ethnic population: 230 (2010 census). Includes Forest Enets [enf]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Madu, Somatu, Yenisei Samoyedic. Dialects: None known. Tundra and Forest Enets [enf] barely mutually intelligible. Transitional between Nenets [yrk] and Nganasan [nio]. Formerly officially considered part of Nenets. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed, Enets.

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English
[eng] Population: 7,572,520 in Russian Federation, all users. L1 users: 2,520 in Russian Federation (2010 census). L2 users: 7,570,000 (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Erzya
[myv] Orenburg province, Penza province, Samara province, Saratov province, and Ulyanov province. Population: 36,700 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 57,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 96,860. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Erza-Mordvin, Erzia, Erzya Mordva, Erzya Mordvin, Mordva, Mordvin, Mordvin-Erzya, Mordvinian. Autonym: эрзянь кель‎ (erzänj kelj). Dialects: None known. Quite different from Moksha [mdf]. Classification: Uralic, Mordvin.

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Even
[eve] Sakha (Yakutia) republic; Magadan province; Khabarovsk krai, scattered. Population: 5,660 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 21,800 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eben, Ewen, Ilqan, Lamut, Orich. Dialects: Arman, Indigirka, Kamchatka, Kolyma-Omolon, Okhotsk, Ola, Tompon, Upper Kolyma, Sakkyryr, Lamunkhin. Many dialects. Arman has no remaining speakers. Ola (basis for literary Even) not accepted by dialect speakers. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Even.

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Evenki
[evn] Most in Sakha (Yakutia) republic, and Krasnoyarsk krai; Amur province; Buryatia republic; Irkutsk province; Zabaykalsky krai; Pacific coast settlements, Magadan province, Chukotka autonomous district; Khabarovsk krai; Kamchatka krai; Sakhalin province. Population: 4,800 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 38,400 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Avanki, Avankil, Chapogir, Ewenki, Khamnigan, Solon, Tungus. Dialects: Manegir, Yerbogocen, Nakanna, Ilimpeya, Tutoncana, Podkamennaya Tunguska, Cemdalsk, Vanavara, Baykit, Poligus, Uchama, Cis-Baikalia, Sym, Tokmo-Upper Lena, Nepa, Lower Nepa Tungir, Kalar, Tokko, Aldan Timpton, Tommot, Jeltulak, Uchur, Ayan-Maya, Kur-Urmi, Tuguro-Chumikan, Sakhalin, Zeya-Bureya. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Evenki.

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Finnish
[fin] Leningrad province: Ingria region, Saint Petersburg area. Population: 38,900 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 51,900 (2002 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Finskiy, Suomi. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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German, Standard
[deu] Kurgan province, Novosibirsk province, Omsk province, Saratov province, Tomsk province, Tyumen province, and Volgograd province. Population: 2,070,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), all users. L1 users: 118,000 (2010). Ethnic population: 394,000 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Deutsch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Ghodoberi
[gdo] Dagestan republic: Botlikhsky district, Beledi, Godoberi, and Zibirkhali. Population: 130 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Godoberi, Godoberin, Qibdili mitstsi. Dialects: Godoberi, Zibirkhali. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Avar-Andic, Andic.

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Gilyak
[niv] Sakhalin province: Nekrasovka and Nogliki villages, Chir-Unvd, Moskalvo, Rybnoe, Viakhtu, and other villages; Khabarovsk krai: Aleyevka village, Amur river area. Population: 200 (2010 census). A few hundred active users (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,650 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nivkh, Nivkhi. Autonym: Nivxgu, Нивхгу диф‎ (Nivxgu dif). Dialects: Amur, East Sakhalin Gilyak, North Sakhalin Gilyak. Amur and East Sakhalin dialects have difficult inherent mutual intelligibility. North Sakhalin is between them linguistically. Classification: Language isolate.

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Hinukh
[gin] Dagestan republic: Tsuntinsky district, Ginukh. Population: 5 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 600 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ginukh, Ginukhtsy, Ginux, Hinuq, Hinux. Dialects: None known. Similar to Tsez (Dido) [ddo], but probably not inherently intelligible. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Tsezic, West Tsezic.

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Hunzib
[huz] Dagestan republic: Tsuntinsky district, Garbutl, Gunzib and Nakhada; Kizilyurtovksy district, Stalskoe. Population: 1,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,000. Total users in all countries: 1,420. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enzeb, Ghunzib, Gunzib, Hontl’os myts, Khunzal, Khunzaly, Khvanal, Xunzal. Dialects: None known. Separate from Bezhta [kap] (1989 B. Comrie) but reportedly very similar to it. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Tsezic, East Tsezic.

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Ingrian
[izh] Leningrad province and Saint Petersburg: Kingisepp and Lomonosov areas. Population: 120 (2010 census). L1 speakers should not be confused with Ingrian Finns, who speak Finnish [fin]. Ethnic population: 820 (1989 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ingermanlandian, Inkeroisen, Izhor, Izhorian. Dialects: Soykin, Khava, Lower Luzh, Oredezh (Upper Luzh). Reportedly similar to Karelian [krl]. Oredezh dialect is extinct. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Ingush
[inh] Chechnya republic, Ingushetia republic, Kabardino-Balkar republic, and North Ossetia-Alania republic. Population: 306,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 445,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 322,900. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory provincial language in Republic of Ingushetia (1994, Constitution of the Republic of Ingushetia, Article 14). Alternate Names: Galgay, Ghalghay, Ingus, Ingushi, Kisti, Kistin. Autonym: Ghalghaj, Гӏалгӏай‎ (Ğalğaj), гӏалгӏай мотт‎ (Ğalğaj mott). Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with Chechen [che], more so with contact. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush.

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Itelmen
[itl] Kamchatka krai, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskij, Tigil region west coast. Population: 80 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,200 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Itelymem, Kamchadal, Kamchatka, Western Itelmen. Dialects: Sedanka, Xajrjuzovo. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Southern.

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Judeo-Tat
[jdt] Chechnya republic: Grozniy; Dagestan republic: Buinaksk, Derbent, Kizlyar, Majalis, and Makhachkala, south of Pyatigorsk; Kabardino-Balkar republic: Nalchyk; North Ossetia-Alania republic: Mozdok. Population: 2,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Tat [ttt]. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2014 NCRP). Total users in all countries: 80,500. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bik, Dzhuhuric, Hebrew Tat, Jewish Tat, Judeo-Tatic, Juhuri, Lahji, Mountain Jewish, Tati. Autonym: Juwri. Dialects: South Tat, North Tat. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Kabardino-Balkar republic, North Ossetia-Alania republic, Stavropol krai. Population: 516,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 36,700 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 590,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,702,500. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: East Circassian, Eastern Adyghe, Eastern Circassian, Highland Adyghe, Kabard, Kabardin, Kabardino-Cherkes, Kabardo-Cherkess, Kabardo-Cherkessian, Upper Adyghe, Upper Circassian. Autonym: Къэбэрдей Адыгэбзэ‎ (Qăbărdey Adəgăbză). Dialects: Greater Kabardian, Baksan, Lesser Kabardian, Malka, Mozdok, Kuban, Cherkes, Beslenei (Beslenej). Similar to Adyghe [ady]. Classification: Abkhaz-Adyghe, Circassian.

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Kalmyk-Oirat
[xal] Kalmykia republic; Astrakhan province; and Stavropol krai; Volga-Don steppes northwest of the Caspian, north of the Caucasus. West Kalmykia republic (Dörböt dialect); east, lower Volga region, Astrakhan province (Torgut dialect). Population: 80,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 183,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 431,800. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Republic of Kalmykia (1999, Law on the Languages of the Republic of Kalmykia, Article 3), Co-official with Russian. Alternate Names: European Oirat, Kalmack, Kalmuck, Kalmuk, Kalmytskii Jazyk, Khalli, Oirat, Qalmaq, Volga Oirat, Western Mongolian. Autonym: хальмг келн‎ (Xaľmg keln). Dialects: Buzawa, Oirat (Oyrat), Torgut (Torghoud, Torghud, Torguud, Torguut), Dörböt (Derbet, Dörbet, Dörböd). Diverged from other Mongolian languages. Called Kalmyk in the Russian Federation; Oirat in China and Mongolia; in the United States, Kalmyk not heavily influenced by Russian [rus]. Different from other varieties in China called Oirat [xal], which are sometimes called Asiatic Oirat. In Mongolia, some scholars consider Oirat to be a dialect of Halh Mongolian [khk]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat.

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Kamas
[xas] Krasnoyarsk krai: Abalakovo village, Sayan mountains. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Klavdiya Plotnikova, died in 1989. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kamassian. Dialects: Kamassian, Koibal (Khoibal). Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Southern Samoyed.

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Karachay-Balkar
[krc] Kabardino-Balkar republic, Karachay-Cherkessia republic. Population: 305,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 314,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 310,400. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Balkar, Balkarian, Balqar, Karacaylar, Karachai, Karachaitsy, Karachay, Karachayla, Malqartil, Qarachaytil, Taulu til. Autonym: Къарачай-Малкъар тил‎ (Qaraçay-Malqar til), Таулу тил‎ (Tawlu til). Dialects: Balkar, Karachay-Baksan-Chegem. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian.

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Karagas
[kim] Irkutsk province, Nizhneudinsk district, Alygdzher, Nerkha, and Verkhnyaya Gutara villages. Population: 93 (2010 census). Less than 40 fluent speakers, same number of passive speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 760 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kamas, Karagass, Sayan Samoyed, Tofa, Tofalar. Autonym: тоъфа дыл‎ (tofa dyl). Classification: Turkic, Northern.

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Karaim
[kdr] Population: 3 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 210 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Karaite. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian.

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Karata
[kpt] Dagestan republic: Akhvakhsky district, 10 villages. Population: 260 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 6,400 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Karatai, Karatay, Karatin, Kirdi, Kk’irtli micc’i. Dialects: Tokita (Tokitin), Karata proper (Anchix, Archo, Chabakaroi, Enkhelo, Ratsitl). Karatin and Tokitin dialects are quite different. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Avar-Andic, Andic.

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Karelian
[krl] Karelia republic; Leningrad province; Murmansk province; Tver province: mainly Tolmachi area, Maksatikha and Ves’yegonsk. Population: 25,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Ludian [lud]. Ethnic population: 60,800 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 30,600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Karel, Karel’skiy Jazyk, Karelian Proper, Karely, Severno-Karel’skij, Sobstvenno-Karel’skij-Jazyk. Dialects: Northern Karelian, Southern Karelian, Novgorod, Tver (Kalinin). Ludian [lud] and Livvi-Karelian [olo] are separate languages. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Kerek
[krk] Kamchatka krai: Chukchi villages, Cape Navarin. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the first decade of the 2000s. Ethnic population: 4 (2010 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Mainypilgino (Majna-Pil’ginskij), Khatyrka (Xatyrskij). Formerly considered a dialect of Chukchi [ckt]. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor.

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Ket
[ket] Krasnoyarsk krai: Baikitsk and Turukhansk regions, Bakhta, Baklanikha, Farkovo, Goroshikha, Kangatovo, Kellog, Maduyka, Sulomai, Surgutikha, Vereshchagino, and Verkhneimbatsk villages; eastern Siberia, upper Yenisei valley. Population: 210 (2010 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,220 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Imbatski-Ket, Yenisei Ostyak, Yenisey Ostiak, Yenisey Ostyak. Classification: Yeniseian.

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Khakas
[kjh] Kemerovo province; Khakassia republic; Krasnoyarsk krai: north; all north of Altai mountains; scattered throughout Russia. Population: 42,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Spoken by about 10% of the population of Khakasia (Salminen 2007). 1,500 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 73,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 42,610. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory provincial language in Khakassia Republic (1995, Constitution of the Republic of Khakassia, Article 69). Alternate Names: Abakan Tatar, Hakass, Khakhass, Xakas, Yenisei, Yennisej Tatar. Autonym: Хакас тілі‎ (Xakas tili). Dialects: Sagai (Sagaj, Saghai), Kyzyl (Khyzyzl, Xyzyl), Koibal (Xoibal), Kamass (Kamassian), Kachin (Kaca, Khaas, Xaas), Shor, Beltir. Kamass dialect is extinct (Salminen 2007). Classification: Turkic, Northern.

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Khanty
[kca] Khanty-Mansi autonomous district; Tomsk province; Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district; along Ob river. Population: 9,580 (2010 census). Mostly speakers of Northern Khanty, 2,000 speakers of Eastern Khanty and probably no speakers left in Southern Khanty (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 30,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hanty, Khant, Khanti, Ostjak, Ostyak, Xanty. Autonym: ханты ясаң‎ (hantĩ jasaň). Dialects: Northern Khanti, Eastern Khanti, Southern Khanti, Vach (Vasyugan). Intelligibility difficult between geographically distant dialects. 3 dialect groups; ‘Vach’, archaic. Dialect used in writing rejected by many speakers. Classification: Uralic.

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Khvarshi
[khv] Dagestan republic: Tsumadinsky district, Khonokh, Khvarshi, Kvantlada, Inkhokvari, and Santlada villages. Population: 1,740 (2010 census). 1,000 Inxokvari speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Atl’ilqo, Khvarsh, Khvarshin, Xvarshi, Xvarshik. Dialects: Xvarshi proper, Inxokvari (Inkhokvari). Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Tsezic, West Tsezic.

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Komi
[kom] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 219,100. Includes: Komi-Permyak [koi], Komi-Zyrian [kpv].

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Komi-Permyak
[koi] Perm krai: west of central Ural mountains. Population: 63,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 94,500 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kama Permyak, Komi-Perm, Komi-Permyaki, Komi-Permyat, Permian, Permyak. Dialects: Zyudin, North Permyak (Kochin-Kam), South Permyak (Inyven). Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Zyrian [kpv] and Udmurt [udm]. A member of macrolanguage Komi [kom]. Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi.

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Komi-Zyrian
[kpv] Arkhangelsk province; Komi republic; Nenets autonomous district; near the Arctic sea. Population: 156,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 228,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory provincial language in Komi Republic (1993, Constitution of the Komi Republic, Article 67). Alternate Names: Komi, Komi-Zyryan, Zyrian. Dialects: Yazva. Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Permyak [koi] and Udmurt [udm]. A member of macrolanguage Komi [kom]. Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi.

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Korean
[kor] Khabarovsk krai, Primorsky krai, Sakhalin province. Population: 42,400 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 153,000 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Goryeomal, Koryomal. Classification: Koreanic.

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Koryak
[kpy] Kamchatka krai: north half of peninsula; Magadan province. Population: 1,670 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,950 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chavchuven, Koryaki, Nymylan. Dialects: Apokinskij (Apukin), Cavcuvenskij (Chavchuven), Gin, Itkan, Kamenskij (Kamen), Palan, Paren, Xatyrskij. Koryak and Alutor [alr] border not yet been defined. Chachuve (Northern Koryak) and Alutor now separated. Alutor formerly considered a dialect of Koryak. Classification of other dialects unclear. Chavchuven, Palan, and Kamen dialects apparently not inherently intelligible. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor.

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Krimchak
[jct] Population: 2 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 90 (2010). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian.

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Kumyk
[kum] Dagestan republic: north and east plain. Population: 426,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 503,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 427,800. Status: 5* (Developing). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki, Qumuqlar. Autonym: Къумукъ‎ (Qumuq). Dialects: Khasavyurt, Buinaksk, Khaitag, Podgorniy, Terek. Dialects quite divergent. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian.

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Lak
[lbe] Dagestan republic. Population: 146,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 179,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 154,820. Status: 4 (Educational). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Kazikumukhtsy, Lakh, Laki. Autonym: лакку маз‎ (Lakku maz). Dialects: Kumux (Kumkh), Vicxin (Vitskhin), Ashtikulin, Balxar-Calakan (Balkar-Tsalakan), Vixlin (Vikhlin), Shali, Arakul, Shandi, Kayalin-Mashikin, Pervotsovkrin. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Lak.

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Lezgi
[lez] Dagestan republic: west of Caspian sea coast; central Caucasus. Population: 402,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 474,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 633,610. Status: 4 (Educational). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Kiurintsy, Lezghi, Lezgian, Lezgin. Autonym: лезги‎ (Lezgi), лезги чӏал‎ (Lezgi ҫ̇al). Dialects: Kiuri (Gelkhen, Giliar, Güne, Qurah, Yarki), Samur (Akhty, Dashagyl-Filfil, Doquzpara, Fiy, Jaba, Qurush), Quba (Kuba). Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic.

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Livvi-Karelian
[olo] Karelia republic: southwest Kondopozhsky, Olonetsky, and west Pryazhinsky districts; Leningrad province. Population: 25,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Karelian[krl] and Ludian [lud]. Ethnic population: 65,000. Total users in all countries: 30,770. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karel, Karelian, Livvi, Livvikovian, Livvikovskij Jazyk, Olonets, Southern Olonetsian. Autonym: Livvin kieli. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karelian [krl] and Finnish [fin]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Ludian
[lud] Karelia republic: central Kondopozhsky and east Pryazhinsky districts; Olonetsky district, Mikhaylovskoye region; Leningrad province. Population: 3,000 (2012 T. Salminen). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ludic, Lyudic, Lyudikovian, Lüüdi. Autonym: Lüüdikiel. Dialects: None known. Ludian is transitional between Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Veps [vep]. Separate from Karelian [krl] and Livvi-Karelian [olo]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Mansi
[mns] Khanty-Mansi autonomous district; Sverdlovsk province; between Ural and Ob rivers. Population: 940 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,300 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mansiy, Vogul, Vogulich, Voguly. Dialects: Northern Vogul (Northern Mansi, Ob’, Sos’va, Sosyvin, Sygva, Upper Lozyvin), Western Vogul (Lower Lozyvin, Middle Lozyvin, Pelym, Vagily, Western Mansi), Eastern Vogul (Eastern Mansi, Kondin). Mostly Northern Vogul speakers; probably only a handful of elderly speakers of Eastern Vogul; Western Vogul is probably extinct; Southern Vogul was extinct before 1950 (Salminen 2007). Reportedly most similar to Hungarian [hun]. Classification: Uralic.

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Mari
[chm] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 512,000. Includes: Hill Mari [mrj], Meadow Mari [mhr].

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Mari, Hill
[mrj] Mari El republic: Nizhny Novgorod province; south of the Volga. Population: 30,000 (2012 T. Salminen). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cheremis, Gorno-Mariy, High Mari, Highland Mari, Mari-Hills, Western Mari. Autonym: Кырык мары йӹлмӹ‎ (Kyryk mary jÿlmÿ), кырык мары‎ (Kyryk mary). Dialects: Kozymodemyan, Yaran. Lexical, phonological, and morphological differences with Meadow Mari [mhr]. A member of macrolanguage Mari [chm]. Classification: Uralic, Mari.

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Mari, Meadow
[mhr] Bashkortostan republic, Kirov province, Mari El republic, Sverdlovsk province, Perm krai; east of the Volga. Population: 470,000 in Russian Federation (2012 T. Salminen). Ethnic population: 548,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 482,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cheremis, Eastern Mari, Low Mari, Lowland Mari, Lugovo Mari, Mari, Mari-Woods, Woods Mari. Autonym: олык марий‎ (Olyk Marij), олык марий йылме‎ (Olyk Marij jylme). Dialects: Grassland Mari (Meadow Mari, Sernur-Morkin, Volga, Yoshkar-Olin). A member of macrolanguage Mari [chm]. Classification: Uralic, Mari.

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Moksha
[mdf] Mordovia republic, Nizhny Novgorod province, and Penza province. Population: 2,030 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 4,770 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Moksha Mordvin, Mokshan, Mordoff, Mordov, Mordvin-Moksha. Dialects: None known. Very different from Erzya [myv]. Classification: Uralic, Mordvin.

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Mongolian, Halh
[khk] Buryatia republic. Population: 8,830 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 11,500 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Central Mongolian, Halh, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol. Dialects: Khalkha (Halh), Dariganga, Urat, Ujumuchin. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper.

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Nanai
[gld] Khabarovskiy Kray: extreme far east, confluence of Amur and Ussuri rivers, scattered in Ussuri valley, Sikhote-Alin, centered in Amur valley below. Population: 1,350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,390. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gold, Goldi, Heche, Hezhe, Hezhen, Nanaj. Dialects: Sunggari, Torgon, Kuro-Urmi, Ussuri, Akani, Birar, Kila, Samagir. Quite distinct dialects. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj.

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Negidal
[neg] Khabarovsk krai: Im and Kamenka; Paulina Osipenko region, lower reaches of Amur river. Population: 74 (2010 census). Only a few fully fluent (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 510 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: El’kan Beye, Elkembey, Ilkan Beye, Neghidal, Negidaly. Dialects: Nizovsk, Verkhovsk. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Negidal.

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Nenets
[yrk] Khanty-Mansi, Nenets, and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous districts; Krasnoyarsk krai; Arkhangelsk province; Komi republic; northwest Siberia, north Dvina river mouth tundra area to Yenisei river delta, scattered in Kola peninsula. Population: 21,900 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 44,600 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nenec, Nenetsy, Nentse, Yurak, Yurak Samoyed. Autonym: ненэцяʼ вада‎ (nyenetsya’ wada). Dialects: Forest Yurak, Tundra Yurak. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed.

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Nganasan
[nio] Krasnoyarsk krai: Duinka region, Ust-Avam and Volochanka villages; Khatang region, Novaya village; northernmost people in Russia, Siberia, Taimyr peninsula. Population: 130 (2010 census). A group of about 100 lead a semi-nomadic life in Dudypta river region near Ust’-Avam (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 860 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nya, Tavgi Samoyed. Dialects: Avam (West Nganasan), Khatang. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed.

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Nogai
[nog] Karachay-Cherkessia republic; Dagestan republic: Babayurt, Kizlyar, Nogay, and Tarumovka districts; Chechnya republic: Shelkovskaya district; Stavropol district: Kochubeyevskoye, Mineral’nyye Vody, and Neftekumsk counties; northern Caucasus. Population: 87,100 in Russian Federation (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 104,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 87,260. Status: 5 (Developing). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Karanogai, Kubanogai, Nogaitsy, Nogalar, Nogay, Noghai, Noghay, Noghaylar, Yurt Tatar. Autonym: Ногай тили‎ (Noğay tili). Dialects: White Nogai (Kuba), Black Nogai (Kara), Central Nogai. Slight dialect differences. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian.

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Oroch
[oac] Khabarovsk krai: along rivers that empty into Tatar channel; Amur river near Komsomolsk-na-Amure; Vanino region: Datta and Uska-Orochskaya settlements. Population: 8 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 600 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Orochi. Dialects: Orichen, Tez (Tazy). Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Udihe.

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Orok
[oaa] Sakhalin province: Poronajsk district, Poronajsk town, Gastello and Vakhrushev settlements; Nogliki district, Val village, Nogliki settlement. Population: 47 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 300 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 50. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Oroc, Uilta, Ujlta, Ulta. Dialects: Poronaisk (Southern Orok), Val-Nogliki (Nogliki-Val, Northern Orok). Significant dialect differences. Formerly officially considered part of Nanai [gld]. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj.

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Ossetic
[oss] Kabardino-Balkar republic, North Ossetia-Alania republic; north of Ossetic in Georgia. Population: 451,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 529,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 599,250. Status: 5* (Developing). Statutory provincial language in Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (1994, Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Article 15). Alternate Names: Osetin, Ossete, Ossetian. Autonym: ирон æвзаг‎ (iron ævzag). Dialects: Digor, Iron. Digor and Iron (the major dialect) are mutually unintelligible. Russian [rus] is used as a lingua franca by both groups. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern.

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Polish
[pol] Rostov province (Masurian dialect). Population: 67,400 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Dialects: Masurian (Mazurian, Mazurski). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic.

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Romani, Baltic
[rml] Yaroslavl province. Population: Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Balt Romani, Balt Slavic Romani, Baltic Slavic Romani. Dialects: Rúska Romá, Xaladitka. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Krasnodar krai, Moscow city, Novgorod province. Population: 128,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes all Romani languages. Ethnic population: 205,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rom. Dialects: Central Vlax Romani, Kalderash (Kelderash, Russian Kalderash), Crimean Romani, Lovari (Chokeshi Lovari). Russian Kalderash influenced by east Slavic, mainly Russian [rus] (I. Hancock). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax.

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Russian
[rus] Population: 138,000,000 in Russian Federation (Arefyev 2012), all users. L1 users: 119,000,000 (Arefyev 2012). Total users in all countries: 258,227,760 (as L1: 153,746,530; as L2: 104,426,230). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 68(1)). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Autonym: русский язык‎ (russkij jazyk). Dialects: North Russian, South Russian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East.

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Russian Sign Language
[rsl] Scattered. Moscow and Saint Petersburg are major centers. Population: 121,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 715,000 (2014 IMB). Total users in all countries: 122,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Reported historical connections to sign languages in Austria and France, but not obvious from extensive wordlist comparison (Bickford 2005). Relatively high lexical similarity to sign languages in Ukraine [ukl] and Moldova [vsi] (Bickford 2005). Significant dialect variation. Classification: Sign language.

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Rutul
[rut] Dagestan republic. Population: 30,400 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 35,200 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 36,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Chal, Mukhad, Myhynnynydy-ch’el, Rutal, Rutultsy, Rutuly. Autonym: мыхӏабишды‎ (Myḥabišdy), мыхӏабишды чӏел‎ (Myḥabišdy č̣el). Dialects: North Rutul (Asar-Kala, Ixrek, Luchek, Muxrek, Rutul, Shinaz, Vrush), South Rutul (Borch, Khnov). Dialects not sharply defined. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic.

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Saami, Akkala
[sia] Murmansk province: southwest Kola peninsula. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker, Marja Sergina, died in 2003. Ethnic population: 100 (1995 M. Krauss). 1,770 including all Saami (2010 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ahkkil, Babino, Babinsk. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Skolt Saami [sms]. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern.

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Saami, Kildin
[sjd] Murmansk province: central Kola peninsula, Lujavv’r, Revda, Kola, and Teriberka. Population: 600 (2014 Barents Observer). Ethnic population: 1,770 (2010 census). Number includes all Saami. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Saam, Saami, “Kildin Lappish” (pej.), “Lapp” (pej.). Dialects: Arsjogk, Lujavv’r, Koarrdegk, Kıllt. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern.

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Saami, Skolt
[sms] Murmansk province: north and west Kola peninsula, Petsamo area. Population: 20 in Russian Federation (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 400 (1995 M. Krauss). 1,770 including all Saami (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kolta, Lopar, Saam, Saami, Skolt, “Lapp” (pej.), “Russian Lapp” (pej.), “Skolt Lappish” (pej.). Dialects: Notozer, Yokan. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern.

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Saami, Ter
[sjt] Murmansk province: eastern Kola peninsula. Population: 2 (2010 Barents Observer). Ethnic population: 100 (2004). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Saam, Saami, “Lapp” (pej.), “Ter Lappish” (pej.). Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern.

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Selkup
[sel] Tomsk province: Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district; Krasnoyarsk krai: Krasnoselkup region, Krasnoselkup, Krasnoselkupskaya Tolka, and Ratta villages; Krasnoyarsk district, Farkovo; Purovsk region, Tolka Purovskaya village; Turukhan river basin; Baikha (all northern dialect); north Tomsk province area villages (southern dialect). Population: 1,020 (2010 census). Central Selkup: 200 speakers, Northern Selkup: 1,000 to 1,500 speakers, Southern Selkup: less than 100 speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 3,900 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Selkups, Chumyl’ Khumyt, Northern Selkups, Ostyak Samoyed, Shöl Khumyt, Shösh Gulla, Syusugulla. Autonym: шӧльӄумыт әты‎ (šöľqumyt әty). Dialects: Taz (Northern Sel’kup, Tazov-Baishyan), Tym (Kety), Narym (Central Selkup), Srednyaya Ob-Ket (Southern Sel’kup). Dialect continuum with difficult or impossible intelligibility between extremes. Southern speakers separated geographically from others. Northern Selkup literature not usable by Southern and Central. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Southern Samoyed.

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Serbian
[srp] Scattered. Population: 11,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Bosnian [bos] and Croatian [hrv]. Ethnic population: 9,670 Serbo-Croatian (2002 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Serbo-Croatian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western.

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Shor
[cjs] Kemerovo province; scattered throughout Russian Federation. Population: 2,840 (2010 census). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,900 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aba, Kondoma Tatar, Kuznets Tatar, Mras Tatar, Shortsy, Tom-Kuznets Tatar. Dialects: Mrassa (Mrasu), Kondoma. Some sources combine Shor and Chulym [clw]. Classification: Turkic, Northern.

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Slavonic, Church
[chu] Scattered. Population: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Old Church Slavonic. Autonym: Словѣньскъ‎ (Slovyensk). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern.

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Svan
[sva] Population: 71 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lushnu. Classification: Kartvelian, Svan.

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Tabasaran
[tab] Dagestan republic: half live in urban areas, half in 98 Tabasaran-speaking mountain villages. Population: 126,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 146,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 127,210. Status: 5* (Developing). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Ghumghum, Tabasarantsky, Tabassaran. Autonym: табасаран чIал‎ (tabasaran ҫ̇al). Dialects: South Tabasaran, North Tabasaran (Khanag). Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic.

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Tat, Muslim
[ttt] Dagestan republic; community in Moscow. Population: 2,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Judeo-Tat [jdt]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Mussulman Tati, Musulman Tats. Dialects: Northern Tats. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat.

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Tatar
[tat] Bashkortostan republic, Tatarstan republic, Saint Petersburg, Moscow. Population: 4,280,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population may include L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 5,310,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 5,009,510. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Tatarstan Republic (1992, Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan, Article 8). Alternate Names: Tartar. Autonym: татар теле‎ (tatar tele), татарча‎ (tatarça). Dialects: Middle Tatar (Kazan, Kazan Tatar), Western Tatar (Mishari, Misher). Tobol-Irtysh is divided into 5: Tyumen, Tobol, Zabolotny, Tevriz, and Tara (Tumasheva). Mixed dialects are: Astrakhan, Kasimov, Tepter, and Ural (Poppe). 43,000 Astrakhan (L1 speakers) have shifted to the Middle dialect. Kasim (5,000 L1 speakers) is between Middle and Western Tatar. Tepter (300,000 L1 speakers) is reportedly between the Tatar and Bashkort [bak] languages. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian.

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Tatar, Siberian
[sty] Novosibirsk province, Omsk province, Tomsk province, and Tyumen province. Novosibirsk region and the Barabinsk steppe (Baraban dialect); Omsk and Tyumensk districts, basins of Irtysh and Tobol rivers (Tobol-Irtysh dialect); Kemerovsk and Novosibirsk districts, Tomsk district, along Tomi and Ob rivers (Tomsk dialect). Population: 101,000 (2012 M. Sagidullin). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Tatar. Dialects: Tobol-Irtysh (Tobolo-Irtysh), Baraban (Baraba, Barabinsk Tatar), Tomsk (Tom, Tomsk Tatar). Sub-dialects of Tobol-Irtysh are Zabolotny, Tobol, Tiumen, Tar, and Tevriz; sub-dialects of Tomsk are Kalmak and Chat-Eushtin. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian.

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Tindi
[tin] Dagestan republic: Tsumadinsky district, Aknada, Angida, Echeda, Tindi, and Tissi villages. Population: 2,150 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Idarab mitstsi, Tindal, Tindin. Dialects: Tindin-Echendin, Angidin-Aknadin. Bagvalal [kva] closely related, but probably not inherently intelligible. Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Avar-Andic, Andic.

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Tsakhur
[tkr] Dagestan republic: Rutulsky district, 13 villages. Population: 10,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,800 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Provincially recognized language in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution of Dagestan Autonomous Republic, Article 10). Alternate Names: Caxur, Ts’axna Miz, Ts’axurskii yazyk, Tsakhury, Tsaxur, Yedna Miz, Yikbi, Yiqny Miz. Dialects: Tsakh (Jinagh, Mishkesh, Mukhakh-Sabunchi, Muslakh, Suvagil, Tsakh-Qum, Tsakhur), Gelmets-Mikik (Gelmets, Gelmets-kurdul, Kirmico-Lek, Mikik). Classification: Nakh-Daghestanian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic.

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Turkmen
[tuk] Astrakhan province; Stavropol krai. Population: 30,800 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 36,900 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Turkpen. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian.

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Tuvan
[tyv] Krasnoyarsk krai and Tyva republic; southern Siberia near Mongolia border. Population: 254,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 268,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 297,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory provincial language in Tuva Republic (2001, Constitution of the Tuva Republic, Article 5(1)). Alternate Names: Diba, Kizhi, Kök Mungak, Soyod, Soyon, Soyot, Tannu-Tuva, Tofa, Tokha, Tuba, Tuva, Tuvia, Tuvin, Tuvinian, Tyvan, Uriankhai, Uriankhai-Monchak, Uryankhai. Autonym: тыва‎ (tyva), тыва дыл‎ (tyva dyl). Dialects: Central Tuvan, Western Tuvan, Northeastern Tuvan (Todzhin), Southeastern Tuvan, Tuba-Kizhi. Sharp dialect differences. Classification: Turkic, Northern.

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Udihe
[ude] Khabarovsk krai: Lazo area, Arsenievo and Gvasiugi settlements; Primorsky krai: Pozharsky area, Krasny Yar, Olon, and Sobolinyi settlements; Ternei area, Agzu settlement; Krasnoarmeisky area, Dalniy Kut, Melnichnoye, and Roschino settlements; Siberia far east. Population: 100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kiakala, Tazy, Ude, Udegei, Udeghe, Udehe, Udekhe. Dialects: Khungari, Khor, Aniuy, Samarga, Bikin, Iman, Kur-Urmi. Dialect differences not great. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Udihe.

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Udmurt
[udm] Tatarstan republic; Udmurtia republic; near Ural Mountains, bounded by Kama and Cheptsa rivers. Population: 324,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 554,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 340,530. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Votiak, Votyak. Dialects: North Udmurt (Besermyan, Udmurt), South Udmurt (Southwestern Udmurt). Classification: Uralic, Permian.

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Ulch
[ulc] Khabarovsk krai: Ulch county, Bulava, Dudi, Kalinovka, Kolchom, Mariinskoe, Mongol, Nizhnaya Gavan, Savinskoe, Sofiyskoe, Solontsy, Tur, and Ukhta; Bogorodskove is capital; Amur river and tributaries, Tatar channel coast. Population: 150 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,770 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hoche, Hol-Chih, Olch, Olcha, Olchis, Ul’cha, Ulcha, Ulchi, Ulych. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj.

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Veps
[vep] Karelia republic: south of Petrozavodsk; Leningrad province; Vologda province. Population: 1,640 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,940 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Vepsian, Vepsish, “Chudy” (pej.), “Chuhari” (pej.), “Chukhari” (pej.). Dialects: Southern Veps, Central Veps, Prionezh (North Veps). Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Vod
[vot] Leningrad province: Saint Petersburg area, Kingisepp. Population: 25 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 64 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Vodian, Vote, Votian, Votic, Votish. Dialects: East Vod, West Vod. Intelligible with Standard Estonian [ekk] of the northeast coast. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Yakut
[sah] Irkutsk province, Magadan province, and Sakha (Yakutia) republic; Khabarovsk krai and Krasnoyarsk krai; near Arctic Sea, middle Lena river, Aldan and Kolyma rivers, 3,220 km. Population: 450,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 478,000 (2010 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sakha Republic (1992, Constitution of the Republic of Sakha, Article 46). Alternate Names: Sakha, Yakut-Sakha. Autonym: саха тыла‎ (Saxa tıla), сахалыы‎ (saȟalyy). Dialects: Middlekolymskyi, Olemkinskyi, Vilyiskyi, Dolgan. Classification: Turkic, Northern.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Scattered. Population: 1,680 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish.

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Yug
[yug] Krasnoyarsk krai: Turukhan area, Vorogovo settlement. Population: 1 (2010 census). Listed in census under Ket [ket]. Ethnic population: 19 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jug, Sym-Ket, Yugh, Yugi. Classification: Yeniseian.

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Yukaghir, Northern
[ykg] Sakha (Yakutia) republic: lower Kolyma county, Andryushkino and Kolymskoye. Population: 370 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Ethnic population: 1,600 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jukagir, Northern Yukagir, Odul, Tundra, Tundra Yukaghir, Tundre, Wadul, Yukaghir, Yukagir. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Southern Yukaghir (Kolyma) [yux]. Classification: Yukaghir.

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Yukaghir, Southern
[yux] Magadan province: upper Kolyma county, Nelemnoye and Zyryanka. Population: 370 (2010 census). Census includes Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Ethnic population: 1,600. Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Forest Yukagir, Jukagir, Kolym, Kolyma, Kolyma Yukaghir, Odul, Southern Yukagir, Yukagir. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Classification: Yukaghir.

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Yupik, Central Siberian
[ess] Chukotka autonomous district: Bering Sea coast, Wrangel island; Providenie region, Chaplino, Novoe Chaplino, Provideniya, and Sireniki villages. Population: 200 in Russian Federation (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 1,200 (Dorais 2010). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Asiatic Yupik, Bering Strait, Siberian Yupik, Yoit, Yuit, Yuitsky, Yuk. Dialects: Aiwanat, Noohalit (Peekit), Wooteelit, Chaplino. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik.

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Yupik, Naukan
[ynk] Chukotka autonomous district: Lavrentiya, Nunyamo, and Uelen villages. Population: 60 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 450 (Dorais 2010). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Naukan, Naukanski, Nevuqaq. Dialects: 60%–70% intelligibility of the Chaplino dialect of Central Siberian Yupik [ess]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik.

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Yupik, Sirenik
[ysr] Chukotka autonomous district: Chukot peninsula, Sireniki village. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Vyie, died in 1997 (Dorais 2010). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Old Sirenik, Sirenik, Sirenik Eskimo, Sirenikski, Vuteen. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik.

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