Turkey

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Abaza
[abq] Adana, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Samsun, and Yozgat provinces. Population: 12,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ahuwa. Dialects: Tapanta, Ashkaraua (Ashkar), Bezshagh. Classification: Abkhaz-Adyghe, Abkhaz-Abazin.

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Abkhaz
[abk] Artvin, Bolu, Corum, and Sakarya provinces. Population: 44,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Ethnic population: 150,000 (2014 NCRP). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abxazo. Dialects: Bzyb, Abzhui, Samurzakan. Classification: Abkhaz-Adyghe, Abkhaz-Abazin.

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Adyghe
[ady] Karamanmaras, Kayseri, Tokat, and many other provinces in central and western Anatolia. Population: 316,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). 6,410 monolinguals (1965 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adəgăbză, Adygey, Cherkes. Classification: Abkhaz-Adyghe, Circassian.

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Albanian, Gheg
[aln] Samsun province. Population: Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gegnisht, Shqyp. Dialects: Samsun Albanian. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg.

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Albanian, Tosk
[als] Bursa, Edirne, Istanbul, Kirklareli, and Tekirdag provinces; scattered in western Turkey. Population: 66,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). 1,100 monolinguals (1965 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Shqip. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk.

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Sanliurfa province. Population: 101,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic. Dialects: Syrian Šāwi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, North Levantine Spoken
[apc] Adana, Hatay, and Mersin provinces. Population: 1,130,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Dialects: Çukurova (Cilician Arabic, Çukurovan Arabic). Estimated 55,000 Alevi Çukurovan Arabic speakers and 247,000–329,000 ethnic Arab Alevis in Mersin and Adana provinces. Çukurovan Arabic used by people over age 35–40 (Procházka-Eisl and Procházka 2018). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[ayp] Batman, Mardin, Mus, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Sirnak provinces. Population: 520,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maslawi, Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Vernacular Arabic. Dialects: Mardini Aramaic (Abdul-Massih, Jesrawi, Mardilli, Mardini), Anatolian Group, Euphrates Group. Mardin Arabic mutually intelligible with Moslawi Arabic. Peripheral dialects spoken in Mus, Siirt, and Batman provinces are quite divergent (Jastrow 2015). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Scattered. Population: 686,000 in Turkey (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Constitution, Article 3), used in education. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] Many in Istanbul; Kars province: east Turkey; scattered elsewhere. Population: 61,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). 1,000 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 70,000 (1980). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Dialects: Akn, Arabkir, Ararat, Diyarbakir (Diarbekir), Erzurum (Erzerum, Karin), Hemshin (Hamschen, Hamshen), Istanbul (Constantinople, Konstantinopel), Kharberd-Yerznka (Charberd, Erzenka, Erzincan, Kharberd), Kilikien, Malatya (Malatia), Muş (Musch, Mush), Rodosto, Sebaste (Sivas), Shabin-Karahissar (Schabin-Karahissar), Smyrna (Izmir), Tokat (Ewdokia), Trabzon (Trapezunt, Trebizond), Van (Wan). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian.

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Igdir and Kars provinces. Population: 540,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Azəricə, Azeri. Dialects: Kars. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani.

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Balkan Gagauz Turkish
[bgx] Edirne province (Surguch dialect). Population: 327,000 in Turkey (Johnstone 1993). 7,000 Surguch (1965) and 320,000 Yuruk. Total users in all countries: 329,020. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balkan Turkic, Rumelian Turkish. Autonym: Rumeli Türkçesi. Dialects: Gajol, Gerlovo Turks, Karamanli, Kyzylbash, Surguch, Tozluk Turks, Yuruk (Konyar, Yoruk). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Edirne and other western provinces: scattered. Population: 358,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). 98% Pomak (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Pomak. Dialects: Pomak. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern.

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Crimean Tatar
[crh] Ankara province: Polatli district, Karakuyu, several villages. Population: 100,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean Turkish, Qirim, Qirimtatar. Dialects: Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Central Crimean, Southern Crimean. Classification: Turkic, Southern.

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Domari
[rmt] Scattered in the region between Mersin and Sanliurfa provinces. Population: Ethnic population: 28,500 (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Total users in all countries: 10. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dom, Gypsy, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene. Dialects: Karachi (Garachi, Qarachi). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom.

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Georgian
[kat] Artvin, Ordu, Sakarya, and other provinces in north and northwest Anatolia. Population: 151,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). 4,000 monolinguals (1965 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gruzin. Dialects: Imerxev. Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian.

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Greek
[ell] Istanbul; some in Izmir province. Population: 3,600 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Yunan. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic.

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Hértevin
[hrt] Siirt province: Pervari county, Ekindüzü village. Population: 4 (2012 A. Ajansi). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Considerable differences from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties, and not intelligible with any or most of them. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Kayseri province: Uzun Yayla plateau east of Kayseri city; Amasya, Corum, and Samsun provinces: scattered. Population: 1,000,000 in Turkey (2005 Circassian Association). Status: 5* (Developing). Classification: Abkhaz-Adyghe, Circassian.

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Kazakh
[kaz] Kayseri province; Manisa province: Salihli district; Istanbul. Population: 7,700 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kaisak, Kazakhi, Kazax, Kosach, Qazaq tili, Qazaqşa, Qazaqi. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian.

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Kumyk
[kum] Gumushane province: Torul district, at least 10 villages including Doğançı, Aziziye, Akköprü, and Ataköy. Population: Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki. Dialects: Khasav-Yurt, Buinak, Khaidak. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian.

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] Widespread, especially east and southeast. Population: 8,150,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c), decreasing. 3,000,000 monolinguals. Especially in Hakkari and Shirnak provinces. Total users in all countries: 14,605,670. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kermancî, Kirmancî, Kurdish Kurmanji, Kurdiya jorîn, Kurdmancî, Kurdî, Kurmanji Kurdish, Kurmanjî. Autonym: Kurdî-Kurmancî, Kurmancî. Dialects: Boti (Botani), Marashi, Ashiti, Bayezidi, Hekari, Shemdinani, Shikakî, Silivî, Mihemedî. Dialect differences but all use the same written form. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish.

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Kyrgyz
[kir] Kars and Van provinces. Population: Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kyrgyz tili, Kyrgyzcha. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian.

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Ladino
[lad] Mainly Istanbul; Izmir province: scattered. Population: 8,000 in Turkey (2018). Ethnic population: 13,000 (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dzhudezmo, Haketia, Hakitia, Judeo Spanish, Judezmo, Sefardi, Spanyol. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian.

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Laz
[lzz] Arkab, Artasen, Artvin, Atin, Bolu, Hopa, Kemer, Kocaeli, Rize, Sakarya, Sarp, and Vitse provinces. Population: 20,000 in Turkey (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 93,000 (Leclerc 2014c). Total users in all countries: 22,000. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chan, Chanuri, Chanzan, Laze, Zan. Autonym: Lazuri. Dialects: None known. Officially considered a single language with Mingrelian [xmf], called, Zan, although not mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Kartvelian, Zan.

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Ossetic
[oss] Ankara and Istanbul urban areas; Antalya and Mugla provinces along Mediterranean coast; Bitlis, Erzurum, and Kars (Sankamis district) provinces east. Population: 37,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 5* (Developing). Dialects: Digor, Tagaur, Kurtat, Allagir, Tual, Iron. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern.

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Pontic
[pnt] Trabzon province: Of, Çaykara, Sürmene, Maçka and Tonya counties. Population: 5,000 in Turkey (Schreiber 2015). Number of speakers as reported by language community members. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coastal Pontic, Muslim Pontic, Romayka, Romeyka, Rumca, Rumka, Trabzon, Trapezountiac. Dialects: Romeyka of Of (Ophitic), Romeyka of Sürmene, Romeyka of Tonya. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Widespread west: Izmir (Sepečides) and Edirne (Rumelian) provinces. Population: 66,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Romani ćhib. Dialects: Sepečides Romani (Sepeči), Rumelian Romani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan.

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Serbian
[srp] Widespread, west. Population: 4,500 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). 2,350 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 61,000. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Serbo-Croatian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western.

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Syriac
[syc] Sanliurfa province. Population: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Ancient Syriac, Classical Syriac, Lishana Atiga, Suryaya, Suryoyo. Dialects: Western Syriac, Eastern Syriac. Syrian churches: Eastern (Nestorian), Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite), and Syrian Catholic (Melkite, Maronite) developed a vast literature based on the Edessa (currently Sanliurfa, southeastern Turkey) variety of the Syrian dialect. Assyrian group (see Assyrian Neo-Aramaic in Iraq and elsewhere) separated denominationally from Chaldean (see Chaldean Neo-Aramaic in Iraq) and Jacobite (see Turoyo in Turkey and Syria) in the Middle Ages. Neo-Eastern Aramaic languages spoken by Christians are often dubbed Neo-Syriac although not directly descended from Syriac. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern.

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Tatar
[tat] Istanbul. Population: 26,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian.

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Turkish
[tur] Widespread. Population: 75,250,000 in Turkey, all users. L1 users: 74,900,000 in Turkey (European Commission 2006). L2 users: 350,000 (European Commission 2006). Total users in all countries: 79,779,360 (as L1: 79,399,060; as L2: 380,300). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1982, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Anatolian, Istanbul Turkish, Türkisch. Autonym: Türkçe. Dialects: Danubian, Eskisehir, Razgrad, Dinler, Karamanli, Edirne, Gaziantep, Urfa, Meskhetian Turkish (Ahiska). Danubian is west; other dialects east. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish.

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Turkish Sign Language
[tsm] Scattered. Population: Ethnic population: 400,000 (1998 Turkish Ministry of Education). The figure of 400,000 represents audiologically deaf (which agrees reasonably well with the 0.37 percentage reported 2002 by the Turkish Statistical Institute); number of sign language users unknown. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: TID, Türk İşaret Dili. Dialects: Dialectal variation between schools, due to sign language not being used in the classroom, but mutually intelligible throughout the country (Özyürek 2004). Classification: Sign language.

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Turkmen
[tuk] Tokat province. Population: Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Trukhmen, Türkmen dili, Türkmençe. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian.

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Turoyo
[tru] Mardin and Sirnak provinces. Population: 15,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Ethnic population: 50,000 (1994). Total users in all countries: 103,300. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Süryani, Turani. Autonym: Surayt. Dialects: Midyat, Midin, Kfarze, ’Iwardo, Anhil, Raite. Turoyo subdialects divided between Town Turoyo (Midyat Turoyo), Village Turoyo, and Mixed (Village-Town) Turoyo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern.

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Ubykh
[uby] Istanbul province: Sea of Marmara area, Haci Osman village. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Tevfik Esenç, died in 1992. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Oubykh, Pekhi, Ubyx. Classification: Abkhaz-Adyghe, Ubyx.

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Uyghur
[uig] Istanbul and Kayseri provinces. Population: Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Uighur, Uigur, Uygur. Classification: Turkic, Eastern.

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Uzbek, Southern
[uzs] Hatay, Gaziantep, and Sanliurfa provinces. Population: 3,800 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: O’zbek. Classification: Turkic, Eastern.

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Zaza
[zza] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,344,000. Includes: Northern Zazaki [kiu], Southern Zazaki [diq].

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Zazaki, Northern
[kiu] Bingöl province: Karkiova and Kigi districts; Elazig province: Elazig merkez and Karakoqan districts; Erzincan province; Erzurum province: Cayirli district; Malatya province; Mus province: Varto district; Sivas province, Divrigi, Imranli, Kangal, and Zara districts; Tunceli province: Hozat, Nazmiye, Ovacik, Pulumur, and Tunceli merkez districts; at least 83 total villages. Population: 184,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alevica, Dersimki, Dimilki, Kirmanjki, Northern Zaza, So-Bê, Zaza, Zonê Ma. Autonym: Shar Ma. Dialects: Tunceli, Varto. Lexical similarity: 70% with Southern Zazaki [diq]. A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani.

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Zazaki, Southern
[diq] Bingöl, Diyarbakir, and Elazig provinces: primarily Bingöl, Cermik, Dicle, Egil, Gerger, Palu, and Hani cities. Population: 1,160,000 (Leclerc 2014c), decreasing. A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000,000 (Paul 1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimili, Dimli, Southern Zaza, Zaza, Zazaca. Dialects: Sivereki, Kori, Hazzu (Hazo), Motki (Moti), Dumbuli (Dumbeli), Eastern Zazaki (Central Zazaki), Dersimki. Dialects differ slightly, but mutually intelligible. A member of macrolanguage Zaza [zza]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani.

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