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Abaza
[abq] Karachay-Cherkessia republic and Stavropol krai. 37,800 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 43,300 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 49,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ashuwa. Autonym: Abaza, абаза‎ (Abaza), абаза бызшва‎ (Abaza byzšva). Dialects: Tapanta, Ashkaraua (Ashkar, Ashxar), Bezshagh. Some dialects partially intelligible of Abkhaz [abk]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin. Comments: Muslim.

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Adyghe
[ady] Adygea republic; Karachay-Cherkessia republic, Krasnodar krai, and Stavropol krai. 117,500 (2010 census). No monolinguals (Ministry of Education, Adygea Republic). Ethnic population: 129,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 575,900. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Adyghea (1995, Constitution, Adyghea Republic, Article 2). Alternate Names: Adygei, Adygey, Kiakh, Kjax, Lower Circassian, Lowland Adyghe, West Circassian, Western Adyghe, Western Circassian. Autonym: Адыгабзэ‎ (Adəgăbză), Кӏах Адыгабзэ‎ (Kiakh Adəgăbză). Dialects: Shapsug (Sapsug), Xakuchi, Bezhedukh (Bzedux, Bzhedug, Chemgui, Temirgoj), Abadzex (Abadzakh, Abadzeg), Natuzaj (Natukhai). Similar to Kabardian [kbd]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: In the Republic of Adygea, the name ‘Adyghe’ is synonymous to Circassian, which includes both Adyghe (i.e. Western Adyghe or Western Circassian) and Kabardian [kbd] (Eastern Adyghe or Eastern Circassian). Muslim.

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Aghul
[agx] Dagestan republic: Agulsky and Kurakhsky districts; Moscow city; Stavropol krai. 29,300 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 34,200 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Article 10, Constitution). Alternate Names: Aghul-ch’al, Agiul Shui. Autonym: агъул‎ (Aġul), агъул чӀал‎ (Ağul ҫ̇al). Dialects: Agul, Koshan (Q’ushan), Keren, Gequn (Burkikhan), Tsirkhe, Fit’e. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic. Comments: Muslim.

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Akhvakh
[akv] Dagestan republic: Akhvakhsky district, 6 villages; Kakhib district, 3 villages. 210 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,930 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: ’Aqwalazul, Ashvado, Axvax, Ghahvalal. Dialects: Kaxib, Northern Akhvakh, Southern Akhvakh (Tlyanub, Tsegob). Diverse dialects. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Aleut
[ale] Kamchatka krai: Komandor Islands, Bering island, Nikolskoye settlement. 5 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 200 (Dorais 2010). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Unangam tunnu, Unangan, Unangany, Unanghan. Dialects: Beringov (Atkan, Bering). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Aleut. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Medny Aleut (Copper Island Aleut) [mud]. From 1820 to 1840 dozens of Aleut families were brought from other islands to Komandor Islands. Until 1960s, 2 villages on Bering and Medny islands. 1950s-1980s children sent to boarding schools by the state. Christian.

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Aleut, Mednyj
[mud] Kamchatka krai: Komandor Islands, Copper island. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Aleut [ale]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Attuan, Copper, Copper Island Aleut, Copper Island Attuan, Creolized Attuan, Medny. Classification: Mixed language, Russian-Aleut. Comments: From 1820–1840, dozens of Aleut families were brought from other islands to Commander Islands. Until 1960s, 2 villages on Bering and Medny islands. 1950s–1980s, children sent to boarding schools by the state. Christian.

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Altai, Northern
[atv] Altai krai, Altai republic, and Khakassia republic; Gorno-Altai Ao mountains, along China and Mongolia border. 57,400 (2010 census). 2,000 Tuba, several thousand Kumandy, 2,000 Chalkan (Salminen 2007). Census includes Southern Altai [alt]. Ethnic population: 74,200 (2010 census). Includes Southern Altai [alt]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Telengit, Telengut, Teleut. Autonym: Алтай тили‎ (Altay tili). Dialects: Tuba, Kumandy, Chalkan. No comprehension of Southern Altai [alt]. Considered a separate language. Teleut may be a separate language. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Altai, Southern
[alt] Altai republic: Gorno-Altai Ao mountains, along China and Mongolia border. 57,400 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 74,200 (2010 census). Includes Northern Altai [atv]. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Altai Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Altai, Oirot, Oyrot. Autonym: алтай тили‎ (Altay tili), алтайча‎ (Altajča). Dialects: Altai Proper (Altai-Kizhi, Altaj Kizi, Maina-Kizhi, Southern Altai), Talangit (Chuy, Talangit-Tolos, Telengit), Teleut. No intelligiblility of Northern Altai [atv]. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Different from Oirat [xal] (Kalmyk-Oirat), a Mongolian language. Traditional religion.

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Alutor
[alr] Kamchatka krai: Khailino and Vyvenka villages, northeast Kamchatka peninsula, Rekinniki, Tilichiki and Tymlat; some scattered. 25 (2010 census), decreasing. Some monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aliutor, Alyutor, Olyutor. Dialects: Alutorskij (Alutor Proper). Considered a dialect of Koryak [kpy] until recently. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor. Comments: In 1950s–1970s, children were sent to boarding schools.

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Andi
[ani] Dagestan republic: Botlikhsky district, 9 villages. 5,800 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Andii, Andiy, Khivannal, Qandisel, Qwannab. Autonym: къIaваннаб мицци‎ (Qwavannab Micci), мицци‎ (Micci). Dialects: Munin, Rikvani, Kvanxidatl, Gagatl, Upper Andi/North Andi (Andi, Ashali, Chanho, Gagtl, Gunho, Rikvani, Zilo), Lower Andi/South Andi. Dialects appear quite divergent. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Archi
[aqc] Dagestan republic: Arsha community, 8 villages on upper Risor river. 970 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Archib, Archin, Archintsy, Archsel, Arshashdib. Dialects: None known. One of the most divergent Lezgian (Lezgic) languages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Archi. Comments: Muslim.

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Armenian
[hye] Dagestan republic. 661,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 1,180,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Astrakhan (Astrachan). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] Krasnodar krai. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Hamshen (Hamschen). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Avar
[ava] Dagestan republic: Sulak and Terek river areas; some in Chechnya republic. 715,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 912,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 766,500. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Avar is used in many areas of Dagestan as a lingua franca among different ethnic groups. Alternate Names: Avaro, Bolmac, Khundzuri, Maarul Dagestani. Autonym: авар мацӏ‎ (Awar mac̣), магӏарул мацӏ‎ (Maʿarul mac̣). Dialects: North Avar (Andian Avar, Bolmats, Khunzakh, Salatav, Unkratl), South-West Avar (Batlukh, Hid Kaxib, Hid Keleb), South-East Avar (Andalal, Andalal Shulanin, Andalal Untib), Antsukh (Ancux), Qarakh (Bacadin, Karakh), Qusur, Zaqatal (Char). Antsukh, Qarakh, Andalal (South-East Avar), and Batlukh (South-West Avar) may be separate languages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Avar. Comments: Muslim.

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Azerbaijani, North
[azj] Dagestan republic: south Caucasus mountains, Caspian coast. 473,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 603,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Bagvalal
[kva] Dagestan republic: Akhvakhsky district, Tlibisho and Tlissi; Tsumadinsky district, Gimerso, Khushtada, Kvanada, and Tlondoda; a few other communities. 1,450 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Bagulal, Bagvalin, Bagwalal, Barbalin, Kvanada, Kvanadin. Dialects: Kvanada-Himerso, Tlondoda-Khushtada, Tlissi-Tlibisho. Reportedly similar to Tindi [tin]. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Bashkort
[bak] Bashkortostan republic; Chelyabinsk province, Kurgan province, and Sverdlovsk province; between Volga river and Ural mountains; beyond the Urals. 1,150,000 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,590,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,249,240. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bashkortostan Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Bashkir, Bashqort, Basquort. Autonym: башҡорт теле‎ (Başķort tele), башҡортса‎ (Başķortsa). Dialects: Kuvakan (Mountain Bashkir), Yurmaty (Steppe Bashkir), Burzhan (Western Bashkir). Reportedly similar to Tatar [tat]. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Muslim.

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Bezhta
[kap] Dagestan republic: Babayurt district, Kachalai and Kara-Usek; Tsuntinsky district, Bezhta, Khasharkhota, and Tlyadal villages. 6,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 9,000 (2014 NCRP). Total users in all countries: 6,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Bazht’, Bazht’al, Bechitin, Bexita, Bezheta, Bezhita, Bezhituri, Bezht’alas mits, Bezhti, Kapuch, Kapucha, Kapuchin, Kapuchin-Gunzib, Kapuchuri, Khvanal, Kiburabi, Kupuca. Dialects: Bezhta proper, Tlyadaly, Khocharkhotin. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, East Tsezic. Comments: Muslim.

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Bohtan Neo-Aramaic
[bhn] Krasnodar krai: Krymsk; Stavropol krai: Novopavlovsk. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Originally in Anatolia, Ottoman Empire, east of Tigris River (present-day southeastern Turkey). Fled to Russia during World War I. Christian.

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Botlikh
[bph] Dagestan republic: Botlikh and Miarsu villages. 210 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Botlix, Buykhadi. Dialects: Botlikh, Zibirkhalin. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Buriat
[bua] Population total all languages: 329,100 Status: Comments: Includes: China Buriat [bxu] (China), Mongolia Buriat [bxm] (Mongolia), Russia Buriat [bxr].

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Buriat, Russia
[bxr] Buryatia republic; Irkutsk province; Zabaykalsky krai; Siberia, east of Lake Baikal, Mongolia border. 219,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 461,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Buriat Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Buriat-Mongolian, Buryat, Northern Mongolian. Dialects: Ekhirit-Bulagat, Selengin, Unga, Ninzne-Udinsk, Barguzin, Tunka, Oka, Alar, Bohaan, Bokhan, Khori. Less influenced by Russian [rus] east of Lake Baikal; more similar to Mongolia. Literary dialect differs considerably from those in Mongolia and China, which are influenced by other languages. Khori is the main dialect in the Russian Federation. Speakers in Russian Federation appear to understand each other well. A member of macrolanguage Buriat [bua]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat. Comments: Heavily influenced by Russian [rus]. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chamalal
[cji] Chechnya republic, 8 villages; Dagestan republic: Tsumadinsky district, 14 villages. 500 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Camalal, Chamalal mitsts, Chamalin. Dialects: Gadyri (Gachitl-Kvankhi), Gakvari (Agvali-Richaganik-Tsumada-Urukh), Gigatl (Hihatl), Tsumada, Kwenkhi. Dialects quite distinct. Gigatl (Hihatl) and Chamalal proper (with Gadyri, Gakvari, Tsumada and Kwenkhi dialects) are considered to be sublanguages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Chechen
[che] Chechnya republic, Dagestan republic, and Ingushetia republic; Stavropol krai; north Caucasus, most in rural areas. 1,350,000 (2010 census). 233,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,430,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,503,680. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Chechen Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Galancho, Nokchiin Muott, Nokhchi, Nokhchiin. Dialects: Ploskost, Itumkala (Shatoi), Melkhin, Kistin, Cheberloi, Akkin (Aux). The Akkin people in western Dagestan have a strong self-identity and consider themselves distinct from Chechen. Chechen partially intelligible with Ingush [inh]. Melkhi transitional dialect to Ingush. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush. Comments: Many Russians, Ingush, Ossetins, and other peoples live among them. From 1944–1957, they were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia losing 25%–50% of the population, much land, economic resources, and civil rights. They have been largely removed from productive lowlands. Muslim.

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Chukchi
[ckt] Chukotka autonomous district, Kamchatka krai, and Sakha (Yakutia) republic. 5,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 15,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chuchee, Chukcha, Chukchee, Chukot, Luoravetlan. Dialects: Uellanskij, Pevekskij, Enmylinskij, Nunligranskij, Xatyrskij, Chaun, Enurmin, Yanrakinot. Closely related to Alutor [alr], Kerek [krk] and Koryak [kpy]. Itelmen [itl] is more distantly related. Chukchi may be mutually intelligible with some varieties of Koryak (1988 B. Comrie). Literary dialect and gender dialects also exist. Gender differences largely phonological. Women’s dialect largely ignored in language development. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Chukot. Comments: School at Anadyr. Chukchi in Magadan area are nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Chulym
[clw] Khakassia republic: Ob river tributary, Chulym river basin north of Altay mountains. 44 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 360 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chulim, Chulym Tatar, Chulym-Turkish, Melets Tatar. Dialects: Lower Chulym, Middle Chulym. Reportedly similar to Shor [cjs]; some consider them one language. The government considers them separate. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Spoken in villages. Also spoken by the Kacik (Kazik, Kuarik).

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Chuvash
[chv] Chuvashia republic: east of Moscow, near Volga river. 1,243,000 in Russian Federation, all users. L1 users: 1,043,000 (2010 census). L2 users: 200,000. Ethnic population: 1,440,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,282,270 (as L1: 1,082,270; as L2: 200,000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Chuvash Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Bulgar. Autonym: чӑваш чӗлхи‎ (Čăvaš čĕlȟi), чӑвашла‎ (Čăvašla). Dialects: Anatri, Viryal. Classification: Turkic, Bolgar. Comments: The only extant language in Bolgar branch of Turkic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Dargwa
[dar] Dagestan republic. 486,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 589,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 496,110. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Dargan Medz, Dargi, Dargin, Darginski, Dargintsy, Dargva, Khiurkilinskii, Uslar. Dialects: Cudaxar (Tsudakhar), Akusha (Akkhusha, Urakha-Akhush, Urkarax), Uraxa-Axusha, Kajtak (Kaitag, Kaitak, Kaytak, Xajdak), Kubachi (Kubachin, Kubachintsy, Ughbug), Dejbuk, Xarbuk, Muirin, Sirxin, Itsari, Chirag. Kaytak, Kubachin, Itsari, Tsudakhar, and Chirag may be separate languages from Dargwa. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Dargi. Comments: Muslim.

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Dido
[ddo] Dagestan republic: Tsuntinsky district, several villages. 12,500 (2012 UNSD). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Cez, Didoi, Tsez, Tsezy, Tsuntin. Dialects: Sahada. Sahada most distinct. May be a separate language. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic. Comments: Muslim.

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Dolgan
[dlg] Krasnoyarsk krai: Dudinka and Khatange counties; perhaps Sakha. 1,050 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,890 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dolgang. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Contact language on Tajmyr Peninsula spoken by Evenki [evn], Nganasan [nio], and long-term Russian residents. Different from Yakut [sah]. Traditional religion.

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Enets, Forest
[enf] Krasnoyarsk krai: Potapovo (mostly), Dudinka, and other Taimyr settlements. 40 (2010 census). Includes Tundra Enets [enh]. Ethnic population: 230 (2010 census). Includes Tundra Enets [enh]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bay Enets, Pe-Bae, Yenisei Samoyedic. Dialects: None known. Forest and Tundra Enets [enh] barely mutually intelligible. Transitional between Nenets [yrk] and Nganasan [nio]. Formerly officially considered part of Nenets. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed, Enets.

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Enets, Tundra
[enh] Krasnoyarsk krai: Karepovsk and Vorontsovo settlements; some nomads near Tukhard. 40 (2010 census). Includes Forest Enets [enf]. Ethnic population: 230 (2010 census). Includes Forest Enets [enf]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Madu, Somatu, Yenisei Samoyedic. Dialects: None known. Tundra and Forest Enets [enf] barely mutually intelligible. Transitional between Nenets [yrk] and Nganasan [nio]. Formerly officially considered part of Nenets. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed, Enets.

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Erzya
[myv] Orenburg province, Penza province, Samara province, Saratov province, and Ulyanov province. 36,700 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 57,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 96,860. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erza-Mordvin, Erzia, Erzya Mordva, Erzya Mordvin, Mordvin, Mordvin-Erzya, Mordvinian. Dialects: None known. Quite different from Moksha [mdf]. Classification: Uralic, Mordvin. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Even
[eve] Sakha (Yakutia) republic; Magadan province; Khabarovsk krai, scattered. 5,660 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 21,800 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eben, Ewen, Ilqan, Lamut, Orich. Dialects: Arman, Indigirka, Kamchatka, Kolyma-Omolon, Okhotsk, Ola, Tompon, Upper Kolyma, Sakkyryr, Lamunkhin. Many dialects. Arman has no remaining speakers. Ola (basis for literary Even) not accepted by dialect speakers. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Even. Comments: Many dialects divided into two main groups: Western and Eastern Even. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Evenki
[evn] Most in Sakha (Yakutia) republic, and Krasnoyarsk krai; Amur province; Buryatia republic; Irkutsk province; Zabaykalsky krai; Pacific coast settlements, Magadan province, Chukotka autonomous district; Khabarovsk krai; Kamchatka krai; Sakhalin province. 4,800 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 38,400 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Avanki, Avankil, Chapogir, Ewenki, Khamnigan, Solon, Tungus. Dialects: Manegir, Yerbogocen, Nakanna, Ilimpeya, Tutoncana, Podkamennaya Tunguska, Cemdalsk, Vanavara, Baykit, Poligus, Uchama, Cis-Baikalia, Sym, Tokmo-Upper Lena, Nepa, Lower Nepa Tungir, Kalar, Tokko, Aldan Timpton, Tommot, Jeltulak, Uchur, Ayan-Maya, Kur-Urmi, Tuguro-Chumikan, Sakhalin, Zeya-Bureya. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Evenki. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Finnish
[fin] Leningrad province: Ingria region, Saint Petersburg area. 38,900 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 51,900 (2002 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Finskiy. Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Some living in the Russian Federation, originally from the area of Ingria, call themselves Ingrian Finns. They are distinct from the Ingrians (Izhor), who speak a Finnic language, Ingrian (Izhorian) [izh]. Christian.

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German, Standard
[deu] Kurgan province, Novosibirsk province, Omsk province, Saratov province, Tomsk province, Tyumen province, and Volgograd province. 2,070,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), all users. L1 users: 118,000 (2010). Ethnic population: 394,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Deutsch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ghodoberi
[gdo] Dagestan republic: Botlikhsky district, Beledi, Godoberi, and Zibirkhali. 130 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Godoberi, Godoberin, Qibdili mitstsi. Dialects: Godoberi, Zibirkhali. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Traditional territory and way of life. Muslim.

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Gilyak
[niv] Sakhalin province: Nekrasovka and Nogliki villages, Chir-Unvd, Moskalvo, Rybnoe, Viakhtu, and other villages; Khabarovsk krai: Aleyevka village, Amur river area. 200 (2010 census). A few hundred active users (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,650 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nivkhi. Autonym: Nivkh. Dialects: Amur, East Sakhalin Gilyak, North Sakhalin Gilyak. Amur and East Sakhalin dialects have difficult inherent mutual intelligibility. North Sakhalin is between them linguistically. Classification: Language isolate.

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Hinukh
[gin] Dagestan republic: Tsuntinsky district, Ginukh. 5 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 600 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Ginukh, Ginukhtsy, Ginux, Hinuq, Hinux. Dialects: None known. Similar to Tsez (Dido) [ddo], but probably not inherently intelligible. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic. Comments: Hinukh men marry Dido women. Hinukh women marry men from other ethnic groups. Muslim.

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Hunzib
[huz] Dagestan republic: Tsuntinsky district, Garbutl, Gunzib and Nakhada; Kizilyurtovksy district, Stalskoe. 1,010 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,000. Total users in all countries: 1,420. Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Enzeb, Ghunzib, Gunzib, Hontl’os myts, Khunzal, Khunzaly, Khvanal, Xunzal. Dialects: None known. Separate from Bezhta [kap] (1989 B. Comrie) but reportedly very similar to it. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, East Tsezic. Comments: Muslim.

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Ingrian
[izh] Leningrad province and Saint Petersburg: Kingisepp and Lomonosov areas. 120 (2010 census). L1 speakers should not be confused with Ingrian Finns, who speak Finnish [fin]. Ethnic population: 820 (1989 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ingermanlandian, Inkeroisen, Izhor, Izhorian. Dialects: Soykin, Khava, Lower Luzh, Oredezh (Upper Luzh). Reportedly similar to Karelian [krl]. Oredezh dialect is extinct. Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Christian.

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Ingush
[inh] Chechnya republic, Ingushetia republic, Kabardino-Balkar republic, and North Ossetia-Alania republic. 306,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 445,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 322,900. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Ingushetia (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Galgay, Ghalghay, Ingus, Kisti, Kistin. Autonym: гӏалгӏай‎ (Ğalğaj), гӏалгӏай мотт‎ (Ğalğaj mott). Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with Chechen [che], more so with contact. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush. Comments: In 1944–1957, they were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia, losing 25% to 50% of the population. Lost much land, economic resources, and civil rights. Removed from Vladikavkaz in late 1992, but many returned. Muslim.

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Itelmen
[itl] Kamchatka krai, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskij, Tigil region west coast. 80 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,200 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Itelymem, Kamchadal, Kamchatka, Western Itelmen. Dialects: Sedanka, Xajrjuzovo. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Southern. Comments: 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding schools. Traditional religion.

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Judeo-Tat
[jdt] Chechnya republic: Grozniy; Dagestan republic: Buinaksk, Derbent, Kizlyar, Majalis, and Makhachkala, south of Pyatigorsk; Kabardino-Balkar republic: Nalchyk; North Ossetia-Alania republic: Mozdok. 2,010 (2010 census). Census includes Tat [ttt]. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2014 NCRP). Total users in all countries: 80,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Bik, Dzhuhuric, Hebrew Tat, Jewish Tat, Judeo-Tatic, Juhuri, Lahji, Mountain Jewish, Tati. Autonym: Juwri. Dialects: South Tat, North Tat. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat. Comments: Tat is not an ethnic name. It is a Turkic term for nomads. Tradition says they lived in the Caucasus since 722 A.D. Different from Takestani [tks] of Iran. Jewish.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Kabardino-Balkar republic, North Ossetia-Alania republic, Stavropol krai. 516,000 (2010 census). 36,700 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 590,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,685,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Circassian, Eastern Adyghe, Eastern Circassian, Highland Adyghe, Kabard, Kabardino-Cherkes, Kabardo-Cherkess, Kabardo-Cherkessian, Upper Adyghe, Upper Circassian. Autonym: Къэбэрдей Адыгэбзэ‎ (Qăbărdey Adəgăbză). Dialects: Greater Kabardian, Baksan, Lesser Kabardian, Malka, Mozdok, Kuban, Cherkes, Beslenei (Beslenej). Similar to Adyghe [ady]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: The ethnonym ‘Adyghe’ is synonymous with Circassian and encompasses both Kabardian (Eastern Adyghe or Eastern Circassian) and Adyghe [ady] (i.e. Western Adyghe or Western Circassian). Muslim.

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Kalmyk-Oirat
[xal] Kalmykia republic; Astrakhan province; and Stavropol krai; Volga-Don steppes northwest of the Caspian, north of the Caucasus. West Kalmykia republic (Dörböt dialect); east, lower Volga region, Astrakhan province (Torgut dialect). 80,500 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 183,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 360,800. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Republic of Kalmykia (1999, Law on the Languages of the Republic of Kalmykia, Article 3), Co-official with Russian. Alternate Names: European Oirat, Kalmack, Kalmuck, Kalmuk, Kalmytskii Jazyk, Khalli, Oirat, Qalmaq, Volga Oirat, Western Mongolian. Autonym: хальмг‎ (Xaľmg), хальмг келн‎ (Xaľmg keln). Dialects: Buzawa, Oirat (Oyrat), Torgut (Torghoud, Torghud, Torguud, Torguut), Dörböt (Derbet, Dörbet, Dörböd). Diverged from other Mongolian languages. Called Kalmyk in the Russian Federation; Oirat in China and Mongolia; in the United States, Kalmyk not heavily influenced by Russian [rus]. Different from other varieties in China called Oirat [xal], which are sometimes called Asiatic Oirat. In Mongolia, some scholars consider Oirat to be a dialect of Halh Mongolian [khk]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat. Comments: The modern literary language is mainly based on the Torgut dialect, though it incorporates a large number of concessions to Dörböt. Buddhist.

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Kamas
[xas] Krasnoyarsk krai: Abalakovo village, Sayan mountains. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1989 (Salminen 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kamassian. Dialects: Kamassian, Koibal (Khoibal). Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Southern Samoyed. Comments: Originally in Siberia. Different from the Kamassian dialect of Khakas [kjh].

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Karachay-Balkar
[krc] Kabardino-Balkar republic, Karachay-Cherkessia republic. 305,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 314,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 311,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balkarian, Balqar, Karacaylar, Karachai, Karachaitsy, Karachay, Karachayla, Malqartil, Qarachaytil, Taulu til. Dialects: Balkar, Karachay-Baksan-Chegem. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian. Comments: Balkar and Karachay almost identical. Muslim.

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Karagas
[kim] Irkutsk province, Nizhneudinsk district, Alygdzher, Nerkha, and Verkhnyaya Gutara villages. 93 (2010 census). Less than 40 fluent speakers, same number of passive speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 760 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kamas, Karagass, Sayan Samoyed, Tofalar. Autonym: тоъфа дыл‎ (tofa dyl). Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Karata
[kpt] Dagestan republic: Akhvakhsky district, 10 villages. 260 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 6,400 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Karatai, Karatay, Karatin, Kirdi, Kk’irtli micc’i. Dialects: Tokita (Tokitin), Karata proper (Anchix, Archo, Chabakaroi, Enkhelo, Ratsitl). Karatin and Tokitin dialects are quite different. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Karelian
[krl] Karelia republic; Leningrad province; Murmansk province; Tver province: mainly Tolmachi area, Maksatikha and Ves’yegonsk. 25,600 (2010 census). Census includes Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Ludian [lud]. Ethnic population: 60,800 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 35,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karel’skiy Jazyk, Karelian Proper, Karely, Severno-Karel’skij, Sobstvenno-Karel’skij-Jazyk. Dialects: Northern Karelian, Southern Karelian, Novgorod, Tver (Kalinin). Ludian [lud] and Livvi-Karelian [olo] are separate languages. Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Two language nests started in 1999 and 2002 in northwestern county center of Kalevala (Salminen 2007).

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Kerek
[krk] Kamchatka krai: Chukchi villages, Cape Navarin. No known L1 speakers (Salminen 2007). 3 elderly speakers in 1991 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4 (2010 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Mainypilgino (Majna-Pil’ginskij), Khatyrka (Xatyrskij). Formerly considered a dialect of Chukchi [ckt]. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor.

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Ket
[ket] Krasnoyarsk krai: Baikitsk and Turukhansk regions, Bakhta, Baklanikha, Farkovo, Goroshikha, Kangatovo, Kellog, Maduyka, Sulomai, Surgutikha, Vereshchagino, and Verkhneimbatsk villages; eastern Siberia, upper Yenisei valley. 210 (2010 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,220 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Imbatski-Ket, Yenisei Ostyak, Yenisey Ostiak, Yenisey Ostyak. Classification: Yeniseian. Comments: Traditional way of life has changed. Traditional religion.

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Khakas
[kjh] Kemerovo province; Khakassia republic; Krasnoyarsk krai: north; all north of Altai mountains; scattered throughout Russia. 42,600 (2010 census). Spoken by about 10% of the population of Khakasia (Salminen 2007). 1,500 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 73,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 42,610. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Khakassia Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Abakan Tatar, Hakass, Khakhass, Xakas, Yenisei, Yennisej Tatar. Dialects: Sagai (Sagaj, Saghai), Kyzyl (Khyzyzl, Xyzyl), Koibal (Xoibal), Kamass (Kamassian), Kachin (Kaca, Khaas, Xaas), Shor, Beltir. Kamass dialect is extinct (Salminen 2007). Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khanty
[kca] Khanty-Mansi autonomous district; Tomsk province; Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district; along Ob river. 9,580 (2010 census). Mostly speakers of Northern Khanty, 2,000 speakers of Eastern Khanty and probably no speakers left in Southern Khanty (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 30,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hanty, Khant, Khanti, Ostjak, Ostyak, Xanty. Dialects: Northern Khanti, Eastern Khanti, Southern Khanti, Vach (Vasyugan). Intelligibility difficult between geographically distant dialects. 3 dialect groups; ‘Vach’, archaic. Dialect used in writing rejected by many speakers. Classification: Uralic. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khvarshi
[khv] Dagestan republic: Tsumadinsky district, Khonokh, Khvarshi, Kvantlada, Inkhokvari, and Santlada villages. 1,740 (2010 census). 1,000 Inxokvari speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Atl’ilqo, Khvarsh, Khvarshin, Xvarshi, Xvarshik. Dialects: Xvarshi proper, Inxokvari (Inkhokvari). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic. Comments: Traditional territory and way of life. Sometimes Xvarshi and Inxokvari are treated as two separate languages. Muslim.

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Komi
[kom] Population total all languages: 219,100 Status: Comments: Includes: Komi-Permyak [koi], Komi-Zyrian [kpv].

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Komi-Permyak
[koi] Perm krai: west of central Ural mountains. 63,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 94,500 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kama Permyak, Komi-Perm, Komi-Permyat, Permian, Permyak. Dialects: Zyudin, North Permyak (Kochin-Kam), South Permyak (Inyven). Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Zyrian [kpv] and Udmurt [udm]. A member of macrolanguage Komi [kom]. Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi. Comments: Some literature available. Ancient literary and cultural traditions. More densely populated and mixed, higher education, and more assimilated to national culture than Komi-Zyrian. Christian, traditional religion.

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Komi-Zyrian
[kpv] Arkhangelsk province; Komi republic; Nenets autonomous district; near the Arctic sea. 156,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 228,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Komi Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Komi, Komi-Zyryan, Zyrian. Dialects: Yazva. Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Permyak [koi] and Udmurt [udm]. A member of macrolanguage Komi [kom]. Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Korean
[kor] Khabarovsk krai, Primorsky krai, Sakhalin province. 42,400 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 153,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Goryeomal, Koryomal. Classification: Koreanic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Koryak
[kpy] Kamchatka krai: north half of peninsula; Magadan province. 1,670 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,950 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chavchuven, Nymylan. Dialects: Apokinskij (Apukin), Cavcuvenskij (Chavchuven), Gin, Itkan, Kamenskij (Kamen), Palan, Paren, Xatyrskij. Koryak and Alutor [alr] border not yet been defined. Chachuve (Northern Koryak) and Alutor now separated. Alutor formerly considered a dialect of Koryak. Classification of other dialects unclear. Chavchuven, Palan, and Kamen dialects apparently not inherently intelligible. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor. Comments: Chavchuven used by reindeer herding tribes, all others use Nymylan. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kumyk
[kum] Dagestan republic: north and east plain. 426,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 503,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 427,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki, Qumuqlar. Autonym: Къумукъ‎ (Qumuq). Dialects: Khasavyurt, Buinaksk, Khaitag, Podgorniy, Terek. Dialects quite divergent. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian. Comments: Different from Kumux dialect of Lak [lbe]. Muslim.

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Lak
[lbe] Dagestan republic. 146,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 179,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 154,820. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Kazikumukhtsy, Laki. Autonym: лакку‎ (Lakku), лакку маз‎ (Lakku maz). Dialects: Kumux (Kumkh), Vicxin (Vitskhin), Ashtikulin, Balxar-Calakan (Balkar-Tsalakan), Vixlin (Vikhlin), Shali, Arakul, Shandi, Kayalin-Mashikin, Pervotsovkrin. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lak. Comments: Muslim.

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Lezgi
[lez] Dagestan republic: west of Caspian sea coast; central Caucasus. 402,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 474,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 633,610. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Kiurintsy, Lezghi, Lezgian, Lezgin. Autonym: лезги‎ (Lezgi), лезги чӏал‎ (Lezgi ҫ̇al). Dialects: Kiuri (Gelkhen, Giliar, Güne, Qurah, Yarki), Samur (Akhty, Dashagyl-Filfil, Doquzpara, Fiy, Jaba, Qurush), Quba (Kuba). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic. Comments: Muslim.

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Livvi-Karelian
[olo] Karelia republic: southwest Kondopozhsky, Olonetsky, and west Pryazhinsky districts; Leningrad province. 25,600 (2010 census). Census includes Karelian[krl] and Ludian [lud]. Ethnic population: 65,000. Total users in all countries: 30,770. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karelian, Livvi, Livvikovian, Livvikovskij Jazyk, Olonets, Southern Olonetsian. Autonym: Livvin kieli. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karelian [krl] and Finnish [fin]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Ludian [lud] is transitional between Livvi-Karelian and Veps [vep]. Distinct from Karelian and Ludian.

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Ludian
[lud] Karelia republic: central Kondopozhsky and east Pryazhinsky districts; Olonetsky district, Mikhaylovskoye region; Leningrad province. 3,000 (2012 T. Salminen). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ludic, Lyudic, Lyudikovian, Lüüdi. Autonym: Lüüdikiel. Dialects: None known. Ludian is transitional between Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Veps [vep]. Separate from Karelian [krl] and Livvi-Karelian [olo]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Mansi
[mns] Khanty-Mansi autonomous district; Sverdlovsk province; between Ural and Ob rivers. 940 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,300 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mansiy, Vogul, Vogulich, Voguly. Dialects: Northern Vogul (Northern Mansi, Ob’, Sos’va, Sosyvin, Sygva, Upper Lozyvin), Western Vogul (Lower Lozyvin, Middle Lozyvin, Pelym, Vagily, Western Mansi), Eastern Vogul (Eastern Mansi, Kondin). Mostly Northern Vogul speakers; probably only a handful of elderly speakers of Eastern Vogul; Western Vogul is probably extinct; Southern Vogul was extinct before 1950 (Salminen 2007). Reportedly most similar to Hungarian [hun]. Classification: Uralic. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mari
[chm] Population total all languages: 512,000 Status: Comments: Includes: Hill Mari [mrj], Meadow Mari [mhr].

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Mari, Hill
[mrj] Mari El republic: Nizhny Novgorod province; south of the Volga. 30,000 (2012 T. Salminen). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cheremis, Gorno-Mariy, High Mari, Mari-Hills, Western Mari. Dialects: Kozymodemyan, Yaran. Lexical, phonological, and morphological differences with Meadow Mari [mhr]. A member of macrolanguage Mari [chm]. Classification: Uralic, Mari. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mari, Meadow
[mhr] Bashkortostan republic, Kirov province, Mari El republic, Sverdlovsk province, Perm krai; east of the Volga. 470,000 (2012 T. Salminen). Ethnic population: 548,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 482,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cheremis, Eastern Mari, Low Mari, Lugovo Mari, Mari, Mari-Woods. Autonym: олык марий‎ (Olyk Marij), олык марий йылме‎ (Olyk Marij jylme). Dialects: Grassland Mari (Meadow Mari, Sernur-Morkin, Volga, Yoshkar-Olin). A member of macrolanguage Mari [chm]. Classification: Uralic, Mari. Comments: In many publications the term, Eastern Mari, is reserved for the diaspora groups outside the Republic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Moksha
[mdf] Mordovia republic, Nizhny Novgorod province, and Penza province. 2,030 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 4,770 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Moksha Mordvin, Mokshan, Mordoff, Mordov, Mordvin-Moksha. Dialects: None known. Very different from Erzya [myv]. Classification: Uralic, Mordvin. Comments: There are Moksha villages where people speak hardly any other language except Moksha. Christian.

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Mongolian, Halh
[khk] Buryatia republic. 8,830 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 11,500 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Central Mongolian, Halh, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol. Dialects: Khalkha (Halh), Dariganga, Urat, Ujumuchin. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper. Comments: Halh is basis for literary Mongolian. Buddhist.

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Nanai
[gld] Khabarovskiy Kray: extreme far east, confluence of Amur and Ussuri rivers, scattered in Ussuri valley, Sikhote-Alin, centered in Amur valley below. 1,350 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,390. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gold, Goldi, Heche, Hezhe, Hezhen, Nanaj. Dialects: Sunggari, Torgon, Kuro-Urmi, Ussuri, Akani, Birar, Kila, Samagir. Quite distinct dialects. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Negidal
[neg] Khabarovsk krai: Im and Kamenka; Paulina Osipenko region, lower reaches of Amur river. 74 (2010 census). Only a few fully fluent (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 510 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: El’kan Beye, Elkembey, Ilkan Beye, Neghidal, Negidaly. Dialects: Nizovsk, Verkhovsk. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Negidal. Comments: From 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding schools. Contacts and intermarriage with the Ulch, Nanai, and Nivkh in the Amur area. Traditional religion.

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Nenets
[yrk] Khanty-Mansi, Nenets, and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous districts; Krasnoyarsk krai; Arkhangelsk province; Komi republic; northwest Siberia, north Dvina river mouth tundra area to Yenisei river delta, scattered in Kola peninsula. 21,900 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 44,600 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nenec, Nenetsy, Nentse, Yurak, Yurak Samoyed. Autonym: ненэцяʼ вада‎ (nyenetsya’ wada). Dialects: Forest Yurak, Tundra Yurak. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed. Comments: Mainly nomadic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nganasan
[nio] Krasnoyarsk krai: Duinka region, Ust-Avam and Volochanka villages; Khatang region, Novaya village; northernmost people in Russia, Siberia, Taimyr peninsula. 130 (2010 census). A group of about 100 lead a semi-nomadic life in Dudypta river region near Ust’-Avam (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 860 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nya, Tavgi Samoyed. Dialects: Avam (West Nganasan), Khatang. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed. Comments: 2 ethnic groups: Avam and Vadeyev. From 1960s–1980s resettled in villages formerly used as winter quarters or trading posts along migratory routes in 1940s. Previous intermittent contact with Tundra Enets and Nenets, and formerly officially were considered part of them. Resettlement brought close contact with Russian, Ukrainian [ukr], Belarusian [bel], and Tatar [tat]. Traditional religion.

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Nogai
[nog] Karachay-Cherkessia republic; Dagestan republic: Babayurt, Kizlyar, Nogay, and Tarumovka districts; Chechnya republic: Shelkovskaya district; Stavropol district: Kochubeyevskoye, Mineral’nyye Vody, and Neftekumsk counties; northern Caucasus. 87,100 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 104,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 87,260. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Karanogai, Kubanogai, Nogaitsy, Nogalar, Nogay, Noghai, Noghay, Noghaylar. Dialects: White Nogai (Kuba), Black Nogai (Kara), Central Nogai. Slight dialect differences. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Muslim.

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Oroch
[oac] Khabarovsk krai: along rivers that empty into Tatar channel; Amur river near Komsomolsk-na-Amure; Vanino region: Datta and Uska-Orochskaya settlements. 8 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 600 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Orochi. Dialects: Orichen, Tez (Tazy). Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Udihe. Comments: Russians, Ukrainians, and Evenki live among them. Formerly officially considered part of Udihe. Different from Orok [oaa]. Traditional religion.

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Orok
[oaa] Sakhalin province: Poronajsk district, Poronajsk town, Gastello and Vakhrushev settlements; Nogliki district, Val village, Nogliki settlement. 47 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 300 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Oroc, Uilta, Ujlta, Ulta. Dialects: Poronaisk (Southern Orok), Val-Nogliki (Nogliki-Val, Northern Orok). Significant dialect differences. Formerly officially considered part of Nanai [gld]. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj. Comments: Scattered. Relinquished traditional way of life. Different from Oroch [oac]. Prevalent intermarriage with Russians, Nivkh, Nanai, Evenksi, Negidal, and Korean people.

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Ossetic
[oss] Kabardino-Balkar republic, North Ossetia-Alania republic; north of Ossetic in Georgia. 451,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 529,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 614,350. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in North Ossetia-Alania (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Osetin, Ossete, Ossetian. Dialects: Digor, Iron. Digor and Iron (the major dialect) are mutually unintelligible. Russian [rus] is used as a lingua franca by both groups. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Polish
[pol] Rostov province (Masurian dialect). 67,400 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Masurian (Mazurian, Mazurski). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Romani, Baltic
[rml] Yaroslavl province. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balt Romani, Balt Slavic Romani, Baltic Slavic Romani. Dialects: Rúska Romá, Xaladitka. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic group: Rúska Romá (northern Russia).

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Krasnodar krai, Moscow city, Novgorod province. 128,000 (2010 census). Census includes all Romani languages. Ethnic population: 205,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rom. Dialects: Central Vlax Romani, Kalderash (Kelderash, Russian Kalderash), Crimean Romani, Lovari (Chokeshi Lovari). Russian Kalderash influenced by east Slavic, mainly Russian [rus] (I. Hancock). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax. Comments: Non-indigenous. Vlax speakers from Russia are called Rusurja. Ethnic groups: Sárvi (left-bank Ukraine), Volóxuja (right-bank Ukraine), Chache (Moldavia), Kalderari (Moldavia, Ukraine, Odessa, Transcarpathia), Lovári (Ukraine). About 300,000 Gypsies from the former Soviet Union speak a variety of Romani, Lomavren, or Domari as L1 or L2 (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Christian.

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Russian
[rus] 138,000,000 in Russian Federation (Arefyev 2012), all users. L1 users: 119,000,000 (Arefyev 2012). Total users in all countries: 265,026,130 (as L1: 153,919,510; as L2: 110,440,620). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 68(1)). Autonym: русский язык‎ (russkij jazyk). Dialects: North Russian, South Russian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Christian.

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Russian Sign Language
[rsl] Scattered. Moscow and Saint Petersburg are major centers. 121,000 (2010 census). 715,000 (2014 IMB). Total users in all countries: 122,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Reported historical connections to sign languages in Austria and France, but not obvious from extensive wordlist comparison (Bickford 2005). Relatively high lexical similarity to sign languages in Ukraine [ukl] and Moldova [vsi] (Bickford 2005). Significant dialect variation. Classification: Sign language. Comments: First school for the deaf opened at Pavlovsk near St. Petersburg in 1806. Reported to also be used in Federal Republics such as Chechnya; in countries formerly part of the Soviet Union, such as Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kygryzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. In some of these locations, other sign languages are also reported to be used; but it is not known to what extent these are separate distinct sign languages, related sign languages or dialects of RSL. Christian.

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Rutul
[rut] Dagestan republic. 30,400 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 35,200 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 36,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Chal, Mukhad, Myhynnynydy-ch’el, Rutal, Rutultsy, Rutuly. Autonym: мыхӏабишды‎ (Myḥabišdy), мыхӏабишды чӏел‎ (Myḥabišdy č̣el). Dialects: North Rutul (Asar-Kala, Ixrek, Luchek, Muxrek, Rutul, Shinaz, Vrush), South Rutul (Borch, Khnov). Dialects not sharply defined. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic. Comments: Dialect groups may be treated as separate languages (Koryakov 2006). Muslim.

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Saami, Akkala
[sia] Murmansk province: southwest Kola peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died in 2003. Ethnic population: 100 (1995 M. Krauss). 1,770 including all Saami (2010 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ahkkil, Babino, Babinsk. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Skolt Saami [sms]. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern.

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Saami, Kildin
[sjd] Murmansk province: central Kola peninsula. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Skolt Saami [sms] and Ter Saami [sjt]. Ethnic population: 1,770 (2010 census). Number includes all Saami. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Saam, Saami, “Kildin Lappish” (pej.), “Lapp” (pej.). Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern. Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami.

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Saami, Skolt
[sms] Murmansk province: north and west Kola peninsula, Petsamo area. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Kildin Saami [sjd] and Ter Saami [sjt]. 20 speakers (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 400 (1995 M. Krauss). 1,770 including all Saami (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kolta, Lopar, Saam, Skolt, “Lapp” (pej.), “Russian Lapp” (pej.), “Skolt Lappish” (pej.). Dialects: Notozer, Yokan. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern. Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami. Christian.

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Saami, Ter
[sjt] Murmansk province: eastern Kola peninsula. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Kildin Saami [sjd] and Skolt Saami [sms]. 6 elderly speakers in the early 1990s (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,770 (2010 census). 1,770 includes all Saami. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Saam, “Lapp” (pej.), “Ter Lappish” (pej.). Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern. Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami.

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Selkup
[sel] Tomsk province: Yamalo-Nenets autonomous district; Krasnoyarsk krai: Krasnoselkup region, Krasnoselkup, Krasnoselkupskaya Tolka, and Ratta villages; Krasnoyarsk district, Farkovo; Purovsk region, Tolka Purovskaya village; Turukhan river basin; Baikha (all northern dialect); north Tomsk province area villages (southern dialect). 1,020 (2010 census). Central Selkup: 200 speakers, Northern Selkup: 1,000 to 1,500 speakers, Southern Selkup: less than 100 speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 3,900 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Selkups, Chumyl’ Khumyt, Northern Selkups, Ostyak Samoyed, Shöl Khumyt, Shösh Gulla, Syusugulla. Dialects: Taz (Northern Sel’kup, Tazov-Baishyan), Tym (Kety), Narym (Central Selkup), Srednyaya Ob-Ket (Southern Sel’kup). Dialect continuum with difficult or impossible intelligibility between extremes. Southern speakers separated geographically from others. Northern Selkup literature not usable by Southern and Central. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Southern Samoyed. Comments: Formerly lingua franca for Ket, Evenki, Nenets, and Khanty. Traditional religion.

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Serbian
[srp] Scattered. 11,000 (2010 census). Census includes Bosnian [bos] and Croatian [hrv]. Ethnic population: 9,670 Serbo-Croatian (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Serbo-Croatian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian, Muslim.

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Shor
[cjs] Kemerovo province; scattered throughout Russian Federation. 2,840 (2010 census). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aba, Kondoma Tatar, Kuznets Tatar, Mras Tatar, Shortsy, Tom-Kuznets Tatar. Dialects: Mrassa (Mrasu), Kondoma. Some sources combine Shor and Chulym [clw]. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Different from Shor dialect of Khakas [kjh]. Study of Shor revived; language association formed; chair of Shor created at Pedagogical University in Novokuznetsk (1996 I. Nevskaya). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Slavonic, Church
[chu] Scattered. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Old Church Slavonic. Autonym: Словѣньскъ‎ (Slovyensk). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern.

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Tabasaran
[tab] Dagestan republic: half live in urban areas, half in 98 Tabasaran-speaking mountain villages. 126,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 146,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 127,210. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Ghumghum, Tabasarantsky, Tabassaran. Dialects: South Tabasaran, North Tabasaran (Khanag). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic. Comments: Muslim.

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Tat, Muslim
[ttt] Dagestan republic; community in Moscow. 2,010 (2010 census). Census includes Judeo-Tat [jdt]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mussulman Tati, Musulman Tats. Dialects: Northern Tats. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat.

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Tatar
[tat] Bashkortostan republic, Tatarstan republic, Saint Petersburg, Moscow. 4,280,000 (2010 census). Population may include L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 5,310,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 4,983,510. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Tatarstan Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Kazan Tatar, Tartar. Autonym: татар теле‎ (tatar tele), татарча‎ (tatarça). Dialects: Middle Tatar (Kazan), Western Tatar (Misher). Tobol-Irtysh is divided into 5: Tyumen, Tobol, Zabolotny, Tevriz, and Tara (Tumasheva). Mixed dialects are: Astrakhan, Kasimov, Tepter, and Ural (Poppe). 43,000 Astrakhan (L1 speakers) have shifted to the Middle dialect. Kasim (5,000 L1 speakers) is between Middle and Western Tatar. Tepter (300,000 L1 speakers) is reportedly between the Tatar and Bashkort [bak] languages. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Different from Crimean Tatar (Crimean Turkish [crh]) and Siberian Tatar [sty]. Muslim, Christian.

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Tatar, Siberian
[sty] Novosibirsk province, Omsk province, Tomsk province, and Tyumen province. Novosibirsk region and the Barabinsk steppe (Baraban dialect); Omsk and Tyumensk districts, basins of Irtysh and Tobol rivers (Tobol-Irtysh dialect); Kemerovsk and Novosibirsk districts, Tomsk district, along Tomi and Ob rivers (Tomsk dialect). 101,000 (2012 M. Sagidullin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Tatar. Dialects: Tobol-Irtysh (Tobolo-Irtysh), Baraban (Baraba, Barabinsk Tatar), Tomsk (Tom, Tomsk Tatar). Sub-dialects of Tobol-Irtysh are Zabolotny, Tobol, Tiumen, Tar, and Tevriz; sub-dialects of Tomsk are Kalmak and Chat-Eushtin. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Different from Tatar [tat]. Subgroups of the Barabinsk Tatar: Barabo-Turashi, Terenino-Choi, and Liubei-Tunusy; subgroups of the Tobolo-Irtysh: Tars, Kurdak-Sargatsk, Tobolsk, Tiumen, and Iaskolbin Tatar; subgroups of the Tomsk Tatar: Kalmak, Chat, and Eushta.

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Tindi
[tin] Dagestan republic: Tsumadinsky district, Aknada, Angida, Echeda, Tindi, and Tissi villages. 2,150 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Idarab mitstsi, Tindal, Tindin. Dialects: Tindin-Echendin, Angidin-Aknadin. Bagvalal [kva] closely related, but probably not inherently intelligible. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Tsakhur
[tkr] Dagestan republic: Rutulsky district, 13 villages. 10,600 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,800 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Dagestan Autonomous Republic (1994, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Caxur, Ts’axna Miz, Tsakhury, Tsaxur, Yedna Miz, Yikbi, Yiqny Miz. Dialects: Tsakh (Jinagh, Mishkesh, Mukhakh-Sabunchi, Muslakh, Suvagil, Tsakh-Qum, Tsakhur), Gelmets-Mikik (Gelmets, Gelmets-kurdul, Kirmico-Lek, Mikik). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic. Comments: Most widely scattered smaller ethnic group. Muslim.

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Turkmen
[tuk] Astrakhan province; Stavropol krai. 30,800 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 36,900 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Turkpen. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tuvan
[tyv] Krasnoyarsk krai and Tyva republic; southern Siberia near Mongolia border. 254,000 (2010 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 268,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 297,000. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Tuva Republic. Alternate Names: Diba, Kök Mungak, Soyod, Soyon, Soyot, Tannu-Tuva, Tofa, Tokha, Tuba, Tuva, Tuvia, Tuvin, Tuvinian, Uriankhai, Uriankhai-Monchak, Uryankhai. Autonym: тыва‎ (tyva), тыва дыл‎ (tyva dyl). Dialects: Central Tuvan, Western Tuvan, Northeastern Tuvan (Todzhin), Southeastern Tuvan, Tuba-Kizhi. Sharp dialect differences. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Until 1944 Tuva was an independent state. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Udihe
[ude] Khabarovsk krai: Lazo area, Arsenievo and Gvasiugi settlements; Primorsky krai: Pozharsky area, Krasny Yar, Olon, and Sobolinyi settlements; Ternei area, Agzu settlement; Krasnoarmeisky area, Dalniy Kut, Melnichnoye, and Roschino settlements; Siberia far east. 100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kiakala, Tazy, Ude, Udegeis, Udeghe, Udehe. Dialects: Khungari, Khor, Aniuy, Samarga, Bikin, Iman, Kur-Urmi. Dialect differences not great. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Udihe. Comments: Resettled in artificial villages in Russian-speaking [rus] region with Ukrainian and Nanai people. Children sent to boarding schools. Hezhe, in China may refer to this. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Udmurt
[udm] Tatarstan republic; Udmurtia republic; near Ural Mountains, bounded by Kama and Cheptsa rivers. 324,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 554,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 340,530. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Votiak, Votyak. Dialects: North Udmurt (Besermyan, Udmurt), South Udmurt (Southwestern Udmurt). Classification: Uralic, Permian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ulch
[ulc] Khabarovsk krai: Ulch county, Bulava, Dudi, Kalinovka, Kolchom, Mariinskoe, Mongol, Nizhnaya Gavan, Savinskoe, Sofiyskoe, Solontsy, Tur, and Ukhta; Bogorodskove is capital; Amur river and tributaries, Tatar channel coast. 150 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,770 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hoche, Hol-Chih, Olch, Olcha, Olchis, Ulcha, Ulchi, Ulych. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj. Comments: Close contact with Russian [rus], Ukrainian [ukr], Nanai [gld], Nivkh [niv] (Gilyak), Negidal [neg], and others.

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Veps
[vep] Karelia republic: south of Petrozavodsk; Leningrad province; Vologda province. 1,640 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,940 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Vepsian, Vepsish, “Chudy” (pej.), “Chuhari” (pej.), “Chukhari” (pej.). Dialects: Southern Veps, Central Veps, Prionezh (North Veps). Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Christian.

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Vod
[vot] Leningrad province: Saint Petersburg area, Kingisepp. 68 (2010 census). Last speakers of East Vod dialect died in the 1960s. Ethnic population: 73. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Vodian, Vote, Votian, Votic, Votish. Dialects: East Vod, West Vod. Intelligible with Standard Estonian [ekk] of the northeast coast. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Yakut
[sah] Irkutsk province, Magadan province, and Sakha (Yakutia) republic; Khabarovsk krai and Krasnoyarsk krai; near Arctic Sea, middle Lena river, Aldan and Kolyma rivers, 3,220 km. 450,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 478,000 (2010 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sakha Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Sakha, Yakut-Sakha. Autonym: саха тыла‎ (Saxa tıla), сахалыы‎ (saȟalyy). Dialects: Middlekolymskyi, Olemkinskyi, Vilyiskyi, Dolgan. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Scattered. 1,680 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yug
[yug] Krasnoyarsk krai: Turukhan area, Vorogovo settlement. 1 (2010 census). Listed in census under Ket [ket]. Ethnic population: 19 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Sym-Ket, Yugh. Classification: Yeniseian.

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Yukaghir, Northern
[ykg] Sakha (Yakutia) republic: lower Kolyma county, Andryushkino and Kolymskoye. 370 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Ethnic population: 1,600 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jukagir, Northern Yukagir, Odul, Tundra, Tundre, Wadul, Yukagir. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Southern Yukaghir (Kolyma) [yux]. Classification: Yukaghir. Comments: In 19th century their territory shrank due to merging clans, military clashes, assimilation with the Even [eve], and later, collectivization. From 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding school. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yukaghir, Southern
[yux] Magadan province: upper Kolyma county, Nelemnoye and Zyryanka. 370 (2010 census). Census includes Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Ethnic population: 1,600. Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Forest Yukagir, Jukagir, Kolym, Kolyma, Odul, Southern Yukagir, Yukagir. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Classification: Yukaghir. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yupik, Central Siberian
[ess] Chukotka autonomous district: Bering Sea coast, Wrangel island; Providenie region, Chaplino, Novoe Chaplino, Provideniya, and Sireniki villages. 200 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 1,200 (Dorais 2010). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Asiatic Yupik, Bering Strait, Siberian Yupik, Yoit, Yuit, Yuitsky, Yuk. Dialects: Aiwanat, Noohalit (Peekit), Wooteelit, Chaplino (чаплинский язык). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik. Comments: School at Anadyr. Sirenik [ysr] is a separate, but now extinct, language. Traditional religion.

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Yupik, Naukan
[ynk] Chukotka autonomous district: Lavrentiya, Nunyamo, and Uelen villages. 60 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 450 (Dorais 2010). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Naukan, Naukanski, Nevuqaq. Dialects: 60%–70% intelligibility of the Chaplino dialect of Central Siberian Yupik [ess]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik.

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Yupik, Sirenik
[ysr] Chukotka autonomous district: Chukot peninsula, Sireniki village. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1997 (Dorais 2010). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Old Sirenik, Sirenik, Sirenikski, Vuteen. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik.

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