Syria

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Adyghe
[ady] As Suwayda’ Governorate, Salkhad district; equal-sized area, Dara’a Governorate, Dar’a district. 25,000 in Syria. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adygey, West Circassian Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Arabic, Levantine Bedawi Spoken
[avl] Southwest corner, As Suwayda’ and Dara’a governorates, Hawran region, from the border to within 35 km of Damascus. 70,000 in Syria. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bedawi Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Christian.

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] East, mainly Halab and Ar Raqqah governorates, with Buhayrat al Asad reservoir at center; into Dayr az Zawr Governorate, along the Euphrates; central strip in Hims Governorate; into (east) Idlib and (west) Hamah governorates. 1,800,000 in Syria. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Furati, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic, North Syrian Arabic Dialects: Euphrates Cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim, Christian, Jewish.

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Arabic, Najdi Spoken
[ars] Widespread; eastern Syrian desert. 500,000 in Syria. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bedawi Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Arabic, North Levantine Spoken
[apc] Western Syria, Mediterranean coast; widespread. 8,800,000 in Syria (1991). Population total all countries: 14,761,540. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Lebanese-Syrian Arabic, Levantine Arabic, North Levantine Arabic, Syro-Lebanese Arabic Dialects: There is an urban standard dialect based on Damascus speech. Beiruti dialect well accepted. Aleppo dialect shows Mesopotamian (North Syrian) influence. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Druze, Christian, Jewish, Muslim.

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Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[ayp] Far east, Al Hasakah Governorate, from capital city towards northern border with Turkey. 300,000 in Syria (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Arabic Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 4). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

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Armenian
[hye] Enclaves near rivers, urban centers, Dayr az Zawr and Al Hasakah governorates. 320,000 in Syria (1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Armjanski, Ermenice, Haieren, Somkhuri Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian Comments: Christian.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] North, Al Hasakah Governorate, Khabur river banks, Turkey border, over 30 villages; some also in governorate capital. 30,000 in Syria (1995). Ethnic population: 700,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aisorski, Assyrian, Assyriski, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Hims and Hamah governorates, isolate central enclaves in both. 30,000 in Syria (1961 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani Comments: Ethnonym: Turkmen or Turkomen in Syria and Iraq. Not written in Syria. Muslim.

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Domari
[rmt] Ar Raqqah Governorate; scattered nomadic groups; north, western rural areas; Kurbat dialect: Syria and western Iran. 37,000 in Syria (2005). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Barake, Gypsy, Kurbat, Middle Eastern Romani, Nawar, Tsigene Dialects: Barake, Beirut, Kurbati, Nablos, Nawar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom Comments: Arabic influence. Muslim.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Dimashq Governorate; Damascus, Aleppo, possibly other cities. 39,000 in Syria (2005 Circassian Association). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] Al Hasakah Governorate, area on border northwest of Al Hasakah city; Halab Governorate, north of reservoir along Euphrates; Ar Raqqah Governorate, area surrounding capital; other possible locales: northern Cizire (Qamishlok), Kurd-Dagh (Ciyayê Kurdî, Afrin), Ain-Arab; Allepo, Damascus. 938,000 in Syria (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kurdi, Kurmancî, Kurmanji Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Yezidi.

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Lomavren
[rmi] Al Hasakah Governorate. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Armenian Bosha, Arnebuab Bisa, Bosa, Bosha Classification: Mixed language, Armenian-Romani

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Mlahsö
[lhs] Al Hasakah Governorate, Qamishli town. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1998. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Turoyo [tru]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Comments: A different language from Turoyo [tru], also called Suryoyo.

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Turoyo
[tru] Far northeast corner, Al Hasakah Governorate, Tigris river near Cizre. 7,000 in Syria (1994). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1994). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Surayt, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Comments: Religious capital is Damascus; formerly at Tur ’Abdin, Turkey. Christian (Jacobite).

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Western Neo-Aramaic
[amw] Rif Dimashq Governorate, Al-Qutayfah district; Qalamoun mountains, 50 km north of Damascus, Ma’lula, Bakh’a, and Jubb ’Adin villages. 15,000 (1996). 8,000 in Maaloula. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Loghtha Siryanoytha, Maalula, Neo-Western Aramaic, Siryon Dialects: Bakh’a (Bax’a), Jub-’adin (Jubb ’Adi:n), Ma’lula (Maaloula, Maalula, Ma’lu:la). Little dialect variation. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Western Comments: Christian.

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