South Sudan

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Acholi
[ach] Imatong state: Magwi and Torit counties, Acholi hills. 27,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acoli, Acooli, Akoli, Atscholi, Dok Acoli, Gang, Log Acoli, Lwo, Shuli. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi.

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Aja
[aja] Lol state: Kparakpara just west of Raga. 200 (1993 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Adja, Ajja. Dialects: None known. Consider themselves a Kresh tribe, but their language is not intelligible to the Kresh; nearer to Banda in vocabulary and to Kresh [krs] in structure (Santandrea). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh.

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Anuak
[anu] Akobo state: Akobo county; Boma state: Pochalla county. 52,000 (1991 UBS). Total users in all countries: 144,710 (as L1: 142,600; as L2: 2,110). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anyuak, Anywa, Anywaa, Anywak, Dha Anywak, Dho Anywaa, Jambo, Nuro, dho-Anywaa. Autonym: Dha Anywaa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Acholi [ach] and Luo languages of Uganda than to Shilluk [shk]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Scattered. 3,130,000 in South Sudan (2016 SIL), all users. Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Arabic, Sudanese Creole
[pga] Amadi, Gbudwe, Imatong, Jubek, Kapoeta, Maridi, Tambura, Terekeka, and Yei River states; widespread, into northern states. 820,000, all users. L1 users: 20,000 (1987). With the rapidly changing demographic situation it is very difficult to know the number of L1 or L2 speakers and whether these numbers are increasing or decreasing. L2 users: 800,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as L1 or L2 in Juba and other towns in Greater Equatoria region. As a creole and lingua franca, this language varies enormously in form from place to place, and from speaker to speaker (depending on subject matter and interlocuter), and is changing rapidly. Alternate Names: Juba Arabic, Pidgin Arabic, Southern Sudan Arabic. Autonym: Arabi Juba. Dialects: Dialectal variations in different areas due to different local vernaculars. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Creole, Arabic based. Comments: The sociolinguistic situation is changing rapidly with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of South Sudanese from the North, speaking Sudanese Colloquial Arabic [apd], and others from East Africa and the rest of the world, mainly speaking English [eng].

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Arabic, Sudanese Spoken
[apd] Widespread. A reasonable population estimate cannot be given at this time because of the recent increase in population of South Sudan by those arriving from Sudan. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Used as a lingua franca in northern South Sudan and now widely spoken by hundreds of thousands of South Sudanese arriving from the North following South Sudan’s independence. Alternate Names: Arabi, Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: The situation of this language is currently very fluid (2011).

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Avokaya
[avu] Amadi state: Mundri West; Maridi state: Maridi county; Yei River state: Yei county. Sudan-Congo border south of Maridi (Ajugu dialect); mainly between Naam and Olo rivers and east (Ojila dialect). 40,000 (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 65,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abukeia, Avukaya. Autonym: Ãvõkáyã. Dialects: Ojila (Odzila, Odziliwa), Ajugu (Adjiga, Agamoru, Ojiga). Avokaya Pur dialect near Faradje (in Democratic Republic of Congo) is reportedly more similar to Logo [log] than to the Ojila dialect of Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Bai
[bdj] Lol state: Wau-Deim Zubeir road; possibly 2 villages north of Tembura. 2,500 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri.

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Baka
[bdh] Maridi state: Maridi county, south and west of Maridi; Yei River state: Yei county, northwest of Yei. 25,000 (1993 UBS). Total users in all countries: 26,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Tara Baka. Autonym: baká e. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka. Comments: Different from, and unrelated to, Baka [bkc] of Cameroon.

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Banda, Mid-Southern
[bjo] Lol state: Raga county, Banda Linda and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages. 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Dukpu, Wasa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Banda, Togbo-Vara
[tor] Lol state: Raga county, southeast of Sopo town. 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Togbo (Tagbo, Tohgboh). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara. Comments: Non-indigenous. View themselves as very different from Mono [mnh]. Different from Tagbu [tbm] (Tagbo, Tagba) of Democratic Republic of the Congo in Sere group. Not intelligible of other Banda languages or dialects in South Sudan.

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Banda, West Central
[bbp] Lol state: Raga country, between Mboro and Wau. 3,000 (1982). 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Golo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, West Central. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Banda-Banda
[bpd] Lol state: Raga county, Banda Linda, and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages. 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Govoro (Govhoroh), Vidiri (Mvedere, Vadara, Vidri, Vodere), Wundu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Banda. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Banda-Mbrès
[bqk] Lol state: Raga county, Banda Linda and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages. 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Banda of Mbrès, Banda-Mbre. Dialects: Buka (Bouka), Mbre (Mbele, Mbere), Moruba (Maraba, Morouba), Sabanga (Sangbanga), Wada (Ouadda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Mbres. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Banda-Ndélé
[bfl] Lol state: Raga county, Banda Linda and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages. 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Banda of Ndélé, Nyele. Dialects: Junguru (Djingburu, Nguru), Tangbago (Tambaggo, Tambolo, Tangago, Tombaggo), Banda-Kpaya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Ndele. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Bari
[bfa] Jubek state: Juba county; Yei River state: Kajo Keji and Lainya counties; both banks of the Nile, south of Terakeka on west bank, Mongalla on east bank, to Kajo Kaji escarpment. 595,000 in South Sudan, all users. L1 users: 420,000 (2000). L2 users: 175,000 (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 655,000 (as L1: 480,000; as L2: 175,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Regional language chosen for development by Rejaf Conference 1928. Alternate Names: Beri. Autonym: Kuku. Dialects: Bari, Kuku, Nyangbara (Nyambara, Nyangwara), Nyepu (Ngyepu, Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho), Pöjulu (Fadjulu, Fajelu, Madi, Pajulu), Ligo (Liggo). Lexical similarity: 86% with Bari and Nyepu dialects, 85% with Bari and Pöjulu, 81% with Bari and Kuku, 80% with Bari and Nyangbara, 71% with Mundari [mqu], 73% with Kakwa [keo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari. Comments: Ethnic Bari in Democratic Republic of the Congo now speak a dialect of Logo [log] and not Bari.

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Belanda Bor
[bxb] Tambura state: Nagero county, Tambura town, Bangazegino, Komai, and Nagero villages; Wau state: Jur River county, Ayo, Bazia, Gitten, Raffili Tirga, and Taban villages. 8,000 (1983). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: De Bor. Autonym: Di Bor. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Bor. Comments: Much intermarriage with the Belanda Viri [bvi].

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Belanda Viri
[bvi] Lol state: Raga county, Kuru; Maridi state: Ibba county; Tambura state: Tambura county; Wau state: Jur River county, Bagari, Bringi, Dadu, Farajallah, Momoyi, Natabo, Ngisa, Ngoku, Ngongba, Ngotakala, and Raffili villages. 16,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Belanda, Biri, Bviri, Gamba, Gumba, Mbegumba, Mvegumba. Autonym: Viri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri.

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Beli
[blm] Terekeka state: Terekeka county; Western Lake state: Wulu county, south and west of Rumbek. 65,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: ’Beli, Behli, Beili, Jur Beli. Autonym: Beli. Dialects: Wulu, Bahri Girinti, Sopi (Supi). Lexical similarity: 46% with Jur Modo [bex], 45% with Bongo [bot], 41% with Mo’da [gbn] and Morokodo [mgc], 39% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli.

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Boguru
[bqu] Gbudwe state: Yambio county; Maridi state: Ibba county, Baambu, Bagasu, Ibba, and Mariko villages. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 500. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Buguru, Kinsong, Kogoro, Koguru. Dialects: Boguru, Bukur (Bukum, Bukuru). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.302). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Bongo
[bot] Tonj state: Tonj South county, Aguka and Busere villages; Wau state: Jur River county. 10,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bungu, Dor. Dialects: Bungo, Busere Bongo, Tonj Bongo. Slight dialect differences between River Busere variety, with Zande influence, and that around Tonj. Bungo dialect has minor differences. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Bongo. Comments: Different from Bongo, a dialect of Mid-Southern Banda [bjo] of Central African Republic.

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Didinga
[did] Kapoeta state: Budi county, Chukudum area; Didinga hills. 60,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: ’Di’dinga, Lango, Toi, Xaroxa. Autonym: Dĩdĩnga. Dialects: None known. Ethnic groups: Chukudum and Lowudo. Slight differences in speech between Chukudum and Lowudo, apparently mainly phonetic. Lexical similarity: 83% with Narim [loh], 71% with Murle [mur]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim. Comments: Different from Lango [lno] which is related to Otuho [lot].

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Dinka
[din] Population total all languages: 1,352,120 Status: Comments: Includes: Northeastern Dinka [dip], Northwestern Dinka [diw], South Central Dinka [dib], Southeastern Dinka [dks], Southwestern Dinka [dik].

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Dinka, Northeastern
[dip] Central Upper Nile state: Baliet and Pigi counties; Fangak state: Fangak county; Northern Upper Nile state: Melut and Renk counties; Ruweng state: Panriang county. 320,000 (1986 UBS). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Padang, White Nile Dinka. Autonym: Thuɔŋjäŋ. Dialects: Abiliang (Akoon, Bawom, Bowom, Dinka Ibrahim), Dongjol, Luac (Luaic), Ngok-Sobat (Jok, Ngork), Ageer (Abuya, Ageir, Ager, Beer, Niel, Nyel, Paloc, Paloic), Rut, Thoi. Lexical similarity: 92% with Northwestern Dinka [diw], 88% with Southwestern Dinka [dik] and Southeastern Dinka [dks], 86% with South Central Dinka [dib]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, Northwestern
[diw] Ruweng state: Abiemnhom and Pariang counties; into Abyei area. 80,000 (1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Alor, Ngok-Kordofan, Pan Aru, Ruweng. Lexical similarity: 88% with Southwestern Dinka [dik] and Southeastern Dinka [dks], 84% with South Central Dinka [dib]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, South Central
[dib] Mainly Western Lake and Eastern Lake states, except Wulu county southwest; Gogrial, Northern Liech, and Ruweng states: small border areas. 250,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Central Dinka. Autonym: Thuɔŋjäŋ. Dialects: Aliap (Aker, Aliab, Thany), Ciec (Ador, Ajak, Chiech, Cic, Ciem, Kwac), Gok (Cok, Gauk), Agar. Gok dialect is influenced by Southwestern Dinka [dik]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Southeastern Dinka [dks]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, Southeastern
[dks] Jonglei state: Bor South and Twic East counties. 250,000. Total users in all countries: 252,120. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Cam, Eastern Dinka. Autonym: Thuɔŋjäŋ. Dialects: Bor (Bor Gok), Athoc (Athoic, Atoc, Bor Athoic, Borathoi), Ghol, Nyarweng (Narreweng, Nyarueng), Tuic (Twi). A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, Southwestern
[dik] Aweil, Aweil East, Gogrial, Lol, and Twic, and Wau states; Gok state: Cueibet county; Western Lake state: Rumbek county, Jur river area. 450,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Western Dinka. Autonym: Thuɔŋjäŋ. Dialects: Rek (Raik), Abiem (Ajong Dit, Ajong Thi, Akany Kok, Akern Jok, Anei, Apuoth, Apwoth), Aguok (Agwok), Apuk, Awan, Lau, Luac, Malual (Atoktou, Duliit, Korok, Makem, Malwal, Peth), Paliet (Ajak, Baliet, Bon Shwai, Buoncwai, Bwoncwai, Kondair, Kongder, Tainbour, Thany Bur), Palioupiny (Akjuet, Akwang, Ayat, Cimel, Gomjuer, Palioping), Tuic (Adhiang, Amiol, Nyang, Thon, Twic, Twich, Twij). Luac dialect is different from Luac dialect in Northeastern Dinka [dip]. Lexical similarity: 89% with South Central Dinka [dib], 90% with Southeastern Dinka [dks]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dongotono
[ddd] Imatong state: Ikotos county, Ikotos division; Lomohidang division, Chakari and Isoke villages. 5,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: May be a separate language or dialect of Lango [lno]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Otuho [lot]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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English
[eng] Widespread. Almost no L1 speakers. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Feroge
[fer] Lol state: Kapalala east of Raga. 8,000 (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Feroghe, Ferroge, Kalige, Kaligi, Kalike, Kaliki. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya.

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Scattered, in Lol state. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Migrating groups of Ambororo cattle herders.

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Gbaya
[krs] Lol state: Raga and north through Katta, Boro and Kosho to Kafia Kingi, south of Radom National Park. 20,000 in South Sudan, all users. L1 users: 16,000 (2013 SIL). L2 users: 4,000. Total users in all countries: 20,000 (as L1: 16,000; as L2: 4,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Kpala, Kpara, Kparla, Kredj, Kreich, Kreish, Kresh. Autonym: gbäyä. Dialects: Naka (Kresh-Boro), Gbaya-Ndogo (Kresh-Ndogo), Gbaya-Ngbongbo (Kresh-Hofra), Gbaya-Gboko, Orlo (Woro), Gbaya-Dara, Dongo. 8 tribes and dialects. Gbaya-Ndogo is prestigious and understood by all. Naka is largest and also well understood. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh. Comments: Different from Gbaya languages in the Niger-Congo family.

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Homa
[hom] Gbudwe state. No known L1 speakers. No remaining speakers as of 1975. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.304).

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Indri
[idr] Lol state: Raga county, Sabil Abu Zalah area. 700. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Yanderika, Yandirika. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo.

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Jumjum
[jum] Northern Upper Nile state: northeast Mabaan county, Sudan border area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berin, Olga, Wadega, Wadkai. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan.

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Jur Modo
[bex] Amadi state: Mvolo county. 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Jur, Jur Mödö. Autonym: Mödö. Dialects: Lori, Modo (Jur Modo, Modo Lali), Wira, Wetu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli.

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Kacipo-Balesi
[koe] Boma state: Pibor county, Mewun, Rumeat, and Upper Boma villages on Boma plateau near Ethiopia border; Kapoeta state: northwest corner. 5,000 (2010 SIL). Almost all monolingual. Total users in all countries: 7,360. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baale. Autonym: Kacipo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–54% with Murle [mur], 35% with Mursi [muz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi.

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Kakwa
[keo] Yei River state: Yei county. 40,000 (1978). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bari Kakwa, Kakua, Kakwak, Kwakwak. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari.

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Keliko
[kbo] Yei River state: Morobo county. 10,000 (1998 SIL). Total users in all countries: 22,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaliko. Autonym: Kẹ̃lị̃kọ́. Dialects: Eastern Keliko, Western Keliko. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Komo
[xom] Maiwut state: Longochuk and Maiwut counties, on Ethiopia border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aru, Koma, Tta Komo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Lango
[lno] Imatong state: Ikotos county, Ikotos and Lomohidong divisions, Kidepo and Ludwera (Logir dialect); Ikotos division between Ikotos and Chukudum (Logire dialect); Ikotos and Kikire (Lokwaa dialect); Losite division, Lofos and Lotome (Lorwama dialect); Losite division, Bira (Ketebo dialect). 38,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langgo. Dialects: Madial Lorwama (Okolie), Logir, Lokwaa, Ketebo, Logire (Imotong). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo. Comments: It is uncertain whether or not the dialects are separate languages. Dongotono [ddd] may be a dialect of this language or a separate language.

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Lokoya
[lky] Jubek state: Juba county, Liria and Ngangala; Imatong state: Lafon county, Longairo and Okaru areas. 12,400. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ellyria, Koyo, Loirya, Lokoiya, Lokoja, Loquia, Lowoi, Oirya, Owoi, Oxoriok. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Otuho [lot], 57% with Lopit [lpx], 56% with Dongotono [ddd]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo. Comments: Ethnic groups: Irya and Owe.

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Lopit
[lpx] Imatong state: Lafon county, north end of Lopit Hills. 50,000 (1995 S. Randal). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lafiit, Lafit, Lafite, Lofit, Lopid, Loppit. Dialects: Lolongo, Logonowati, Mura, Iboni. Lexical similarity: 63% with Otuho [lot]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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Luwo
[lwo] Gogrial state: Gogrial West and Gogrial East counties; Tonj state: Tonj North county; Wau state: Jur River and Wau counties. 80,000 (1983 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Dhe Luwo, Dhe Lwo, Dheluwo, Giur, Jo Lwo, Jur, Jur Luo, Jur Luwo, Jur Lwo, Luo, Lwo, dhɛ luuhɔ. Autonym: dhe Luuo. Dialects: None known. Different from Lango (Lwo) [laj] of Uganda, or Dholuo [luo] of Kenya and Luo [luo] of Tanzania, but related. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Jur.

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Mabaan
[mfz] Northern Upper Nile state: Mabaan county. 90,000 (2017 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Barga, Gura, Ma Baan, Maaban, Maban, Meban, Southern Burun, Tonko, Tungan, Ulu. Dialects: Partially intelligible with some southern dialects of Burun [bdi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan.

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Ma’di
[mhi] Jubek state: Juba county; Tambura state: Nagero county. 18,000 (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ma’adi, Ma’diti. Dialects: Pandikeri, Lokai, Burulo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern.

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Mandari
[mqu] Terekeka state: Terakeka county, both sides of the Nile; Amadi state: small area in Mvolo county. 70,000 (2014 T. Stirtz). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chir, Kir, Mondari, Shir. Autonym: Mundari. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Bari [bfa]. Bari dialects: 75% with Nyanggwara, 71% with Ngyepu, 70% with Pöjulu, 66% with Kuku; 61% with Kakwa [keo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari. Comments: A different language and culture from Bari [bfa]. Ethnic groups: Mondari Boronga, Sere, Bör. Mundari users from the Tali area have difficulty understanding those from other areas.

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Mangayat
[myj] Lol state: Zakka, 30 km southeast of Raga on road to Sopo. 400 (1987 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bug, Buga, Mangaya, Mongaiyat. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya.

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Mittu
[mwu] Gogrial state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli.

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Mo’da
[gbn] Western Lake state: Wulu county, Dokoo and Wako; Jubek state: Juba county; Amadi state: Mvolo county. 600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gbara, Gberi, Gweri, Muda. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Morokodo [mgc], 58% with Jur Modo [bex], 41% with Beli [blm], 49% with Bongo [bot], 38% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da.

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Morokodo
[mgc] Amadi state: north Mundri West county, south Mvolo county; Maridi state: Maridi county. 50,000 (2011 A. Persson). 280 Biti (2011 A. Persson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Ma’di. Dialects: Biti, Ma’du, Morokodo. Lexical similarity: 63% with Jur Modo [bex], 41% with Beli [blm], 45% with Bongo [bot], 43% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da. Comments: The Ma’du dialect may be extinct (1984).

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Moru
[mgd] Amadi state: Mundri East and Mundri West counties. 70,000 (1982 SIL). 1,200 Agi, 2,500 Andri, 5,000 Kadiro, 9,000 Miza, 400 Wa’di. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Autonym: Kala Moru. Dialects: Agi, Andri, ’Bali’ba, Kadiro, Lakama’di, Miza, Wa’di. Andri and ’Bali’ba dialects are similar, Kadiro and Lakama’di are nearly identical. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Northern. Comments: Miza dialect is the written standard.

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Mündü
[muh] Maridi state: Maridi county, south and southeast of Maridi; Yei River state: northwest Yei county. 23,000. Total users in all countries: 25,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mondo, Mondu, Mountou, Mundo. Autonym: Mündü. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: close with Mayogo [mdm] and Bangba [bbe] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mundu.

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Murle
[mur] Boma state: Pibor county; Jonglei state: Bor county. 60,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adkibba, Agiba, Ajibba, Beir, Merule, Mourle, Murelei, Murlɛ, Murule. Autonym: Murleye. Dialects: Ethnic subgroups: Lotilla, Boma, and Olam (Ngalam). Maacir may be a dialect or ethnic group. Lexical similarity: 74% with Narim [loh], 71% with Didinga [did]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Murle. Comments: Taught in churches; most church pastors literate in Murle.

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Narim
[loh] Kapoeta state: north Budi county, 10 villages. 3,620 (Fukui 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lariim, Larim, Lariminit, Larimo, Longarim, Nariim. Autonym: Boya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Murle [mur], 83% with Didinga [did]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim. Comments: Larim is the form preferred by L1 speakers. Longarim is the Didinga name.

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Ndogo
[ndz] Tambura state: north of Tembura; Wau state: Wau county, about 10 villages on Wau-Deim Zubeir road between Mboro and Kpango rivers. 20,000 (2011 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Autonym: Co Ndogo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere. Comments: Gbaya-Ndogo [krs] is a different language.

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Njalgulgule
[njl] Aweil state: Aweil Center county; Lol state: northwest of Raga, Boro and Gossinga villages. 900 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bege, Begi, Beko, Ngulgule, Njangulgule, Nyolge, Nyoolne. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju. Comments: May be the same as Baygo [byg].

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Nuer
[nus] Central Upper Nile state: Baliet county; Fangak, Northern Liech, Ruweng, and Southern Liech states; Jonglei state: north of a Jonglei-to-Pibor Post line; Latjor state: Lukapin/Nasir, and Ulang counties; small border areas in Eastern Lake, Gogrial, Tonj, and Western Lake states. 740,000 (1982). 2,940 Western Jikany, 12,500 Lou, 1,100 Nyuong, 2,500 Thiang, 5,900 Bul, 2,400 Jagai, 6,700 Laak, 4,900 Leik, 1,600 Door, 17,600 Eastern Jikany (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Total users in all countries: 894,120 (as L1: 893,000; as L2: 1,120). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Naadh. Autonym: Naath. Dialects: Dor (Door), Eastern Jikany (Jekaing, Jikain), Abigar, Western Jikany, Cien, Thognaath (Thok Nath), Lou (Lau), Nyuong, Thiang (Bul, Gawaar, Jagai, Laak, Leik). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer.

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Nyamusa-Molo
[nwm] Amadi state: southeast Mvolo county, Lesi area; Terekeka state: Terakeka county border areas. 1,630 (2011 R. Abraham). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Nyamusa, Molo. Lexical similarity: 84% with Nyamusa and Molo dialects, 70%–75% with Jur Modo [bex] dialect cluster. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da.

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Olu’bo
[lul] Jubek state: Juba county, southeast of Juba, Lulba hills, main town is Lokiliri; Imatong state. 15,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lolubo, Luluba, Lulubo, Olubogo, Oluboti, Ondoe. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern.

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Otuho
[lot] Imatong state: Ikotos, Magwi, and Torit counties. 135,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 2,500 Koriot, 1,000 Lomya. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Latooka, Lattuka, Latuka, Latuko, Lotuho, Lotuka, Lotuko, Lotuxo, Olotorit, Otuxo. Autonym: Otuho. Dialects: Koriok, Logiri (Logir), Lomya (Lomia), Lorwama, Lowudo (Lauda, Loudo), Logotok. Logiri and Lorwama may be dialects of Lango [lno], not Otuho. Lexical similarity: 64% with Lokoya [lky], 63% with Lopit [lpx], 60% with Dongotono [ddd]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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Päri
[lkr] Imatong state: Lafon county, Angulumeere, Bura, Jebel Lafon, Kor, Pucwaa, Pugari, and Wiatuo villages. 28,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lokoro, Pari. Autonym: Dhi-Pari. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Unclassified.

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Reel
[atu] Eastern Lake state: south Yirol West county. 50,000 (1998). The Kuek and Jikeyi have many monolinguals and are regarded as having the purest form of the language (SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Atuot, Atwot, Thok Cieng Reel. Autonym: Thok Reel. Dialects: Cieng Luai, Cieng Nhyam. Lexical similarity 77% with Nuer [nus]; 49% with Dinka languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer. Comments: Live among and are culturally Dinka; 100 km from the Nuer, but have common grazing grounds with them. Subtribes: Apak, Luac, Jilek, Jikey (Rorkec), Akot, and Kuek. Cieng Luai dialect spoken by Luac, Jilek, and Akot; Cieng Nhyam spoken by Kuek and Jikeyi.

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Shilluk
[shk] Central Upper Nile state: Malakal and Panyikang counties; Fashoda state: Fashoda and Manyo counties. 175,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chulla, Dhocolo, Shulla. Autonym: Colo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 60% with Anuak [anu], Pari [lkr], and Luwo [lwo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Shilluk. Comments: Taught in churches.

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T’apo
[lgn] Latjor state: Nasir county; Maiwut state: Maiwut county, Kigile and Maiwut areas. Maiwut state: Longachuk county, Daga river area, Paitath and Tedibi villages (Buldit dialect). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ansita, Ciita, Cita, Kina, Kwina, Opo, Opo-Shita, Opuo, Opuuo, Po, Pur, Shita, Shitta, “Langa” (pej.). Dialects: Buldit (Barun, Baruun), Kusgilo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Tennet
[tex] Fangak state; Imatong state: Lafon county, Arilo division, Dorik, Lomorotok, Longilayo, and Lovirang villages. 10,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tenet. Autonym: Tennette. Dialects: None known. Some intelligibility with Murle [mur], Narim [loh], and Didinga [did] (in descending order). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Tennet.

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Thuri
[thu] Aweil state: Aweil Center county, Bar-Mayen and Nyabulo; Lol state: Raga county, east of Deim Zubeir on roads to Wau; Lol river west of Marial-Bai. 6,600 (Tucker and Bryan 1956). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dhe Thuri, Jo Thuri, Shatt, Wada Thuri. Dialects: Bodho (Dembo, Demen, Dhe Boodho, Dombo), Colo (Dhe Colo, Jo Colo, Jur Shol), Manangeer (Jur Manangeer). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Thuri. Comments: Different from Shatt [shj] in the Daju group.

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Togoyo
[tgy] Lol state: Raga area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Togoy. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo.

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Toposa
[toq] Kapoeta state: Kapoeta North, Kapoeta South and Kapoeta East counties; along Singaita and Lokalyen rivers. 100,000 (2000 M. Schroeder). Most are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akara, Kare, Kumi, Taposa, Topotha. Autonym: ŋatoposa. Dialects: Eastern Toposa, Western Toposa, Jiye. Inherently intelligible with Nyangatom [nnj], Karamojong [kdj], and Turkana [tuv], but each has strong ethnic attitudes. Limited intelligibility of Teso [teo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana.

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Uduk
[udu] Northern Upper Nile state: Mabaan county, on eastern border with Sudan. 22,000 in Sudan and South Sudan (split between the 2 not known). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan, Twampa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Yulu
[yul] Lol state: Raga county; Menangba, 50 km west of Raga (Binga dialect); Khor Buga, 5 km west of Raga (Yulu dialect). 3,000 (1987 SIL). Population is total for both Sudan and South Sudan. 2,000 Yulu, 1,000 Binga. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Youlou. Dialects: Yulu, Binga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Zande
[zne] Gbudwe state: Ezo, Nzara, and Yambio counties; Maridi state: Ibba county and parts of Maridi county; Tambura state: Tambura and Nagero counties. 450,000 in South Sudan, all users. L1 users: 350,000 (1982 SIL). L2 users: 100,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). LWC across Gbudwe and Tambura states, for church, market, and media domains. Regional language chosen for development by Rejaf Conference 1928. Alternate Names: Azande, Badjande, Pazande, Sande, Zandi. Dialects: Dio, Makaraka (Odio). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara. Comments: Zande speech is fairly uniform.

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