Trinidad and Tobago

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English
[eng] L1 users: 1,300,000 (2011 J. Ferreira). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language, standard English in writing, education; non-standard English in informal domains, among distinct ethnic groups. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Hindustani, Sarnami
[hns] L1 users: 20,000 (2003 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: East Indians are 41% of the population. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Caribbean Hindustani, Trinidad Bhojpuri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Spanish
[spa] Trinidad: Siparia municipality, southern peninsula, fishing villages. 65,900 in Trinidad and Tobago, all users. L1 users: 4,100 (2004). L2 users: 61,800 (Instituto Cervantes 2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tobagonian Creole English
[tgh] Widespread. L1 users: 300,000 (2011 J. Ferreira). Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in Tobago. Alternate Names: Tobagonian Dialect. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Guyanese Creole English [gyn] and Vincentian Creole English [svc]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Southern.

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Trinidad and Tobago Sign Language
[lst] Scattered. L1 users: 2,000 (2008 E. Parks). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: TSL, TTSL, Trinidad Sign Language, Trinidadian Sign Language. Dialects: younger TTSL (ASL, TTASL), older TTSL. The name Trinidad and Tobago Sign Language (TTSL) refers to a continuum ranging from an older variety that is now gradually disappearing to a younger variety which is similar to Signed English in the United States, although with incorporation of elements from the older variety, with various mixed varieties in between (2016 B. Braithwaite). Although on structural terms, the extreme forms of the two varieties could be considered separate languages, there is not a clear boundary between them, and most people are familiar with different varieties so communication occurs. Some older Deaf do not understand standard ASL from the United States. Sometimes, the name TTSL is reserved for the older variety, and the younger variety is referred to as ASL or TTASL. Classification: Sign language. Comments: First residential school opened in 1947, which gave opportunity for TTSL to develop. Some early influence from British Sign Language [bfi]. Educational philosophy was oralist until 1975 when Total Communication was introduced along with ASL [ase], leading to development of the younger variety (Braithwaite 2015).

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Trinidadian Creole English
[trf] Trinidad. L1 users: 1,000,000 (2011 J. Ferreira). Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of national identity. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Southern.

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Trinidadian Creole French
[acf] Trinidad: Diego Martin municipality, peninsular coastal settlements north of the capital. L1 users: 3,800 (2004). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lesser Antillean Creole French, Patois, Patwa. Classification: Creole, French based. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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