Arabic, Tunisian Spoken
[aeb] L1 users: 10,800,000 (2014 census). Total users in all countries: 11,564,600. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Tunisian, Tunisian Arabic, Tunisian Darija. Autonym: Derja, تونسي (Tounsi). Dialects: Tunis, Sahil, Sfax, North-Western Tunisian, South-Western Tunisian, South-Eastern Tunisian. Reportedly similar to Eastern Algerian Arabic [arq], but clearly distinct. Tunis dialect used in media and language textbooks for foreigners. Southern dialects structurally similar to those in Libya. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.
[fra] 5,891,200 in Tunisia, all users. L1 users: 1,200 (2015 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 5,890,000 (2013). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.
[pml] Tunis Governorate; other major Mediterranean ports. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: ’Ajnabi, Aljamia, Ferenghi, Petit Mauresque, Sabir. Dialects: None known. Lexicon from Italian [ita] and Occitan [oci]. Reportedly a present-day variety on Aegean Islands, used as pidgin in southeast Mediterranean region, has mainly Arabic syntax and vocabulary which is 65%–70% Italian [ita], 10% Spanish [spa], and other Catalan [cat], French [fra], Ladino [lad], and Turkish [tur] words. Classification: Pidgin, Romance based. Comments: Documented in Jerba, Tunisia in 1353.
[jbn] Madanin Governorate, Djerba island, Guellala, Ajim, and Sedouikech; Qafsah Governorate, Matmata, Taoujjout, Tamezret, and Zraoua; some in east Qibili Goverrnorate, Tataouine, Douiret and Chenini; Tunis City. L1 users: 50,000 (2004 S. Chaker). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djerbi, Jabal Nafusi, Nafusi, Tunisian Berber. Dialects: Jbali-Tamezret (Duwinna), Jerba (Djerbi, Guelili). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East. Comments: Non-indigenous. ‘Shilha’ also a cover term for Berber languages in Morocco and Tunisia. Muslim.
Tunisian Sign Language
[tse] Scattered. L1 users: 21,200 (2008 WFD). 53,000 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Loans from French Sign Language [fsl] and Italian Sign Language [ise], but it is distinct. Not the same as Unified Arabic Sign Language, an artificial system promoted by representatives of 18 Arabic-speaking countries (Rashdan 2016). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Used by United States Peace Corps. 60 interpreters, with university-level training (2008 WFD). Muslim.