South Sudan

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Acholi
[ach] Eastern Equatoria state: Magwi and Torit counties, Acholi hills. Population: 27,000 in South Sudan (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acoli, Acooli, Akoli, Atscholi, Dok Acoli, Gang, Log Acoli, Lwo, Shuli. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi.

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Aja
[aja] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Kparakpara just west of Raga. Population: 200 (1993 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Adja, Ajja. Dialects: None known. Consider themselves a Kresh tribe, but their language is not intelligible to the Kresh; nearer to Banda in vocabulary and to Kresh [krs] in structure (Santandrea). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh.

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Anuak
[anu] Jonglei state: Akobo and Pochalla counties. Population: 52,000 in South Sudan (1991 UBS). Total users in all countries: 144,710 (as L1: 142,600; as L2: 2,110). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anyuak, Anywa, Anywaa, Anywak, Dha Anywak, Dho Anywaa, Jambo, Nuro, dho-Anywaa. Autonym: Dha Anywaa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Acholi [ach] and Luo languages of Uganda than to Shilluk [shk]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Scattered. Population: 3,130,000 in South Sudan (2016 SIL), all users. Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Sudanese Creole
[pga] Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, and Western Equatoria states: widespread, into Northern Bahr al Ghazal, Western Bahr al Ghazal, and Upper Nile states. Population: 820,000, all users. L1 users: 20,000 (1987). With the rapidly changing demographic situation it is very difficult to know the number of L1 or L2 speakers and whether these numbers are increasing or decreasing. L2 users: 800,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as L1 or L2 in Juba and other towns in Greater Equatoria region. As a creole and lingua franca, this language varies enormously in form from place to place, and from speaker to speaker (depending on subject matter and interlocuter), and is changing rapidly. Alternate Names: Juba Arabic, Pidgin Arabic, Southern Sudan Arabic. Autonym: Arabi Juba. Dialects: Dialectal variations in different areas due to different local vernaculars. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Creole, Arabic based.

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Arabic, Sudanese Spoken
[apd] Widespread. Population: A reasonable population estimate cannot be given at this time because of the recent increase in population of South Sudan by those arriving from Sudan. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Used as a lingua franca in northern South Sudan and now widely spoken by hundreds of thousands of South Sudanese arriving from the North following South Sudan’s independence. Alternate Names: Arabi, Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Avokaya
[avu] Central Equatoria state: Yei River state: Yei county; Western Equatoria state: Maridi and Mundri West counties. Sudan-Congo border south of Maridi (Ajugu dialect); mainly between Naam and Olo rivers and east (Ojila dialect). Population: 40,000 in South Sudan (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 65,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abukeia, Avukaya. Autonym: Ãvõkáyã. Dialects: Ojila (Odzila, Odziliwa), Ajugu (Adjiga, Agamoru, Ojiga). Avokaya Pur dialect near Faradje (in Democratic Republic of Congo) is reportedly more similar to Logo [log] than to the Ojila dialect of Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Bai
[bdj] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Wau-Deim Zubeir road; possibly 2 villages north of Tembura. Population: 2,500 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri.

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Baka
[bdh] Central Equatoria state: Yei county, northwest of Yei; Western Equatoria state: Maridi county, south and west of Maridi. Population: 25,000 in South Sudan (1993 UBS). Total users in all countries: 26,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Tara Baka. Autonym: baká e. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka.

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Banda, Mid-Southern
[bjo] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Raga county, Banda Linda and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages. Population: 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Dukpu, Wasa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Banda, Togbo-Vara
[tor] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Raga county, southeast of Sopo town. Population: 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Togbo (Tagbo, Tohgboh). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara.

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Banda, West Central
[bbp] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Raga country, between Mboro and Wau. Population: 3,000 in South Sudan (1982). 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Golo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, West Central.

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Banda-Banda
[bpd] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Raga county, Banda Linda, and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages. Population: 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Govoro (Govhoroh), Vidiri (Mvedere, Vadara, Vidri, Vodere), Wundu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Banda.

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Banda-Mbrès
[bqk] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Raga county, Banda Linda and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages. Population: 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Banda of Mbrès, Banda-Mbre. Dialects: Buka (Bouka), Mbre (Mbele, Mbere), Moruba (Maraba, Morouba), Sabanga (Sangbanga), Wada (Ouadda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Mbres.

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Banda-Ndélé
[bfl] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Raga county, Banda Linda and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages. Population: 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Banda of Ndélé, Nyele. Dialects: Junguru (Djingburu, Nguru), Tangbago (Tambaggo, Tambolo, Tangago, Tombaggo), Banda-Kpaya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Ndele.

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Bari
[bfa] Central Equatoria state: Juba, Kajo Keji and Lainya counties; both banks of the Nile, south of Terakeka on west bank, Mongalla on east bank, to Kajo Kaji escarpment. Population: 595,000 in South Sudan, all users. L1 users: 420,000 in South Sudan (2000). L2 users: 175,000 (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 641,500 (as L1: 466,500; as L2: 175,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Regional language chosen for development by Rejaf Conference 1928. Alternate Names: Beri. Autonym: Kuku. Dialects: Bari, Kuku, Nyangbara (Nyambara, Nyangwara), Nyepu (Ngyepu, Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho), Pöjulu (Fadjulu, Fajelu, Madi, Pajulu), Ligo (Liggo). Lexical similarity: 86% with Bari and Nyepu dialects, 85% with Bari and Pöjulu, 81% with Bari and Kuku, 80% with Bari and Nyangbara, 71% with Mundari [mqu], 73% with Kakwa [keo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari.

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Belanda Bor
[bxb] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Jur River county, Ayo, Bazia, Gitten, Raffili Tirga, and Taban villages; Western Equatoria state: Nagero county, Tambura town, Bangazegino, Komai, and Nagero villages. Population: 8,000 (1983). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: De Bor. Autonym: Di Bor. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Bor.

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Belanda Viri
[bvi] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Jur River county, Bagari, Bringi, Dadu, Farajallah, Momoyi, Natabo, Ngisa, Ngoku, Ngongba, Ngotakala, and Raffili villages; Raga county, Kuru; Western Equatoria state: Ibba and Tambura counties. Population: 16,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Belanda, Biri, Bviri, Gamba, Gumba, Mbegumba, Mvegumba. Autonym: Viri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri.

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Beli
[blm] Central Equatoria state: Terekeka county; Lakes state: Wulu county, south and west of Rumbek. Population: 65,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: ’Beli, Behli, Beili, Jur Beli. Autonym: Beli. Dialects: Wulu, Bahri Girinti, Sopi (Supi). Lexical similarity: 46% with Jur Modo [bex], 45% with Bongo [bot], 41% with Mo’da [gbn] and Morokodo [mgc], 39% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli.

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Boguru
[bqu] Western Equatoria state: Ibba and Yambio counties, Baambu, Bagasu, Ibba, and Mariko villages. Population: No known L1 speakers in South Sudan. Last speaker in South Sudan died in 2011 (2011 A. Persson). Ethnic population: 500. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Buguru, Kinsong, Kogoro, Koguru. Dialects: Boguru, Bukur (Bukum, Bukuru). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.302).

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Bongo
[bot] Warrap state: Tonj South county, Aguka and Busere villages; Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Jur and Wau Rivers counties. Population: 10,100 (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bungu, Dor. Dialects: Bungo, Busere Bongo, Tonj Bongo. Slight dialect differences between River Busere variety, with Zande influence, and that around Tonj. Bungo dialect has minor differences. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Bongo.

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Didinga
[did] Eastern Equatoria state: Budi county, Chukudum area; Didinga hills. Population: 60,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: ’Di’dinga, Lango, Toi, Xaroxa. Autonym: Dĩdĩnga. Dialects: None known. Ethnic groups: Chukudum and Lowudo. Slight differences in speech between Chukudum and Lowudo, apparently mainly phonetic. Lexical similarity: 83% with Narim [loh], 71% with Murle [mur]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim.

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Dinka
[din] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,352,120. Includes: Northeastern Dinka [dip], Northwestern Dinka [diw], South Central Dinka [dib], Southeastern Dinka [dks], Southwestern Dinka [dik].

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Dinka, Northeastern
[dip] Jonglei state: Canal/Pigi and Fangak counties; Unity state: Pariang county; Upper Nile state: Baliet, Melut, and Renk counties. Population: 320,000 (1986 UBS). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Padang, White Nile Dinka. Autonym: Thuɔŋjäŋ. Dialects: Abiliang (Akoon, Bawom, Bowom, Dinka Ibrahim), Dongjol, Luac (Luaic), Ngok-Sobat (Jok, Ngork), Ageer (Abuya, Ageir, Ager, Beer, Niel, Nyel, Paloc, Paloic), Rut, Thoi. Lexical similarity: 92% with Northwestern Dinka [diw], 88% with Southwestern Dinka [dik] and Southeastern Dinka [dks], 86% with South Central Dinka [dib]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, Northwestern
[diw] Unity state: Abiemnhom and Pariang counties; into Abyei area. Population: 80,000 (1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Alor, Ngok-Kordofan, Pan Aru, Ruweng. Lexical similarity: 88% with Southwestern Dinka [dik] and Southeastern Dinka [dks], 84% with South Central Dinka [dib]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, South Central
[dib] Mainly Lakes state, except Wulu county southwest; Unity and Warrap states: small border areas. Population: 250000 Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Central Dinka. Autonym: Thuɔŋjäŋ. Dialects: Aliap (Aker, Aliab, Thany), Ciec (Ador, Ajak, Chiech, Cic, Ciem, Kwac), Gok (Cok, Gauk), Agar. Gok dialect is influenced by Southwestern Dinka [dik]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Southeastern Dinka [dks]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, Southeastern
[dks] Jonglei state: Bor South and Twic East counties. Population: 250,000 in South Sudan. Total users in all countries: 252,120. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Cam, Eastern Dinka. Autonym: Thuɔŋjäŋ. Dialects: Bor (Bor Gok), Athoc (Athoic, Atoc, Bor Athoic, Borathoi), Ghol, Nyarweng (Narreweng, Nyarueng), Tuic (Twi). A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, Southwestern
[dik] Bahr al Ghazal and Warrap states; Lakes state: Cueibet and Rumbek counties, Jur river area. Population: 450,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Western Dinka. Autonym: Thuɔŋjäŋ. Dialects: Rek (Raik), Abiem (Ajong Dit, Ajong Thi, Akany Kok, Akern Jok, Anei, Apuoth, Apwoth), Aguok (Agwok), Apuk, Awan, Lau, Luac, Malual (Atoktou, Duliit, Korok, Makem, Malwal, Peth), Paliet (Ajak, Baliet, Bon Shwai, Buoncwai, Bwoncwai, Kondair, Kongder, Tainbour, Thany Bur), Palioupiny (Akjuet, Akwang, Ayat, Cimel, Gomjuer, Palioping), Tuic (Adhiang, Amiol, Nyang, Thon, Twic, Twich, Twij). Luac dialect is different from Luac dialect in Northeastern Dinka [dip]. Lexical similarity: 89% with South Central Dinka [dib], 90% with Southeastern Dinka [dks]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dongotono
[ddd] Eastern Equatoria state: Ikotos county, Ikotos division; Lomohidang division, Chakari and Isoke villages. Population: 5,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: May be a separate language or dialect of Lango [lno]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Otuho [lot]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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English
[eng] Widespread. Population: Almost no L1 speakers. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2011, Constitution, Article 6.2). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Feroge
[fer] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Kapalala east of Raga. Population: 8,000 (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Feroghe, Ferroge, Kalige, Kaligi, Kalike, Kaliki. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya.

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Scattered, in Western Bahr al Ghazal state. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern.

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Gbaya
[krs] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Raga and north through Katta, Boro and Kosho to Kafia Kingi, south of Radom National Park. Population: 20,000 in South Sudan, all users. L1 users: 16,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL). L2 users: 4,000. Total users in all countries: 20,000 (as L1: 16,000; as L2: 4,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Kpala, Kpara, Kparla, Kredj, Kreich, Kreish, Kresh. Autonym: gbäyä. Dialects: Naka (Kresh-Boro), Gbaya-Ndogo (Kresh-Ndogo), Gbaya-Ngbongbo (Kresh-Hofra), Gbaya-Gboko, Orlo (Woro), Gbaya-Dara, Dongo. 8 tribes and dialects. Gbaya-Ndogo is prestigious and understood by all. Naka is largest and also well understood. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh.

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Homa
[hom] Gbudwe state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died by 1975. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.304).

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Indri
[idr] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Raga county, Sabil Abu Zalah area. Population: 700 Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Yanderika, Yandirika. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo.

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Jumjum
[jum] Upper Nile state: northeast Mabaan county, Sudan border area. Population: Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berin, Olga, Wadega, Wadkai. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan.

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Jur Modo
[bex] Western Equatoria state: Mvolo county. Population: 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Jur, Jur Mödö. Autonym: Mödö. Dialects: Lori, Modo (Jur Modo, Modo Lali), Wira, Wetu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli.

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Kacipo-Balesi
[koe] Eastern Equatoria state: northwest corner; Jonglei state: Pibor county, Mewun, Rumeat, and Upper Boma villages on Boma plateau near Ethiopia border. Population: 5,000 in South Sudan (2010 SIL). Almost all monolingual. Total users in all countries: 7,360. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baale. Autonym: Kacipo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–54% with Murle [mur], 35% with Mursi [muz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi.

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Kakwa
[keo] Central Equatoria state: Yei county. Population: 40,000 in South Sudan (1978). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bari Kakwa, Kakua, Kakwak, Kwakwak. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari.

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Keliko
[kbo] Central Equatoria state: Morobo county. Population: 30,000 in South Sudan (2018 SIL). Total users in all countries: 42,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaliko. Autonym: Kẹ̃lị̃kọ́. Dialects: Eastern Keliko, Western Keliko. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Komo
[xom] Upper Nile state: Longochuk and Maiwut counties, on Ethiopia border. Population: Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aru, Koma, Tta Komo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Lango
[lno] Eastern Equatoria state: Ikotos county, Ikotos and Lomohidong divisions, Kidepo and Ludwera (Logir dialect); Ikotos division between Ikotos and Chukudum (Logire dialect); Ikotos and Kikire (Lokwaa dialect); Losite division, Lofos and Lotome (Lorwama dialect); Losite division, Bira (Ketebo dialect). Population: 38,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langgo. Dialects: Madial Lorwama (Okolie), Logir, Lokwaa, Ketebo, Logire (Imotong). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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Lokoya
[lky] Central Equatoria state: Juba county, Liria and Ngangala; Eastern Equatoria state: Lafon county, Longairo and Okaru areas. Population: 12,400. No monolinguals. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ellyria, Koyo, Loirya, Lokoiya, Lokoja, Loquia, Lowoi, Oirya, Owoi, Oxoriok. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Otuho [lot], 57% with Lopit [lpx], 56% with Dongotono [ddd]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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Lopit
[lpx] Eastern Equatoria state: Lafon county, north end of Lopit Hills. Population: 50,000 (1995 S. Randal). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lafiit, Lafit, Lafite, Lofit, Lopid, Loppit. Dialects: Lolongo, Logonowati, Mura, Iboni. Lexical similarity: 63% with Otuho [lot]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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Luwo
[lwo] Warrap state: Gogrial East, Gogrial West, and Tonj North counties; Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Jur River and Wau counties. Population: 80,000 (1983 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Dhe Luwo, Dhe Lwo, Dheluwo, Giur, Jo Lwo, Jur, Jur Luo, Jur Luwo, Jur Lwo, Luo, Lwo, dhɛ luuhɔ. Autonym: dhe Luuo. Dialects: None known. Different from Lango (Lwo) [laj] of Uganda, or Dholuo [luo] of Kenya and Luo [luo] of Tanzania, but related. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Jur.

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Mabaan
[mfz] Upper Nile state: Mabaan county. Population: 90,000 (2017 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Barga, Gura, Ma Baan, Maaban, Maban, Meban, Southern Burun, Tonko, Tungan, Ulu. Dialects: Partially intelligible with some southern dialects of Burun [bdi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan.

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Ma’di
[mhi] Central Equatoria state: Juba country; Eastern Equatoria state: Naguri county. Population: 18,000 in South Sudan (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ma’adi, Ma’diti, Mãꞌdí. Dialects: Pandikeri, Lokai, Burulo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern.

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Mandari
[mqu] Central Equatoria state: Terakeka county, both sides of the Nile; Western Equatoria state: small area in Mvolo county. Population: 70,000 (2014 T. Stirtz). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chir, Kir, Mondari, Shir. Autonym: Mundari. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Bari [bfa]. Bari dialects: 75% with Nyanggwara, 71% with Ngyepu, 70% with Pöjulu, 66% with Kuku; 61% with Kakwa [keo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari.

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Mangayat
[myj] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Zakka, 30 km southeast of Raga on road to Sopo. Population: 400 (1987 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bug, Buga, Mangaya, Mongaiyat. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya.

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Mittu
[mwu] Gogrial state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker survived into the 1940s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wetu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli.

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Mo’da
[gbn] Lakes state: Wulu county, Dokoo and Wako; Western Equatoria state: Juba and Mvolo counties. Population: 600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gbara, Gberi, Gweri, Muda. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Morokodo [mgc], 58% with Jur Modo [bex], 41% with Beli [blm], 49% with Bongo [bot], 38% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da.

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Morokodo
[mgc] Western Equatoria state: Maridi, north Mundri West counties, south Mvolo county. Population: 50,000 (2011 A. Persson). 280 Biti (2011 A. Persson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Ma’di. Dialects: Biti, Ma’du, Morokodo. Lexical similarity: 63% with Jur Modo [bex], 41% with Beli [blm], 45% with Bongo [bot], 43% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da.

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Moru
[mgd] Western Equatoria state: Mundri East and Mundri West counties. Population: 70,000 (1982 SIL). 1,200 Agi, 2,500 Andri, 5,000 Kadiro, 9,000 Miza, 400 Wa’di. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Autonym: Kala Moru. Dialects: Agi, Andri, ’Bali’ba, Kadiro, Lakama’di, Miza, Wa’di. Andri and ’Bali’ba dialects are similar, Kadiro and Lakama’di are nearly identical. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Northern.

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Mündü
[muh] Maridi state: Maridi county, south and southeast of Maridi; Yei River state: northwest Yei county. Population: 23,000 in South Sudan. Total users in all countries: 25,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mondo, Mondu, Mountou, Mundo. Autonym: Mündü. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: close with Mayogo [mdm] and Bangba [bbe] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mundu.

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Murle
[mur] Jonglei state: Bor and Pibor counties. Population: 60,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adkibba, Agiba, Ajibba, Beir, Merule, Mourle, Murelei, Murlɛ, Murule. Autonym: Murleye. Dialects: Ethnic subgroups: Lotilla, Boma, and Olam (Ngalam). Maacir may be a dialect or ethnic group. Lexical similarity: 74% with Narim [loh], 71% with Didinga [did]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Murle.

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Narim
[loh] Eastern Equatoria state: north Budi county, 10 villages. Population: 3,620 (Fukui 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lariim, Larim, Lariminit, Larimo, Longarim, Nariim. Autonym: Boya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Murle [mur], 83% with Didinga [did]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim.

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Ndogo
[ndz] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Wau county, about 10 villages on Wau-Deim Zubeir road between Mboro and Kpango rivers; Western Equatoria state: north of Tembura. Population: 20,000 (2011 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Autonym: Co Ndogo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere.

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Njalgulgule
[njl] Northern Bahr al Ghazal state: Aweil county; Western Bahr al Ghazal state: northwest of Raga, Boro and Gossinga villages. Population: 900 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bege, Begi, Beko, Ngulgule, Njangulgule, Nyolge, Nyoolne. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju.

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Nuer
[nus] Jonglei state: north of a Jonglei-to-Pibor Post line; Unity state: south of Bentin town; Upper Nile state: Baliet, Lukapin/Nasir, and Ulang counties; small border areas in Lakes, Northern Bahr al Ghazal, and Warrap states. Population: 740,000 in South Sudan (1982). 2,940 Western Jikany, 12,500 Lou, 1,100 Nyuong, 2,500 Thiang, 5,900 Bul, 2,400 Jagai, 6,700 Laak, 4,900 Leik, 1,600 Door, 17,600 Eastern Jikany (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Total users in all countries: 896,280 (as L1: 895,160; as L2: 1,120). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Naadh. Autonym: Naath. Dialects: Dor (Door), Eastern Jikany (Jekaing, Jikain), Abigar, Western Jikany, Cien, Thognaath (Thok Nath), Lou (Lau), Nyuong, Thiang (Bul, Gawaar, Jagai, Laak, Leik). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer.

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Nyamusa-Molo
[nwm] Central Equatoria state: Terakeka county border areas; Western Equatoria state: southeast Mvolo county, Lesi area. Population: 1,630 (2011 R. Abraham). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Nyamusa, Molo. Lexical similarity: 84% with Nyamusa and Molo dialects, 70%–75% with Jur Modo [bex] dialect cluster. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da.

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Olu’bo
[lul] Central Equatoria state: Juba county, southeast of Juba, Lulba hills, main town is Lokiliri; Eastern Equatoria state. Population: 15,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lolubo, Luluba, Lulubo, Olubogo, Oluboti, Ondoe. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern.

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Otuho
[lot] Eastern Equatoria state: Ikotos, Magwi, and Torit counties. Population: 135,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 2,500 Koriot, 1,000 Lomya. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Latooka, Lattuka, Latuka, Latuko, Lotuho, Lotuka, Lotuko, Lotuxo, Olotorit, Otuxo. Autonym: Otuho. Dialects: Koriok, Logiri (Logir), Lomya (Lomia), Lorwama, Lowudo (Lauda, Loudo), Logotok. Logiri and Lorwama may be dialects of Lango [lno], not Otuho. Lexical similarity: 64% with Lokoya [lky], 63% with Lopit [lpx], 60% with Dongotono [ddd]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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Päri
[lkr] Eastern Equatoria state: Lafon county, Angulumeere, Bura, Jebel Lafon, Kor, Pucwaa, Pugari, and Wiatuo villages. Population: 28,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lokoro, Pari. Autonym: Dhi-Pari. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Unclassified.

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Reel
[atu] Lakes state: south Yirol West county. Population: 50,000 (1998). The Kuek and Jikeyi have many monolinguals and are regarded as having the purest form of the language (SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Atuot, Atwot, Thok Cieng Reel. Autonym: Thok Reel. Dialects: Cieng Luai, Cieng Nhyam. Lexical similarity 77% with Nuer [nus]; 49% with Dinka languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer.

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Shilluk
[shk] Upper Nile state: Fashoda, Malakal, Manyo, and Panyikang counties. Population: 175,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chulla, Dhocolo, Shulla. Autonym: Colo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 60% with Anuak [anu], Pari [lkr], and Luwo [lwo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Shilluk.

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T’apo
[lgn] Upper Nile state: Maiwut and Nasir counties, Kigile and Maiwut areas. Longachuk county, Daga river area, Paitath and Tedibi villages (Buldit dialect). Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ansita, Ciita, Cita, Kina, Kwina, Opo, Opo-Shita, Opuo, Opuuo, Po, Pur, Shita, Shitta, “Langa” (pej.). Dialects: Buldit (Barun, Baruun), Kusgilo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Tennet
[tex] Eastern Equatoria state: Lafon county, Arilo division, Dorik, Lomorotok, Longilayo, and Lovirang villages. Population: 10,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tenet. Autonym: Tennette. Dialects: None known. Some intelligibility with Murle [mur], Narim [loh], and Didinga [did] (in descending order). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Tennet.

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Thuri
[thu] Northern Bahr al Ghazal state: Aweil Centre county, Bar-Mayen and Nyabulo; Raga county, east of Deim Zubeir on roads to Wau; Lol river west of Marial-Bai. Population: 6,600 (Tucker and Bryan 1956). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dhe Thuri, Jo Thuri, Shatt, Wada Thuri. Dialects: Bodho (Dembo, Demen, Dhe Boodho, Dombo), Colo (Dhe Colo, Jo Colo, Jur Shol), Manangeer (Jur Manangeer). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Thuri.

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Togoyo
[tgy] Lol state: Raga area. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died in the mid 1980s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Togoy. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo.

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Toposa
[toq] Eastern Equatoria state: Kapoeta North, Kapoeta South and Kapoeta East counties; along Singaita and Lokalyen rivers. Population: 100,000 (2000 M. Schroeder). Most are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akara, Kare, Kumi, Taposa, Topotha. Autonym: ŋatoposa. Dialects: Eastern Toposa, Western Toposa, Jiye. Inherently intelligible with Nyangatom [nnj], Karamojong [kdj], and Turkana [tuv], but each has strong ethnic attitudes. Limited intelligibility of Teso [teo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana.

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Uduk
[udu] Upper Nile state: Mabaan county, on eastern border with Sudan. Population: 22,000 in Sudan and South Sudan (split between the 2 not known). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan, Twampa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Yulu
[yul] Western Bahr al Ghazal state: Raga county; Menangba, 50 km west of Raga (Binga dialect); Khor Buga, 5 km west of Raga (Yulu dialect). Population: 3,000 in South Sudan (1987 SIL). Population is total for both Sudan and South Sudan. 2,000 Yulu, 1,000 Binga. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Youlou. Dialects: Yulu, Binga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara.

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Zande
[zne] Western Equatoria state: Ezo, Ibba, Nagero, Nzara, Tambura, and Yambio counties; parts of Maridi county. Population: 450,000 in South Sudan, all users. L1 users: 350,000 in South Sudan (1982 SIL). L2 users: 100,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). LWC across Gbudwe and Tambura states, for church, market, and media domains. Regional language chosen for development by Rejaf Conference 1928. Alternate Names: Azande, Badjande, Pazande, Sande, Zandi. Dialects: Dio, Makaraka (Odio). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara.

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