East Timor

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Adabe
[adb] Dili district: Atauro island; Timor island north of capital. 5,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ataura, Atauran, Atauro, Atauru, Raklu Un, Raklu-Un. Dialects: Munaseli Pandai, Rahesuk, Raklungu, Resuk. Different from Galolen [gal] dialects on Atauro. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor.

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Baikeno
[bkx] Oecusse district: enclave separated from the rest of East Timor. 72,000 (2011 Baikeno Language Council). Several thousand speakers in Dili and Indonesian west Timor. 15 clans of Nu’af (mountains); 3 clans of Amnesat (plains). 15 clans of Nu’af (mountains); 3 clans of Amnesat (plains). Many monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambeno, Ambenu, Atoni, Baikenu, Biqueno, “Dawan” (pej.), Laes Baikeno, Lais Meto, Molok Meto, Oe Cusi, Oecusse, Oecussi, Oekusi, Uab Meto, Uab Pah Meto, Vaikenu, Vaikino. Dialects: Nu’af, Amnesat. Part of Uab Meto chain of closely related languages and dialects. Partial intelligibility of the Uab Meto [aoz] of Amfo’an, northern Mollo, and Insana. Significant differences with Amarasi [aaz] block intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto. Comments: Speakers see themselves as part of the wider Atoni cultural, linguistic, and historical network, in contrast to Tetun, Helong, or Rote. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bunak
[bfn] Ainaro district: Zumalai subdistrict; Bobonaro district: Maliana south; Cova Lima district: on Timor island central interior, south coast, north of Suai town. 55,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 76,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buna, Bunake, Bunaq, Gae’, Marae. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor. Comments: Small groups scattered among other languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Fataluku
[ddg] Lautém district: Los Palos area on Timor island east tip. 37,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dagada, Dagaga, Dagoda’. Dialects: May be related to Oirata [oia] on nearby Kisar Island. Significant dialect variation. May be several languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Galolen
[gal] Aileu district: small border area southeast; Dili district: 2 enclaves on Atauro island, and Metinaro area; Manatuto district: coast inland to Laclubar area. 13,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 13,680. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galole, Galolem, Galoli, Galolin. Dialects: Manatutu (Vila), Wetar (Iliwaki), Lakloo (Lacló), Laleia. Lexical similarity: 94%–98% with dialects, 57% with Aputai [apx], 52% with Tugun [tzn], 51% with Perai [wet] and Ili’uun [ilu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor.

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Habun
[hbu] Manatuto district: Laclubar subdistrict. 2,700 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Habu, Sabu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly many loanwords from Trans-New Guinea languages similar to Makasae [mkz], but with Austronesian structure. Classification needs further investigation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor.

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Idaté
[idt] Aileu district: southeast; Manatuto district: Laclubar mountains; Manufahi district: north. 13,500 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Lakalei [lka] and Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor.

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Kairui-Midiki
[krd] Manatuto district: west central small mountainous area; Viqueque district: Lacluta area. 15,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cairui, Midiki. Dialects: Kairui, Midiki (Midik). Vocabulary predominantly Trans-New Guinea, structure is Austronesian. Classification needs further investigation. May be co-dialect with Waima’a. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor.

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Kemak
[kem] Bobonaro district: Bobonaro town north to Lois river; Ermera district: Atsabe subdistrict. 62,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 72,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ema. Dialects: Nogo (Nogo-Nogo), Kemak, Marobo, Haubaa, Kailaku, Maliana, Atsabe, Hatolia, Atabae. Most closely related to Mambae [mgm] and Tukudede [tkd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lakalei
[lka] Ainaro district: northeast; Manufahi district: north of Same; small border enclaves, Alieu and Manatuto districts. 3,250 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Idate [idt], Tetun [tet], and Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Loanwords from Tetun [tet], Mambae [mgm], and Idate [idt].

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Makalero
[mjb] Lautém district: Ilimoar area on Timor island. 6,500 (Huber 2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maklere. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53%–56% with Makasae [mkz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Makasae
[mkz] Baucau district: north coast and inland; Lautém district: west band; Manatuto district: on Timor island; Viqueque district: north half; generally, from north to south coast in a dialect chain. 102,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ma’asae, Macassai, Makasai, Makassai, Maksae. Dialects: Makasae. Not closely related to other languages. Lexical similarity: 53%–56% with Makalero [mjb]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Makuva
[lva] Lautém district: Los Palos area on Timor island east tip. 56 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lovaea, Lovaia, Lóvaia, Maku’a, Makua, Makuwa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor.

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Mambae
[mgm] Aileu, Ainaro, and Ermera districts: central Timor mountains; Bobonaro, Dili, and Liquiçá districts: north coast; Cova Lima district: south coast; Manufahi district: Same subdistrict. 131,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambai, Manbae. Dialects: Damata, Lolei, Manua, Mambae. North Mambae and South Mambae show significant differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Very little productive morphology compared to Tetun [tet], Uab Meto [aoz], or Galolen [gal]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nauete
[nxa] Baucau district: southeast; Lautém district: southwest; Viqueque district: west; all on Timor island south coast; Uato Lari is main town. 15,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naóti, Naueti, Nauhete, Nauote, Nauoti. Dialects: Naumik, Oso Moko. Not closely related to any other language. Loanwords from Trans-New Guinea languages like Makasae [mkz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor.

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Pidgin, Timor
[tvy] Aileu district: on Timor island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bidau Creole Portuguese, Português de Bidau, Timor Creole Portuguese. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.

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Portuguese
[por] 600 in East Timor (2010 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2002, Constitution, Article 13). Alternate Names: Português. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Tetun
[tet] Manatuto, Manufahi, and Viqueque districts: Soibada to Suai to Ponta Beaco on East Timor south coast; Bobonaro and Cova Lima districts: separate enclaves west. 63,500 in East Timor (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Belo, Belu, Fehan, Teto, Tettum, Tetu, Tetum, Tetun Belu, Tetun Loos, Tetun Terik, Tetung. Dialects: Eastern Tetun (Lakluta, Natarbora, Soibada, Tetun Loos, Tetun Los), Southern Tetun (Belu Selatan, Lia Fehan, Plain Tetun, South Belu, South Tetun, Tasi Mane), Northern Tetun (Belu Utara, Hill Tetun, Lia Foho, North Belu, Tasi Feto, Tetun Terik, Tetun Therik). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tetun Dili
[tdt] L1 in Dili district: East Timor north coast; L2 scattered in western part of East Timor. 385,000 (2009). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2002, Constitution, Article 13). Alternate Names: Dili Tetum, Tetum, Tetum Dili, Tetum Praça, Tetum Prasa, Tetun. Dialects: None known. Heavy Portuguese [por] and Mambae [mgm] influence; some Indonesian [ind] or Malay influence. Classification: Creole, Tetun based. Comments: Cultural rituals and themes in Tetun [tet] are not as deeply rooted in Tetun Dili. Christian.

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Tukudede
[tkd] Bobonaro, Ermera, and Liquiçá districts: Lois river to west of Ponta Acoilo, near Dili on Timor island north coast. 39,500 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tocod, Tokodé, Tokodede, Tukude. Dialects: Keha (Keia), Tukudede. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Christian.

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Waima’a
[wmh] Baucau district: Baucau and Vemasse subdistricts on Timor island northeast coast. 18,400 (2012 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Uai Ma’a, Uaimo’a, Waimaha, Waimoa. Dialects: Many Trans-New Guinea loanwords reportedly similar to Makasae. Classification needs further investigation. May be a co-dialect with Kairui-Midiki. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor.

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