Somalia

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Population: 2,050,000 in Somalia (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Transitional Federal Charter, Article 7(1)). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Boon
[bnl] Jubbada Dhexe region: Jilib district, bush settlements. Population: 59 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Af-Boon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Somali [som]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East.

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Dabarre
[dbr] Bay region: Dhiinsoor district area, Dabaare; Jubbada Dhexe region: Bu’aale district; Shabeellaha Hoose region: Sablaade district. Population: 20,000 (1998 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Af-Dabarre. Dialects: Dabarre, Iroole (Af-Iroole). A very distinctive language in the Digil clan family. Dialects are clan names. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali.

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English
[eng] Scattered. Population: Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Garre
[gex] Bay region: southeast border area; Shabeellaha Hoose region: Qoryoley and Wanla Weyne districts. Population: 50,000 (1998 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1992). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Af-Garre. Dialects: None known. Reportedly linguistically similar to Boni [bob]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali.

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Italian
[ita] Scattered. Population: 4,000 in Somalia (1998 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Italiano, Talyaaniga. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian.

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Jiiddu
[jii] Shabeellaha Hoose region: west of Moqdisho. Population: 20,000 (1998 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Af-Jiiddu, Jiddu. Dialects: Distinct from Somali [som] and Tunni [tqq], usually grouped under Digil dialects or languages. Different sentence structure and phonology from Somali. More similar to Somali than to Baiso [bsw]. Reportedly some similarities to Konsoid languages and to Gedeo [drs], Alaba-Kabeena [alw], Hadiyya [hdy], and Kambaata [ktb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali.

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Maay
[ymm] Bakool, Bay, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, and Shabeellaha Hoose regions. Population: 1,750,000 in Somalia (2015). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Af-Maay, Af-Maay Tiri, Af-May, Af-Maymay, Maay Maay, Mai Mai, Rahanween, Rahanweyn. Autonym: Af-maay. Dialects: Af-Helledi. May be more than 1 language; dialects form a continuum. Within the Maay dialect continuum, at least two dialect groupings may be discerned, largely between the Digil clans (e.g, Wenle Weyn) and the Mirifle clans (based on Bay Bakool). The Digil consider themselves the “royal clan class” of the Maay-speaking Rahanweyn. Somali [som] is difficult or unintelligible to Maay speakers, except when learned through mass communications, urbanization, and internal movement. Different sentence structure and phonology from Somali. Af-Helledi is a Maay secret language used by hunters. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali.

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Mushungulu
[xma] Jubbada Hoose region: Jamaame district; urban areas Kismaayo and Muqdisho. Population: 20,000 (1998 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimushungulu, Mushunguli. Dialects: None known. May be the same as, or intelligible of, Zigula [ziw] or Shambala [ksb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.311).

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Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji
[gax] Gedo region. Population: 41,600 in Somalia (2000). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Southern Oromo. Dialects: Borana (Booran, Boran). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo.

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Somali
[som] Widespread. Population: 7,820,000 in Somalia (2015). Total users in all countries: 16,321,530 (as L1: 16,225,930; as L2: 95,600). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Transitional Federal Charter, Article 7(1)). Alternate Names: Af-Maxaad Tiri, Common Somali, Soomaaliga, Standard Somali. Autonym: Af-Soomaali, Afka Soomaaliga. Dialects: Northern Somali, Benaadir, Af-Ashraaf (Ashraaf). Northern Somali is basis for standard Somali. Readily intelligible to Benaadir Somali speakers, but difficult or unintelligible to most Maay [ymm]. Those in Merka and Muqdisho speak Af-Ashraaf, a distinct variety which may have limited inherent intelligibility of standard Somali. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali.

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Swahili
[swh] Jubbada Hoose region: Kismayuu south to Kenya border (Bajuni dialect); Baraawe and dispersed in southern towns (Mwini dialect). Population: 183,000 in Somalia (2015). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kiswahili. Dialects: Mwini (Af-Chimwiini, Barawa, Barwaani, Bravanese, Chimbalazi, Chimiini, Chimwiini, Mbalazi, Miini, Mwiini), Bajuni (Af-Bajuun, al-Jaziira, Bajun, Gunya, Kibajuni, Tikuu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42).

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Tunni
[tqq] Jubbada Dhexe and Shabeellaha Hoose regions: Baraawe, Dhiinsoor, and Jilib districts; Bay and Jubbada Hoose regions. Population: 20,000 (1998 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Af-Tunni. Dialects: Distinct from Somali [som] or Jiiddu [jii], usually grouped under the Digil dialects or languages. Different sentence structure and phonology from Somali [som]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali.

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