Chad

Print
Amdang
[amj] Batha region: Batha Est department, Haraze Djombo Kibit and Oum Hadjer subprefectures; Ouaddaï region; Wadi Fira region: Biltine department, Biltine subprefecture, Mimi Goz and Mimi Hadjer cantons. Population: 41,100 (2000). Population lower in Wadi Fira (home region) than in Batha and Ouaddaï regions. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andang, Andangti, Biltine, Mima, Mime, Mimi, Mututu, Simi Amdangtii. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Fur.

More Information

Arabic, Babalia Creole
[bbz] Hadjer-Lamis region: N’Djamena department, 23 villages north of Djermaya and between Karal and Tourba. Population: 3,940 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Babalia, Babaliya, Bubalia. Dialects: None known. A creole developed from Chadian Arabic [shu] (90% of the vocabulary) and Berakou [bxv] (Decobert 1977). Babalia shares structural similarities with Juba Arabic [pga]. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Creole, Arabic based.

More Information

Arabic, Chadian Spoken
[shu] Widespread, center and south. Population: 1,440,000 in Chad (2015), increasing. Total users in all countries: 1,757,300 (as L1: 1,687,300; as L2: 70,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Arabe Choa, Chad Arabic, Chadian Arabic, Chowa, L’arabe du Tchad, Shua, Shua Arabic, Shuwa, Shuwa Arabic, Suwa, Western Sudanic Arabic. Autonym: العربية‎ (alearabia). Dialects: Dialects depend on whether their speakers are sedentary or nomads, rural or urban, and on migration routes. A pidginized variety, commonly called, Bongor Arabic, is spoken as L2 by many in the Mayo-Kebbi and other parts of south Chad. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

More Information

Arabic, Standard
[arb] Population: 615,000 in Chad (2014 SIL), all users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 9). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

More Information

Assangori
[sjg] Ouaddaï region: Assoungha department, northwest of Adré. Population: 23,500 (1993 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asong, Assoungor, Asungore, Azanguri, Bognak-Asungorung, Goran, Madungore, Soungor, Sungor. Dialects: Sungor, Walad Dulla. Girga and Walad Dulla are ethnic groups which may or may not speak different dialects. Madungore may be a dialect of Tama [tma]. Lexical similarity: 62%–73% with Tama [tma]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Tama, Tama-Sungor.

More Information

Bagirmi
[bmi] Chari-Baguirmi region: Massenya subprefecture, Massenya area, Bousso subprefecture, Bousso area; Mayo-Kebbi Est and Moyen-Chari regions. West of Massenya and along Chari river between Guélendeng and N’Djamena (Bangri dialect); Chari river from Bousso to Guélendeng (Dam dialect); Massenya (Gol dialect); east of Massenya (Kibar dialect). Population: 44,800 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Widely spoken as L2 or becoming L1 in neighboring people groups. Alternate Names: Baghirmi, Bagrimma, Baguirme, Baguirmi, Lis, Lisi, Mbarma, Tar Bagrimma, Tar Barma. Autonym: Barma. Dialects: Gol, Kibar, Bangri, Dam. Many dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

More Information

Barein
[bva] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, west (Jalkia dialect), south, southwest (Komi dialect), and east of Melfi (Sakaya dialect). Population: 4,100 (1993 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baraïn, Guilia, Jalkia. Dialects: Jalkia, Guilia, Sakaya (Dagne, Jelkin), Komi. Lexical similarity: 92% between the Jalkia dialect and the Guilia dialect, 70% between the Sakaya dialect and both Jalkia and Guilia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3.

More Information

Bedjond
[bjv] Logone Oriental region: east central; Mandoul region: Mandoul Occidental department, Bediondo area. Population: 36,000 (Caprile and Fedry 1969). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bediondo, Bediondo Mbai, Bedjondo, Bédjonde, Mbay Bediondo, Mbay Bejondo. Autonym: Bedjond, Nangnda. Dialects: Bedjond, Bébote, Yom. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Berakou
[bxv] Chari-Baguirmi region: Bokoro and N’Djamena subprefectures. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the late 1990s (1995 D. Djarangar). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Babalia, Bubalia. Dialects: Bolo Djarma, Mondogossou, Manawadji, Yiryo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

More Information

Besme
[bes] Tandjilé region: Kélo and Laï subprefectures, Besmé, Bodor, and 3 other villages along Logone river northwest of Lai. Population: 1,230 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Unar, Beseme, Besemme, Bodor, Hounar, Huner. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Kim [kia]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim.

More Information

Bidiyo
[bid] Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, south of Mongo and west of Abou Telfane. Population: 14,000 (Jungraithmayr 1981). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Bidio, ’Bidiyo, Bidio, Bidiya, Bidiyo-Waana, Bidyo. Dialects: Garawgino (Kafila), Jekkino (Kofilo), Bigawguno (Tounkoul), Nalguno (Niergui), ’Oboyguno (Zerli). The first 2 dialects listed are eastern, the others western. Dambiya is probably a Bidiyo dialect instead of a Migaama [mmy] dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1.

More Information

Birgit
[btf] Salamat region: Aboudéïa and Barh-Azoum departments; Sila region: Djourf al Ahmar department, centered in Abgué; south Batha region. Population: 10,400 (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bergit, Berguid, Birgid. Dialects: Abgue, Eastern Birgit, Duguri, Agrab. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2.

More Information

Bolgo
[bvo] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, southeast of Melfi. Population: 1,800 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bolgo Dugag (Small Bolgo), Bolgo Kubar (Big Bolgo). Lexical similarity: 68% with the 2 dialects and with Bolgo Dugag and a form of Koke [kou] spoken in Daguéla. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

More Information

Bon Gula
[glc] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Bon and Ibir villages; Salamat region: west border area. Population: 1,200 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bon, Bon Goula, Bun, Gula Guera, Poun, Taataal. Autonym: Êeni. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 46% with Zan Gula [zna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

More Information

Boor
[bvf] Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug-Chari department, Bousso subprefecture; Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Sarh subprefecture, Dumraw (Bwara) village on Chari river north bank. Population: 100 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bwara, Damraw. Dialects: Some have classified it as a dialect of Miltu [mlj]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Miltu [mlj] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2.

More Information

Bua
[bub] Guéra region: Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture; Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Sarh subprefecture, Korbol area and northeast. Population: 7,710 (1993 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Ba, Boa, Boua, Bwa. Dialects: Distinct from Niellim [nie], Fania [fni], Tunia [tug], and Day [dai]. Mana, or Kobe may be an alternate name or dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

More Information

Buduma
[bdm] Hadjer-Lamis region: Lake Chad islands and north shore; Lac region: Mamdi department, Bol subprefecture. Population: 51,600 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 54,800. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boudouma, Yedima, Yedina, Yidana, Yidena. Dialects: Southern Buduma, Northern Buduma. 90% inherent intelligibility between dialects. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma.

More Information

Buso
[bso] Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari departement, Bousso subprefecture. Population: 40 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bousso, Busso, Dam de Bousso. Dialects: None known. Not in the Bua group, but Chadic (Boyeldieu 1977). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1.

More Information

Chadian Sign Language
[cds] Scattered. Moundou, N’Djamena, and Sarh. Population: 2,800 (2008 WFD). 2,800 deaf signers out of 7,000 total deaf (2008 WFD). Status: 5* (Developing). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nigerian Sign Language. Influences from American Sign Language [ase]. Some signs are traditional. Classification: Sign language.

More Information

Dagba
[dgk] Moyen-Chari region: Grande Sido department, Maro and Sido subprefectures, Ngokorio, Ntilo, and Sido villages, Jardin quartier in Sarh. Population: 10,000 in Chad (2007 S. Hossack). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Daju, Dar Daju
[djc] Batha region: south border; Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, Eref and Mongo area. Population: 34,000 (1993 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dadjo, Dadju, Dajo, Dajou, Daju, Daju Mongo, Daju Oum Hadjer. Autonym: Saaronge. Dialects: Bardangal, Eref, Gadjira. Not inherently intelligible with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Lexical similarity: 64% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju.

More Information

Daju, Dar Sila
[dau] Salamat region: Barh Azoum department, camps of internally displaced people; Sila region: Goz-Beïda area and east to Sudan border. Population: 63,100 in Chad (2000). Total users in all countries: 70,100. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bokorike, Bokoruge, Dadjo, Dajou, Daju, Shila, Sila, Sula. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Dar Daju Daju [djc]. Lexical similarity: 74% with Daju [daj] of Darfur (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Shatt [shj], 57% with Logorik [liu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju.

More Information

Dangaléat
[daa] Possibly Batha region; Guéra region: Guéra department, Bang-bang subprefecture. Barlo, Koubo Adougoul area (Central dialect); Korlongo area (Eastern dialect); Korbo area (Western dialect). Population: 60,000 (2005 SIL), increasing. 45,000 in Dangaléat Canton. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Danal, Dangal, Dangla. Autonym: Daŋla. Dialects: West Dangaléat (Karbo, Korbo), East Dangaléat, Central Dangaléat. Intelligibility between east and west dialects is low, but central dialect well understood. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1.

More Information

Day
[dai] Mandoul region: Barh Sara department, Moïssala; Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Sarh. Population: 49,900 (1993 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dai. Dialects: Bouna, Bangoul, Ngalo, Takawa-Béngoro. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Day.

More Information

Dazaga
[dzg] Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Ennedi-Ouest, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Wadi Fira regions. Population: 532,000 in Chad (2015). Total users in all countries: 582,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dasa, Daza, Dazza, Gorane, Teda-Daza, Tubu. Autonym: Dazaga. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Tedaga [tuq]. The Azzaga dialect, the speech of the Azza, a caste division, is different from Dazaga. Its relation to Dazaga and speech of the Azza among the Teda is not known. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu.

More Information

Disa
[dsi] Guéra region: Barh Signaka department, Chinguil subprefecture. Population: 2,370 (2000). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

More Information

Fania
[fni] Guéra region: Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, west of Lake Iro; north of Sarh, Mouraye area, Karo, Malakonjo, Rim, Sengué, and Sisi villages. Population: 1,100 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fagnia, Fana, Fanian, Fanya, Fanyan, Kobe, Mana. Dialects: Northern Fania, Southern Fania. Distinct from Bua [bub]. Lexical similarity: 79% between dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

More Information

Fongoro
[fgr] Sila region: Dar Fongoro area along Sudan border. Population: A few elderly speakers (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gele, Kole. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi.

More Information

French
[fra] Population: 1,523,000 in Chad, all users. L1 users: 3,000 in Chad (1993). L2 users: 1,520,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 9). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

More Information

Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lac Léré department. Population: 218,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Kano-Katsina-Bororro Fulfulde. 152,000 all Fulfulde varieties in Chad. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adamawa Fulani, Biira, Boulbe, Domona, Dzemay, Eastern Fulani, Foulfoulde, Ful, Fula Fulbe, Fulfulde, Nagapelta, Palata, Paldena, Paldida, Pelta Hay, Peul, Peulh, Pladina, Pule, Pullo, Sanyo, Taareyo, Zaakosa, Zemay. Dialects: Maroua, Garoua, Ngaoundéré, Kambariire, Nomadic Fulfulde, Bilkire Fulani (Bilkiri). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern.

More Information

Fulfulde, Bagirmi
[fui] Chari-Baguirmi region: Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis region: Dababa department, Bokoro subprefecture, between Bokoro and Massenya. Population: 24,000 in Chad. Total users in all countries: 180,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baghirmi Peul, Bagirmi Fula. Dialects: None known. May be similar to Bororo Fulfulde [fuv]; a nomadic group of Mbororo. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern.

More Information

Fulfulde, Nigerian
[fuv] Chari-Baguirmi region: Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis region: Dagana department, Massakory subprefecture; Kanem region: Kanem department, Rig-Rig subprefecture; possibly Lac region; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Léré and Pala area. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fulbe, Fulfulde, Peul. Dialects: Kano-Katsina, Bororro (Ako, Bororo, Mbororo, Nomadic Fulfulde). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central.

More Information

Fur
[fvr] Sila region. Population: 1,800 in Chad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: For, Four, Kondjara, Konjara. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Fur.

More Information

Gabri
[gab] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture, Darbé and Dormon villages area northwest of Lai. Population: 34,400 (2000). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabere, Gaberi, Gabri Darbé-Dormon, Gabri Maja, Ngabre, Southern Gabri. Autonym: Maja. Dialects: Darbé, Dormon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2.

More Information

Gadang
[gdk] Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, between Mogo and Mbarlé; Somrai area. Population: 2,500 (1997 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Sarua [swy] and Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2.

More Information

Gidar
[gid] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lac Léré department, northwest of Léré. At least 25 villages. Population: 11,700 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Gidder, Guidar, Kada, “Baynawa” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, C.

More Information

Gor
[gqr] Logone Oriental region: La Pendé department, Bodo center area; Mandoul region. Population: 128,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bodo. Dialects: Bodo, Yamod. Reportedly similar to Bedjond [bjv] and Gor [gqr], with high intelligibility. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Goundo
[goy] Tandjilé region: Kélo and Lai subprefectures, Goundo-Bengli, Goundo-Nangom, and Goundo-Yila villages. Population: 30 (1998). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Besmé [bes], 51% with Kim [kia]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim.

More Information

Gula
[glu] Moyen-Chari region: Lac Iro department, Alako and Boum-Kebir subprefectures, southwest of Lake Iro; Guéra region: border area. Population: 10,300 (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bayo, Goula, Sara Goula, Sara Gula. Dialects: Kofoy, Malé, Moufa, Souka, Toussa. Probably related to Disa [dsi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

More Information

Gula Iro
[glj] Guéra region; Moyen-Chari region: Lac Iro department; Salamat region: Barh Azoum department, Lake Iro, Boum Kabir area. Cheou (Korintal dialect); Boum Kabir, Boum Saher, Karou, Madjok, and Teonen (Pongaal dialect); Badi and Foundouk (Patool dialect); Bouni, Kore, and Masidjanga, (Tiaala dialect); west Salamat region (Tiitaal dialect). Population: 3,500 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Pongaal, 730 Tiaala, 200 Tiitaal, 350 Patool, 170 Korintal. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goula Iro, Goula d’Iro, Kulaal, Moriil. Dialects: Pongaal (Ponaal), Tiaala, Tiitaal, Patool, Korintal. Not intelligible of Bon Gula [glc] and Zan Gula [zna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

More Information

Gulay
[gvl] Logone Oriental (1 canton), Mandoul (6 cantons), Tandjilé (1 canton) regions, between Doba, Koumra, and Laï. Population: 163,000 (1993 census). 23,500 Pen in 26 villages (1995 D. Djarangar). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Goulai, Goulaye, Goulei, Gouley, Gulai, Gulei. Autonym: Guley. Dialects: Gulay, Pen (Peni). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Hausa
[hau] Widespread in the south. Population: 100,000 in Chad (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Widespread use as L2 in northern Chad. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1.

More Information

Herdé
[hed] Mayo-Kebbi Est region; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Mayo-Dallah and Lac Léré departments, Pala and Lamé area. Population: 40,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: He’dé, Ka’do Herdé, Zime, Zime of Pala, “Kado” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

More Information

Horo
[hor] Moyen-Chari region. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably became extinct in the early 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Hor. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Jaya
[jyy] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture. Population: 2,200 (1993 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Naba [mne]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

More Information

Jonkor Bourmataguil
[jeu] Guéra region border area; Salamat region: Aboudeia department, west of Abou Deia; centered in Ader-Ader. Population: 1,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djongor Bourmataguil, Dougne, Karakir. Dialects: Dougne, Musunye. Relationship with other Dangla languages needs investigation, especially Toram [trj] and Mogum [mou]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1.

More Information

Kaba
[ksp] Logone Oriental region: La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture, Goré area and southeast. Population: 70,000 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba de Baibokoum, Kaba de Goré, Kaba de Paoua, Kabba, Western Kaba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Kaba Démé, Sara
[kwg] Guéra region; Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh and Lac Iro departments, Banda, Bobé, Hélibongo, Kemata, and Moussafoyo villages along Chari river. Population: 40,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba ’Dem, Kaba Demi, Kaba Démé, Sara Kaba Dem, Tà Sàra. Autonym: Sara Kaba Ɗem, Ɗem. Dialects: Sime, Mara, Kuruwer (Kuwaré), Boho. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba.

More Information

Kaba Naa, Sara
[kwv] Moyen-Chari region: Lac Iro department, centered in Kyabé. Kyabé subprefecture, Dindjebo and Dindjekono villages (Dunje dialect). Population: 35,000 in Chad (1993 UBS). 5,560 in Bale village, 4,940 in Koskabo, 4,550 in Kyabé. Total users in all countries: 39,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Dana, Kaba Na, Kaba Naa, Kaba Nar, Na, Sara Kaba. Autonym: Naa, Sara Kaba Naa. Dialects: Dunje (Dendje, Denje, Dindje, Dinje, Dounje, Sara Dunjo), Na, Mbanga (Banga), Tie (Tiye). Sara Kaba Náà may be the same as Sara Kaba [sbz] of Central African Republic. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba.

More Information

Kabalai
[kvf] Tandjilé region: Lai subprefecture, Lai and south on Logone river east bank. Population: 17,900 (1993 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gablai, Kaba-Lai, Kabalay, Kabalaye, Keb-Kaye, Lai, Lay. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Nancere [nnc]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2.

More Information

Kajakse
[ckq] Sila region: Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, south and southeast of Am Dam. Population: 10,000 (Bender 1983a). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kadjakse, Kajeske, Kawa Tadimini, Kujarke, Mini. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible with Masmaje [mes] and Mubi [mub]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2.

More Information

Kanembu
[kbl] Barh el Gazel region; Hadjer-Lamis region: Dagana department, Massakory subprefecture; Lac and Kanem regions. Population: 742,000 (2015). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kaidi-Kanembu, Kanambu, Kanembou. Dialects: Kanembu, Kanuri, Karkawu, Mando, Nguri. There is a gradual differentiation between dialects of Kanembu and Kanuri [knc]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri.

More Information

Kanuri, Yerwa
[knc] Chari-Baguirmi, Hadjer-Lamis, Mayo-Kebbi Est regions. Population: 154,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). 34,500 in Chari-Baguirmi and 23,300 in N’Djamena. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Aga, Bornouan, Bornouans, Bornu, Central Kanuri, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kanuri, Kole, Kolere, Sirata, “Baribari” (pej.), “Beriberi” (pej.). Dialects: Dagara, Kaga (Kagama), Sugurti, Lare, Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri.

More Information

Karang
[kzr] Logone Oriental region: Monts de Lam department, Baibokoum subprefecture, Lawtiko I, Lawtiko II, Loumbogo, Sarkaluki, and 2 Sakpu villages northwest of Baïbokoum. Population: 1,000 in Chad (1995 SIL). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Mbum, Kareng, Laka, Lakka, Lakka Mbum, Mbum Bakal, Nzák Kàráng. Dialects: Karang, Sakpu, Ngomi, Mbere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang.

More Information

Karanga
[kth] Batha region; Ouaddaï region: Ouara department; Sila region: Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, Am Dam area to Abéché. Sila region: Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, southwest of Am Dam (Bakha dialect); northeast of Am Dam (Karanga and Koniéré dialects); Ouaddaï region: Ouara department, south of Abéché and north of Karanga dialect area (Kashmere dialect). Population: 10,000 (1999 SIL). 4,700 Karanga and 1,420 Bakha. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kurunga. Dialects: Karanga (Kurunga), Kashmere (Kachmere), Bakha (Bakhat, Baxa, Faala, Fala), Koniéré (Kognere, Konyare, Mooyo, Moyo). Lexical similarity: 73% with Maba [mde], 94% between Karanga and Kashmere dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban.

More Information

Kendeje
[klf] Ouaddaï region: Assoungha and Ouara departments, rural Abéché and Adré subprefectures, northwest of Hadjer Hadid. Population: 1,860 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yaali. Dialects: Yaali, Faranga. Lexical similarity: 89% between dialects with little contact between them. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Kendeje.

More Information

Kenga
[kyq] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, Bitkine area, 52 villages, including Bolongo and Bokiyo. Population: 40,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Cenge, Kenge. Autonym: Taar Cɛŋɛ. Dialects: Cenge (Tar Cenge), Banama (Tar Banama), Bidjir, Banala (Tar Banala), Bolong (Tar Bolongo). Lexical similarity: 62% with Jaya [jyy], 81%–93% with the Bolong (Tar Bolongo) dialect. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

More Information

Kera
[ker] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mont d’Illi department, near Lake Tikem south of Fianga. Population: 44,500 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 50,500. Status: 5* (Developing). Autonym: Keera. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kwang [kvi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3.

More Information

Kibet
[kie] Salamat region: Barh-Azoum department; northeast of Am Timan and southwest of Goz Beïda; Sila region. Population: 18,500 (Bender 1983a). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaben, Kabentang, Kibeet, Kibeit. Dialects: Dagel (Daggal), Murru (Mourro, Muro), Kibet. Reportedly similar to Runga [rou]. Not a dialect of Tama [tma] as reported in some sources. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Runga-Kibet.

More Information

Kim
[kia] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo Boneye department, Djouman, Eré, Kim, and Kolobo villages; Tandjilé region. Population: 15,400 (1993 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Masa. Dialects: Garap (Éré), Gerep (Djouman, Jumam), Kolop (Kilop, Kolobo), Kosop (Kim, Kwasap). Dialects listed may be closely related languages. Formerly classified as Chadic. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Kim.

More Information

Kimré
[kqp] Tandjilé region: Tandjile Est department, east of Laï. Population: 20,000 (2007 A. Oumounabidji). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Gabri-Kimré, Gawra. Dialects: Kimruwa (Kimré, Kim-Ruwa), Buruwa (Bordo). Popular glossonym: Gabri, but it is not intelligible of Gabri [gab]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1.

More Information

Koke
[kou] Guéra region: Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, southeast of Melfi, Daguéla, Djourab, and Sengué village areas. Population: 600 (1993 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Khoke. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Bolgo Dugag [bvo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

More Information

Kujarge
[vkj] Sila region: Dar Fongoro, Jebel Mirra area, 7 villages; scattered in Fur and Sinyar in Sudanese villages along Azum and Wadi Salih rivers. Population: 1,000 (Bender 1983b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Unclassified.

More Information

Kulfa
[kxj] Moyen-Chari region: Kyabé subprefecture, centered in Alako and Kirimikoro southwest of Lake Iro; some in Guéra region. Population: 7,110 (1993 census). 4,000 Koulfa, 2,200 Kouroumi, 910 Bara (1993 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kulfe, Kurmi, Kurumi, “Kaba So” (pej.). Dialects: Bara, Kulfa (Koulfa), Kurumi (Kouroumi). Lexical similarity: 80% with Sara Kaba Náà [kwv]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba.

More Information

Kuo
[xuo] Logone Oriental region: Monts de Lam department, Baibokoum subprefecture. Population: 12,300 in Chad (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 20,250. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ko, Koh. Autonym: Kúo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karang [kzr] and Nzakambay [nzy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Koh.

More Information

Kwang
[kvi] Chari-Baguirmi and Mayo-Kebbi Est regions; Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department; north of Lai, east of Bongor, southwest of Bousso. Mobou (Mobou dialect); Mogo (Aloa dialect). Population: 16,800 (1993 census). 10,000 or more Kwang, 2,000 Mobou, 250 Aloa. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kouang, Kuang, Kwong. Dialects: Kwang, Mobou (Mobu), Ngam (Gam, Modgel), Tchagin (Tchakin), Aloa, Kawalké, Gaya, Mindéra. Includes Midigil village, sometimes erroneously listed as ‘Modgel’ (Medegel) in some sources. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kera [ker]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3.

More Information

Laal
[gdm] Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Gori (center), Damtar, and Mailao villages between Dik and Korbol. Population: 750 (2000). Damtar village had its own dialect called Laabe with 3 speakers left in 1977. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gori. Dialects: Laal, Laabe. Classification: Language isolate.

More Information

Lagwan
[kot] Chari-Baguirmi region: south N’Djamena, Logone-Gana area along Logone river. Population: Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Logone, Lagouane, Lagwane, Logone. Dialects: Logone-Birni, Logone-Gana (Kotoko-Gana). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South.

More Information

Laka
[lap] Logone Occidental region; Logone Oriental region: La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture, Monts de Lam department, Baïbokoum subprefecture; 310 villages. Goré subprefecture, Ngadjibian, Békan, and Timbéri cantons (Mang dialect), Bessao and Pandzangué cantons south of Moundou (Bémour dialect), Ngamadja-Dodang II and Bessao-Oudoumian area (Maïngao dialect), Andoum and Pandzangué cantons, Pan area (Goula dialect), Oudoumian (Paï dialect). Population: 55,100 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 57,150. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kabba Laka. Dialects: Mang, Bémour, Maïngao, Goula, Paï. Some consider it a dialect of Ngambay [sba]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Lele
[lln] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, south of Kélo. Population: 26,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5* (Developing). Autonym: Lele. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1.

More Information

Lutos
[ndy] Mandoul region; Moyen-Chari region: Grande Sido department, on Central African Republic border. Population: 1,980 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Dialects: Ruto (Louto, Luto, Rito, Routo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale.

More Information

Maba
[mde] Batha region; Ouaddaï region: Djourf-al-Ahmar and Ouara departments; Sila region; Wadi Fira region: Biltine department, Biltine subprefecture; most of Ouara department and villages south of Biltine. Population: 296,000 in Chad (2006 E. Zürcher), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Aulad Djema, Awlad Djema, Bargo, Bergo, Borgho, Borgu, Kana Mabang, Mabaa, Mabak, Mabang, Ouaddai, Ouaddaien, Uled Djemma, Wadai, Waddayen. Autonym: Bura Mabang. Dialects: Maba, Kabartu, Kodroy, Kondongo. Lexical similarity: 73% with Karanga [kth], 63% with Marfa [mvu], 42% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Maba.

More Information

Mabire
[muj] Guéra region: Bidiyo canton, Mongo-Rural subprefecture, Oulek village. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker may have survived into the early 2010s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Tounkoul dialect of Bidiyo [bid]. Lexical similarity: 37%–52% with Jegu dialect of Mogum [mou]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1.

More Information

Majera
[xmj] Chari-Baguirmi region; Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo Lemie department, Dogwea village on Logone river east bank. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Da’a, Mazera, Mida’a, Midah. Dialects: Majera (Mazra), Kajire-’dulo, Hwalem (Holom). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina.

More Information

Malgbe
[mxf] Hadjer-Lamis region: N’Djamena subprefecture, Douguia, Malalie, Oulio (Walia) and other villages on Chari river. Population: Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goulfei, Goulfey, Gulfei, Kotoko-Gulfei, Malbe, Malgwe, Ngwalkwe, Sanbalbe. Dialects: Goulfey, Walia, Mara, Douguia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North.

More Information

Mambai
[mcs] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lac Léré department, Cameroon border west of Léré. Population: 2,000 in Chad (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambay, Mamgbay, Mamgbei, Manbai, Mangbai, Mangbaï de Biparé, Mangbei, Momboi, Mongbay. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai.

More Information

Mango
[mge] Logone Oriental region: La Pendé department, Bodo subprefecture; Mandoul and Tandjilé regions. Population: 77,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Doba, Mbay Doba, Mongo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bedjond [bjv] and Gor [gqr], with high inherent intelligibility. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Mararit
[mgb] Ouaddaï region: Assoungha department, Mabrone subprefecture, Mararit; Wadi Fira region: Biltine department, Am Zoer subprefecture, Abou Charib. Population: 42,400 (1993 census). 15,400 Mararit, 27,000 Abou Charib. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abiri, Abiyi, Ebiri, Mararet, Merarit. Dialects: Mararit, Abou Charib (Abu Sharib, Abu Sharin). Limited intelligibility between the Abou Charib and Mararit dialects. Very difficult intelligibility of Tama [tma]. Not intelligible of Sungor [sjg]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Tama [tma], 75% between the Abou Charib and Mararit dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Tama, Mararit.

More Information

Marba
[mpg] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Kabbia department, north of Kélo (Léo dialect); Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department (Marba and Kolon dialects). Population: 218,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Azumeina. Autonym: Marba. Dialects: Marba (Banana, Bananna, Maraba), Kolon (Kolong, Kulung), Léo (Leou, Lew), Monogoy. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

More Information

Marfa
[mvu] Ouaddaï region: Ouara department, south of Abéché. Population: 5,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marba. Dialects: Not a dialect of Masalit [mls]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Maba [mde], 69% with Karanga [kth], 45% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Maba.

More Information

Masalit
[mls] Ouaddaï region: Assoungha department, Adré area; Sila region. Ouaddaï region (Western Masalit dialect). Population: 90,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaana Masala, Kana Masaraka, Masale, Masara, Masaraka, Massalit, Massolit. Dialects: Northern Masalit, Western Masalit, Southern Masalit, Masaltang. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Masalit.

More Information

Masana
[mcn] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture, along Logone river; small group in Chari-Baguirmi region. Population: 192,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 295,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Masa, Massa, “Banana” (pej.). Autonym: Massana. Dialects: Yagwa (Yagoua), Bongor, Wina (Viri), Walia (Walya), Domo, Gizay (Gisey, Guissey), Bugudum (Budugum), Gumay (Goumaye), Ham. All dialects understand Yagoua dialect well; Gizay and Yagoua dialects are 80% mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 97% between the Budugum dialect and the most similar other dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

More Information

Maslam
[msv] Ville de N’Djamena region: Haraze Al Biar department, Mani subprefecture along Chari river. Miskini and Blabli villages (Maslam dialect); Farcha-Milezi and Ngara-Mandju villages (Sao dialect). Population: Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Maltam, Maltam. Dialects: Maslam (Maltam), Sao (Sahu). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North.

More Information

Masmaje
[mes] Batha region: Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture, southwest of Oum Hadjer. Population: Ethnic population: 25,700 (1993 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masmadje, Mesmedje. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2.

More Information

Massalat
[mdg] Batha region: Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture; Sila region: Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, Am Dam subprefecture. Population: 10 (1991 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 29,800 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Masalit.

More Information

Mawa
[mcw] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, Mahoua village area. Population: 6,560 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahoua, Mahwa. Dialects: Gura (village of Gurara) and Reupan (village of Roffono) have been called dialects but their speech is very similar to that of Mahoua. Lexical similarity: 8% with Ubi [ubi]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1.

More Information

Mbara
[mpk] Chari-Baguirmi region: Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture; Mayo-Lémié department along Chari river, Guélengdeng area. Population: 1,000 (Tourneux et al 1986). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: G’kelendeg, G’kelendeng, Guelengdeng, Massa de Guelengdeng. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2.

More Information

Mbay
[myb] Mandoul region: Barh Sara department, Moïssala area. Population: 80,000 in Chad (1990 J. Keegan). Total users in all countries: 88,300. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbai, Mbay Moissala, Mbaye, Moissala Mbai, Sara Mbai. Autonym: Mbaï. Dialects: Bédjou, Kan (Mbay-Kan), Ngoka (Mbang), Bédégué, Mougo, Bbate. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Mesme
[zim] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, between Kélo and Pala. Population: 20,100 (1993 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Djime, Djiwe, Zime, Zime of Kélo. Dialects: Bero, Zamre. Related to Pévé [lme], Ngeté [nnn], and Herdé [hed]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

More Information

Migaama
[mmy] Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, Abou Telfane canton, Abu Telfan area. Baro (Migaama dialect); Fityari (Doga dialect); Game and Julkulkili (Gamiya dialect); Mala (Dambiya dialect). Population: 20,000 (2000 W. Chesley). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 23,000 (1991 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Dionkor, Djonkor, Dyongor, Jongor, Jonkor, Migama, “Djonkor Abou Telfane” (pej.). Autonym: Migaama. Dialects: Migaama, Doga, Gamiya, Dambiya (Ndambiya). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1.

More Information

Miltu
[mlj] Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, Miltou town area; Moyen-Chari region. Population: 270 (1993 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Miltou. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 27% with Sarua [swy], Somrai [sor], Gadang [gdk], and Ndam [ndm], 36% with Boor [bvf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2.

More Information

Mogum
[mou] Guéra region: Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture; Guéra department, Bitkine and Mongo subprefectures. Population: 7,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mogoum. Dialects: Jegu, Kofa (Koffa), Mogum Délé, Mogum Diguimi, Mogum Urmi. Dialect subgroup. Mogum Diguimi may not be a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: more than 96% among dialects. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1.

More Information

Morom
[bdo] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture; Hadjer-Lamis region: Dababa department, Bokoro and Gama subprefectures. Population: 4,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bernde, Tar Murba. Dialects: Bayo, Morbo, Morom. Bolong may be a dialect of Kenga [kyq]. Lexical similarity: 59% with Bagirmi [bmi], 53%–72% with Kenga, 54%–73% with Jaya [jyy], 55%–70% with Naba [mne], 55%–70% with the Bilala dialect of Naba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

More Information

Mpade
[mpi] Hadjer-Lamis region: Haraze Al Biar department, Mani subprefecture, south of Lake Chad; N’Djamena town; Mani area on Logone river, north of N’Djamena. Population: Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kotoko-Makari, Makari. Dialects: Makari, Bodo, Woulki, Digam. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North.

More Information

Mser
[kqx] Chari-Baguirmi and Ville de N’Djamena regions; to Cameroon border. Population: Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Klesem, Kotoko-Kuseri, Kousseri, Kuseri. Dialects: Mser (Kousseri, Msir), Kalo (Kalakafra), Gawi, Houlouf, Kabe. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South.

More Information

Mubi
[mub] Batha region: widespread; Guéra region: Guéra department, Mangalmé subprefecture, 135 villages in Mangalmé area. Population: 35,300 (1993 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Moubi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Zirenkel [zrn], 35% with Dangaléat [daa]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2.

More Information

Mukulu
[moz] Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, Djarkatché, Doli, Gougué, Morgué, Moukoulou, and Séguine villages below Guera massif. Population: 12,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diongor Guera, Djonkor Guera, Dyongor Guera, Guerguiko, Jonkor-Gera, Mokoulou, Mokulu. Autonym: Gergiko. Dialects: Mokilko, Seginki, Doliki, Moriko, Mezimko, Gugiko. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.2.

More Information

Mulgi
[mvh] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture. Population: 5,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mire. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Ndam [ndm], 32% with Kimré [kqp]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1.

More Information

Mundang
[mua] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mont d’Illi department, Léré area, Fianga; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lac Léré and Mayo-Dallah departments, Léré and Pala. Population: 282,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 326,700. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Moundan, Moundang, Nda. Autonym: záá múndàŋ. Dialects: Kabi (Kieziere), Zasing (Torrock-Kaélé, Yasing). A subdialect of Kabi is Kieziere, of Zasing is Torrock-Kaélé. Lexical similarity: 10% with Mambai [mcs]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai.

More Information

Musey
[mse] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Kabbia and Mont d’Illi departments, Fianga, Gounou Gaya; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: small border enclave; Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, Kélo. Population: 308,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 358,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bananna, Bananna Ho Ho, Mosi, Moussei, Moussey, Musei, Mussoi, Mussoy. Autonym: Museyna. Dialects: Bongor-Jodo-Tagal-Berem-Gunu, Pe-Holom-Gamé, Jaraw-Domo. Some intelligibility of Masana [mcn]. Marba [mpg] (Azumeina) is reportedly most similar linguistically. All dialects mutually intelligible. Dialect names are village names. Pe dialect is in Cameroon. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

More Information

Musgu
[mug] Chari-Baguirmi region: small area, Chari river east bank; Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture; Ville de N’Djamena: between Chari and Logone rivers. Population: 24,400 in Chad (1993 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Mouloui, Mousgou, Mousgoum, Mousgoun, Mulwi, Munjuk, Musgum, Musuk. Dialects: Mpus (Mousgoum de Pouss, Musgum-Pouss, Pouss, Pus), Beege (Jafga), Vulum (Mulwi-Mogroum, Vlum), Muzuk (Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidik). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2.

More Information

Muskum
[mje] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye and Mayo-Lemie departments, Bongor subprefecture. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker survived into the late 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Muzgum. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Musgu [mug]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2.

More Information

Naba
[mne] Barh el Gazel region: southeast; Batha region: Batha Est department, Ati subprefecture, Batha Ouest department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture; Lake Fitri area east to Ati (Bilala dialect); Bokoro subprefecture, Moïto to Bokoro, and Ati to Oum Hadjer (Kuka dialect); southwest of Ati (Medogo dialect). Population: 410,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). 137,000 Bilala, 76,700 Kuka, and 19,200 Medogo. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Bilala (Bilaala, Boulala, Bulala, Ma, Mage), Kuka (Kouka, Lisi), Medogo (Modogo, Mud). Related but not inherently intelligible of Berakou [bxv] or Kenga [kyq]. Lexical similarity: between Bilala, Kuka, and Medogo dialects is 99%. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Bagirmi.

More Information

Nancere
[nnc] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, Béré, Delban, and Kélo subprefectures. Population: 81,000 (2007 B. Keineng), increasing. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Nanchere, Nangcere, Nangjere, Nangtchere, Nanjeri, Nantcere. Dialects: Mire, Bolo, Kwale, Nancere du Centre. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1.

More Information

Ndam
[ndm] South Chari-Baguirmi, north Mandoul, and northwest Moyen-Chari regions; Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture, northeast of Lai, and southeast of Bousso d’Béré. Population: 6,500 (1990 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dam, Ndamm. Dialects: Ndam-Ndam (Southern Ndam), Ndam Dik (Northern Ndam). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1.

More Information

Ngam
[nmc] Mandoul region: Barh Sara department, Dembo subprefecture, Maro area; Moyen-Chari region: Grande Sido department, Maro. Nara in Djéké canton (Kle dialect); Djéké canton (Kon Ngam dialect); Barh Kôh department, Maro canton and Moussafoyo subprefecture (Ngam Tel dialect); Maro, Moyo, and Danamadji (Ngam Tira dialect). Population: 43,700 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 61,400. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngahm, Ngama, Ngamh, Sarngam. Dialects: Ngam Tel, Ngam Tira, Kon Ngam, Kle, Ngam Gir Bor. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Ngambay
[sba] Logone Occidental region; Logone Oriental region: Lanya department, Bébedjia; La Nya Pendé department, Goré subprefecture; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Mayo-Dallah department; Mayo-Kebbi Est and Tandjilé regions; centered in Moundou area. Population: 1,320,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,377,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Gamba, Gambaye, Gamblai, Ngambai, Sara Ngambai, Sara-Ngambay. Dialects: Lara, Benoye, Murum (Mouroum), Kere, Bemar (Daba de Goré). Some consider Laka [lap] to be a dialect of Ngambay. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Ngete
[nnn] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Mayo-Dallah department, Ngeté village area east of Pala; south Mayo-Kebbi Est region. Population: 10,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ka’do Ngueté, Nge’dé, Nguetté, Ngueté, Zime. Dialects: None known. Linguistic and sociolinguistic differences with Pévé [lme] and Herdé [hed]. Used by outsiders to refer to this and related languages: Herdé, Pévé, Mesmé [zim]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

More Information

Niellim
[nie] Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Niellim town area, Chari river southwest bank. Niou on the northeast bank (Niou dialect). Population: 5,160 (1993 census). 1,000 in Sarh city; 400 in Niou dialect. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lua, Mjillem, Nielim, Nyilem. Dialects: Niellim, Tchini (Cini, Cuni), Niou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

More Information

Noy
[noy] Mandoul and Moyen-Chari regions, Bédaya, Djoli, Koumra, Koumogo, and Sarh villages. Population: 36 (1993 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Loo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

More Information

Nzakambay
[nzy] Logone Oriental region: Monts de Lam department, Baïbokoum subprefecture on Cameroon border near Baïbokoum. Monts de Lam area (Zoli dialect). Population: 18,500 in Chad (2000). Total users in all countries: 31,500. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Mboum, Mbum, Mbum Nzakambay, Njakambai, Nzak Mbai, Nzaka Mbay, Nzakmbay. Autonym: Nzakambay. Dialects: Nzakambay, Zoli. Reportedly similar to Karang [kzr] and Kuo [xuo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang.

More Information

Pana
[pnz] Logone Oriental region: Diahoke and Giriwon villages (Gonge dialect); Makele village (Pana dialect). Population: 1,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pani. Dialects: Pana, Gonge. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang.

More Information

Pévé
[lme] Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lamé is center. Population: 30,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Total users in all countries: 35,720. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ka’do Pevé, Lamé, Zime, “Kado” (pej.). Dialects: Lamé, Doe (Doué), Dari. Related to Herdé [hed] and Ngeté [nnn] with differences in phonology, grammar, and ethnic attitudes. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa.

More Information

Runga
[rou] Ouaddaï region; Salamat region: Haraze-Mangueigne department; Sila region. Population: 21,500 in Chad (1993 census), decreasing. Total users in all countries: 43,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aiki, Ayki, Aykindang, Rounga, Roungo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kibet [kie]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Runga-Kibet.

More Information

Saba
[saa] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, northeast of Melfi. Population: 1,340 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jelkung. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3.

More Information

Sango
[sag] Widespread in southern Chad. Population: Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sangho. Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based.

More Information

Sar
[mwm] Mandoul and Moyen-Chari regions: Balimba, Bédaya, Bessada, Djoli, Koumogo, Koumra, Matékaga, and Sarh cantons. Population: 183,000 (1993 census). 74,700 Madjingay (1964), 16,300 No (1964), 32,000 Nar (1977). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Madjingay, Sara, Sara Madjingay, Sara Madjingaye. Autonym: Majngany. Dialects: Majingai (Madja Ngai, Madjingay, Madjingaye, Majinngay), Nar, No. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

More Information

Sarua
[swy] Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, between Bousso and Miltou along Chari river. Population: 2,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Saroua, Sarwa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 42% with Gadang [gdk], 27% with Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2.

More Information

Sinyar
[sys] Ouaddaï region; Sila region: near confluence of Azum, Kaja, and Salih rivers. Population: 12,300 (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shamya, Shamyan, Shemya, Sinya, Symiarta, Taar Shamyan, Zimirra. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sinyar.

More Information

Sokoro
[sok] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Badanga to Gogmi; Hadjer-Lamis region: southeast. Population: 5,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Sokoro, Bedanga. Lexical similarity: 55% with Tamki [tax]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3.

More Information

Somrai
[sor] Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture northeast of Lai, Domogou is center. Population: 7,410 (1993 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Sibine, Somray, Somre, Somrei, Soumrai, Soumray, Sounrai, Sumrai. Autonym: Shibne. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of any other language. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ndam [ndm], 39% with Sarua [swy], 35% with Gadang [gdk], 33% with Tumak [tmc], 28% with Miltu [mlj]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1.

More Information

Surbakhal
[sbj] Ouaddaï region: Assoungha department, Adré subprefecture, between Alacha and Hadjer Hadid. Population: 7,890 (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sourbakhal. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Masalit [mls]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Surbakhal.

More Information

Tama
[tma] Wadi Fira region: Dar Tama department, Guéréda area; some in Ouaddaï region. Population: 62,900 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 67,900. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Miisiirii, Tamok, Tamongobo, Tamot. Dialects: Tama, Orra, Haura, Girga. Lexical similarity: 62%–73% with Assangori [sjg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Tama, Tama-Sungor.

More Information

Tamki
[tax] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Tamki village. Population: 500 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Temki. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Sokoro [sok]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Saba [saa], 55% with Sokoro [sok], 32% with Mawa [mcw]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3.

More Information

Tedaga
[tuq] Borkou, Ennedi-Ouest, and Kanem regions; Tibesti region: Bardai area; all in far north desert. Population: 28,500 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 42,970. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tebou, Tebu, Teda, Teda-Daza, Tibbu, Toda, Todaga, Todga, Toubou, Tubu, Tuda, Tudaga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu.

More Information

Tobanga
[tng] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: west; Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Deressia subprefecture. Population: 30,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gabri, Gabri-Nord, Gabri-North, Northern Gabri. Dialects: Mande, Tobanga (Deressia). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2.

More Information

Toram
[trj] Salamat region: Aboudeïa department, in and west of Ter. Population: 8,460 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Torom, Torum. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2.

More Information

Tumak
[tmc] Mandoul region: Mandoul Oriental department, Gouindi subprefecture; northwest Moyen-Chari and east Tandjilé regions. Population: 25,200 (1993 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dije, Sara Toumak, Toumak, Tumac, Tumag, Tummok. Dialects: Tumak, Motun (Mawer, Mod, Moden, Modin, Mot, Motin). Lexical similarity: 71% with Motun dialect. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1.

More Information

Tunia
[tug] Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Sarh and 3 small villages north. Population: 2,260 (1993 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tounia, Tun, Tunya. Dialects: Tunya, Perim. Not intelligible of other Bua languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

More Information

Tupuri
[tui] Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mont d’Illi department, Fianga area. Population: 154,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ndore, Toubouri, Toupouri, Tuburi. Dialects: Bang-Ling, Bang-Were, Faale-Piyew, Podokge. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai.

More Information

Ubi
[ubi] Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, Oubi village area. Population: 1,100 (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Oubi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48% with Mawa [mcw] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1.

More Information

Zaghawa
[zag] Ennedi Est and Ennedi Ouest regions; Wadi Fira region: Kobé department, Iriba, Matadjana, and Tiné Djagaraba subprefectures. Population: 128,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri, Beri-Aa, Beria, Berri, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua. Dialects: Tuer-Gala (Anna, Awe, Baele, Beria, Terawia), Kobe-Kapka, Dirong-Guruf, Tuba (Bideyat). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern.

More Information

Zan Gula
[zna] Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Chinguil; Moyen-Chari region: northwest of Lake Iro. Population: 5,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goula, Gula Guera, Moriil, Morre. Autonym: More. Dialects: Zan, Chinguil. Lexical similarity: 46% with Bon Gula [glc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Bua.

More Information

Zerenkel
[zrn] Guéra region: Mongo subprefecture, Canton Dadjo I, Dambiro, Nikel, and Sirbodom villages. Population: 2,240 (1993 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zirenkel. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Mubi [mub], 34%–36% with Dangaléat [daa] (East, Central, and Western). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2.

More Information

Page Views Left: