Thailand

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Aheu
[thm] Sakon Nakhon province: Song Dao district, Thavung, 3 villages. Population: 450 in Thailand (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Phon Soung, So, So Thavung, Sotawueng, Thavung. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung.

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Akeu
[aeu] Chiang Rai province: Mae Suai and Wiang Pa Pao districts. Population: 400 in Thailand (2006 E. Johnson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akheu, Aki, Akui, Gaolkheel, Gokhy. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Akha
[ahk] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, and Mae Hong Son provinces. 250 villages. Population: 56,600 in Thailand (Bradley 2007a). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Ak’a, Aka, Ikor, Yani, “Ekaw” (pej.), “Ikaw” (pej.), “Kaw” (pej.), “Kha Ko” (pej.), “Khako” (pej.), “Khao Kha Ko” (pej.), “Ko” (pej.). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Ban Khor Sign Language
[bfk] Lampang province: Ban Khor village. Population: 400 (Nonaka 2009), all users. Conservative estimate: 15%–25% of the village signs to some extent. L1 users: 16 deaf users, plus an unknown number of hearing L1 users. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: BKSL, Pasa Kidd. Dialects: None known. Not related to Thai Sign Language [tsq] or original sign languages of Thailand such as Chiangmai Sign Language [csd]. Other villages with high incidence of deafness are also reported in rural Thailand: Huay Hai, Plaa Pag, and Na Sai (Nonaka 2004). Classification: Sign language.

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Bisu
[bzi] Chiang Rai province: Doi Chomphu and Pui Kham villages. Population: 700 (2016 K. Person). No monolinguals (2015 K. Person). Ethnic population: 700 (2018 K. Person). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lawa, Lua, Mbisu, Mibisu. Dialects: None known. Similar to Laomian [lwm] and Pyen [pyy]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Hani [hni], 32% with Lahu [lhu], 31% with Lisu [lis]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid.

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Blang
[blr] Chiang Rai province: Mae Sai and Mae Chan districts; some west of Bangkok. Population: 1,200 in Thailand (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulang, Hkawa, K’ala, K’wa, Kawa, Khon Doi, Kontoi, Plang, Pula, Pulang, Sen Chun, Wa. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang.

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Bru, Western
[brv] Ubon Ratchathani, Mukdahan, Nakhon Phanom, and Sakon Nakhon provinces. Population: 20,000 in Thailand (1991). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: B’ru, Baru, Bruu. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible with Eastern Bru [bru]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru.

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Cham, Western
[cja] Krung Thep province: Ban Khrue section of city (Bangkok), otherwise scattered. Population: 4,000 in Thailand. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cambodian Cham, Cham, New Cham, Tjam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham.

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Chiangmai Sign Language
[csd] Chiang Mai province: Scattered. Population: 19 (Woodward and Wongchai 2015), decreasing. 19 is an estimated maximum. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chiengmai Sign Language, OCMSL, Old Chiang Mai Sign Language, Old Chiangmai Sign Language, Original Chiang Mai Sign Language, Original Chiangmai Sign Language. Dialects: None known. Based on lexical comparisons, is related to Original Bangkok Sign Language (no ISO code) and to Haiphong Sign Language [haf] in Viet Nam (Woodward 2000). Distinct from Thai Sign Language [tsq], but contributed some vocabulary to it (Woodward 1997). Classification: Sign language.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Chiang Mai province; Krung Thep province: Samphanthawong district; Nakhon Ratchasima and Udon Thani provinces: urban areas; Nan province: Mueang district and municipal districts. Population: 58,800 in Thailand (1984). Status: 5* (Developing). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Krung Thep province: dispersed through provincial towns and south in Kra peninsula. Population: 5,880 in Thailand (1984). There are 112,000 people who use Chinese at home (2010 census), the majority being Mandarin with some Yue Chinese [yue] speakers. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Dialects: Ho (Cin Haw, Haw, Hui, Hui-Tze, Hwei, Panghse, Pantha, Panthe, Pathee, Western Mandarin, Yunnanese). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Chumphon and Nakhon Si Thammarat provinces: main towns Chandi, Nabon, and Lamae. Population: Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Min. Dialects: Fuzhou (Foochow, Fuchow). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Krung Thep province; used in capital cities of Chiang Mai, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Udon Thani provinces; used in other urban areas. Southern Min constitute the majority of Thai Chinese and speak the Teochew dialect. Population: 1,080,000 in Thailand (1984). 1,060,000 Chaochow (18%), 17,600 Fujian (less than 1%), 5,880 Hainanese (less than 1%) (1984). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Banlamgi, Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Hainan, Teochew (Chaochow, Chaozhou, Techu, Teochow, Tiuchiu), Hokkien (Fujian, Fukien). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Scattered in Suphan Buri province: north of Bangkok. Population: 29,400 in Thailand (1984). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chong
[cog] Chanthaburi province: Khao Khitchakut district, 4 villages; Trat province. Population: 500 in Thailand (Bradley 2007b), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chawng, Chuang, Shong, Xong. Dialects: None known. Related to Somray [smu] in Cambodia. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong.

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Hmong Daw
[mww] Phetchabun, Tak, Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Nan, Chiang Rai, Phitsanulok, Loei, Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet, Phrae, Phayao, Uttaradit, and Lampang provinces. Population: 32,400 in Thailand (2000). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Chuan Miao, Hmong Der, Hmoob Dawb, Pe Miao, Peh Miao, White Hmong, White Lum, White Miao, “Meo Kao” (pej.), “White Meo” (pej.). Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Miao Lai, Striped Hmong), Petchabun Miao. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Kamphaeng Phet, Loei, Mae Hong Son, Nan, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phrae, Sukhothai, Tak, Uthai Thani, and Uttaradit provinces. Population: 60,000 in Thailand (Hattaway 2003). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Miao, Mong Leng, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao, “Blue Meo” (pej.), “Green Meo” (pej.), “Meo Dam” (pej.), “Meo Lai” (pej.). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian.

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Iu Mien
[ium] Chiang Rai, Phayao, Lampang, Kamphaeng Phet, and Nan provinces; possibly in Chiang Mai and Sukhothai provinces. 159 villages. Population: 21,200 in Thailand (Luangthongkum 2007). Based on ethnicity. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Highland Yao, Iu Mienh, Mian, Mien, Mienh, Myen, Pan Yao, Yao, Yao Mienh, Yiu Mien, Youmian. Dialects: Chiangrai. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin.

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Jehai
[jhi] Narathiwat province. Population: Ethnic population: 150 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern.

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Karen, Phrae Pwo
[kjt] Phrae, Lampang, and Chiang Rai provinces. Population: 6,000 (Dawkins and Phillips 2009a). Total Karen: 441,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northeastern Pwo Karen, Phrae, Prae, Pwo Phrae. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Pwo Karen languages. Lexical similarity: 87% with Northern Pwo Karen [pww] of Thailand, 67%–71% with other Pwo Karen varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral.

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Karen, Pwo Northern
[pww] Chiang Mai, Lamphun, and Tak provinces; Mae Hong Son province: Mae Sarieng town, Mae Ngaw along Salween river, 15–25 villages, Hot to Mae Sarieng. Population: 60,000 (1983 SIL). Total Karen: 441,000 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Phlon, Phlong. Dialects: Mae Ping, Omkoi (Hod), Mae Sarieng. Dialects mutually intelligible. Pwo Karen of Phrae [kjt], Kanchanaburi, and Hua Hin are not intelligible with these. Lexical similarity: 87% with Phrae province Pwo Karen [kjt] of Thailand, 68%–73% with other Pwo Karen. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral.

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Karen, Pwo West-Central Thailand
[kjp] Kanchanaburi, Phetchaburi, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ratchaburi, Suphan Buri, and Uthai Thani provinces; Tak province: Umphang and Phop Phra districts. Kanchanaburi dialect is north, Ratchaburi-Phetchaburi dialect is south. Population: 50,000 in Thailand (1998). Total Karen: 441,000 (2010 census. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Phlou, Southern Pwo Karen. Dialects: Kanchanaburi Pwo Karen, Ratchaburi Pwo Karen (Phetchaburi Pwo Karen). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral.

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Karen, S’gaw
[ksw] Tak, Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Kanchanaburi, and Kamphaeng Phet provinces, near Myanmar border. Population: 200,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Total Karen: 441,000 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Burmese Karen, Kanyaw, Karen, Paganyaw, Pwakanyaw, S’gau, S’gaw, S’gaw Kayin, White, Yang Khao. Dialects: Panapu, Palakhi (Palachi). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern.

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Kayah, Eastern
[eky] Mae Hong Son province: east of Salween river. Population: 18,000 in Thailand (2000). 2 camps of 15,000 refugees from Myanmar. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Karennyi, Kayah, Kayay, Kayeh, Red Karen, “Yang Daeng” (pej.). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central.

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Kensiu
[kns] Yala province: Thanto district. Population: 9 in Thailand (2015 N. Bishop). Ethnic population: 250 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Belubn, Kansiw, Kense, Kenseu, Kensieu, Kensiw, Maniq, Mawas, Mengo, Meni, Menik, Moni, Monik, Moniq, Mos, Ngok Pa, Orang Bukit, Orang Liar, Tiong, “Sakai” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western.

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Khamen Padong
[scq] Kanchanaburi province: Si Sawat district, Ban Thung Na. Population: 20 in Thailand (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chung, Padong Khmer, Ut. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong.

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Khmer, Northern
[kxm] Surin, Buriram, Chanthaburi, Sisaket, and Ubon Ratchathani provinces. Population: 1,400,000 (2006 Mahidol University), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Khmer Lue, Thailand Khmer, Upper Khmer. Autonym: เขมรถิ่นไทย‎ (khmĕ :n thìn thai). Dialects: Buriram, Surin, Sisaket. Different from Khmer [khm]. Dialects mutually intelligible. Many local varieties. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer.

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Khmu
[kjg] Chiang Rai, Nan, and Phayao provinces. Scattered throughout Thailand. Population: 6,250 in Thailand (Luangthongkum 2007). Based on ethnicity. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Kha Khmu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Kmhmu, Luu, Mou, Pouteng, Tmooy. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’.

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Khün
[kkh] Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces. Population: 6,280 in Thailand (2000). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Gon Shan, Hkun, Khuen, Khun Shan, Tai Khun. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Kintaq
[knq] Southern Yala province. Population: 1 in Thailand (2017 N. Bishop). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kenta, Kintaq Bong, Kintk, Maniq. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western.

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Kuay
[kdt] Surin, Buriram, Sisaket, and Ubon Ratchathani provinces: near Cambodian and Laos borders. Population: 400,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Few monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 456,600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cuoi, Khamen-Boran, Kui, Kui Souei, Kuoy, Kuy, Soai, Suai, Suay, Suei, Sui, Suoi. Autonym: กวย‎ (Kuay), กูย‎ (Kuuy). Dialects: Chang (Suai Chang), Nheu, Kuay. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay.

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Lahu
[lhu] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Kamphaeng Phet, Mae Hong Son, Yala provinces: 119 known villages. Population: 32,000 in Thailand (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Muhso, Muhsur, Mussar, Musso, Mussuh, “Lohei” (pej.). Dialects: Lahu Na (Black Lahu, Loheirn, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Lahu Nyi, Lahunyi, Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh (Lahu Shehleh). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Lahu Si
[lhi] Chiang Rai, Lampang, and Chiang Mai provinces; near Pua and Nan; separate enclaves in Tak and Phayao provinces. Population: 15,000 in Thailand (2007). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lahu Shi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Lawa, Eastern
[lwl] Chiang Mai province: Hot district, Bo Luang and Bo Sali sub-districts, 16 villages. Population: 7,000 (Nahhas 2011). Ethnic population: 8,000 (Nahhas 2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lavua, “Lua” (pej.). Autonym: ละเวือะ‎ (Lawa). Dialects: Bo Luang, Bo Sangae. Not intelligible of most Western Lawa dialects [lcp]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Lawa.

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Lawa, Western
[lcp] Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Son provinces. Population: 8,000 (Nahhas 2011). Ethnic population: 8,500 (Nahhas 2011). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: L’wa, Lava, Lavua, Lavüa, Mae Hong Son Lawa, Mountain Lawa, Omphai Lawa, “Lua” (pej.), “Luwa” (pej.). Dialects: La-up, Omphai, Northern Western Lawa. Each village has a distinct accent. Ban Kok Luang, a village of the Northern group, has the most distinct dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Lawa.

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Lisu
[lis] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Kamphaeng Phet, Mae Hong Son, Phayao, Sukhothai, and Tak provinces. Population: 40,000 in Thailand (Bradley 2007b). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Li-Hsaw, Li-Shaw, Lisaw, Liso, Lu-Tzu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw Yin, Yaw-Yen, Yeh-Jen. Dialects: Lu Shi Lisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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[khb] Nan and Phayao provinces; scattered in north. Population: 83,000 in Thailand (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Lu, Lue, Pai-I, Pai-Yi, Shui-Pai-I, Tai Lu, Tai Lue, Thai Lu. Dialects: Yong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Mal
[mlf] Nan province: east of Pua district and Chiang Kam, valley near northern Laos border. Population: 3,500 in Thailand (1982 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ht’in, Khatin, Lua, Ma’di, T’in, Thin, Tin. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Prai.

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Malay, Pattani
[mfa] Narathiwat, Pattani, and Yala provinces; Songkhla province: Saba Yoi and Thepha districts. Population: 1,470,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jawi, Jawi-Malay, Yawi, oré Jawi. Autonym: ภาษายาวี‎ (Baso Jawi). Dialects: None known. Different from Kedah Malay [meo] and Standard Malay [zsm]. Also different from Patani [ptn]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Malay, Satun
[meo] A few villages near Satun. Isolated. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kedah Malay. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Mlabri
[mra] Nan province: Na Noi and Wiang Sa districts; Phrae province: Rong Kwang and Song districts. Population: 400 in Thailand (2017 F. Lipsius), increasing. Ethnic population: 400 (2017 F. Lipsius). Total users in all countries: 440. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Luang, Ma Ku, Mabri, Mla, Mrabri, Yumbri, “Phi Thong Lueang” (pej.), “Spirits of the Yellow Leaf” (pej.). Autonym: มละบริ‎ (Mlabri), มาลาบรี‎ (Malabri). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri.

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Mok
[mqt] Chiang Rai province: 5 villages. Population: 700 in Thailand (2018 S. Devereux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: A Mŏk, Loi, Loi Cim, Muak, ʔape, “Hsem” (pej.), “Hsen Hsum” (pej.), “Shim Ceem” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic.

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Moken
[mwt] Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket (southernmost tip), and Krabi provinces: southwest coast, offshore islands, Andaman Sea and Straits of Malacca. Population: 2,000 in Thailand (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Basing, Chau Ko’, Mawken, Salon, Salong, Selong, Selung. Dialects: Kòʔ Surin (Northern Jadiak), Rawai (Southern Jadiak). Reportedly most similar to Moklen [mkm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen.

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Moklen
[mkm] Phangnga and Phuket provinces: west coast. Population: 1,500 (1984 D. Hogan), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chau Pok. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Moken [mwt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen.

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Mon
[mnw] Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Pathum Thani, Ratchaburi, and Samut Sakhon provinces. Population: 108,000 in Thailand (2000). 70,000–120,000, total population (Bauer 1984). 1983 census estimated 100,000; about 50,000 L1 speakers (Foster 1972; Smalley 1994). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aleng, Mun, Peguan, Takanoon, Talaing, Taleng. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic.

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Mpi
[mpz] Phrae province: Ban Dong district, east of provincial capital; Nan province: Ban Sakoen district. Population: 900 (Nahhas 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Nahhas 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaw. Dialects: Ban Dong, Ban Sakoen. Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen Mpi are mutually intelligible (based on self-report of Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen residents). Lexical similarity: 86% between Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Nyahkur
[cbn] Bueng Kan, Chaiyaphum, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Phetchabun, Phitsanulok, and Sakon Nakhon provinces; Possibly in Khorat province. Population: 1,500 (2006 C. Shimmin), decreasing. No monolinguals. It appears the last monolingual speakers likely died out no later than the 1950s (2017 C. Shimmin). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Thongkum 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chao Dong, Chaodon, Lawa, Niakuol, Niakuoll, Nyah Kur, Nyakur, “Chaobon” (pej.), “Chaobun” (pej.), “Chaubun” (pej.). Autonym: ญัฮกุ้ร‎ (Nyah Kur), เนียะกวล‎ (Niakuol). Dialects: Chaiyaphum users say they understand Petchabun only with difficulty, if at all. At least 91% lexical similarity among all dialects (Diffloth 1984). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Southern Monic.

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Nyaw
[nyw] Mukdahan province: Wan Yai and Don Tan districts; Nakhon Phanom province: Tha Uthen, Na Wa, and Phon Sawan districts; Nong Khai province: Tha Bo district; Sakon Nakhon province: Muang, Kut Bak, Song Dao, and Warit Chaphum districts; Sa Kaeo province: isolated area on Cambodia border; Bueng Kan, Maha Sarakham, and Udon Thani provinces. Population: 80,000 (Hattaway 2005). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jo, Nyo, Nyoh, Yo. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Northeastern Thai [tts] and the Luang Prabang dialect of Lao [lao]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Nyeu
[nyl] Sisaket province: Mueang Sisaket district, Phon Kho sub-district; Phrai Bueng district, Prasat Yoe sub-district. Population: 3,000 (Phimjun 2004). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yeu, Yoe. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay.

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Palaung, Pale
[pce] Chiang Mai province: Fang district, No Lae village. Population: 5,000 in Thailand (1989). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Di-Ang, Ngwe Palaung, Palay, Pale, Silver Palaung, Southern Palaung, Ta-Ang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung.

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Pa’o
[blk] Mae Hong Son province. Population: 740 in Thailand (2000). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Black Karen, Pa Oh, Pa’O, Pa’o Karen, Pa-Oh, Pa-U, Taungtu. Dialects: Southern Pa’o. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral.

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Phu Thai
[pht] Amnat Charoen, Kalasin, Mukdahan, Nakhon Phanom, Sakon Nakhon, Udon Thani, Yasothon, and Roi Et provinces. Possibly also in China. Population: 470,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Total users in all countries: 897,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phutai, Phuu Thai, Poutai, Putai, Puthai. Dialects: Little dialect differentiation. Reportedly similar to Tai Dam [blt] and Tai Don [twh]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Phuan
[phu] Chachoengsao, Chaiyaphum, Lop Buri, Nakhon Nayok, Phetchabun, Phichit, Prachin Buri, and Sara Buri provinces; Bueng Kan province, isolated area, 1 village south of Bangkok. Population: 200,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Total users in all countries: 307,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Phuan, Phoan, Phu Un, Phu-uen, Phuon, Poan, Puan. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Northern Thai [nod], Tai Dam [blt], Thai Song [soa], and Lao [lao]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Prai
[prt] Nan province: Bo Klua, Chalerm Prakiat, Chiang Klang, Pua and Thung Chang districts. Population: 20,000 in Thailand (2001). Possibly 3,000 Ban Wen dialect speakers. Total users in all countries: 48,700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Prai, Lua Prai, Lua’, Phai, Pray, Thin, “Htin” (pej.). Dialects: Southern Prai, Ban Wen. The main dialect of Prai has 2 subvarieties referred to as, R and Y, which are reportedly minimally different. Ban Wen dialect shares cognates with both Mal [mlf] and Prai, but is unintelligible to Mal speakers. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Prai.

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Saek
[skb] Nakhon Phanom province: Mueang Nakhon Phanom district, At Samat sub-district; Na Wa district, Tha Ruea sub-district. Population: Total L1 speakers in Laos and Thailand: 10,000 with a total ethnic population of 20,000. The majority of the speakers are in Laos (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sek, Tai Sek, Xec, Xek. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Samre
[sxm] Trat province: Bo Rai district, Tambon Nonsi. Population: 10 in Thailand (Ploykaew 2001). 10–20 semi-speakers (Ploykaew 2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Samre.

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Shan
[shn] Chiang Mai, Mae Hong Son, and Tak provinces; Chiang Rai: Mae Sai district. Population: 95,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Great Thai, Sam, Sha, Tai Luang, Tai Shan, Tai Yay, Thai Yay, “Ngeo” (pej.), “Ngiao” (pej.), “Ngiaw” (pej.), “Ngio” (pej.), “Ngiow” (pej.). Dialects: Mae Hong Son. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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So
[sss] Kalasin, Nakhon Phanom, Nong Khai, Sakon Nakhon provinces: 53 villages. Population: 70,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kha So” (pej.). Dialects: So Trong, So Slouy, So Phong, So Makon. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru.

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Tai Dam
[blt] Loei province; Chiang Khan district, Khao Kaeo sub-district, Ban Na Pa Nat village. Population: 700 in Thailand (2004). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Tai, Jinping Dai, Thai Den, ʼTáy Ðăm. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Tai Ya
[cuu] Chiang Rai province: Mae Sai district, Huay Khrai sub-district, Ban Nam Bor Khaw and Ban Pa Sak Khwang; Mae Chan district, Mae Rai sub-district, Ban Pa Sak Khwang; Muang Chaing Rai district. Population: 400 in Thailand (Dawkins and Kirkland 2008), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Dawkins and Kirkland 2008). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dai Ya, Huayaodai, Tai Chung, Ya. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Ten’edn
[tnz] Phatthalung, Trang, Satun, and Songkhla provinces. Population: 350 in Thailand (2014 SIL). Total users in all countries: 365. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maniq, Mos, Tean-ean, Ten’en, Tonga, Tonga-Mos. Dialects: Satun. Probably similar to Kensiu [kns]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Tonga.

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Thai
[tha] Widespread. Ratchasima province (Khorat dialect). Population: 60,200,000 in Thailand, all users. L1 users: 20,200,000 in Thailand (2000). L2 users: 40,000,000 (2001 A. Diller). Total users in all countries: 60,657,660 (as L1: 20,657,660; as L2: 40,000,000). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Bangkok Thai, Central Thai, Siamese, Standard Thai, Thai Klang, Thaiklang. Autonym: ภาษาไทย‎. Dialects: Khorat Thai (Korat, Thaikorat). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Thai Sign Language
[tsq] Scattered. Major regional centers and Bangkok. Population: 51,000 profoundly, prelingually deaf people in Thailand (1997 C. Reilly). 20% of deaf children go to school to learn it. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: MSTSL, Modern Standard Thai Sign Language, ThSL. Dialects: None known. Signs used at the deaf school at Tak are reportedly very different. 52% cognate with American Sign Language (ASL) [ase] on a 100-word list; 29% with Original Chiangmai SL [csd]; 26% with Original Bangkok Sign Language (no ISO code) (Woodward 1997). Classification: Sign language.

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Thai Song
[soa] Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Sawan, Phetchaburi, and Phitsanulok provinces: possibly in Suphan Buri province. Population: 32,300 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chao Song, Lao Song, Lao Song Dam, Song, Tai Song Dam, Thai Soang. Dialects: Slight dialect differences. Reportedly similar to Tai Dam [blt]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Thai, Northeastern
[tts] Widespread, in northeast Thailand. Population: 15,000,000 (1983 SIL). At least 1,000,000 in Bangkok. Kalerng has a few thousand speakers (1990 A. Diller). Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in east, northeast provinces. Alternate Names: Esarn, Isaan, Issan, Thai Isaan. Autonym: อีสาน‎ (Isan). Dialects: Northern Isan, Central Isan (Kalerng, Kaleung, Kaloeng), Southern Isan, Korat. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Thai, Northern
[nod] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Kamphaeng Phet, Lampang, Lamphun, Mae Hong Son, Nan, Phayao, Phrae, Sukhothai, Tak, Uttaradit provinces. Population: 6,000,000 in Thailand (1983 SIL). Total users in all countries: 6,029,500. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of provincial identity in northern provinces. Northern Thai is used as a language of wider communication among many of the tribal groups in Northern Thailand (Herington et al 2013). Alternate Names: Kam Mu’ang, Kammyang, Kammüang, Khon, Khon Mueang, Khon Myang, Khonmuang, La Nya, Lan Na, Lanatai, Lanna, Mu’ang, Mueang, Mung, Myang, Payap, Phayap, Phyap, Tai Nya, Western Laotian, “Tai Yon” (pej.), “Tai Yuan” (pej.), “Yuan” (pej.). Autonym: คำเมือง‎ (Kam Mueang). Dialects: Nan, Bandu, Tai Wang. Nan dialect is more distinct. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Thai, Southern
[sou] Surat Thani, Chumphon, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Songkhla, Phatthalung, Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Pattani, Yala, and Satun provinces; Muslim Thai dialect. Population: 4,500,000 (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in southeasternmost 15 provinces. Alternate Names: Dambro, Pak Tai, Pak Thai, Paktay. Autonym: ภาษาไทยถิ่นใต้‎ (P̣hās̄ʹā thịy t̄hìn tı̂). Dialects: Tak Bai (Tai Tak Bai), Thai Malay (Tai Islam). A group of dialects more distantly related to other Tai languages. Border dialects are quite distinct from others. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Ugong
[ugo] Suphan Buri province: northwestern; Uthai Thani province: southwestern. Population: 150 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 500 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gong, Lawa, Ugawng. Dialects: Kok Chiang, Suphanburi. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Unclassified.

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Urak Lawoi’
[urk] Southwest coastal islands, south of Phuket province; Krabi province: offshore islands, Phi Phi Don, Ha, Khlong Dao, Lang Sot and Thung; Satun province: Bu Tang, Ra Wi, and A Dang islands. Population: 5,000 (2012 S. Pattemore). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chaw Talay, Chawnam, Lawoi, Lawta, Orak Lawoi’. Dialects: Adang, Phuket Young Peoples, Phuket Old Peoples. Aboriginal Malays with a unique Malay language. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic.

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Vietnamese
[vie] Long-established small communities in Bangkok and scattered in southeastern provinces. Population: 8,280 in Thailand (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese.

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Wa, Parauk
[prk] Scattered; probably north, northwest. Population: 6,700 in Thailand (2008 P. Hopple). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa.

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Yong
[yno] Chiang Mai province: San Kamphaeng district; Lamphun province: Pa Sang, Mae The, and Mueang Lamphun districts. Population: 12,600 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nyong. Dialects: None known. Phonology reportedly similar to Lü [khb]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Yoy
[yoy] Sakon Nakhon province: Akat Amnuai district, Akat, Ba Wa, Wa Yai, sub-districts; Phang Khon district and Sawang Daen Din district. Population: 7,000 in Thailand (Schliesinger 2001). Total users in all countries: 9,000. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dioi, Du’o’i, Duoi, Giy, I, Jui, Lao Yuai, Yay, Yi, Yoe, Yoi, Yooi, Yooy, Yuai, Yueai. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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