Togo

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Adangbe
[adq] Plateaux region: Togo, Ghana border directly east of Ho. 4,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adan, Adantonwi, Agotime, Dangbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Comments: Different from but related to Dangme [ada]. The Adan and Agotime are separate ethnic groups who speak Adangbe.

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Adele
[ade] Centrale region: Sotouboua prefecture. 26,400 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 37,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedere, Bidire, Gadre, Gidere. Autonym: Gidire. Dialects: Upper Adele. Intelligibility: 85%–90% between dialects, minor differences in tone and lexicon. Ghana and Togo dialects differ. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele. Comments: Different from Lidzonka (Adere) [add] of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Aguna
[aug] Plateaux region: Moyen-Mono prefecture; Maritime region: Lacs and Yoto prefectures, north and south of ‘Forêt de Togodo’, both sides of Mono river; Lomé and other towns south. 14,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aguna-gbe, Agunaco, Agunagbe, Agunaný, Awuna. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Some villages in the Aguna language area also have Ifè [ife], Fon [fon] and Aja [ajg] speakers; one reportedly had Kabiye [kbp] speakers. (2006 G. Faton).

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Aja
[ajg] Maritime region: Lacs and Yoto prefectures, east of Mono river; Plateaux region: Haho, Moyen-Mono, and Ogou prefectures, Mono river area, southeast of Atakpame town. 190,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adja, Ajagbe. Dialects: Dogo, Hwe (Ehoue), Tado (Tadou), Sikpi (Shikpi), Tala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Tado and Tala speakers are mainly in Togo. Traditional religion.

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Akaselem
[aks] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture east of Sokodé. 59,200 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akasele, Cemba, Chamba, Kamba, Kasele, Tchamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham. Comments: Muslim.

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Akebu
[keu] Plateaux region: Agou and Wawa prefectures east of Ghana, mostly Djon, Kamina, Kougnohou, Sérégbéné, and Yala. 70,300 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akebou, Akébou, Ekpeebhe, Ekpeebhibhe, Gakagba, Kabu, Kebu, Kegberike, Kébou, kekpeerike. Autonym: Kǝkpǝǝ-kǝ. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: LSAF, Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone, Togo Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Although many people say they use ASL in Togo, they generally do not understand nor sign standard ASL from the United States. However, the sign language in Togo has not been separately recognized by ISO 639-3.

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Anii
[blo] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, Afem, Balanka, Kouloumi, and Nandjoubi villages. 15,300 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akpe, Baseca, Basila, Bassila, Gisida, “Ounji-Ounji” (pej.), “Winji-Winji” (pej.). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele. Comments: Each village has a distinct speech variety name, and that of Balanka is hard to understand. Muslim.

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Anufo
[cko] Savanes region: Oti prefecture, Mango town area. 72,100 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi, Tiokossi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bago-Kusuntu
[bqg] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, mostly Bagou and Koussountou. 9,900 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koussountou. Autonym: Bagó, Kusuńtú. Dialects: Bago, Kusuntu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Muslim.

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Biali
[beh] Savanes region: Kpendjal prefecture, along Benin border. 2,580 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern.

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Bissa
[bib] Savanes region: Tone prefecture, Burkina Faso border. 12,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bisa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Delo
[ntr] Centrale region: Sotouboua prefecture; Plateaux region: Wawa prefecture, near Ghana border. 7,500 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ntribou, Ntribu, Ntrubo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ditammari
[tbz] Kara region: Kéran prefecture, mostly Koutougou, Nadoba, Wantema, and Warengo; Savanes region, Oti prefecture, western corner. 34,300 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bataba, Batammarab, Soma, Some, Tamari, Tamberma, “Somba” (pej.). Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Éwé
[ewe] Widespread. Maritime and Plateaux regions: south of Atakpamé. Kpalimé, Notsé, and Tsévié are main centers. 862,000 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ehwe, Eibe, Eve, Krepe, Krepi, Popo, Vhe. Dialects: Adan, Agu, Anglo (Anlo, Awlan), Aveno, Be, Gbin, Ho, Kpelen, Togo, Vlin, Vo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Fon
[fon] Plateaux region: north and south Atakpamé, scattered small groups. 35,500 (1991). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Dahomeen, Djedji, Fo, Fogbe, Fon-Gbe, Fonnu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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French
[fra] 3,013,000 in Togo, all users. L1 users: 3,000 (1993). L2 users: 3,010,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Borgu
[fue] Kara and Savannes regions; scattered small groups. 48,200 (Johnstone 1993). Often speak the language of their home base as a second language (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Benin-Togo Fulfulde, Fulani, Peul, Peulh. Dialects: Atakora Fulfulde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Gbe, Maxi
[mxl] Plateaux region: north and south of Atakpamé; isolated villages south. 25,300 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahi, Maxi-Gbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gbe, Waci
[wci] Maritime region: Bas-Mono, Lacs, Vo, and Yoto prefectures, mostly Attitogon, Tabligbo, and Vogan. 366,000 (1991). Total users in all countries: 424,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ouatchi, Wachi, Waci, Waci-Gbe, Watyi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Western Xwla
[xwl] Maritime region: southeast Lacs prefecture, along Mono river. 21,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gen
[gej] Maritime region: Lacs prefecture, east of Lomé toward Benin border. 201,000 (1991). Total users in all countries: 325,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ge, Gebe, Guin, Mina, Mina-Gen, Popo. Autonym: Gen-Gbe. Dialects: Anexo, Gliji, Agoi, Gen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina.

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Ginyanga
[ayg] Centrale region: Blitta prefecture, west and south of Blitta town. 16,500 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Ethnic population: 12,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agnagan, Anyanga, Genyanga. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Gikyode [acd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Gikyode [acd] (Ghana) language materials not well understood. Traditional religion.

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Gourmanchéma
[gux] Savanes region: Kpendjal prefecture; east Tone prefecture, Mandouri subprefecture, mostly Korbongou and Mandouri. 204,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gourma, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gurma, Migulimancema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ifè
[ife] Centrale region: west Tchamba prefecture; Plateaux region: Anié, Est-Mono, and north Ogou prefectures, mostly Atakpamé, Dadja, Ese-Ana, and Kamina. 127,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 170,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ana, Ana-Ifé, Anago, Baate, Ede Ife. Autonym: Ifè. Dialects: Tschetti, Djama, Dadja. Ede language subgroup member. Lexical similarity: 78% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 87%–91% with Ede Nago [xkb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Igo
[ahl] Plateaux region: far northwest Danyi prefecture, Bogo-Ahlon canton, Sassanou village area. 7,600 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achlo, Ago, Ahlon, Ahlon-Bogo, Ahlõ, Ahonlan, Anlo, Bogo. Autonym: Igo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Comments: Official name: Ahlon. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ikposo
[kpo] Plateaux region: Amou, Ogou, and Wawa prefectures, mostly Amlamé, Amou-Oblo, and Atakpamé. 155,000 (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 162,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akposo, Akposso, Kposo. Autonym: Ikposo. Dialects: Amou Oblou, Ikponu, Iwi (Uwi), Litime (Badou), Logbo, Uma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kabiyè
[kbp] Widespread. 975,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 984,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabre, Kabure, Kabye. Autonym: Kabɩyɛ, Kabɩyɛ Tɔm. Dialects: Kewe, Kijang, Lama-Tissi, Boufale. Lexical similarity: 60% between Kabiye [kbp], Lama [las], Tem [kdh], and Lukpa [dop]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Konkomba
[xon] Kara region: Dankpen prefecture, Ghana border, Guérin-Kouka, Kidjaloum, and Nawaré; Savanes region: south Oti prefecture. 84,700 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Likpakpaanl. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kpessi
[kef] Centrale region: Nyamassila area west of Mono river; Plateaux region: Est Mono prefecture. 4,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpesi, Kpetchi, Kpési, Kpétsi. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Éwé [ewe] (1998 SIL). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kusaal
[kus] Savanes region: Cinkassé area, near Burkina Faso and Ghana borders. 1,200 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kusaas. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast.

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Lama
[las] Widespread. Significant presence in Lomé. 198,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 258,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamba, Losso. Autonym: Lama. Dialects: Kande (Kante), Kadjala (Kadjalla), Defale. Reportedly similar to Tem [kdh] and Kabiye [kbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lukpa
[dop] Centrale region: a few villages; Kara region: Binah prefecture along Benin border. 17,900 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dompago, Legba, Logba, Lokpa, Lugba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Different from Logba [lgq] of Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mampruli
[maw] Savanes region: Tone prefecture, 2 villages near Ghana border. 10,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Mbelime
[mql] Kara region: Kéran prefecture, Koko Tamberma canton. 2,300 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bebelibe, Bèbèdibè, Oubièlo, Ubielo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern.

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Miyobe
[soy] Kara region: Solla prefecture. 14,900 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bijobe, Biyobe, Kuyobe, Kyobe, Sola, Solamba, Solla, Sorouba, Soruba, Uyobe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma.

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Moba
[mfq] Savanes region: Tandjoaré prefecture, into Oti and Tône prefectures, mainly Bombouaka and Dapaong towns. 319,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 320,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jifelm, Moa, Moab, Moare. Autonym: Muaba. Dialects: Natchaba, Ben, Lok, Yanbann. Limited intelligibility of Bimoba [bim] in Ghana, although related. Diverse dialect situation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mòoré
[mos] Savanes region: Cinkassé prefecture, Cinkassé, Tabi, and Timbou villages north of Dapaong. 33,300 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mole, Moose, More, Moshi, Mossi. Dialects: Yanga (Jaan, Timbou, Yaan, Yam, Yan, Yana). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest.

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Nago, Northern
[xkb] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, Kambolé town area, Benin border. 40,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kambolé, Southwest Ede. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nawdm
[nmz] Centrale region: Sotouboua and Tchamba prefectures; Kara region: Bassar and Doufelgou prefectures, Niamtougou area; Plateaux region: Amou, Est-Mono, Haho, and Wawa prefectures; many in Lomé. 146,000 (2012 SIL). 7,300 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Losso, Losu, Naoudem, Naudm, Nawdam. Autonym: Nawdm. Dialects: West Nawdm (Baga, Koka, Niamtougou), East Nawdm (Siou Canton), Central Nawdm (Bana’, Tenega). Reportedly similar to Yom [pil]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm. Comments: Exonym: Losso. L1 speakers may use this term with outsiders. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ngangam
[gng] Kara region: small area in Kéran prefecture; Savanes region: Oti prefecture, Gando-Namoni, Koumongou, Kountouri, and Mogou areas. 57,400 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 77,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dye, Gando, Gangam, Gangum, Migangam, Mijiem, Nbangam, Ngangan. Autonym: Miganganm. Dialects: Motiem (Mogou), Koumongou. Reportedly similar to Konkomba [xon], Ntcham [bud], Moba [mfq], and Gurmanchema [gux]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Anufo villages also in the area. Gando is considered the center of economic and religious life. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ntcham
[bud] Kara region: Bassar and eastern Dankpen prefectures, Bangeli, Bitchabe, Dimori, Kabou, and Kalanga areas. 160,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 329,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basar, Basare, Basari, Bassar, Bassari, Ncam, Tobote. Autonym: Ncham. Dialects: Ntaapum, Ceemba, Dipiitil. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tem
[kdh] Centrale region: Sotouboua and Tchaoudjo prefectures, Bafilo, Sokode, and Sotouboua; Kara region: Assoli and Bassar prefectures; Plateaux region: north Agou prefecture near Badou. 234,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 381,300. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Temba, Tim, Timu. Autonym: Tem. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Wudu
[wud] Plateaux region: Amou prefecture, some near Atakpame. 2,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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