Suriname

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Akurio
[ako] Sipaliwini district: Trio villages Tëpu, Kwamalasamutu, and Palumeu on Tapanahoni and Sipaliwini rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the first decade of the 2000s; 2 semi-speakers (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 40 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Akoerio, Akuliyo, Akuri, Akurijo, Akuriyo, Oyaricoulet, Triometesem, Triometesen, Wama, Wayaricuri. Dialects: None known. Related to, but not inherently intelligible with, Trió [tri]. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó.

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Arawak
[arw] Commewijne and Para districts: villages from coast to 30 km inland, mainly on the savanna. Population: 500 in Suriname (Crevels 2012). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 2,510. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Araguaco, Arahuaco, Arahuacos, Arawac, Arowak, Arrowukas, Aruak, Aruaqui, Arwuak, Lokono, Luccumi. Autonym: Lokono Dian. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

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Aukan
[djk] Brokopondo district: Sarakreek commune; Commewijne district: Bakkie, Meerzog, and Tamanredjo communes; Marowijne district: Moengo, Patamacca, and Wanhatti communes; Para district: Carolina commune; Sipaliwini district: Tapanahony commune; Aluku dialect: French Guiana border; Paramaccan dialect: Northeast. Population: 22,400 in Suriname (2016). 1,550 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 40,400. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Aukaans, Businenge Tongo, Businengee Tongo, Eastern Maroon Creole, Ndjuká, Ndyuka, Ndyuka tongo, Nenge, Nenge Tongo, Nengee Tongo, Njuká, Okanisi, “Djoeka” (pej.), “Djuka” (pej.). Autonym: Okanisi tongo. Dialects: Aluku (Aloekoe, Boni), Paramaccan (Pamaka). Ndyuka, Aluku and Paramaccan are highly mutually intelligible dialects; Kwinti [kww] is slightly less intelligible with them. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka.

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Carib
[car] Coronie district: Welgelegen commune; Marowijne district: Albina and Galibi communes; Para district: Bigi Poika commune; Saramacca district: Calcutta commune; Sipaliwini district: Boven Coppename commune. Population: 1,200 in Suriname (Carlin 2001). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibí, Kali’na, Kalihna, Kalinya, Kara’ibs, Kari’na, Kari’na auran, Kari’nja, Kari’nya, Kari’ña, Karìna, Maraworno. Dialects: Murato (Myrato, Western Carib), Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib), Aretyry. Classification: Cariban.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Saramacca district: scattered. Population: 7,300 in Suriname (2005 J. Leclerc), decreasing. Ethnic population: 12,000 (1971). Includes Yue [yue]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kejia. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Para, Paramaribo, and Wanica districts. Population: 5,300 in Suriname (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Dutch
[nld] Population: 280,000 in Suriname (2016). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Nederlands. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian.

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Guyanese Creole English
[gyn] Nickerie district: Courantyne river mouth. Population: 33,000 in Suriname (2016). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Creolese, Guyanese Creole. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Southern.

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Hindustani, Sarnami
[hns] Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, and Wanica districts; north coast. Population: 75,500 in Suriname (2016). Ethnic population: 160,000 (2003). Total users in all countries: 208,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caribbean Bharatiya, Caribbean Hindi, Caribbean Hindustani, Caribbean Urdu, Sarnami Hindi, Sarnami Hindoestani. Autonym: Sarnaanie Hiendoestaanie. Dialects: Trinidad Bhojpuri, Sarnami Hindustani (Aili Gaili, Sarnami Hindi). Reportedly more similar to Bhojpuri [bho] than Hindi [hin]. Similar dialect to Trinidad-Tobago. Distinctive variety of Sarnami spoken in Nickerie district (Damsteegt 2002). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari.

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Javanese, Suriname
[jvn] Commewijne, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, and Wanica districts; north coast. Population: 36,300 in Suriname (2016). Ethnic population: 71,900 (2004 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caribbean Javanese, Surinaams Javaans. Autonym: Jawa Suriname. Dialects: None known. Significantly different from Javanese [jav] of Indonesia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese.

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Kwinti
[kww] Sipaliwini district: Coppename river area, upstream from Kaimanstan and Witagron. Population: 200 (2005 J. Leclerc), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Further removed from Ndyuka [njt] than Aluku and Paramaccan. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka.

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Mawayana
[mzx] Sipaliwini district. Population: 2 in Suriname (2013 M. Michels), decreasing. Ethnic population: 40 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified.

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Ndyuka-Trio Pidgin
[njt] Sipaliwini district: upper Tapanahonij river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin.

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Saramaccan
[srm] Brokopondo district: Brownsweg, Centrum, Klasskreek, and Kwakoegron, communes, small border area; Para district: Bigi Poika commune; Paramaribo district; Sipaliwini district: Boven Saramaccan and Boven Suriname communes. Population: 15,100 in Suriname (2016). Total users in all countries: 18,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Saramaccaans. Autonym: Saamáka. Dialects: Matawari (Matawai, Matoewari, Matuari). Possibly Portuguese [por] based rather than English [eng] (Hancock 1988). Linguistic influences from Koongo [kng] (Hancock 1988). Lexical similarity: 20% with African component. Classification: Creole, English based.

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Sign Language of the Netherlands
[dse] Scattered. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language.

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Sikiana
[sik] Sipaliwini district: Kwamalasamutu area on Sipaliwini river. Population: 12 in Suriname (Crevels 2012), decreasing. Ethnic population: 60 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chikena, Sikiuyana, Sikiyana, Sikïiyana, Tshikiana. Classification: Cariban, Kashuyana.

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Sranan Tongo
[srn] Widespread. Population: 369,300 in Suriname, all users. L1 users: 69,300 in Suriname (2016). L2 users: 300,000. Total users in all countries: 715,700 (as L1: 415,700; as L2: 300,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Lingua franca of 80% of the country, including the Hindustanis, Javanese, Chinese, American Indians, and Bush Negroes. Alternate Names: Sranan, Surinaams, Suriname Creole English, Surinamese, “Taki-Taki” (pej.). Autonym: Sranan Tongo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ndyuka [njt], but with cultural differences. Reportedly many similarities to Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname.

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Trió
[tri] Sipaliwini district: Kwamalasamutu on Sipaliwini river, Palumeu on Palumeu river, Tëpu on upper Tapanahoni river. Population: 1,300 in Suriname (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,300 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 2,460. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tiriyó, Tirió. Autonym: Tarëno ijomi. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó.

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Waiwai
[waw] Sipaliwini district: Kwamalasamutu area, Sipaliwini river, among Trio [tri] language speakers. Population: 10 in Suriname (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 80 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Katuena. Dialects: Tunayana. Classification: Cariban, Waiwai.

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Warao
[wba] Nickerie district: near Guyana border. Population: 400 in Suriname (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guarao, Guarauno, Warrau. Classification: Language isolate.

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Wayana
[way] Marowijne district: upper Tapanahoni river; northwest of Trio [tri] language speakers. Population: 450 in Suriname (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 450 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 1,740. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Alukuyana, Ayana, Oayana, Oiana, Oyana, Roucouyenne, Uaiana, Upurui, Wajana. Autonym: Wayâna. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible of Apalaí [apy]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana.

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