Tunisia

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Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian
[ajt] Al Munastir governorate; Madanin governorate: Djerba island; Susah and Tunis governorates. Population: 500 in Tunisia (2011 UNESCO). Total users in all countries: 45,500. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Tunis. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Population: 8,790,000 in Tunisia (2014 SIL), all users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1959, Constitution, Article 1). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Tunisian Spoken
[aeb] Widespread. Population: 10,800,000 in Tunisia (2014 census). Total users in all countries: 11,571,600. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Tunisian, Tunisian Arabic, Tunisian Darija. Autonym: Derja, تونسي‎ (Tounsi). Dialects: Tunis, Sahil, Sfax, North-Western Tunisian, South-Western Tunisian, South-Eastern Tunisian. Reportedly similar to Eastern Algerian Arabic [arq], but clearly distinct. Tunis dialect used in media and language textbooks for foreigners. Southern dialects structurally similar to those in Libya. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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French
[fra] Widespread. Population: 6,031,200 in Tunisia, all users. L1 users: 1,200 in Tunisia (2015 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 6,030,000 (2016). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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Lingua Franca
[pml] Tunis governorate; other major Mediterranean ports. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers probably survived into the 1850s (Holm 1989). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: ’Ajnabi, Aljamia, Ferenghi, Petit Mauresque, Sabir. Dialects: None known. Lexicon from Italian [ita] and Occitan [oci]. Reportedly a present-day variety on Aegean Islands, used as pidgin in southeast Mediterranean region, has mainly Arabic syntax and vocabulary which is 65%–70% Italian [ita], 10% Spanish [spa], and other Catalan [cat], French [fra], Ladino [lad], and Turkish [tur] words. Classification: Pidgin, Romance based.

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Sened
[sds] Qafsah governorate: Sened and Tmagourt villages, northwest of Gabès. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers probably survived into the 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Tmagourt (Tmagurt), Sened. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East.

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Shilha
[jbn] Madanin governorate: Ajim, Djerba island, Guellala, and Sedouikech; Qabis governorate: Matmata, Tamezret, Taoujjout, and Zraoua; Qibili governorate: Douiret, Chenini, and Tataouine; Tunis city. Population: 50,000 in Tunisia (2004 S. Chaker). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djerbi, Jabal Nafusi, Nafusi, Tunisian Berber. Dialects: Jbali-Tamezret (Duwinna), Jerba (Djerbi, Guelili). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East.

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Tachawit
[shy] Population: 48,100 in Tunisia (2016). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chaouia. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Shawiya.

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Tunisian Sign Language
[tse] Scattered, especially Tunis and Sfax. Population: 21,200 (2008 WFD). 53,000 deaf (2014 IMB). Status: 5* (Developing). Dialects: None known. Not the same as Unified Arabic Sign Language, an artificial system promoted by representatives of 18 Arabic-speaking countries (Rashdan 2016). Loans from French Sign Language [fsl] and Italian Sign Language [ise]. Classification: Sign language.

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