Chad

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Amdang
[amj] Batha region: Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer and Haraze Djombo Kibit subprefectures; Ouaddaï region; Wadi Fira region: Biltine department, Biltine subprefecture, Mimi Goz and Mimi Hadjer cantons. 41,100 (2000). Population lower in Wadi Fira (home region) than in Batha and Ouaddaï regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andang, Andangti, Biltine, Mima, Mime, Mimi, Mututu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Fur. Comments: Muslim.

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Arabic, Babalia Creole
[bbz] Hadjer-Lamis region: N’Djamena department, north of Djermaya and between Karal and Tourba. 23 villages. 3,940 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Babalia, Babaliya, Bubalia. Dialects: None known. A creole developed from Chadian Arabic [shu] (90% of the vocabulary) and Berakou [bxv] (Decobert 1977). Babalia shares structural similarities with Juba Arabic [pga]. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Creole, Arabic based. Comments: Original language Berakou [bxv]. Muslim.

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Arabic, Chadian Spoken
[shu] Widespread, center and south. 1,320,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc), increasing. Total users in all countries: 1,633,000 (as L1: 1,563,000; as L2: 70,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Arabe Choa, Chad Arabic, Chadian Arabic, Chowa, L’arabe du Tchad, Shua, Shua Arabic, Shuwa Arabic, Suwa. Dialects: Dialects depend on whether their speakers are sedentary or nomads, rural or urban, and on migration routes. A pidginized variety, commonly called, Bongor Arabic, is spoken as L2 by many in the Mayo-Kebbi and other parts of south Chad. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Shuwa Arabic is the name used in other countries for the dialect near Lake Chad. Muslim.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 9). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Assangori
[sjg] Ouaddaï region: Assoungha department, northwest of Adré and of the Masalit [mls] language area. 23,500 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asong, Assoungor, Asungore, Azanguri, Bognak-Asungorung, Goran, Madungore, Soungor, Sungor. Dialects: Sungor, Walad Dulla. Girga and Walad Dulla are ethnic groups which may or may not speak different dialects. Madungore may be a dialect of Tama [tma]. Lexical similarity: 62%–73% with Tama [tma]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Tama, Tama-Sungor. Comments: Muslim.

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Bagirmi
[bmi] Chari-Baguirmi region: Massenya subprefecture, Massenya area, Bousso subprefecture, Bousso area; Mayo-Kebbi Est and Moyen-Chari regions. Gol: Massenya; Kibar: east of Massenya; Bangri: west of Massenya and along Chari river between Guélendeng and N’Djamena; Dam: along Chari river from Bousso to Guélendeng. 44,800 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Widely spoken as L2 or becoming L1 in neighboring people groups. Alternate Names: Baghirmi, Bagrimma, Baguirme, Baguirmi, Barma, Lis, Lisi, Mbarma, Tar Bagrimma, Tar Barma. Dialects: Gol, Kibar, Bangri, Dam. Many dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi. Comments: Relatively small language used vehicularly in a limited area. Muslim.

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Barein
[bva] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, west (Jalkia), south, southwest (Komi), and east (Sakaya) of Melfi. 4,100 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baraïn, Guilia, Jalkia. Dialects: Jalkia, Guilia, Sakaya (Dagne, Jelkin), Komi. Lexical similarity: 92% between the Jalkia dialect and the Guilia dialect, 70% between the Sakaya dialect and both Jalkia and Guilia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3. Comments: Muslim.

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Bedjond
[bjv] Mandoul region: Mandoul Occidental department, Bediondo area, west of Day [dai] language area; east central Logone Oriental region. 36,000 (Caprile and Fedry 1969). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bediondo, Bediondo Mbai, Bédjonde, Bedjondo, Mbay Bediondo, Mbay Bejondo, Nangnda. Dialects: Bedjond, Bébote, Yom. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: A distinct language from Sar [mwm] or Ngambay [sba].

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Berakou
[bxv] Chari-Baguirmi region: N’Djamena and Bokoro subprefectures. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Babalia, Bubalia. Dialects: Bolo Djarma, Mondogossou, Manawadji, Yiryo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

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Besme
[bes] Tandjilé region: Kélo and Laï subprefectures, Besmé, Bodor, and 3 other villages along Logone river northwest of Lai. 1,230 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beseme, Besemme, Bodor, Hounar, Huner, ’Unar. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Kim [kia]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bidiyo
[bid] Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, south of Mongo and west of Abou Telfane. 14,000 (Jungraithmayr 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bidio, ’Bidio, Bidiya, ’Bidiyo, Bidiyo-Waana, Bidyo. Dialects: Garawgino (Kafila), Jekkino (Kofilo), Bigawguno (Tounkoul), Nalguno (Niergui), ’Oboyguno (Zerli). The first 2 dialects listed are eastern, the others western. Dambiya is probably a Bidiyo dialect instead of a Migaama [mmy] dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1. Comments: Muslim.

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Birgit
[btf] Ouaddaï region: Djourf al Ahmar department, centered in Abgué; Salamat region: Aboudéïa and Barh-Azoum departments; west Sila and south Batha regions. 10,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bergit, Berguid, Birgid. Dialects: Abgue, Eastern Birgit, Duguri, Agrab. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2. Comments: All sources since Greenberg list it as a separate language from other Dangla languages. Different from Birked [brk] (Birgit) of Sudan, a Nilo-Saharan language.

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Bolgo
[bvo] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, east of the Barain, southeast of Melfi. 1,800 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bolgo Dugag (Small Bolgo), Bolgo Kubar (Big Bolgo). Lexical similarity: 68% with the 2 dialects and with Bolgo Dugag and a form of Koke [kou] spoken in Daguéla. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bon Gula
[glc] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Bon and Ibir villages; western Salamat region: border area. 1,200 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bon, Bon Goula, Bun, Êeni, Gula Guera, Poun, Taataal. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 46% with Zan Gula [zna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Boor
[bvf] Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug-Chari department, Bousso subprefecture; Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Sarh subprefecture, Dumraw (Bwara) village on Chari river north bank. 100 (1999 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bwara, Damraw. Dialects: Some have classified it as a dialect of Miltu [mlj]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Miltu [mlj] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2.

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Bua
[bub] Guéra region: Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture; Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Sarh subprefecture, Korbol area and northeast. 7,710 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Ba, Boa, Boua, Bwa. Dialects: Distinct from Niellim [nie], Fania [fni], Tunia [tug], and Day [dai]. Mana, or Kobe may be an alternate name or dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua. Comments: Different from Bua [bww] (Bwa) of Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is Benue-Congo. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Buduma
[bdm] Hadjer-Lamis region: Lake Chad islands and north shore; Lac region: Mamdi department, Bol subprefecture. 51,600 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 54,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boudouma, Yedima, Yedina, Yidana, Yidena. Dialects: Southern Buduma, Northern Buduma. 90% inherent intelligibility between dialects. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Buso
[bso] Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari departement, Bousso subprefecture. 40 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bousso, Busso, Dam de Bousso. Dialects: None known. Not in the Bua group, but Chadic (Boyeldieu 1977). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1.

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Chadian Sign Language
[cds] Scattered. N’Djamena, Sarh, and Moundou. 2,800 (2008 WFD). 2,800 deaf signers out of 7,000 total deaf (2008 WFD). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nigerian Sign Language. Influences from American Sign Language [ase]. Some signs are traditional. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Few interpreters (2008 WFD). Muslim, Christian.

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Dagba
[dgk] Moyen-Chari region: Grande Sido department, Maro and Sido subprefectures, villages Sido, Ngokorio, and Ntilo, Jardin quartier in Sarh. 10,000 in Chad (2007 S. Hossack). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Daju, Dar Daju
[djc] Batha region: southern border; Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, Mongo and Eref area. 34,000 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dadjo, Dadju, Dajo, Dajou, Daju, Daju Mongo, Daju Oum Hadjer, Saaronge. Dialects: Bardangal, Eref, Gadjira. Not inherently intelligible with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Lexical similarity: 64% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju. Comments: Muslim.

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Daju, Dar Sila
[dau] Ouaddaï region: Sila department; Goz-Beïda area and east to Sudan border; Salamat region: Barh Azoum department, camps of internally displaced people. 63,100 in Chad (2000). Total users in all countries: 70,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bokorike, Bokoruge, Dadjo, Dajou, Daju, Sila, Sula. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Dar Daju Daju [djc]. Lexical similarity: 74% with Daju [daj] of Darfur (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Shatt [shj], 57% with Logorik [liu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju. Comments: Muslim.

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Dangaléat
[daa] Possibly Batha region; Guéra region: Guéra department, Bang-bang subprefecture; Western dialect: Korbo area, Central dialect: Barlo, Koubo Adougoul area; Eastern dialect: Korlongo area. 60,000 (2005 SIL), increasing. 45,000 in Dangaléat Canton. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Danal, Dangal, Dangla. Dialects: West Dangaléat (Karbo, Korbo), East Dangaléat, Central Dangaléat. Intelligibility between east and west dialects is low, but central dialect well understood. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Day
[dai] Mandoul region: Barh Sara department (Moïssala), southwest of Sarh; Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department (Sarh). 49,900 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dai. Dialects: Bouna, Bangoul, Ngalo, Takawa-Béngoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Day.

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Dazaga
[dzg] Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Ennedi, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Wadi Fira regions. 487,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 537,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dasa, Daza, Dazza, Gorane. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Tedaga [tuq]. The Azzaga dialect, the speech of the Azza, a caste division, is different from Dazaga. Its relation to Dazaga and speech of the Azza among the Teda is not known. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu. Comments: Muslim.

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Disa
[dsi] Guéra region: Barh Signaka department, Chinguil subprefecture. 2,370 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi. Comments: Related to Gula [glu] (Sara Gula) of Chad.

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Fania
[fni] Guéra region: Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, west of Lake Iro; north of Sarh, Mouraye area, Sengué, Malakonjo, Rim, Sisi, and Karo villages. 1,100 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fagnia, Fana, Fanian, Fanya, Fanyan, Kobe, Mana. Dialects: Northern Fania, Southern Fania. Distinct from Bua [bub]. Lexical similarity: 79% between dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Fongoro
[fgr] Ouaddaï region: Sila department, Fongoro canton; Dar Fongoro area along Sudan border. A few elderly speakers (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gele, Kole. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi. Comments: The tse-tse fly is a problem in the area.

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French
[fra] 3,000 in Chad (1993). L2 users: 1,620,000 in Chad (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 9). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lac Léré department. 218,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Kano-Katsina-Bororro Fulfulde. 152,000 all Fulfulde varieties in Chad. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adamawa Fulani, Biira, Boulbe, Domona, Dzemay, Eastern Fulani, Foulfoulde, Ful, Fula Fulbe, Nagapelta, Palata, Paldena, Paldida, Pelta Hay, Peul, Peulh, Pladina, Pule, Pullo, Sanyo, Taareyo, Zaakosa, Zemay. Dialects: Maroua, Garoua, Ngaoundéré, Kambariire, Nomadic Fulfulde, Bilkire Fulani (Bilkiri). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Fulfulde, Bagirmi
[fui] Chari-Baguirmi region: Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis region: Dababa department, Bokoro subprefecture, between Bokoro and Massenya. 24,000 in Chad. Total users in all countries: 180,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baghirmi Peul, Bagirmi Fula. Dialects: None known. May be similar to Bororo Fulfulde [fuv]; a nomadic group of Mbororo. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern. Comments: Spoken by people of Wodaabe lineage; also in northern Niger, northern Cameroon, Central African Republic. Nomadic. Different from Bagirmi [bmi], which is Nilo-Saharan.

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Fulfulde, Nigerian
[fuv] Chari-Baguirmi region: Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis region: Dagana department, Massakory subprefecture; Kanem region: Kanem department, Rig-Rig subprefecture; possibly Lac Region; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Pala and Léré area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fulbe, Peul. Dialects: Kano-Katsina, Bororro (Ako, Bororo, Mbororo, Nomadic Fulfulde). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Fur
[fvr] Sila region. 1,800 in Chad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: For, Four, Kondjara, Konjara. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Fur. Comments: Several small groups. Muslim.

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Gabri
[gab] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture, northwest of Lai, Dormon and Darbé villages area. 34,400 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabere, Gaberi, Ngabre, Southern Gabri. Dialects: Darbé, Dormon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2. Comments: Dormo and Chiri are Gabri villages, erroneously listed as languages in some sources. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gadang
[gdk] Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, between Mogo and Mbarlé; Somrai area. 2,500 (1997 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Sarua [swy] and Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2.

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Gidar
[gid] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lac Léré department, northwest of Léré. At least 25 villages. 11,700 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Baynawa” (pej.), Gidder, Guidar, Kada. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, C.

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Gor
[gqr] Logone Oriental region: La Pendé department, Bodo center area; Mandoul region. 128,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bodo. Dialects: Bodo, Yamod. Reportedly similar to Bedjond [bjv] and Gor [gqr], with high intelligibility. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: A clear understanding of separate identity from Mango [mge] and Bedjond [bvj]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Goundo
[goy] Tandjilé region: Lai and Kélo subprefectures, Goundo-Bengli, Goundo-Nangom, and Goundo-Yila villages. 30 (1998). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Besmé [bes], 51% with Kim [kia]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim.

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Gula
[glu] Moyen-Chari region: Lac Iro department, Alako and Boum-Kebir subprefectures, southwest of Lake Iro; Guéra Region border area. 10,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bayo, Goula, Sara Goula, Sara Gula. Dialects: Kofoy, Malé, Moufa, Souka, Toussa. Probably related to Disa [dsi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi. Comments: Different from Gula Iro [glj] of Chad, which is Adamawa, and from Gula [kcm] of Central African Republic and Sudan.

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Gula Iro
[glj] Guéra region; Moyen-Chari region: Lac Iro department; Salamat region: Barh Azoum department, Lake Iro, Boum Kabir area. Pongaal dialect: Boum Kabir, Boum Saher, Madjok, Teonen, and Karou; Tiaala dialect: Masidjanga (Cheroba), Bouni, and Kore; Patool dialect: Badi and Foundouk; Korintal dialect: Cheou (Tieou); Tiitaal dialect: west Salamat region. 3,500 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Pongaal, 730 Tiaala, 200 Tiitaal, 350 Patool, 170 Korintal. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goula d’Iro, Goula Iro, Kulaal, Moriil. Dialects: Pongaal (Ponaal), Tiaala, Tiitaal, Patool, Korintal. Not intelligible of Bon Gula [glc] and Zan Gula [zna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua. Comments: Different from Gula [glu] of Chad and Sudan, which is Nilo-Saharan, and from Gula [kcm] of Central African Republic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gulay
[gvl] Logone Oriental (1 canton), Mandoul (6 cantons), Tandjilé (1 canton) regions, between Koumra, Laï, and Doba. 163,000 (1993 census). 23,500 Pen in 26 villages (1995 D. Djarangar). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goulai, Goulaye, Goulei, Gulai, Gulei. Dialects: Gulay, Pen (Peni). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: The Pen do not like to be called Gulay.

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Hausa
[hau] 100,000 in Chad (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Widespread use as L2 in northern Chad. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Herdé
[hed] Mayo-Kebbi Est region; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Mayo-Dallah (Pala) and Lac Léré departments (Léré), Pala and Lamé area; near Pevé [lme] and west of Ngeté [nnn] language areas. 40,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: He’dé, “Kado” (pej.), Ka’do Herdé, Zime, Zime of Pala. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

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Horo
[hor] Moyen-Chari region. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

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Jaya
[jyy] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, 50 km north-northwest of Bitkine. 2,200 (1993 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Naba [mne]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

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Jonkor Bourmataguil
[jeu] Salamat region: Aboudeia department, west of Abou Deia; Guéra region border area; originally centered in Bourmataguil village, now centered in Ader-Ader. 1,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djongor Bourmataguil, Dougne, Karakir. Dialects: Dougne, Musunye. Relationship with other Dangla languages needs investigation, especially Toram [trj] and Mogum [mou]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1. Comments: The name, Jegu has been applied to this language, but Jegu is a dialect of Mogum [mou].

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Kaba
[ksp] Logone Oriental region: La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture, Goré area and southeast. 70,000 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba de Baibokoum, Kaba de Goré, Kaba de Paoua, Kabba, Western Kaba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: Different from Kaba Deme [kwg], Sara Kaba Náà [kwv], Kulfa [kxj], or Laka [lap].

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Kaba Démé, Sara
[kwg] Guéra region; Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh and Lac Iro departments, between Sarh and Kyabé; along Chari river, Bobé, Hélibongo, Banda, Moussafoyo, and Kemata villages. 40,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba ’Dem, Kaba Démé, Kaba Demi, Sara Kaba Dem, Tà Sàra. Dialects: Sime, Mara, Kuruwer (Kuwaré), Boho. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba. Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Kulfa [kxj], Sara Kaba Náà [kwv], or Laka [lap].

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Kaba Naa, Sara
[kwv] Moyen-Chari region: Lac Iro department, centered in Kyabé. Dinje dialect: Kyabé subprefecture, Dindjebo and Dindjekono villages. 35,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). 5,560 in Bale village, 4,940 in Koskabo, 4,550 in Kyabé. Total users in all countries: 39,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dana, Kaba Na, Kaba Naa, Kaba Nar, Na, Sara Kaba. Dialects: Dunje (Dendje, Denje, Dindje, Dinje, Dounje, Sara Dunjo), Na, Mbanga (Banga), Tie (Tiye). Sara Kaba Náà may be the same as Sara Kaba [sbz] of Central African Republic. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba. Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Kaba Deme [kwg], Kulfa [kxj], or Laka [lap].

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Kabalai
[kvf] Tandjilé region: Lai subprefecture, Lai and south on Logone river east bank. 17,900 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gablai, Kaba-Lai, Kabalay, Kabalaye, Keb-Kaye, Lai, Lay. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Nancere [nnc]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2. Comments: Erroneously called Sara or Kaba of Lai.

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Kajakse
[ckq] Sila region: northwest; Ouaddaï region: Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, south and southeast of Am Dam. 10,000 (Bender 1983a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kadjakse, Kajeske, Kawa Tadimini, Kujarke, Mini. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible with Masmaje [mes] and Mubi [mub]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2.

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Kanembu
[kbl] Barh el Gazel region; Hadjer-Lamis region: Dagana department, Massakory subprefecture; Lac and Kanem regions. 680,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kaidi-Kanembu, Kanambu, Kanembou. Dialects: Kanembu, Kanuri, Karkawu, Mando, Nguri. There is a gradual differentiation between dialects of Kanembu and Kanuri [knc]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Ethnic groups: Badé (Badde 2,646), Baribu, Chiroa, Diabu, Galabu, Kadjidi (5,638), Kankena, Kanku, Kenguina (1,944), Koubri (Koubouri 2,817), Maguirmi (1,825), Nguiguim (7,233). Muslim.

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Kanuri, Central
[knc] Chari-Baguirmi, Hadjer-Lamis, Mayo-Kebbi Est regions. 154,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). 34,500 in Chari-Baguirmi and 23,300 in N’Djamena. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Aga, “Baribari” (pej.), “Beriberi” (pej.), Bornouan, Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Kolere, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri. Dialects: Dagara, Kaga (Kagama), Sugurti, Lare, Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Muslim.

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Karang
[kzr] Logone Oriental region: Monts de Lam department, Baibokoum subprefecture, northwest of Baïbokoum: Loumbogo, Lawtiko I, Lawtiko II, and Sarkaluki villages, 2 Sakpu villages. 1,000 in Chad (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Mbum, Kareng, Laka, Lakka, Lakka Mbum, Mbum Bakal, Nzák Kàráng. Dialects: Karang, Sakpu, Ngomi, Mbere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang. Comments: Different from Laka [lap] of Central African Republic and Chad, and from Laka [lak] of Nigeria. Traditional religion.

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Karanga
[kth] Ouaddaï region: Djourf-Al-Ahmar and Ouara departments; Sila and Batha regions; Am Dam area to Abéché, south of the Maba. Bakha are southwest of Am Dam; Karanga and Koniéré are northeast of Am Dam; Kashmere are south of Abéché and north of Karanga dialect area. 10,000 (1999 SIL). 4,700 Karanga and 1,420 Bakha. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kurunga. Dialects: Karanga (Kurunga), Kashmere (Kachmere), Bakha (Bakhat, Baxa, Faala, Fala), Koniéré (Kognere, Konyare, Mooyo, Moyo). Lexical similarity: 73% with Maba [mde], 94% between Karanga and Kashmere dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban. Comments: The 4 dialects are distinct ethnic groups. Muslim.

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Kendeje
[klf] Ouaddaï region: Assoungha and Ouara departments, rural Abéché and Adré subprefectures, northwest of Hadjer Hadid. 1,860 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yaali. Dialects: Yaali, Faranga. Lexical similarity: 89% between dialects with little contact between them. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Kendeje. Comments: Muslim.

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Kenga
[kyq] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, Bitkine area, 52 villages, including Bolongo and Bokiyo. 40,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cenge, Kenge. Dialects: Cenge (Tar Cenge), Banama (Tar Banama), Bidjir, Banala (Tar Banala), Bolong (Tar Bolongo). Lexical similarity: 62% with Jaya [jyy], 81%–93% with the Bolong (Tar Bolongo) dialect. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi. Comments: Some consider Bidjir a distinct language. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kera
[ker] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mont d’Illi department, south of Fianga, near Lake Tikem. 44,500 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 50,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kwang [kvi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3. Comments: Confused with neighboring Tupuri [tui] in some publications.

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Kibet
[kie] Ouaddaï region: Sila department; Salamat region: Barh-Azoum department. Northeast of Am Timan and southwest of Goz Beïda. 18,500 (Bender 1983a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaben, Kabentang, Kibeet, Kibeit. Dialects: Dagel (Daggal), Murru (Mourro, Muro), Kibet. Reportedly similar to Runga [rou]. Not a dialect of Tama [tma] as reported in some sources. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Runga-Kibet. Comments: The area is flooded 6 months each year. Muslim.

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Kim
[kia] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo Boneye department, Eré, Djouman, Kolobo and Kim villages; Tandjilé region. 15,400 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Garap (Éré), Gerep (Djouman, Jumam), Kolop (Kilop, Kolobo), Kosop (Kim, Kwasap). Dialects listed may be closely related languages. Formerly classified as Chadic. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim. Comments: Incorrectly called Masa.

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Kimré
[kqp] Tandjilé region: Tandjile Est department, east of Laï. 20,000 (2007 A. Oumounabidji). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabri-Kimré, Gawra. Dialects: Kimruwa (Kimré, Kim-Ruwa), Buruwa (Bordo). Popular glossonym: Gabri, but it is not intelligible of Gabri [gab]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1.

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Koke
[kou] Guéra region: Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, southeast of Melfi; Daguéla, Sengué, and Djourab village areas. 600 (1993 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Khoke. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Bolgo Dugag [bvo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

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Kujarge
[vkj] Sila region: Dar Fongoro, Jebel Mirra area, 7 villages; scattered in Fur and Sinyar in Sudanese villages along Wadi Salih and Azum rivers. 1,000 (Bender 1983b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Unclassified. Comments: A few groups.

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Kulfa
[kxj] Moyen-Chari region: Kyabé subprefecture, southwest of Lake Iro, centered in Alako and Kirimikoro; some in Guéra region. 7,110 (1993 census). 4,000 Koulfa, 2,200 Kouroumi, 910 Bara (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kaba So” (pej.), Kulfe, Kurmi, Kurumi. Dialects: Bara, Kulfa (Koulfa), Kurumi (Kouroumi). Lexical similarity: 80% with Sara Kaba Náà [kwv]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba. Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Laka [lap], Sara Kaba Deme [kwg], or Sara Kaba Náà [kwv]. They do not perceive themselves as Sara Kaba.

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Kuo
[xuo] Logone Oriental region: Monts de Lam department, Baibokoum subprefecture, near Baibokoum, Pao, and Bouroum cantons. 12,300 in Chad (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 20,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ko, Koh. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karang [kzr] and Nzakambay [nzy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Koh.

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Kwang
[kvi] Chari-Baguirmi region; Mayo-Kebbi Est region; Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department; north of Lai, east of Bongor, southwest of Bousso. Mobou dialect: Mobou; Aloa dialect: Mogo. 16,800 (1993 census). 10,000 or more Kwang, 2,000 Mobou, 250 Aloa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kouang, Kuang, Kwong. Dialects: Kwang, Mobou (Mobu), Ngam (Gam, Modgel), Tchagin (Tchakin), Aloa, Kawalké, Gaya, Mindéra. Includes Midigil village, sometimes erroneously listed as ‘Modgel’ (Medegel) in some sources. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kera [ker]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3. Comments: Ngam dialect is different from Ngam [nmc] of Chad and Central African Republic in the Sara group of Nilo-Saharan. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Laal
[gdm] Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, between Korbol and Dik, Gori (center), Damtar, and Mailao villages. 750 (2000). Damtar village had its own dialect called Laabe with 3 speakers left in 1977. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gori. Dialects: Laal, Laabe. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Some lexical relationship to the Bua group, but Boyeldieu (1977) says it should not be classified with Bua. Probably Adamawa, some sources say Chadic.

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Lagwan
[kot] Chari-Baguirmi region: N’Djamena area, south of N’Djamena along Logone river, Logone-Gana area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Logone, Lagouane, Lagwane, Logone. Dialects: Logone-Birni, Logone-Gana (Kotoko-Gana). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South. Comments: Part of Kotoko ethnic and linguistic group. Kotoko total: 22,717 (1993 census): Afade [aal], Mser [kqx], Malgbe [mxf], Maslam [msv], Mpade [mpi], and Jilbe [jie] (in Nigeria). Muslim.

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Laka
[lap] Logone Occidental region; Logone Oriental region: Monts de Lam department, Baïbokoum subprefecture; La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture, 310 villages. Mang dialect: Goré subprefecture, Ngadjibian, Békan, and Timbéri cantons, Bémour dialect: Bessao and Pandzangué cantons south of Moundou, Maïngao dialect: Ngamadja-Dodang II and Bessao-Oudoumian area, Goula dialect: Andoum and Pandzangué cantons, Pan area: Paï dialect: Oudoumian. 55,100 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 57,150. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kabba Laka. Dialects: Mang, Bémour, Maïngao, Goula, Paï. Some consider it a dialect of Ngambay [sba]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: Different from Laka [lak] of Nigeria, which is Adamawa-Ubangi, and from Kaba [ksp] of Central African Republic and Chad.

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Lele
[lln] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, south of Kélo. 26,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1. Comments: Different from Lele [lel] of Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Lela dialect of Kasem [xsm] of Ghana and Burkina Faso.

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Lutos
[ndy] Mandoul region; Moyen-Chari region: Grande Sido department, south of Ngam [nmc] language area; on Central African Republic border. 1,980 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ruto (Louto, Luto, Rito, Routo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale.

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Maba
[mde] Batha region; Ouaddaï region: Ouara and Djourf-al-Ahmar departments; Sila region; Wadi Fira region: Biltine department, Biltine subprefecture; most of Ouara department and villages south of Biltine. 296,000 (2006 E. Zürcher), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Aulad Djema, Awlad Djema, Borgu, Bura Mabang, Kana Mabang, Mabaa, Mabak, Mabang, Ouaddai, Ouaddaien, Uled Djemma, Wadai, Waddayen. Dialects: Maba, Kabartu, Kodroy, Kondongo. Lexical similarity: 73% with Karanga [kth], 63% with Marfa [mvu], 42% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Maba. Comments: Muslim.

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Mabire
[muj] Guéra region: Bidiyo canton, Mongo-Rural subprefecture, Oulek village. 3 (2001 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Tounkoul dialect of Bidiyo [bid]. Lexical similarity: 37%–52% with Jegu dialect of Mogum [mou]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1.

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Majera
[xmj] Chari-Baguirmi region; Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo Lemie department, north of Guélengdeng, Dogwea village; Logone river east bank. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Da’a, Mazera, Mida’a, Midah. Dialects: Majera (Mazra), Kajire-’dulo, Hwalem (Holom). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina. Comments: Included in what the Mandage call Mida’a and Da’a.

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Malgbe
[mxf] Hadjer-Lamis region: N’Djamena subprefecture, north of N’Djamena on Chari river; Douguia, Malalie, Oulio (Walia) and other villages. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goulfei, Goulfey, Gulfei, Kotoko-Gulfei, Malbe, Malgwe, Ngwalkwe, Sanbalbe. Dialects: Goulfey, Walia, Mara, Douguia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North. Comments: Related to other Kotoko ethnic and linguistic groups: Afade [aal], Lagwan [kot], Maslam [msv], Mpade [mpi], Mser [kqx], and Jilbe [jie] (of Nigeria).

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Mambai
[mcs] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lac Léré department, Cameroon border west of Léré. 2,000 in Chad (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambay, Mamgbay, Mamgbei, Manbai, Mangbai, Mangbaï de Biparé, Mangbei, Momboi, Mongbay. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai.

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Mango
[mge] Logone Oriental region: La Pendé department, Bodo subprefecture; Mandoul and Tandjilé regions. 77,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doba, Mbay Doba, Mongo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bedjond [bjv] and Gor [gqr], with high inherent intelligibility. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mararit
[mgb] Wadi Fira region: Biltine Department, Am Zoer Subprefecture (Abou Charib); Ouaddaï region: Assoungha department, Mabrone subprefecture (Mararit). 42,400 (1993 census). 15,400 Mararit, 27,000 Abou Charib. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abiri, Abiyi, Ebiri, Mararet, Merarit. Dialects: Mararit, Abou Charib (Abu Sharib, Abu Sharin). Limited intelligibility between the Abou Charib and Mararit dialects. Very difficult intelligibility of Tama [tma]. Not intelligible of Sungor [sjg]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Tama [tma], 75% between the Abou Charib and Mararit dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Tama, Mararit. Comments: The Abou Charib live north of the Mararit and trace their ancestry to them. Muslim.

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Marba
[mpg] Tandjile region: Tandjilé Ouest department; Mayo Kébbi Est region: Kabbia department, north of Kélo. 218,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Azumeina. Dialects: Marba (Banana, Bananna, Maraba, Monogoy), Kolon (Kolong, Kulung), Léo (Leou, Lew). Léo dialect is most similar to Marba. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. Comments: Different from Marfa [mvu] (Marba) of Chad, which is Maban.

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Marfa
[mvu] Ouaddaï region: Ouara department, south of Abéché. 5,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marba. Dialects: Not a dialect of Masalit [mls]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Maba [mde], 69% with Karanga [kth], 45% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Maba. Comments: Different from Marba [mpg], which is Chadic.

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Masalit
[mls] Ouaddaï region: Assoungha department, Adré area; Sila region. Western Masalit dialect: Ouaddaï region. 90,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaana Masala, Kana Masaraka, Masale, Masara, Masaraka, Massalit, Massolit. Dialects: Northern Masalit, Western Masalit, Southern Masalit, Masaltang. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Masalit. Comments: Muslim.

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Masana
[mcn] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture, along Logone river; small enclave in Chari-Baguirmi region. 192,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 295,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Banana” (pej.), Masa, Massa. Dialects: Yagwa (Yagoua), Bongor, Wina (Viri), Walia (Walya), Domo, Gizay (Gisey, Guissey), Bugudum (Budugum), Gumay (Goumaye), Ham. All dialects understand Yagoua dialect well; Gizay and Yagoua dialects are 80% mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 97% between the Budugum dialect and the most similar other dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Maslam
[msv] Ville de N’Djamena region: Haraze Al Biar department, Mani subprefecture. North of N’Djamena, along Chari river; Maslam dialect: Miskini and Blabli villages; Sao dialect: Farcha-Milezi and Ngara-Mandju (Gourmadjo) villages. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Maltam, Maltam. Dialects: Maslam (Maltam), Sao (Sahu). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North. Comments: In the Kotoko ethnic and linguistic group. Kotoko total: 22,717 (1993 census).

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Masmaje
[mes] Batha region: Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture, southwest of Oum Hadjer, north of Mubi [mub] language area. Ethnic population: 25,700 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masmadje, Mesmedje. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2.

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Massalat
[mdg] Batha region: Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture; Ouaddaï region: Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, Am Dam subprefecture. 10 (1991 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 29,800 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Masalit. Comments: Originally separated from the Masalit [mls] along the Sudan border and moved west. Muslim.

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Mawa
[mcw] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, Mahoua village area, southeast of Mukulu [moz] language area. 6,560 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahoua, Mahwa. Dialects: Gura (village of Gurara) and Reupan (village of Roffono) have been called dialects but their speech is very similar to that of Mahoua. Lexical similarity: 8% with Ubi [ubi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1. Comments: Muslim.

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Mbara
[mpk] Chari-Baguirmi region: Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Mayo-Kebbi Est Region: Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture; Mayo-Lémié department, along Chari river, Guélengdeng area. 1,000 (Tourneux et al 1986). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: G’kelendeg, G’kelendeng, Guelengdeng, Massa de Guelengdeng. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2.

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Mbay
[myb] Mandoul region: Barh Sara department, Moïssala area. The traditional area is on Chad and Central African Republic borders. 80,000 in Chad (1990 J. Keegan). Total users in all countries: 88,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbai, Mbay Moissala, Mbaye, Moissala Mbai, Sara Mbai. Dialects: Bédjou, Kan (Mbay-Kan), Ngoka (Mbang), Bédégué, Mougo, Bbate. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mesme
[zim] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, south and west of Kélo, between Kélo and Pala. 20,100 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djime, Djiwe, Zime, Zime of Kélo. Dialects: Bero, Zamre. Related to Pévé [lme], Ngeté [nnn], and Herdé [hed]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

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Migaama
[mmy] Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, east of Mongo, Abou Telfane canton, Abu Telfan area; Migaama dialect: Baro; Doga dialect: Fityari; Gamiya dialect: Game and Julkulkili; Dambiya dialect: Mala. 20,000 (2000 W. Chesley). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 23,000 (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dionkor, Djonkor, Djonkor Abou, Dyongor, Jongor, Jonkor, Migama, Telfane. Dialects: Migaama, Doga, Gamiya, Dambiya (Ndambiya). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1. Comments: Muslim.

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Miltu
[mlj] Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, Miltou town area; Moyen-Chari region. 270 (1993 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Miltou. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 27% with Sarua [swy], Somrai [sor], Gadang [gdk], and Ndam [ndm], 36% with Boor [bvf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2.

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Mogum
[mou] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine and Mongo subprefectures; Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, south of Bidiyo [bid] language area. 7,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mogoum. Dialects: Jegu, Kofa (Koffa), Mogum Délé, Mogum Diguimi, Mogum Urmi. Dialect subgroup. Mogum Diguimi may not be a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: more than 96% among dialects. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1. Comments: Muslim.

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Morom
[bdo] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis region: Dababa department, Bokoro and Gama subprefectures. 4,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bernde, Tar Murba. Dialects: Bayo, Morbo, Morom. Bolong may be a dialect of Kenga [kyq]. Lexical similarity: 59% with Bagirmi [bmi], 53%–72% with Kenga, 54%–73% with Jaya [jyy], 55%–70% with Naba [mne], 55%–70% with the Bilala dialect of Naba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

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Mpade
[mpi] Hadjer-Lamis region: Haraze Al Biar department, Mani subprefecture, south of Lake Chad; N’Djamena town; Mani area on Logone river, north of N’Djamena. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Makari, Makari. Dialects: Makari, Bodo, Woulki, Digam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North. Comments: Mandage is used by the Kotoko (total population: 22,717, 1993 census) to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf]) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser [kqx] and Lagwan [kot] as well).

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Mser
[kqx] Chari-Baguirmi and Ville de N’Djamena regions; to Cameroon border. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Klesem, Kotoko-Kuseri, Kousseri, Kuseri. Dialects: Mser (Kousseri, Msir), Kalo (Kalakafra), Gawi, Houlouf, Kabe. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South. Comments: Mandage is used by the Kotoko (total population: 22,717, 1993 census) to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade [mpi], Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf]) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser and Lagwan [kot] as well). Muslim.

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Mubi
[mub] Guéra region: Guéra department, Mangalmé subprefecture, east of Mongo, centered in Mangalmé area,135 villages; also large area in Batha Region. 35,300 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Moubi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Zirenkel [zrn], 35% with Dangaléat [daa]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2. Comments: Different from Gude [gde] of Cameroon and Nigeria. Muslim.

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Mukulu
[moz] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, below Guera massif, Moukoulou, Séguine, Doli, Morgué, Djarkatché (Mezimi), and Gougué villages. 12,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diongor Guera, Djonkor Guera, Dyongor Guera, Gergiko, Guerguiko, Jonkor-Gera, Mokilko, Mokoulou, Mokulu. Dialects: Mokilko, Seginki, Doliki, Moriko, Mezimko, Gugiko. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.2. Comments: Gergiko and Gergagi (pl.) are umbrella terms of recent creation to include all villages and dialects of this language, since Mukulu (or Mokilko), which is always used in the literature, properly designates only the principal village and its speech. Traditional religion.

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Mulgi
[mvh] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture, between the Ndam [ndm] and Kimré [kqp] language areas. 5,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mire. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Ndam [ndm], 32% with Kimré [kqp]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mundang
[mua] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lac Léré and Mayo-Dallah departments (Léré, Pala); Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mont d’Illi department (Fianga), Léré area. 282,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 326,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaele, Moundan, Moundang, Nda. Dialects: Kabi (Kieziere), Zasing (Torrock-Kaélé, Yasing). A subdialect of Kabi is Kieziere, of Zasing is Torrock-Kaélé. Lexical similarity: 10% with Mambai [mcs]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai.

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Musey
[mse] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Kabbia and Mont d’Illi departments, Gounou Gaya, Fianga; Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, Kélo, Gounou Gaya is center; small border enclave, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region. 308,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 358,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bananna, Bananna Ho Ho, Mosi, Moussei, Moussey, Musei, Museyna, Mussoi, Mussoy. Dialects: Bongor-Jodo-Tagal-Berem-Gunu, Pe-Holom-Gamé, Jaraw-Domo. Some intelligibility of Masana [mcn]. Marba [mpg] (Azumeina) is reportedly most similar linguistically. All dialects mutually intelligible. Dialect names are village names. Pe dialect is in Cameroon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Musgu
[mug] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture; Chari-Baguirmi region: small area, east bank, Chari river; N’Djamena, between Chari and Logone rivers. 24,400 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mouloui, Mousgou, Mousgoum, Mousgoun, Mulwi, Munjuk, Musgum, Musuk. Dialects: Mpus (Mousgoum de Pouss, Musgum-Pouss, Pouss, Pus), Beege (Jafga), Vulum (Mulwi-Mogroum, Vlum), Muzuk (Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidik). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2. Comments: Distinct from Muskum [mje] in Mouskoun village.

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Muskum
[mje] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye and Mayo-Lemie departments, Bongor subprefecture. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Muzgum. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Musgu [mug]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2.

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Naba
[mne] Batha region: Batha Est department, Ati subprefecture, Batha Ouest department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture; Barh el Gazel region: southeast; Bilala dialect: Lake Fitri area east to Ati; Kuka dialect: Bokoro subprefecture, Moïto to Bokoro, and Ati to Oum Hadjer; Medogo dialect: southwest of Ati. 410,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). 137,000 Bilala, 76,700 Kuka, and 19,200 Medogo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bilala (Bilaala, Boulala, Bulala, Ma, Mage), Kuka (Kouka, Lisi), Medogo (Modogo, Mud). Related but not inherently intelligible of Berakou [bxv] or Kenga [kyq]. Lexical similarity: between Bilala, Kuka, and Medogo dialects is 99%. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi. Comments: Bilala, Kuka, and Medogo are 3 ethnic groups who share a common culture and speak essentially the same language. Muslim.

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Nancere
[nnc] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, Béré, Delban, and Kélo subprefectures. 81,000 (2007 B. Keineng), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nanchere, Nangcere, Nangjere, Nangtchere, Nanjeri, Nantcere. Dialects: Mire, Bolo, Kwale, Nancere du Centre. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ndam
[ndm] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture, northeast of Lai, and southeast of Bousso d’Béré; southern Chari-Baguirmi, northwest Moyen-Chari, and north Mandoul regions. 6,500 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dam, Ndamm. Dialects: Ndam-Ndam (Southern Ndam), Ndam Dik (Northern Ndam). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1. Comments: Distinct from Dam of Buso [bso]. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ngam
[nmc] Moyen-Chari region: Grande Sido department (Maro); Mandoul region: Barh Sara department, Dembo subprefecture, Maro area; Ngam Tel dialect: Maro canton and Moussafoyo subprefecture; Barh Kôh department; Ngam Tira dialect: Maro, Moyo, and Danamadji; Kon Ngam dialect: Djéké canton; Kle dialect: Nara in Djéké canton. 43,700 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 61,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngahm, Ngama, Ngamh, Sarngam. Dialects: Ngam Tel, Ngam Tira, Kon Ngam, Kle, Ngam Gir Bor. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: The Horo (Hor) reportedly no longer use their language but speak the Kle dialect of Ngam.

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Ngambay
[sba] Logone Occidental region; Logone Oriental region: Lanya department (Bébedjia), La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Mayo-Dallah department; Tandjilé and Mayo-Kebbi Est regions; centered in Moundou area. 1,320,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,377,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Gamba, Gambaye, Gamblai, Ngambai, Sara Ngambai, Sara-Ngambay. Dialects: Lara, Benoye, Murum (Mouroum), Kere, Bemar (Daba de Goré). Some consider Laka [lap] to be a dialect of Ngambay. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ngete
[nnn] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Mayo-Dallah department, east of Pala, Ngeté village area; near Pévé [lme] and east of Herdé [hed] language areas; southern Mayo-Kebbi Est region. 10,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ka’do Ngueté, Nge’dé, Ngueté, Nguetté, Zime. Dialects: None known. Linguistic and sociolinguistic differences with Pévé [lme] and Herdé [hed]. Used by outsiders to refer to this and related languages: Herdé, Pévé, Mesmé [zim]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

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Niellim
[nie] Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Niellim town area, Chari river southwest bank. Niou dialect: Niou on the northeast bank. 5,160 (1993 census). 1,000 in Sarh City; 400 in Niou dialect. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lua, Mjillem, Nielim, Nyilem. Dialects: Niellim, Tchini (Cini, Cuni), Niou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Noy
[noy] Moyen-Chari and Mandoul regions, between Sarh, Djoli, Bédaya, Koumra, and Koumogo villages. 36 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Loo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

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Nzakambay
[nzy] Logone Oriental region: Monts de Lam department, Baïbokoum subprefecture, Cameroon border, near Baïbokoum; Zoli dialect: Monts de Lam area. 18,500 in Chad (2000). Total users in all countries: 31,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mboum, Mbum, Mbum Nzakambay, Njakambai, Nzak Mbai, Nzaka Mbay, Nzakmbay. Dialects: Nzakambay, Zoli. Reportedly similar to Karang [kzr] and Kuo [xuo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang. Comments: Different from Mbay [myb], which is Nilo-Saharan, and from Mbum [mdd] of Cameroon. Traditional religion.

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Pana
[pnz] Logone Oriental region. Pana dialect: Makele village; Gonge dialect: Giriwon and Diahoke villages. 1,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pani. Dialects: Pana, Gonge. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang.

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Pévé
[lme] Southwest, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lamé is center. 30,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Total users in all countries: 35,720. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kado” (pej.), Ka’do Pevé, Lamé, Zime. Dialects: Lamé, Doe (Doué), Dari. Related to Herdé [hed] and Ngeté [nnn] with differences in phonology, grammar, and ethnic attitudes. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa. Comments: Different from Lame [bma] of Nigeria.

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Runga
[rou] Salamat region: Haraze-Mangueigne department; Ouaddaï region: Sila department. 21,500 in Chad (1993 census), decreasing. Total users in all countries: 43,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aiki, Ayki, Aykindang, Rounga, Roungo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kibet [kie]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Runga-Kibet. Comments: Ethnonyms: Aiki, Ayki. The area is flooded for 6 months each year. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Saba
[saa] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, northeast of Melfi. 1,340 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jelkung. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sango
[sag] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sangho. Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Sar
[mwm] Moyen-Chari and Mandoul regions, Sarh, Koumra, Balimba, Bessada, Bédaya, Djoli, Matékaga, and Koumogo cantons. 183,000 (1993 census). 74,700 Madjingay (1964), 16,300 No (1964), 32,000 Nar (1977). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sara, Sara Madjingay. Dialects: Majingai (Madja Ngai, Madjingay, Madjingaye, Majinngay), Nar, No. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Sarua
[swy] Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, between Bousso and Miltou, along Chari river. 2,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Saroua, Sarwa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 42% with Gadang [gdk], 27% with Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2. Comments: Different from Sharwa [swq] in Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sinyar
[sys] Ouaddaï region: Sila department, near confluence of Kaja, Azum, and Salih rivers. 12,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shamya, Shamyan, Shemya, Sinya, Symiarta, Taar Shamyan, Zimirra. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sinyar. Comments: They are culturally Fur. Little education. Geographically cut off from languages of the Bongo-Bagirmi group. Possibly no remaining speakers in Sudan (2001). Muslim.

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Sokoro
[sok] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Gogmi to Badanga; southeast Hadjer-Lamis region. 5,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Sokoro, Bedanga. Lexical similarity: 55% with Tamki [tax]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3. Comments: A Djebren area group called, Tunjur of Melfi, may have spoken a now extinct Sokoro dialect; now reportedly mainly speak Chadian Spoken Arabic [shu]. Muslim.

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Somrai
[sor] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture, northeast of Lai, Domogou is center. 7,410 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Shibne, Sibine, Somray, Somre, Somrei, Soumrai, Soumray, Sounrai, Sumrai. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of any other language. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ndam [ndm], 39% with Sarua [swy], 35% with Gadang [gdk], 33% with Tumak [tmc], 28% with Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Surbakhal
[sbj] Ouaddaï region: Assoungha department, Adré subprefecture, between Hadjer Hadid and Alacha. 7,890 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sourbakhal. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Surbakhal. Comments: Muslim.

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Tama
[tma] Wadi Fira region: Dar Tama department, Guéréda area; some in Ouaddaï region. 62,900 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 67,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Miisiirii, Tamok, Tamongobo, Tamot. Dialects: Tama, Orra, Haura, Girga. Lexical similarity: 62%–73% with Assangori [sjg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Tama, Tama-Sungor. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamki
[tax] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Tamki village. 500 (1999 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Temki. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Sokoro [sok]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Saba [saa], 55% with Sokoro [sok], 32% with Mawa [mcw]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tedaga
[tuq] Far north desert, Tibesti region: Bardai area; Borkou, Ennedi, and Kanem regions. 28,500 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 42,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tebou, Tebu, Teda, Tibbu, Toda, Todaga, Todga, Toubou, Tubu, Tuda, Tudaga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu. Comments: Many separate groups. Seminomadic. Thousands reportedly residents of Libya. Muslim.

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Tobanga
[tng] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Deressia subprefecture; western Mayo-Kebbi Est region. 30,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gabri, Gabri-Nord, Gabri-North, Northern Gabri. Dialects: Mande, Tobanga (Deressia). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2. Comments: Distinct from Gabri [gab] (Southern Gabri). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Toram
[trj] Salamat region: Aboudeïa department, southeast of Abou Deïa, south of Birgit [btf] language area, in and west of Ter. 8,460 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Torom, Torum. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2. Comments: Muslim.

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Tumak
[tmc] Mandoul region: Mandoul Oriental department, Gouindi subprefecture, southwest of Niellim [nie] language area; east Tandjilé and northwest Moyen-Chari regions. 25,200 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dije, Sara Toumak, Toumak, Tumac, Tumag, Tummok. Dialects: Tumak, Motun (Mawer, Mod, Moden, Modin, Mot, Motin). Lexical similarity: 71% with Motun dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1. Comments: Erroneously called Sara Toumak.

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Tunia
[tug] Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Sarh and 3 small villages north. 2,260 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tounia, Tun, Tunya. Dialects: Tunya, Perim. Not intelligible of other Bua languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tupuri
[tui] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mont d’Illi department, Fianga area. 154,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ndore, Toubouri, Toupouri, Tuburi. Dialects: Bang-Ling, Bang-Were, Faale-Piyew, Podokge. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai.

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Ubi
[ubi] Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, southwest of Tounkoul, Oubi village area. 1,100 (1995 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Oubi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48% with Mawa [mcw] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1.

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Zaghawa
[zag] Wadi Fira region: Kobé department, Iriba subprefecture; Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti region: Ennedi Est and Ennedi Ouest departments. 128,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). 3,000 Bideyat (Tuer-Gala). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri, Beria, Beri-Aa, Berri, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua. Dialects: Tuer-Gala (Anna, Awe, Baele, Beria, Bideyat, Terawia), Kobe-Kapka, Dirong-Guruf. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern. Comments: Bideyat and Zaghawa dialects sometimes called Beria (Beri). Muslim.

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Zan Gula
[zna] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Chinguil; Moyen-Chari region: northwest of Lake Iro. 5,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goula, Gula Guera, More, Moriil, Morre. Dialects: Zan, Chinguil. Lexical similarity: 46% with Bon Gula [glc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Zerenkel
[zrn] Guéra region: Mongo subprefecture, Canton Dadjo I, Dambiro, Sirbodom, and Nikel villages. 2,240 (1993 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zirenkel. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Mubi [mub], 34%–36% with Dangaléat [daa] (East, Central, and Western). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2.

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