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Abaza
[abq] Adana, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Samsun, and Yozgat provinces. 12,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ahuwa, Tapanta. Dialects: Tapanta, Ashkaraua (Ashkar), Bezshagh. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Abkhaz
[abk] Artvin, Bolu, Corum, and Sakarya provinces. 44,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 150,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abxazo. Dialects: Bzyb, Abzhui, Samurzakan. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Adyghe
[ady] Karamanmaras, Kayseri, Tokat, and many other provinces in central and western Anatolia. 316,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). 6,410 monolinguals (1965 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adygey, Cherkes. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Albanian, Gheg
[aln] Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Shqyp. Dialects: Samsun Albanian. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Albanian, Tosk
[als] Bursa, Edirne, Istanbul, Kirklareli, and Tekirdag provinces; scattered in western Turkey. 66,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). 1,100 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 65,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Shqip. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Diyarbakir, Mardin, Sanliurfa, and Siirt provinces; small area in Gaziantep province. 101,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Anatolian Cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian, Jewish.

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Arabic, North Levantine Spoken
[apc] Hatay province: Antakya. 1,130,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[ayp] Batman, Mardin, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Sirnak provinces. 520,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maslawi, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Vernacular Arabic. Dialects: Mardini Aramaic (Abdul-Massih, Jesrawi, Mardilli, Mardini), Çukurova (Cilician Arabic, Çukurovan Arabic). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Do not read Arabic. Muslim, Christian.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] 686,000 in Turkey (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Constitution, Article 3), used in education. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Armenian
[hye] Many in Istanbul; Kars province: east Turkey; scattered elsewhere. 61,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). 1,000 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 70,000 (1980). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Armjanski, Ermenice, Haieren, Somkhuri. Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hemshin are Armenian Muslims, living near the Laz [lzz] language area. Christian, Muslim.

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Igdir and Kars provinces. 540,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Azeri. Dialects: Kars. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Comments: Muslim.

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Balkan Gagauz Turkish
[bgx] Edirne province (Surguch dialect). 327,000 (Johnstone 1993). 7,000 Surguch (1965) and 320,000 Yuruk. Total users in all countries: 331,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balkan Turkic. Dialects: Gajol, Gerlovo Turks, Karamanli, Kyzylbash, Surguch, Tozluk Turks, Yuruk (Konyar, Yoruk). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Distinct from Gagauz [gag] of Moldova, Bulgaria, and Romania. Muslim.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Edirne and other western provinces: scattered. 351,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Pomak. Dialects: Pomak. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern. Comments: Muslim.

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Crimean Tatar
[crh] Ankara province: Polatli district, Karakuyu, several villages. 100,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean Turkish, Qirim, Qirimtatar. Dialects: Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Central Crimean, Southern Crimean. Classification: Turkic, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Domari
[rmt] Diyarbakir province. 30 (2015). Ethnic population: 28,500 (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dom, Gypsy, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene. Dialects: Karachi (Garachi), Beludji, Marashi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. 500,000 Gypsies in Turkey speak Domari or varieties of Romani (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Muslim.

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Georgian
[kat] Artvin, Ordu, Sakarya, and other provinces in north and northwest Anatolia. 151,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). 4,000 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 91,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gruzin. Dialects: Imerxev. Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian. Comments: Muslim.

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Greek
[ell] Istanbul; some in Izmir province. 3,600 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Yunan. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Nearly all Greeks emigrated from Turkey. There were 1,500,000 in Turkey in 1900.

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Hértevin
[hrt] Mardin province; scattered. 1,000 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Hértevin Proper (Arton), Umraya, Jinet. Considerable differences from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties, and not intelligible with any or most of them. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Christian.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Kayseri province: Uzun Yayla plateau east of Kayseri city; Amasya, Corum, and Samsun provinces: scattered. 1,000,000 (2005 Circassian Association). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Kazakh
[kaz] Kayseri province; Manisa province: Salihli district; Istanbul. 7,700 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kaisak, Kazakhi, Kazax, Kosach, Qazaq tili, Qazaqşa, Qazaqi. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Kumyk
[kum] Gumushane province: Torul district, a few villages. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki. Dialects: Khasav-Yurt, Buinak, Khaidak. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from the Kumux dialect of Lak [lbe]. Muslim.

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] Widespread, especially east and southeast. 8,130,000 (2014 J. Leclerc), decreasing. 3,000,000 monolinguals. Especially in Hakkari and Shirnak provinces. Total users in all countries: 15,103,230. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kermancî, Kirmancî, Kurdi, Kurdî, Kurmancî, Kurmanji. Dialects: Boti (Botani), Marashi, Ashiti, Bayezidi, Hekari, Shemdinani, Shikakî, Silivî, Mihemedî. Dialect differences but all use the same written form. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim, Yezidi.

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Kyrgyz
[kir] Kars and Van provinces. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kyrgyz tili, Kyrgyzcha. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Muslim.

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Ladino
[lad] Mainly Istanbul; Izmir province: scattered. 10,000 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dzhudezmo, Haketia, Hakitia, Judeo Spanish, Judezmo, Sefardi, Spanyol. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Laz
[lzz] Arkab, Artasen, Artvin, Atin, Bolu, Hopa, Kemer, Kocaeli, Rize, Sakarya, Sarp, and Vitse provinces. 20,000 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 92,000 (1980). Total users in all countries: 22,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chan, Chanuri, Chanzan, Laze, Zan. Autonym: Lazuri. Dialects: None known. Officially considered a single language with Mingrelian [xmf], called, Zan, although not mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Kartvelian, Zan. Comments: Muslim.

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Ossetic
[oss] Antalya Mugla provinces along Mediterranean coast; Bitlis, Erzerum, and Kars (Sankamis district) provinces east. 37,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Digor, Tagaur, Kurtat, Allagir, Tual, Iron. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian, Muslim.

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Pontic
[pnt] Trabzon province: southeast Black Sea coast area. 300,000 (2009 Z. Diakonikolaou). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coastal Pontic, Romayka, Romeyka, Rumca, Rumka, Trabzon, Trapezountiac. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Widespread west: Izmir (Sepečides) and Edirne (Rumelian) provinces. 66,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Sepečides Romani (Sepeči), Rumelian Romani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Serbian
[srp] Widespread west. 4,500 (2014 J. Leclerc). 2,350 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 61,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Serbo-Croatian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Syriac
[syc] Sanliurfa province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ancient Syriac, Classical Syriac, Lishana Atiga, Suryaya, Suryoyo. Dialects: Western Syriac, Eastern Syriac. Syrian churches: Eastern (Nestorian), Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite), and Syrian Catholic (Melkite, Maronite) developed a vast literature based on the Edessa (currently Sanliurfa, southeastern Turkey) variety of the Syrian dialect. Assyrian group (see Assyrian Neo-Aramaic in Iraq and elsewhere) separated denominationally from Chaldean (see Chaldean Neo-Aramaic in Iraq) and Jacobite (see Turoyo in Turkey and Syria) in the Middle Ages. Neo-Eastern Aramaic languages spoken by Christians are often dubbed Neo-Syriac although not directly descended from Syriac. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern. Comments: Christian.

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Tatar
[tat] Istanbul. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Turkish
[tur] Widespread. 66,850,000 in Turkey, all users. L1 users: 66,500,000 (European Commission 2006). L2 users: 350,000 (European Commission 2006). Total users in all countries: 71,463,470 (as L1: 71,083,170; as L2: 380,300). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1982, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Anatolian, Istanbul Turkish, Türkisch. Autonym: Türkçe. Dialects: Danubian, Eskisehir, Razgrad, Dinler, Rumelian, Karamanli, Edirne, Gaziantep, Urfa. Danubian is west; other dialects east. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Muslim.

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Turkish Sign Language
[tsm] Scattered. Ethnic population: 400,000 (1998 Turkish Ministry of Education). The figure of 400,000 represents audiologically deaf (which agrees reasonably well with the 0.37 percentage reported 2002 by the Turkish Statistical Institute); number of sign language users unknown. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: TID. Dialects: Dialectal variation between schools, due to sign language not being used in the classroom, but mutually intelligible throughout the country (Özyürek 2004). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Presence of deaf people using sign languages is documented from Hittite times (2000 to 1200 BCE). During the Ottoman Empire (15th to 18th centuries), deaf and other sign language users, called Dilsiz ‘speechless’, served as royal servants, although there is no evidence that Ottoman Sign Language is related to modern TID. A one-handed fingerspelling system for Arabic script was used in the 19th and early 20th centuries until the alphabet revolution in 1928 that introduced Latin script for writing Turkish [tur], at which time a two-handed fingerspelling system for Latin script came into use. (Kemaloglu and Kemaloglu 2012) First Deaf school in 1902, sign language used in schools until 1953, when schools became oralist. Most deaf children learn TID from peers outside the classroom. A few recent projects to re-establish sign language in schools. (Özyürek 2004).

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Turkmen
[tuk] Tokat province. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Trukhmen, Türkmen dili, Türkmençe. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Muslim.

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Turoyo
[tru] Mardin and Sirnak provinces. 15,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 50,000 (1994). Total users in all countries: 99,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Süryani, Turani. Autonym: Surayt. Dialects: Midyat, Midin, Kfarze, ’Iwardo, Anhil, Raite. Turoyo subdialects divided between Town Turoyo (Midyat Turoyo), Village Turoyo, and Mixed (Village-Town) Turoyo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern. Comments: Known among scholars almost exclusively as Tûrôyo; Suryoyo is a popular name. Western Syriac refers to the Classical Western Syriac [syc] liturgy and orthography used by Turoyo speakers. Christian.

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Ubykh
[uby] Istanbul province: Sea of Marmara area, Haci Osman village. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1992. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Oubykh, Pekhi, Ubyx. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Ubyx. Comments: Most migrated to Turkey in 1894.

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Uyghur
[uig] Istanbul and Kayseri provinces. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Uighur, Uigur, Uygur. Classification: Turkic, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Uzbek, Southern
[uzs] Hatay, Gaziantep, and Sanliurfa provinces. 3,800 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: O’zbek. Classification: Turkic, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Refugees from Afghanistan; now Turkish citizens. Distinct from Northern Uzbek [uzn] of Uzbekistan and China. Muslim.

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Zaza
[zza] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,684,000 Status: Comments: Includes: Northern Zazaki [kiu], Southern Zazaki [diq].

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Zazaki, Northern
[kiu] Bingol province: Karkiova and Kigi districts; Elazig province: Elazig merkez and Karakoqan districts; Erzurum province: Cayirli and Erzincan districts; Malatya province; Mus province: Varto district; Sivas province, Divrigi, Imranli, Kangal, and Zara districts; Tunceli province: Hozat, Nazmiye, Ovacik, Pulumur, and Tunceli merkez districts; at least 83 total villages. 184,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alevica, Dersimki, Dimilki, Kirmanjki, Northern Zaza, So-Bê, Zaza, Zonê Ma. Autonym: Shar Ma. Dialects: Tunceli, Varto. Lexical similarity: 70% with Southern Zazaki [diq]. A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Muslim.

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Zazaki, Southern
[diq] Bingöl, Diyarbakir, and Elazig provinces: primarily Bingöl, Cermik, Dicle, Egil, Gerger, Palu, and Hani cities. 1,500,000 (Paul 1998), decreasing. A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000,000 (Paul 1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimili, Dimli, Southern Zaza, Zaza, Zazaca. Dialects: Sivereki, Kori, Hazzu (Hazo), Motki (Moti), Dumbuli (Dumbeli), Eastern Zazaki (Central Zazaki), Dersimki. Dialects differ slightly, but mutually intelligible. A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Muslim.

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