Chad

Print
Amdang
[amj] Wadi Fira Region, Biltine department, Biltine subprefecture, Mimi Goz and Mimi Hadjer cantons; Batha Region, Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer and Haraze Djombo Kibit subprefectures; some in Ouaddaï Region. 41,100 (2000). Popluation less in Wadi Fira (home region) than in Batha and Ouaddaï regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andangti, Biltine, Mima, Mime, Mimi, Mututu Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Fur Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Arabic, Babalia Creole
[bbz] West, Chari-Baguirmi Region, N’Djamena department, north of Djermaya and between Karal and Tourba. 23 villages. 3,940 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Babalia, Babaliya, Bubalia Dialects: A creole developed from Chadian Arabic [shu] (90% of the vocabulary) and Berakou [bxv] (Decobert 1977). Babalia shares structural similarities with Juba Arabic [pga]. Classification: Creole, Arabic based Comments: Ethnonym: Babalia; original language Berakou [bxv]. Muslim.

More Information

Arabic, Chadian Spoken
[shu] Salamat, Ouaddaï, and Wadi Fira regions, Batha Region center and west, much of Chari-Baguirmi Region; Mayo-Kebbi; north Tandjilé Region; Guéra Region. Also in Cameroon (Shuwa Arabic), Central African Republic (Shuwa Arabic), Niger (Shuwa Arabic), Nigeria (Shuwa Arabic). 896,100 in Chad (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,139,100. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Arabe Choa, Chad Arabic, Chadian Arabic, Chowa, L’arabe du Tchad, Shua, Shua Arabic, Shuwa Arabic, Suwa Dialects: Dialects depend on whether their speakers are sedentary or nomads, rural or urban, and on migration routes. A pidginized variety, commonly called, Bongor Arabic, is spoken as L2 by many in the Mayo-Kebbi and other parts of south Chad. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Shuwa Arabic is the name used in other countries for the dialect near Lake Chad. Muslim.

More Information

Arabic, Standard
[arb] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 9). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

More Information

Assangori
[sjg] Ouaddaï Region, Assoungha department, northwest of Adré and of the Masalit [mls] language area. 23,500 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asong, Assoungor, Asungore, Azanguri, Bognak-Asungorung, Goran, Madungore, Soungor, Sungor Dialects: Sungor, Walad Dulla. Girga and Walad Dulla are ethnic groups which may or may not speak different dialects. Madungore may be a dialect of Tama [tma]. Lexical similarity: 62%–73% with Tama. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Tama-Sungor Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bagirmi
[bmi] West, Chari-Baguirmi Region, Massenya subprefecture, Massenya area; Bousso subprefecture, Bousso area. Gol: Massenya; Kibar: east of Massenya; Bangri: west of Massenya and along Chari river between Guélendeng and N’Djamena; Dam: along Chari river from Bousso to Guélendeng. Also in Nigeria. 44,800 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Baghirmi, Bagrimma, Baguirme, Baguirmi, Barma, Lis, Lisi, Mbarma, Tar Bagrimma, Tar Barma Dialects: Bangri, Dam, Gol, Kibar. Many dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Comments: Relatively small language used vehicularly in a limited area. Muslim.

More Information

Barein
[bva] Guéra Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, west (Jalkia), south, southwest (Komi), and east (Sakaya) of Melfi. 4,100 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baraïn, Guilia, Jalkia Dialects: Guilia, Jalkia, Komi, Sakaya (Dagne, Jelkin). Lexical similarity: 92% between the Jalkia dialect and the Guilia dialect, 70% between the Sakaya dialect and both Jalkia and Guilia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bedjond
[bjv] Mandoul Region, Mandoul Occidental department, Bediondo area, west of the Day [dai] language area. 36,000 (Caprile and Fedry 1969). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bediondo, Bediondo Mbai, Bédjonde, Bedjondo, Mbay Bediondo, Mbay Bejondo, Nangnda Dialects: Bébote, Bedjond, Yom. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: A distinct language from Sar [mwm] or Ngambay [sba].

More Information

Berakou
[bxv] West, Chari-Baguirmi Region, N’Djamena subprefecture, north of Djermaya and between Karal and Tourba; Bokoro subprefecture, Ngoura area. 23 villages. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Babalia, Bubalia Dialects: Bolo Djarma, Manawadji, Mondogossou, Yiryo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi

More Information

Besme
[bes] Southwest, Tandjilé Region, Kélo and Laï subprefectures, in Besmé, Bodor, and 3 other villages along Logone river northwest of Lai. 1,230 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beseme, Besemme, Bodor, Hounar, Huner, ’Unar Dialects: Lexical similarity: 51% with Kim [kia]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Bidiyo
[bid] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, south of Mongo and west of Abou Telfane. 14,000 (Jungraithmayr 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bidio, ’Bidio, Bidiya, ’Bidiyo, Bidiyo-Waana, Bidyo Dialects: Bigawguno (Tounkoul), Garawgino (Kafila), Jekkino (Kofilo), Nalguno (Niergui), ’Oboyguno (Zerli). The first 2 dialects listed are eastern, the others western. Dambiya is probably a Bidiyo dialect instead of a Migaama [mmy] dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Birgit
[btf] Salamat Region, Aboudéïa and Barh-Azoum departments; Ouaddaï Region, Djourf al Ahmar department; centered in Abgué. 10,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bergit, Berguid, Birgid Dialects: Abgue, Agrab, Duguri, Eastern Birgit. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Comments: All sources since Greenberg list it as a separate language from other Dangla languages. Different from Birked [brk] (Birgit) of Sudan, a Nilo-Saharan language.

More Information

Bolgo
[bvo] Guéra Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, east of the Barain, southeast of Melfi. 1,800 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bolgo Dugag (Small Bolgo), Bolgo Kubar (Big Bolgo). Lexical similarity: 68% with the 2 dialects and with Bolgo Dugag and a form of Koke [kou] spoken in Daguéla. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Bon Gula
[glc] Guéra Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Bon and Ibir villages. 1,200 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bon, Bon Goula, Bun, Êeni, Gula Guera, Poun, Taataal Dialects: Lexical similarity: 46% with Zan Gula [zna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Bon Gula and Zan Gula are referred to together as Gula Guera. Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Boor
[bvf] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Loug-Chari department, Bousso subprefecture; Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department, Sarh subprefecture, Dumraw (Bwara) village on Chari river north bank. 100 (1999 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bwara, Damraw Dialects: Some have classified it as a dialect of Miltu [mlj]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Miltu [mlj] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2

More Information

Bua
[bub] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department, Sarh subprefecture, Korbol area and northeast; Guéra Region, Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture. 7,710 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Ba, Boa, Boua, Bwa Dialects: Distinct from Niellim [nie], Fania [fni], Tunia [tug], and Day [dai]. Mana, or Kobe may be an alternate name or dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Different from Bua [bww] (Bwa) of Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is Benue-Congo. Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Buduma
[bdm] Lac Region, Mamdi department, Bol subprefecture, islands and Lake Chad north shore. Also in Cameroon, Nigeria (Yedina). 51,600 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 54,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boudouma, Yedima, Yedina, Yidana, Yidena Dialects: Northern Buduma, Southern Buduma. 90% inherent intelligibility between dialects. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Buso
[bso] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, Maffaling and Bousso. 40 (Welmers 1971). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bousso, Busso, Dam de Bousso Dialects: Not in the Bua group, but Chadic (Boyeldieu 1977). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1

More Information

Chadian Sign Language
[cds] Schools and an association for the deaf in N’Djamena, Sarh, and Moundou. 390 (1989 M. Yonadjiel). Ethnic population: Large deaf population (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Influences from American Sign Language [ase]. Some signs are traditional. Teachers trained in Nigeria. Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Dagba
[dgk] Moyen-Chari Region, Grande Sido department, Maro and Sido subprefectures, villages: Sido, Ngokorio, Ntilo, and quartier Jardin in Sarh. 10,000 in Chad (2007 S. Hossack). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper

More Information

Daju, Dar Daju
[djc] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, Mongo and Eref area. 34,000 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dadjo, Dadju, Dajo, Dajou, Daju, Daju Mongo, Daju Oum Hadjer Dialects: Bardangal, Eref, Gadjira. Not inherently intelligible with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Lexical similarity: 64% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Daju, Dar Sila
[dau] Ouaddaï Region, Sila department; Goz-Beïda area and east to Sudan border; Salamat Region, Barh Azoum department, camps of internally displaced people. Also in Sudan. 63,100 in Chad (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bokorike, Dadjo, Dajou, Daju, Sila, Sula Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Dar Daju Daju [djc]. Lexical similarity: 74% with Daju [daj] of Darfur (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Shatt [shj], 57% with Logorik [liu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Daju, Western Daju Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Dangaléat
[daa] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Bang-bang subprefecture. Western dialect: Korbo area; Central dialect: around Barlo, Koubo Adougoul; Eastern dialect: around Korlongo. 60,000 (2005 SIL), increasing. 45,000 in Dangaléat Canton. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Danal, Dangal, Dangla Dialects: Central Dangaléat, East Dangaléat, West Dangaléat (Karbo, Korbo). Intelligibility between east and west dialects is low, but central dialect well understood. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Day
[dai] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department (Sarh); Mandoul Region, Barh Sara department (Moïssala), southwest of Sarh. 49,900 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dai Dialects: Bangoul, Bouna, Ngalo, Takawa-Béngoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Day

More Information

Dazaga
[dzg] Kanem and Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti regions, Borkou, Ennedi Est, and Ennedi Ouest departments, north of Lake Chad. Also in Niger. 331,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 381,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dasa, Daza, Dazza Dialects: Similar to Tedaga [tuq]. The Azzaga dialect, the speech of the Azza, a caste division, is different from Dazaga. Its relation to Dazaga and speech of the Azza among the Teda is not known. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu Comments: Distinct from Daza [dzd] in Nigeria, which is Chadic. L1 users known as the Gorane. Muslim.

More Information

Disa
[dsi] Guéra Region, Barh Signaka department, Chinguil subprefecture. 2,370 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Comments: Related to Gula [glu] (Sara Gula) of Chad.

More Information

Fania
[fni] Guéra Region, Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, west of Lake Iro; north of Sarh, Mouraye area, Sengué, Malakonjo, Rim, Sisi, and Karo villages. 1,100 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fagnia, Fana, Fanian, Fanya, Fanyan, Kobe, Mana Dialects: Northern Fania, Southern Fania. Distinct from Bua [bub]. Lexical similarity: 79% between dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Fongoro
[fgr] Ouaddaï Region, Sila department, Fongoro canton; Dar Fongoro area along Sudan border, rather inaccessible. A few elderly speakers (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gele, Kole Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi Comments: The tse-tse fly is a problem in the area.

More Information

French
[fra] 3,000 in Chad (1993). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 9). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

More Information

Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Lac Léré department. 148,000 in Chad (2006). Kano-Katsina-Bororro Fulfulde. 152,000 all Fulfulde varieties in Chad. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adamawa Fulani, Biira, Boulbe, Domona, Dzemay, Eastern Fulani, Foulfoulde, Ful, Fula Fulbe, Nagapelta, Palata, Paldena, Paldida, Pelta Hay, Peul, Peulh, Pladina, Pule, Pullo, Sanyo, Taareyo, Zaakosa, Zemay Dialects: Bilkire Fulani (Bilkiri), Garoua, Kambariire, Maroua, Ngaoundéré, Nomadic Fulfulde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Fulfulde, Bagirmi
[fui] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis Region, Dababa department, Bokoro subprefecture, between Bokoro and Massenya. Also in Central African Republic. 24,000 in Chad. Population total all countries: 180,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baghirmi Peul, Bagirmi Fula Dialects: May be similar to Bororo Fulfulde [fuv]; a nomadic group of Mbororo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern Comments: Spoken by people of Wodaabe lineage; also in northern Niger, northern Cameroon, Central African Republic. Nomadic. Different from Bagirmi [bmi], which is Nilo-Saharan.

More Information

Fulfulde, Kano-Katsina-Bororro
[fuv] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Pala and Léré area; Chari-Baguirmi Region, Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis Region, Dagana department, Massakory subprefecture; Kanem Region, Kanem department, Rig-Rig subprefecture. Nomadic Bororro travel along Chari river banks area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fulbe, Peul Dialects: Bororro (Ako, Bororo, Mbororo, Nomadic Fulfulde), Kano-Katsina. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Fur
[fvr] 1,800 in Chad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: For, Four, Kondjara, Konjara Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Fur Comments: Several small groups. Muslim.

More Information

Gabri
[gab] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Est department, Laï subprefecture, northwest of Laï, Dormon and Darbé villages area. 34,400 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabere, Gaberi, Ngabre, Southern Gabri Dialects: Darbé, Dormon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 Comments: Dormo and Chiri are Gabri villages, erroneously listed as languages in some sources. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Gadang
[gdk] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, between Mogo and Mbarlé; Somrai area. 2,500 (1997 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Related to Sarua [swy] and Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2

More Information

Gidar
[gid] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Lac Léré department, northwest of Léré. At least 25 villages. 11,700 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Baynawa” (pej.), Gidder, Guidar, Kada Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, C

More Information

Gor
[gqr] Logone Oriental Region, La Pendé department, Bodo center area. 87,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bodo Dialects: Bodo, Yamod. Similar to Bedjond [bjv] and Gor [gqr], with high inherent intelligibility. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: A clear understanding of separate identity from Mango [mge] and Bedjond [bvj]. Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Goundo
[goy] Tanjilé Region, Laï and Kélo subprefectures, Goundo-Bengli, Goundo-Nangom, and Goundo-Yila villages. 30 (1998). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Besmé [bes], 51% with Kim [kia]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim

More Information

Gula
[glu] Moyen-Chari Region, Lac Iro department, Alako and Boum-Kebir subprefectures, southwest of Lake Iro. 10,300 (2000). Ethnic population: 790 Malé, 580 Moufa, 550 Kofoy, 520 Souka, 260 Toussa, 140 Bemounou (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bayo, Goula, Sara Goula, Sara Gula Dialects: Kofoy, Malé, Moufa, Souka, Toussa. Probably related to Disa [dsi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Comments: Different from Gula Iro [glj] of Chad, which is Adamawa, and from Gula [kcm] of Central African Republic and Sudan.

More Information

Gula Iro
[glj] Moyen-Chari Region, Lac Iro department; Salamat Region, Barh Azoum department; Lake Iro, Boum Kabir area. Pongaal dialect: Boum Kabir, Boum Saher, Madjok, Teonen, and Karou; Tiaala dialect: Masidjanga (Cheroba), Bouni, and Kore; Patool dialect: Badi and Foundouk; Korintal dialect: Cheou (Tieou); Tiitaal dialect: west Salamat Region. 3,500 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Pongaal, 730 Tiaala, 200 Tiitaal, 350 Patool, 170 Korintal. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goula d’Iro, Goula Iro Dialects: Korintal, Patool, Pongaal (Ponaal), Tiaala, Tiitaal. Not intelligible of Bon Gula [glc] and Zan Gula [zna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Different from Gula [glu] of Chad and Sudan, which is Nilo-Saharan, and from Gula [kcm] of Central African Republic. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Gulay
[gvl] Moyen-Chari (6 cantons), Logone Oriental (1 canton), and Tandjilé (1 canton) regions, between Koumra, Laï, and Doba. 163,000 (1993 census). 23,500 Pen in 26 villages (1995 D. Djarangar). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goulai, Goulaye, Goulei, Gulai, Gulei Dialects: Gulay, Pen (Peni). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: The Pen do not like to be called Gulay.

More Information

Herdé
[hed] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Mayo-Dallah (Pala) and Lac Léré departments (Léré), Pala and Lamé area; near the Pevé [lme] and west of the Ngeté [nnn] language areas. 40,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: He’dé, “Kado” (pej.), Ka’do Herdé, Zime, Zime of Pala Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa

More Information

Horo
[hor] Béhor north of Sarh on the Chari river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Hor Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper

More Information

Jaya
[jyy] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, 50 km north-northwest of Bitkine. 2,200 (1993 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 44% with Naba [mne]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi

More Information

Jonkor Bourmataguil
[jeu] Salamat Region, Aboudeïa department, west of Abou Deïa. Originally centered in Bourmataguil village, now centered in Ader-Ader. 1,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djongor Bourmataguil, Dougne, Karakir Dialects: Dougne, Musunye. Relationship with other Dangla languages needs investigation, especially Toram [trj] and Mogum [mou]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: ‘Karakir’, cave-dwellers in Arabic. Ethnonym: Jegu has been applied to this language, but Jegu is a dialect of Mogum [mou].

More Information

Kaba
[ksp] Logone Oriental Region, La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture, Goré area and southeast. 11,000 in Chad (Welmers 1971). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba de Baibokoum, Kaba de Paoua, Kabba, Western Kaba Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Different from Kaba Deme [kwg], Sara Kaba Náà [kwv], Kulfa [kxj], or Laka [lap].

More Information

Kaba Démé, Sara
[kwg] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh and Lac Iro departments, between Sarh and Kyabé. Along Chari river, Bobé, Hélibongo, Banda, Moussafoyo, and Kemata villages. Also in Central African Republic. 40,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba ’Dem, Kaba Démé, Kaba Demi, Sara Kaba Dem, Tà Sàra Dialects: Boho, Kuruwer (Kuwaré?), Mara, Sime. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Kulfa [kxj], Sara Kaba Náà [kwv], or Laka [lap].

More Information

Kaba Náà, Sara
[kwv] Moyen-Chari Region, Lac Iro department, centered in Kyabé. Also in Central African Republic. 35,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). 5,560 in Bale village, 4,940 in Koskabo, 4,550 in Kyabé. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dana, Kaba Na, Kaba Naa, Kaba Nar, Na, Sara Kaba Dialects: Dunje (Dendje, Denje, Dindje, Dinje, Dounje), Mbanga (Banga), Na, Tie (Tiye). The Dunje dialect may be the same as Sara Dunjo [koj] of Central African Republic. Sara Kaba Náà may be the same as Sara Kaba [sbz] of Central African Republic. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Kaba Deme [kwg], Kulfa [kxj], or Laka [lap].

More Information

Kabalai
[kvf] Southwest Chad, Tandjilé Region, Laï subprefecture, Laï and south on Logone river east bank. 17,900 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gablai, Kaba-Lai, Kabalay, Kabalaye, Keb-Kaye, Lai, Lay Dialects: May be intelligible with Nancere [nnc]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 Comments: Erroneously called Sara or Kaba of Lai.

More Information

Kajakse
[ckq] Ouaddaï Region, Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, south and southeast of Am Dam. 10,000 (Bender 1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kadjakse, Kajeske, Kawa Tadimini, Kujarke, Mini Dialects: Partially intelligible with Masmaje [mes] and Mubi [mub]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2

More Information

Kanembu
[kbl] Kanem and Lac regions; Hadjer-Lamis Region, Dagana department, Massakory subprefecture. 461,100 (2006). Many businessmen in N’Djamena are Kanembu. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kanambu, Kanembou Dialects: Kanembu, Kanuri, Karkawu, Mando, Nguri. There is a gradual differentiation between dialects of Kanembu and Kanuri [knc]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri Comments: Ethnic groups: Badé (Badde 2,646), Baribu, Chiroa, Diabu, Galabu, Kadjidi (5,638), Kankena, Kanku, Kenguina (1,944), Koubri (Koubouri 2,817), Maguirmi (1,825), Nguiguim (7,233). Muslim.

More Information

Kanuri, Central
[knc] Communities in Chari-Baguirmi, Batha, Guéra, and Mayo-Kebbi regions. 104,000 in Chad (2006). 34,500 in Chari-Baguirmi and 23,300 in N’Djamena. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aga, “Baribari” (pej.), “Beriberi” (pej.), Bornouan, Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kole, Kolere, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri Dialects: Dagara, Fadawa, Guvja, Kabari (Kuvuri), Kaga (Kagama), Kwayam, Lare, Mao, Ngazar, Njesko, Sugurti, Temageri. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Karang
[kzr] Logone Oriental Region, Monts de Lam department, Baibokoum subprefecture, northwest of Baïbokoum: Loumbogo, Lawtiko I, Lawtiko II, and Sarkaluki villages, 2 Sakpu villages. 1,000 in Chad (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Mbum, Kareng, Laka, Lakka, Lakka Mbum, Mbum Bakal, Nzák Kàráng Dialects: Karang, Mbere, Ngomi, Sakpu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Comments: Different from Laka [lap] of Central African Republic and Chad, and from Laka [lak] of Nigeria. Traditional religion.

More Information

Karanga
[kth] Ouaddaï Region, Djourf-Al-Ahmar and Ouara departments. Around Am Dam and between Am Dam and Abéché, south of the Maba. Bakha are southwest of Am Dam, Karanga and Koniéré are northeast of Am Dam, Kashmere are south of Abéché and north of the Karanga. 10,000 (1999 SIL). 4,700 Karanga and 1,420 Bakha. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kurunga Dialects: Bakha (Bakhat, Baxa, Faala, Fala), Karanga (Kurunga), Kashmere (Kachmere), Koniéré (Kognere, Konyare, Mooyo, Moyo). Lexical similarity: 73% with Maba [mde], 94% between Karanga and Kashmere dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban Comments: The 4 dialects are distinct ethnic groups. Muslim.

More Information

Kendeje
[klf] Ouaddaï Region, Assoungha and Ouara departments, rural Abéché and Adré subprefectures, northwest of Hadjer Hadid. 1,860 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yaali Dialects: Faranga, Yaali. Lexical similarity: 89% between dialects with little contact between them. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Kendeje Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kenga
[kyq] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, Bitkine area, 52 villages, including Bolongo and Bokiyo. 40,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cenge, Kenge Dialects: Banala (Tar Banala), Banama (Tar Banama), Bidjir, Bolong (Tar Bolongo), Cenge (Tar Cenge). Related to Naba [mne] and Jaya [jyy]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Jaya [jyy], 81%–93% with the Bolong (Tar Bolongo) dialect. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Comments: Some consider Bidjir a distinct language. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Kera
[ker] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mont d’Illi department, south of Fianga, near Lake Tikem. Also in Cameroon. 44,500 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 50,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 42% with Kwang [kvi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3 Comments: Confused with neighboring Tupuri [tui] in some publications.

More Information

Kibet
[kie] Salamat Region, Barh-Azoum department; Ouaddaï Region, Sila department. Northeast of Am Timan and southwest of Goz Beïda. 18,500 (Bender 1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kabentang, Kibeet, Kibeit Dialects: Dagel (Daggal), Kibet, Murru (Mourro, Muro). Similar to Runga [rou]. Not a dialect of Tama [tma] as reported in some sources. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Runga-Kibet Comments: The area is flooded 6 months each year. Muslim.

More Information

Kim
[kia] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo Boneye Department, Eré, Djouman, Kolobo and Kim, villages. 15,400 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Garap (Éré), Gerep (Djouman, Jumam), Kolop (Kilop, Kolobo), Kosop (Kim, Kwasap). Dialects listed may be closely related languages. Formerly classified as Chadic. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim Comments: Incorrectly called Masa.

More Information

Kimré
[kqp] Tandjilé Region, Tandjile Est department, east of Laï. 20,000 (2007 A. Oumounabidji). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabri-Kimré, Gawra Dialects: Buruwa (Bordo), Kimruwa (Kimré, Kim-Ruwa). Popular glossonym: Gabri, but it is not intelligible of Gabri [gab]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1

More Information

Koke
[kou] Guéra Region, Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, southeast of Melfi; Daguéla, Sengué, and Djourab village areas. 600 (1993 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Khoke Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Bolgo Dugag [bvo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua

More Information

Kujarge
[vkj] Dar Fongoro, Jebel Mirra area, 7 villages. Also scattered in Fur and Sinyar in Sudanese villages along Wadis Salih and Azum rivers. 1,000 (Bender 1983). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Unclassified Comments: A few groups.

More Information

Kulfa
[kxj] Southeast, Moyen-Chari Prefecture, Kyabé subprefecture, southwest of Lake Iro. Centered in Alako and Kirimikoro. 7,130 (1993 census). 4,000 Koulfa, 2,200 Kouroumi, 910 Bara (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kaba So” (pej.), Kulfe, Kurmi, Kurumi Dialects: Bara, Kulfa, Kurumi. Lexical similarity: 80% with Sara Kaba Náà [kwv]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba Comments: Different from Kaba [ksp], Laka [lap], Sara Kaba Deme [kwg], or Sara Kaba Náà [kwv]. They do not perceive themselves as Sara Kaba.

More Information

Kuo
[xuo] Logone Oriental Region, Monts de Lam department, Baibokoum subprefecture, near Baibokoum, Pao, and Bouroum cantons. Also in Cameroon. 12,300 in Chad (2011 SIL). Population total all countries: 20,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ko, Koh Dialects: Similar to Karang [kzr] and Nzakambay [nzy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Koh

More Information

Kwang
[kvi] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Est department; north of Laï, east of Bongor, southwest of Bousso. Mobou dialect: Mobou; Aloa dialect: Mogo. 16,800 (1993 census). 10,000 or more Kwang, 2,000 Mobou, 250 Aloa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kouang, Kuang, Kwong Dialects: Aloa, Gaya, Kawalké, Kwang, Mindéra, Mobou (Mobu), Ngam (Gam, Modgel), Tchagin (Tchakin). Includes Midigil village, sometimes erroneously listed as ‘Modgel’ (Medegel) in some sources. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kera [ker]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3 Comments: Ngam dialect is different from Ngam [nme] of Chad and Central African Republic in the Sara group of Nilo-Saharan. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Laal
[gdm] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department, between Korbol and Dik, Gori (center), Damtar, and Mailao villages. 750 (2000). Damtar village had its own dialect called Laabe with 3 speakers left in 1977. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gori Dialects: Laabe, Laal. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Some lexical relationship to the Bua group, but Boyeldieu (1977) says it should not be classified with Bua. Probably Adamawa, some sources say Chadic.

More Information

Lagwan
[kot] Chari-Baguirmi Region, N’Djamena area, south of N’Djamena along Logone river, Logone-Gana area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Logone, Lagouane, Lagwane, Logone Dialects: Logone-Birni, Logone-Gana (Kotoko-Gana). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Comments: Part of Kotoko ethnic and linguistic group. Kotoko total: 22,717 (1993 census): Afade [aal], Mser [kqx], Malgbe [mxf], Maslam [msv], Mpade [mpi], and Jilbe [jie] (in Nigeria). Muslim.

More Information

Laka
[lap] Logone Oriental Region, Monts de Lam department, Baïbokoum subprefecture; La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture. Mang dialect: Goré subprefecture, Ngadjibian, Békan, and Timbéri cantons. Bémour dialect: Bessao and Pandzangué cantons south of Moundou. Maïngao dialect: Ngamadja-Dodang II and Bessao-Oudoumian area. Goula dialect: Andoum and Pandzangué cantons, Pan area. Paï dialect: Oudoumian. 310 villages. Also in Central African Republic. 55,100 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 57,150. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kabba Laka Dialects: Bémour, Goula, Maïngao, Mang, Paï. Some consider it a dialect of Ngambay [sba]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Different from Laka [lak] of Nigeria, which is Adamawa-Ubangi, and from Kaba [ksp] of Central African Republic and Chad.

More Information

Lele
[lln] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Ouest department, south of Kélo. 26,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1 Comments: Different from Lele [lel] of Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Lela dialect of Kasem [xsm] of Ghana and Burkina Faso.

More Information

Lutos
[ndy] Moyen-Chari Region, Grande Sido department, south of the Ngam [nmc] language area. 1,980 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ruto (Louto, Luto, Rito, Routo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale

More Information

Maba
[mde] Ouaddaï region, Ouara and Djourf-al-Ahmar departments; Wadi Fira Region, Biltine department, Biltine subprefecture; most of Ouara department and villages south of Biltine. 296,000 (2006 E. Zürcher), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Borgu, Bura Mabang, Kana Mabang, Mabaa, Mabak, Mabang, Ouaddai, Ouaddaien, Wadai, Waddayen Dialects: Kabartu, Kodroy, Kondongo, Maba. Lexical similarity: 73% with Karanga [kth], 63% with Marfa [mvu], 42% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Maba Comments: Ethnic groups: Uled Djemma (Aulad Djema, Awlad Djema). Muslim.

More Information

Mabire
[muj] Guéra Province, Bidiyo canton, Mongo-Rural subprefecture, Oulek village. 3 (2001 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Similar to Jegu dialect of Mogum [mou], Tounkoul dialect of Bidiyo [bid]. Lexical similarity: 37%–52% with Jegu dialect of Mogum [mou]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1

More Information

Majera
[xmj] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo Lemie department, north of Guélengdeng, Dogwea village. 2,300 total in 2 villages, one of which is in Chad (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Da’a, Mazera, Mida’a, Midah Dialects: Hwalem (Holom), Kajire-’dulo, Majera (Mazra). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina Comments: Included in what the Mandage call Mida’a and Da’a.

More Information

Malgbe
[mxf] West, Chari-Baguirmi Prefecture, N’Djamena subprefecture, north of N’Djamena along the Chari river. Douguia, Malalie, and Oulio (Walia) villages, and others. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goulfei, Goulfey, Gulfei, Kotoko-Gulfei, Malbe, Malgwe, Ngwalkwe, Sanbalbe Dialects: Douguia, Goulfey, Mara, Walia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: Related to other Kotoko ethnic and linguistic groups: Afade [aal], Lagwan [kot], Maslam [msv], Mpade [mpi], Mser [kqx], and Jilbe [jie] (of Nigeria).

More Information

Mambai
[mcs] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Lac Léré department, Cameroon border west of Léré. 2,000 in Chad (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambay, Mamgbay, Mamgbei, Manbai, Mangbai, Mangbaï de Biparé, Mangbei, Momboi, Mongbay Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai

More Information

Mango
[mge] Logone Oriental Region, La Pendé department, Bodo subprefecture. 52,200 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doba, Mbay Doba, Mongo Dialects: Similar to Bedjond [bjv] and Gor [gqr], with high inherent intelligibility. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mararit
[mgb] Wadi Fira Region, Biltine Department, Am Zoer Subprefecture (Abou Charib); Ouaddaï Region, Assoungha Department, Mabrone Subprefecture (Mararit). 42,400 (1993 census). 15,400 Mararit, 27,000 Abou Charib. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abiri, Abiyi, Ebiri, Mararet, Merarit Dialects: Abou Charib (Abu Sharib, Abu Sharin), Mararit. Limited intelligibility between the Abou Charib and Mararit dialects. Very difficult intelligibility of Tama [tma]. Not intelligible of Sungor [sjg]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Tama [tma], 75% between the Abou Charib and Mararit dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Mararit Comments: The Abou Charib live north of the Mararit and trace their ancestry to them. Muslim.

More Information

Marba
[mpg] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Ouest department, north of Kélo. 148,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Azumeina, ’Azumeina, Kolong, Kulung, Maraba Dialects: Monogoy. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: ‘Kulung’ is a place in the Marba-speaking area, not a dialect or language. Different from Marfa [mvu] (Marba) of Chad, which is Maban.

More Information

Marfa
[mvu] Ouaddaï Region, Ouara department, south of Abéché. 5,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marba Dialects: Not a dialect of Masalit [mls]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Maba [mde], 69% with Karanga [kth], 45% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Maba Comments: Different from Marba [mpg], which is Chadic.

More Information

Masalit
[mls] Ouaddaï Region, Assoungha department, around Adré. Western Masalit dialect: Ouaddaï Region. 60,900 in Chad (2006), increasing. 106,000 Darfur refugees from Sudan (2010 UNHCR). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaana Masala, Kana Masaraka, Masale, Masara, Masaraka, Massalit, Massolit Dialects: Masaltang, Northern Masalit, Southern Masalit, Western Masalit. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Masalit Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Masana
[mcn] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture, along Logone river. Also in Cameroon. 130,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 233,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Banana” (pej.), Masa, Massa Dialects: Bongor, Bugudum (Budugum), Domo, Gizay (Gisey, Guissey), Gumay (Goumaye), Ham, Walia (Walya), Wina (Viri), Yagwa (Yagoua). All dialects understand Yagoua dialect well; Gizay and Yagoua dialects are 80% mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 97% between the Budugum dialect and the most similar other dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Maslam
[msv] N’Djamena, Hadjer-Lamis Region, Haraze Al Biar department, Mani subprefecture. North of N’Djamena, along Chari river; Maslam dialect: Miskini and Blabli villages; Sao dialect: Farcha-Milezi and Ngara-Mandju (Gourmadjo) villages. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Maltam, Maltam Dialects: Maslam (Maltam), Sao (Sahu). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: In the Kotoko ethnic and linguistic group. Kotoko total: 22,717 (1993 census).

More Information

Masmaje
[mes] Batha Region, Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture, southwest of Oum Hadjer, north of the Mubi [mub] language area. Ethnic population: 25,700 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masmadje, Mesmedje Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2

More Information

Massalat
[mdg] Batha Region, Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture, and Ouaddaï Region, Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, Am Dam subprefecture. 10 (1991 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 29,800 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Masalit Comments: Originally separated from the Masalit [mls] along the Sudan border and moved west. Muslim.

More Information

Mawa
[mcw] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, Mahoua village area, southeast of the Mukulu [moz] language area. 6,560 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahoua, Mahwa Dialects: Gura (village of Gurara) and Reupan (village of Roffono) have been called dialects but their speech is very similar to that of Mahoua. Lexical similarity: 8% with Ubi [ubi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Mbara
[mpk] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture; Mayo-Lémié department, along Chari river, Guélengdeng area. 1,000 (Tourneux, Seignobos, and LaFarge 1986). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: G’kelendeg, G’kelendeng, Guelengdeng, Massa de Guelengdeng Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2

More Information

Mbay
[myb] Mandoul Region, Barh Sara department, Moïssala area. The traditional area is on the Chad and Central African Republic borders. Also in Central African Republic, Nigeria. 80,000 in Chad (1990 J. Keegan). Population total all countries: 88,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbai, Mbay Moissala, Mbaye, Moissala Mbai, Sara Mbai Dialects: Bbate, Bédégué, Bédjou, Kan (Mbay-Kan), Mougo, Ngoka (Mbang). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Mesme
[zim] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Ouest department, south and west of Kélo, between Kélo and Pala. 20,100 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djime, Djiwe, Zime of Kélo Dialects: Bero, Zamre. Related to Pévé [lme], Ngeté [nnn], and Herdé [hed]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa

More Information

Migaama
[mmy] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, east of Mongo, Abou Telfane canton, Abu Telfan area. Migaama dialect: Baro; Doga dialect: Fityari; Gamiya dialect: Game and Julkulkili; Dambiya dialect: Mala. 20,000 (2000 W. Chesley). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 23,000 (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dionkor, Djonkor, Djonkor Abou, Dyongor, Jongor, Migama, Telfane Dialects: Dambiya (Ndambiya), Doga, Gamiya, Migaama. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Miltu
[mlj] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, Miltou town area. 270 (1993 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Miltou Dialects: Lexical similarity: 27% with Sarua [swy], Somrai [sor], Gadang [gdk], and Ndam [ndm], 36% with Boor [bvf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2

More Information

Mogum
[mou] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Bitkine and Mongo subprefectures; Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, south of the Bidiyo [bid] language area. 7,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mogoum Dialects: Jegu, Kofa (Koffa), Mogum Délé, Mogum Diguimi, Mogum Urmi. Dialect subgroup. Mogum Diguimi may not be a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: more than 96% among dialects. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Morom
[bdo] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis Region, Dababa department, Bokoro and Gama subprefectures. 4,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tar Murba Dialects: Bayo, Morbo, Morom. Bolong may be a dialect of Kenga [kyq]. Lexical similarity: 59% with Bagirmi [bmi], 53%–72% with Kenga, 54%–73% with Jaya [jyy], 55%–70% with Naba [mne], 55%–70% with the Bilala dialect of Naba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi

More Information

Mpade
[mpi] Hadjer-Lamis Region, Haraze Al Biar department, Mani subprefecture, south of Lake Chad; N’Djamena town; Mani area on Logone river, north of N’Djamena. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Makari, Makari Dialects: Bodo, Digam, Makari, Woulki. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Comments: Mandage is used by the Kotoko (total population: 22,717, 1993 census) to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf]) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser [kqx] and Lagwan [kot] as well).

More Information

Mser
[kqx] N’Djamena town to Cameroon border. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Klesem, Kotoko-Kuseri, Kousseri, Kuseri Dialects: Gawi, Houlouf, Kabe, Kalo (Kalakafra), Mser (Kousseri, Msir). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Comments: Mandage is used by the Kotoko (total population: 22,717–1993 census) to refer to either the northern group of Kotoko languages (Mpade, Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf]) or the Kotoko group as a whole (including Mser [kqx] and Lagwan [kot] as well). Muslim.

More Information

Mubi
[mub] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Mangalmé subprefecture, east of Mongo, centered in Mangalmé area. 135 villages. Possibly also in Sudan. 35,300 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Moubi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Zirenkel [zrn], 35% with Dangaléat [daa]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Comments: Different from Gude [gde] of Cameroon and Nigeria. Muslim.

More Information

Mukulu
[moz] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, below Guéra massif: Moukoulou, Séguine, Doli, Morgué, Djarkatché (Mezimi), and Gougué villages. 12,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diongor Guera, Djonkor Guera, Dyongor Guera, Gergiko, Guerguiko, Jonkor-Gera, Mokilko, Mokoulou, Mokulu Dialects: Doliki, Gugiko, Mezimko, Mokilko, Moriko, Seginki. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.2 Comments: Gergiko and Gergagi (pl.) are umbrella terms of recent creation to include all villages and dialects of this language, since Mukulu (or Mokilko), which is always used in the literature, properly designates only the principal village and its speech. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Mulgi
[mvh] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Est department, Laï subprefecture, between the Ndam [ndm] and Kimré [kqp] language areas. 5,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mire Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65% with Ndam [ndm], 32% with Kimré [kqp]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Mundang
[mua] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Lac Léré and Mayo-Dallah departments (Léré, Pala); Mayo Kebbi Est Region, Mont d’Illi department (Fianga), Léré area. Also in Cameroon. 191,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 235,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaele, Moundan, Moundang, Nda Dialects: Kabi (Kieziere), Zasing (Torrock-Kaélé, Yasing). A subdialect of Kabi is Kieziere, of Zasing is Torrock-Kaélé. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai

More Information

Musey
[mse] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Kabbia and Mont d’Illi departments, Gounou Gaya, Fianga; Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Ouest department, Kélo. Gounou Gaya is center. Also in Cameroon. 209,000 in Chad (2006). Population total all countries: 229,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bananna, Bananna Ho Ho, Mosi, Moussei, Moussey, Musei, Museyna, Mussoi, Mussoy Dialects: Bongor-Jodo-Tagal-Berem-Gunu, Jaraw-Domo, Lew, Pe-Holom-Gamé. Some intelligibility of Masana [mcn]. Marba [mpg] (Azumeina) is most similar linguistically. Lew dialect is most similar to Marba. All dialects mutually intelligible. Dialect names are village names. Pe dialect is in Cameroon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Musgu
[mug] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture, and N’Djamena town, between Chari and Logone rivers. 24,400 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mouloui, Mousgou, Mousgoum, Mousgoun, Mulwi, Munjuk, Musgum, Musuk Dialects: Beege (Jafga), Mpus (Mousgoum de Pouss, Musgum-Pouss, Pouss, Pus), Muzuk (Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidik), Vulum (Mulwi-Mogroum, Vlum). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2 Comments: Ethnic autonym: Mulwi. Distinct from Muskum [mje] in Mouskoun village.

More Information

Muskum
[mje] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture; Mayo-Lémié department; along Logone river, Muskum (Mouskoun) village. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Muzgum Dialects: Lexical similarity: 40% with Musgu [mug]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2

More Information

Naba
[mne] Batha Region, Batha Est department, Ati subprefecture; Batha Ouest department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis Region, Dababa department, Bokoro subprefecture. Bilala dialect: around Lake Fitri east to Ati; Kuka dialect: Bokoro subprefecture, Moïto to Bokoro, and Ati to Oum Hadjer; Medogo dialect: southwest of Ati. 278,000 (2006). 137,000 Bilala, 76,700 Kuka, and 19,200 Medogo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bilala (Bilaala, Boulala, Bulala, Ma, Mage), Kuka (Kouka, Lisi), Medogo (Modogo, Mud). Related but not inherently intelligible with Berakou [bxv] or Kenga [kyq]. Lexical similarity: between Bilala, Kuka, and Medogo dialects is 99%. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi Comments: Bilala, Kuka, and Medogo are 3 ethnic groups who share a common culture and speak essentially the same language, Ethnonym: Naba by all 3 groups. Muslim.

More Information

Nancere
[nnc] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Ouest department, Béré, Delban, and Kélo subprefectures. 81,000 (2007 B. Keineng), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nanchere, Nangcere, Nangjere, Nangtchere, Nanjeri, Nantcere Dialects: Bolo, Kwale, Mire, Nancere du Centre. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Ndam
[ndm] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Est department, Laï subprefecture, northeast of Laï, and southeast of Bousso d’Béré. 6,500 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dam, Ndamm Dialects: Ndam Dik (Northern Ndam), Ndam-Ndam (Southern Ndam). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Comments: Distinct from Dam of Buso [bso]. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

More Information

Ngam
[nmc] Moyen-Chari Region, Grande Sido department (Maro); Mandoul Region, Barh Sara department, Dembo subprefecture, Maro area; Ngam Tel dialect: Maro canton and Moussafoyo subprefecture; Barh Kôh department; Ngam Tira dialect: Maro, Moyo, and Danamadji; Kon Ngam dialect: Djéké canton; Kle dialect: Nara in Djéké canton. Also in Central African Republic. 43,700 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 61,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngahm, Ngama, Ngamh, Sarngam Dialects: Kle, Kon Ngam, Ngam Gir Bor, Ngam Tel, Ngam Tira. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: The Horo (Hor) reportedly no longer use their language but speak the Kle dialect of Ngam.

More Information

Ngambay
[sba] Logone Occidental Region; Logone Oriental Region, Lanya department (Bébedjia), La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Mayo-Dallah department. Centered in Moundou area. Also in Cameroon, Nigeria. 896,000 in Chad (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Gamba, Gambaye, Gamblai, Ngambai, Sara, Sara Ngambai Dialects: Bemar (Daba de Goré), Benoye, Kere, Lara, Murum (Mouroum). Some consider Laka [lap] to be a dialect of Ngambay. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Ngete
[nnn] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Mayo-Dallah department, east of Pala, Ngeté village area; near the Pévé [lme] and east of the Herdé [hed] language areas. 10,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ka’do Ngueté, Nge’dé, Ngueté, Nguetté, Zime Dialects: Linguistic and sociolinguistic differences with Pévé [lme] and Herdé [hed]. Used by outsiders to refer to this and related languages: Herdé, Pévé, Mesmé [zim]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa

More Information

Niellim
[nie] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department, Niellim town area, Chari river southwest bank. Niou dialect: Niou on the northeast bank. 5,160 (1993 census). 1,000 in Sarh City; 400 in Niou dialect. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lua, Mjillem, Nielim, Nyilem Dialects: Niellim, Niou, Tchini (Cini, Cuni). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Ethnonym: Niellim by government. Ethnic autonym: Lua. Traditional religion.

More Information

Noy
[noy] Moyen-Chari and Mandoul regions, between Sarh, Djoli, Bédaya, Koumra, and Koumogo villages. 36 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Loo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua

More Information

Nzakambay
[nzy] Logone Oriental Region, Monts de Lam department, Baïbokoum subprefecture, Cameroon border, near Baïbokoum; Zoli dialect: Monts de Lam area. Also in Cameroon. 18,500 in Chad (2000). Population total all countries: 31,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mboum, Mbum, Mbum Nzakambay, Njakambai, Nzak Mbai, Nzaka Mbay, Nzakmbay Dialects: Nzakambay, Zoli. Similar to Karang [kzr] and Kuo [xuo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Comments: Different from Mbay [myb], which is Nilo-Saharan, and from Mbum [mdd] of Cameroon. Traditional religion.

More Information

Pana
[pnz] Pana dialect: Makele village; Gonge dialect: Giriwon and Diahoke villages. 1,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pani Dialects: Gonge, Pana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang

More Information

Pévé
[lme] Southwest, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest Region, Lamé is center. Also in Cameroon. 30,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 35,720. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Kado” (pej.), Ka’do Pevé, Lamé, Zime Dialects: Dari, Doe (Doué), Lamé. Related to Herdé [hed] and Ngeté [nnn] with differences in phonology, grammar, and ethnic attitudes. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Comments: Different from Lame [bma] of Nigeria. Ethnonym: Zime refers to Herdé [hed], Ngeté [nnn], Pévé, and Mesmé [zim].

More Information

Runga
[rou] Salamat Region, Haraze-Mangueigne department; Ouaddaï Region, Sila department. Also in Central African Republic. 21,500 in Chad (1993 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 43,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aykindang, Rounga, Roungo Dialects: Similar to Kibet [kie]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Runga-Kibet Comments: The area is flooded for 6 months each year. Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Saba
[saa] Guéra Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, northeast of Melfi. 1,340 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jelkung Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

More Information

Sango
[sag] South. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sangho Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based

More Information

Sar
[mwm] Moyen-Chari and Mandoul regions, Sarh, Koumra, Balimba, Bessada, Bédaya, Djoli, Matékaga, and Koumogo cantons. 183,000 (1993 census). 74,700 Madjingay (1964), 16,300 No (1964), 32,000 Nar (1977). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sara, Sara Madjingay Dialects: Majingai (Madja Ngai, Madjingay, Madjingaye, Majinngay), Nar, No. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Sarua
[swy] Chari-Baguirmi Region, Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, between Bousso and Miltou, along Chari river. 2,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Saroua, Sarwa Dialects: Lexical similarity: 42% with Gadang [gdk], 27% with Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2 Comments: Different from Sharwa [swq] in Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Sinyar
[sys] Ouaddaï Region, Sila department, near confluence of Kaja, Azum, and Salih rivers. 12,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shamya, Shamyan, Shemya, Sinya, Symiarta, Taar Shamyan, Zimirra Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sinyar Comments: They are culturally Fur. Little education. Geographically cut off from languages of the Bongo-Bagirmi group. Possibly no remaining speakers in Sudan (2001). Muslim.

More Information

Sokoro
[sok] Guéra Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Gogmi to Badanga. 5,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bedanga, Sokoro. Related to Mawa [mcw]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Tamki [tax]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Comments: A Djebren area group called, Tunjur of Melfi, may have spoken a now extinct Sokoro dialect; now reportedly mainly speak Chadian Spoken Arabic [shu]. Muslim.

More Information

Somrai
[sor] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Est department, Laï subprefecture, northeast of Laï, Domogou is center. 7,410 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sibine, Somray, Somre, Somrei, Soumrai, Soumray, Sounrai, Sumrai Dialects: Not intelligible of any other language. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ndam [ndm], 39% with Sarua [swy], 35% with Gadang [gdk], 33% with Tumak [tmc], 28% with Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

More Information

Surbakhal
[sbj] Ouaddaï Region, Assoungha department, Adré subprefecture, between Hadjer Hadid and Alacha. 7,890 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sourbakhal Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Surbakhal Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Tama
[tma] Wadi Fira Region, Dar Tama department; Guéréda area. Also in Sudan. 62,900 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 67,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tamok, Tamongobo, Tamot Dialects: Girga, Haura, Orra, Tama. Lexical similarity: 62%–73% with Assangori [sjg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Western, Tama, Tama-Sungor Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Tamki
[tax] Guéra Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Tamki village. 500 (1999 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Temki Dialects: Not inherently intelligible of Sokoro [sok]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Saba [saa], 55% with Sokoro, 32% with Mawa [mcw]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Tedaga
[tuq] Far north desert, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti region, Tibesti department, Bardai area. Also in Libya, Niger, Nigeria. 28,500 in Chad (1993 census). Population total all countries: 42,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tebou, Tebu, Teda, Tibbu, Toda, Todaga, Todga, Toubou, Tubu, Tuda, Tudaga Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Daza [dzd]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu Comments: Many separate groups. Seminomadic. Thousands reportedly residents of Libya. Muslim.

More Information

Tobanga
[tng] Tandjilé Region, Tandjilé Est department, Deressia subprefecture. 30,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabri, Gabri-Nord, Gabri-North, Northern Gabri Dialects: Mande, Tobanga (Deressia). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 Comments: Distinct from Gabri [gab] (Southern Gabri). Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Toram
[trj] Salamat Region, Aboudeïa department, southeast of Abou Deïa, south of the Birgit [btf] language area, in and west of Ter. 8,460 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Torom, Torum Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Tumak
[tmc] Mandoul Region, Mandoul Oriental department, Gouindi subprefecture, southwest of the Niellim [nie] language area. 25,200 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dije, Sara Toumak, Toumak, Tumac, Tumag, Tummok Dialects: Motun (Mawer, Mod, Moden, Modin, Mot, Motin), Tumak. Lexical similarity: 71% with Motun dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Comments: Erroneously called Sara Toumak.

More Information

Tunia
[tug] Moyen-Chari Region, Barh Kôh department, Sarh and 3 small villages north. 2,260 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tounia, Tun, Tunya Dialects: Perim, Tunya. Not intelligible of other Bua languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Tupuri
[tui] Mayo-Kebbi Est Region, Mont d’Illi department, Fianga area. 104,000 in Chad (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ndore, Toubouri, Toupouri, Tuburi Dialects: Bang-Ling, Bang-Were, Faale-Piyew, Podokge. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai

More Information

Ubi
[ubi] Guéra Region, Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, southwest of Tounkoul, Oubi village area. 1,100 (1995 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Oubi Dialects: Lexical similarity: 48% with Mawa [mcw] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1

More Information

Zaghawa
[zag] Wadi Fira Region, Kobé department, Iriba subprefecture; Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Region, Ennedi Est and Ennedi Ouest departments. 87,000 in Chad (2006). 3,000 Bideyat. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri, Beria, Beri-Aa, Berri, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua Dialects: Dirong-Guruf, Kobe-Kapka, Tuer-Gala (Anna, Awe, Baele, Beria, Bideyat, Terawia). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern Comments: Bideyat and Zaghawa dialects sometimes called Beria (Beri). Muslim.

More Information

Zan Gula
[zna] Guéra Region, Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Chinguil, northwest of Lake Iro. 5,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goula, Gula Guera, More, Moriil, Morre Dialects: Chinguil, Zan. Lexical similarity: 46% with Bon Gula [glc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua Comments: Together with Bon Gula ethnonym: Gula Guera. The Gula Iro use ethnonym: Moriil. Traditional religion, Muslim.

More Information

Zerenkel
[zrn] Guéra Department, Mongo subprefecture, Canton Dadjo I, Dambiro, Sirbodom, and Nikel villages. 2,240 (1993 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zirenkel Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Mubi [mub], 34%–36% with Dangaléat [daa] (East, Central, and Western). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2

More Information