Tanzania

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Aasáx
[aas] Manyara region: Landenai, Lolbeni, and Ndovu Okutu villages in central Maasai steppe; reportedly also in Lemelebo, Landrobo, and Naitomani districts. Population: 350 (1999 J. Carr), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aasá, Aramanik, Asak, Asax, Assa, Asá, Il Konono, Lamanik, “Dorobo” (pej.), “Ndorobo” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South.

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Akie
[oki] Manyara, Simiyu, and Tanga regions. Population: 250 in Tanzania (2016 K. Legere). Another 250 semi-speakers. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Akiek, Okiek, “Il-Torobo” (pej.), “Kindorobo” (pej.). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Okiek.

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Alagwa
[wbj] Dodoma region: Kondoa district. Population: 53,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alaagwa’isa, Alagwase, Alawa, Asi, Chasi, Hhagiree, Kialagwa, Kichase, Uassi, Waasi, Wasi. Autonym: Alagwaisa. Dialects: None known. Grammar is closer to Iraqw [irk] but not inherently intelligible. High degree of lexical similarity with Burunge [bds]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South.

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Arabic, Omani Spoken
[acx] Unguja North, Unguja South regions, Unguja Urban-West regions. Population: No known L1 speakers in Tanzania. Ethnic population: 195,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Scattered. Population: No known L1 speakers in Tanzania. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Asu
[asa] Kilimanjaro region: Pare mountains, Mwanga and Same districts; Manyara and Tanga regions. Population: 530,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). 25,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ashu, Athu, Casu, Chasu, Chiasu, Kiathu, Kipare, Pare, Pare-Asu. Dialects: Gonja, Mbaga. Related to Taveta [tvs]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.22).

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Bembe
[bmb] Kigoma region: Kigoma Vijinini district, Lake Tanganyika shore, Kigoma town north to Gombe National Park. Population: 22,000 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Beembe, Ebembe, Ibembe, Kibembe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe-Buyi (D.54).

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Bena
[bez] Njombe region: Njombe district; southwest Morogoro and north Ruvuma regions. Population: 592,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: EkiBene, Ikibena, Kibena, ekiBena. Autonym: Ekibena. Dialects: Ilembula, Kilavungi (Kilavagi), Lupembe, Masakati (Masagati), Masitu, Mavemba, Maswamu, Ngaveeta, Nyikolwe, Sovi (Sove), Twangabita, Kinamanga, Ulanga. Lexical similarity: 71% with Pangwa [pbr], 65% with Hehe [heh], 55% with Sangu [sbp], 53% with Kinga [zga], 51% with Vwanji [wbi], 47% with Kisi [kiz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.63).

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Bende
[bdp] Katavi region: Mpanda district, Kabungu, Karema, and Mwese divisions; Rukwa region. Population: 41,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Babende, Kibende, Si’bende. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Sumbwa [suw], 72% with Nyamwezi [nym], 70% with Sukuma Hu [suk], 67% with Ha [haq], 71% with Rundi [run], 60% with Hangaza [han], 58% with Nyankore [nyn], 65% with Holoholo [hoo] and 90% with Tongwe [tny]. Bende and Tongwe may be a single language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe-Bende (F.12).

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Bondei
[bou] Tanga region: Usambara mountains, inland from Tanga. Population: 122,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bonde, Boondei, Kibondei. Dialects: None known. Influenced linguistically by Doe [doe] and Kwere [cwe], and it also influenced them. Lexical similarity: 75% with Shambala [ksb] and Zigula [ziw], 73% with Ngulu [ngp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.24).

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Bungu
[wun] Mbeya region: Chunya district. Population: 30,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Echiungu, Iciwungu, Kibungu, Ungu, Wungu. Dialects: Maleza, Mwambani, Udinde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.25).

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Burunge
[bds] Dodoma region: Kondoa district, Chambalo, Goima, and Mirambu villages; Manyara region. Population: 28,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Ethnic population: 30,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulunge, Burunga Iso, Burungee, Burungi, Kiburunge, Mbulungi, Mbulungwe. Autonym: Burungaisoo. Dialects: None known. Lexically similar with Gorowa [gow] and Iraqw [irk], 65% with Alagwa [wbj] (Aweki 1996); relatively high similarity between Alagwa and Burunge, despite their belonging to separate branches of the same language family according to their grammars (Kiessling and Mous 2003). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South.

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Cutchi-Swahili
[ccl] Arusha, Dodoma, Manyara, and Pwani regions, scattered. Population: 45,000 (Maho and Sands 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asian Swahili. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with standard Kiswahili [swh]. Cutchi-Swahili and Asian Swahili may not be the same. Classification: Creole, Swahili based.

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Datooga
[tcc] Dodoma, Manyara, Singida, and Tabora regions; Mara region: Bunda and Serengeti districts. Mainly north volcanic highlands near Mount Hanang (Barabaig dialect). Population: 161,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Includes 23,000 Taturu. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Datog, Datoga, Tatog, Tatoga, Taturu, “Mangati” (pej.). Dialects: Bajuta (Bajuuta), Gisamjanga (Gisamjang, Gisamjank, Kisamajeng), Barabayiiga (Barabaig, Barabaik, Barabayga, Barbaig), Tsimajeega (Isimijeega, Isimijega), Rootigaanga (Rotigeenga, Rotigenga), Buraadiiga (Buradiga, Bureadiga), Bianjiida (Biyanjiida, Utatu), Darorajek (Daragwajega, Darorajega), Salawajega, Gidang’odiga, Bisiyeda, Ghumbiega. Sabaot [spy] is probably most similar. Barabaik and Kisamajeng dialects are very similar and are completely inherently intelligible. There are several other dialects or ethnic groups: Darorajega, Gidang’odiga, Bisiyeda, Daragwajega, Salawajega, Ghumbiega, and Mangatiga. Lexical similarity: 50% with Kalenjin [kln] languages and Omotik [omt] of Kenya. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Tatoga.

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Dhaiso
[dhs] Tanga region: Muheza district, Bwiti and Magati villages, east Usambara mountains. Population: 5,000 (1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Daiso, Daisu, Kidhaiso, Kisegeju, Segeju, Sengeju. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 32% with Digo [dig]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.56).

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Digo
[dig] Tanga area. Population: 166,000 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chidigo, Kidigo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.73).

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Doe
[doe] Pwani region: Bagamoyo and Chalinze districts, Gongo, Mkoko, and Masugulu. Population: 10,000 (2017 K. Legère). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dohe, Dowe, Kidoe. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Kwere [cwe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.301).

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English
[eng] Widespread. Population: 4,000,000 in Tanzania (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Kiingereza. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Fipa
[fip] Rukwa region: Nkansi and Sumbawanga urban districts, between Tanganyika and Rukwa lakes. Population: 713,000 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cifipa, Fiba, Icifipa, Kifipa. Autonym: Ichifipa. Dialects: Kwa (Icikwa), Milanzi (Fipa-Sukuma, Icisukuuma, Sukuma, Sukuuma), Northern Fipa (Icikandaasi, Kandaasi, Kandasi), Southern Fipa, Siiwa (Icisiiwa), Nkwaamba (Icinkwaamba), Kwaafi (Icikwaafi), Ntile (Cile, Icintile, Yantili), Peemba (Icipeemba). Over half ethnic Fipa speak a speech variety called Fipa-Mambwe, which is a dialect of Mambwe-Lungu [mgr]. More research needed for whether Kwa dialect speakers can adequately understand the Northern variety. Lexical similarity: 69% with Rungwa [rnw]; 67% with Pimbwe [piw]; 65% with Nyika, Tanzania [nkt] (Roth 2011). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Fipa-Mambwe (M.13).

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Gogo
[gog] Dodoma, Iringa, and Manyara regions; Singida region: Manyoni district. Population: 1,080,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), increasing. Includes 60,000 Nyambwa. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chigogo, Cigogo, Kigogo. Autonym: Wagogo. Dialects: Nyambwa (Cinyambwa, West Gogo), Nyaugogo (Central Gogo), Tumba (Citumba, East Gogo). Lexical similarity: 50% with Hehe [heh] and Sangu [sbp], 48% with Kimbu [kiv], 45% with Nilamba [nim]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo-Kagulu (G.11).

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Gorowa
[gow] Dodoma region: Kondoa district, near Babati, Mount Ufiome area; Manyara region: Mbulu district. Population: 113,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fiome, Goroa, Gorwaa, Ufiomi. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Burunge [bds], Alagwa [wbj], and Iraqw [irk]. May be a dialect of Iraqw. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South.

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Gujarati
[guj] Dar es Salaam, Pemba North, Pemba South, and Unguja Urban-West regions; Dar es Salaam and other cities. Population: 250,000 in Tanzania (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati.

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Gusii
[guz] Mara region: Serengeti district, Kyambahi ward. Population: 1,470 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ekegusii, Guzii, Kisii, Kosova. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.42).

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Gweno
[gwe] Kilimanjaro region: north Pare hills. Population: Ethnic population: 2,500. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ghonu, Kighonu, Kigweno. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 54%–56% with Chaga dialects (most similar), 46% with Dawida [dav]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.65).

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Ha
[haq] Kigoma region: near Burundi border; Kagera and Shinyanga regions. Population: 1,230,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Many monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Giha, Igiha, Ikiha, Kiha, Ruha, Ruhaa. Dialects: Dialects in border area near Burundi reportedly intelligible with Rundi [run] (Polomé and Hill 1980). Lexical similarity: 78% with Rundi [run], 77% with Hangaza [han] and Shubi [suj], 72% with Kinyarwanda [kin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.66).

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Hadza
[hts] Manyara region: Iramba and Mbulu districts; Simiyu region: Maswa district; Singida region: southeast of Lake Eyasi, south and northwest. Population: 1,000 (2017 K. Miller), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,200 (2017 K. Miller). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hadzabi, Hadzane, Hadzape, Hadzapi, Hatsa, Kangeju, Kindega, Kindiga, Kitindiga, Tindiga, Watindiga. Dialects: No dialects. Classification: Language isolate.

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Hangaza
[han] Kagera region: Biharamulo and Ngara districts, southwest of Bukoba; Kigoma region. Population: 155,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kihangaza. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Shubi [suj], 83% with Rundi [run], 77% with Ha [haq], 72% with Kinyarwanda [kin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.65).

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Haya
[hay] Kagera region: Bukoba urban and Bukoba rural districts. Population: 1,940,000 (2016). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: EkiHaya, Ekihaya, Ekihâya, Kihaya, OluHaya, Oluhaya, Oluhâya, Ruhaya, olu-Haya. Autonym: Luhaya, Oruhaya. Dialects: Bumbira, Edangabo, Ganda-Kiaka, Hamba, Hangiro (Ihangiro), Kyamutwara (Kiamutwara, Kjamtwara), Mwani, Nyakisisa, Yoza, Ziba (Ekiziba, Kisiba, Kiziba, Luziba, Naziba, Ruziba, Siba), Bugabo (Bugabu), Bukara, Hanja (Kianja, Kihanja, Kjanja), Missenyi (Misenyi), Nabuddu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.22).

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Hehe
[heh] Iringa region: south of Gogo area; Dodoma, Mbeya, and Morogoro regions. Population: 1,210,000 (2016). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ehe, Ekiehe, KiHehe. Autonym: Kihehe. Dialects: Sungwa (Dzungwa, Tsungwa), Kosisamba (Kojisamba, Kotsisamba). Lexical similarity: 65% with Bena [bez] (most similar), 59% with Pangwa [pbr], 56% with Sangu [sbp], 50% with Kinga [zga], 48% with Vwanji [wbi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.62).

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Ikizu
[ikz] Mara region: Bunda district, Chamriho division; Musoma district, south of Zanaki; southeast of Lake Victoria. Population: 52,900 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Includes 4,000 Shashi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikiikiizu, Ikikizo, Ikikizu, Kiikizu, Kizu. Dialects: Ikizu, Shashi (Kishashi, Kisizaki, Sizaki). Lexical similarity: 95% with Sizaki dialect, 87% with Zanaki [zak]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.402).

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Ikoma-Nata-Isenye
[ntk] Mara region: Serengeti district, Gurumeti division. Population: 34,700 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). 19,400 Ikoma, 7,100 Nata, 8,200 Isenye (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kiikoma. Autonym: Eghiikoma. Dialects: Ikoma (Egiikoma, Kiikoma, Koma), Nata (Ekinata, Ikinata, Kinata, Kinatta, Natta), Isenye (Ikisenyi, Isenyi, Issenye, Kiisenye, Kiissenye). Lexical similarity: 81% with Zanaki [zak], 73% with Ngoreme [ngq], 68% with Kuria [kuj], 44% with Gusii [guz]. Dialect similarity: Ikoma 85% with Isenye and 89% with Nata; Isenye and Nata share 88%. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.45).

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Iraqw
[irk] Manyara region: Mbulu district, highlands southwest of Arusha in the north; Singida region near Manyara border; small areas in Arusha and Dodoma regions. Population: 603,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erokh, Iraku, Iraqu, Kiiraqw, Mbulu, Mbulunge. Autonym: Kángw Iraqw. Dialects: Asa. Asa dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South.

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Isanzu
[isn] Singida region: Iramba district. Population: 26,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ihaanzu, Issansu, Kiisanzu, Kinyihanzu, Kinyisanzu. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Nyaturu [rim]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nilamba-Rangi (F.31).

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Jita
[jit] Mara region: Bunda and Musoma rural districts; possibly Mwanza region. Population: 365,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ecijiita, Ecijita, Kijita. Autonym: Echijita. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kwaya [kya], 88% with Ruri [kya], 81% with Kara [reg], 62% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.25).

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Kabwa
[cwa] Mara region: Musoma rural district, Makongoro division, Bukabwa ward. Population: 14,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekikabwa, Kikabwa. Autonym: Ekikabhwa. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 86% with Sweta [kuj], 80% with Kiroba (Suba-Simbiti dialects [ssc]), 73% with Kuria [kuj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.405).

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Kacchi
[kfr] Widespread. Population: Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cutchi, Kachchi, Kachi, Katchi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Sindhi.

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Kagulu
[kki] Dodoma region: Kilosa district; Manyara, Morogoro, and Tanga regions. Population: 337,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cikagulu, Kaguru, Kigaguru, Kikagulu, Kiningo, Megi, Northern Sagara, Solwa. Autonym: Chikagulu, Chimegi. Dialects: Tumba, Mangehele (Mangaheri). Lexical similarity: 63% with Sagala [sbm], 56% with Gogo [gog]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo-Kagulu (G.12).

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Kahe
[hka] Kilimanjaro region: southeast of Moshi. Population: 9,130 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kikahe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.64).

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Kamba
[kam] Kilimanjaro region: Moshi Rural and Rombo districts; Manyara region: Kiteto district; Morogoro region: Kilosa district; Tanga region: Korogwe, Lushoto, Mkinga, and Muheza districts. Population: Ethnic population: 11,800 (2017 K. Legere). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Akamba, Kĩĩkamba, Kiikamba, Kikamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.55).

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Kami
[kcu] Morogoro region: Kilosa and Morogoro rural districts, north and northeast of Morogoro; Pwani region. Population: 5,520 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kikami. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kutu [kdc] and Kwere [cwe], 65% with Zaramo [zaj], 64% with Doe [doe], 54% with Luguru [ruf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.36).

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Kara
[reg] Lake Victoria southeast shore, Ukara and Ukerewe islands; A few in Mwanza region. Population: 115,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kikara, Kilegi, Kiregi, Regi. Dialects: None known. May be able to use Jita written materials. Lexical similarity: 81% with Jita [jit], 80% with Kwaya [kya]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.252).

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Kerewe
[ked] Mara and Mwanza regions; Lake Victoria area, Maisome island and southeast Ukerewe island. Population: 241,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ecikerebe, Ekikerebe, Ikikerebe, Kerebe, Kikerebe, Kikerewe, Kikwere, Urukerebe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Zinza [zin], 75% with Haya [hay], 69% with Nyambo [now], 68% with Nyankore [nyn], 63% with Chiga [cgg] and Tooro [ttj], 62% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.24).

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Kimbu
[kiv] Mbeya region: Chunya district, Kipembawe ward; Singida region: Manyoni district; Tabora region: Sikonge district. Population: 62,700 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), decreasing. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ikibungu, Kikimbu, Yanzi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Nilamba [nim], 57% with Sukuma [suk], 53% with Nyaturu [rim], 48% with Sumbwa [suw], 47% with Langi [lag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.24).

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Kinga
[zga] Mbeya region; Njombe region: Makete district, Kipengere mountain range. Population: 217,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekikinga, Kikinga. Autonym: Bakinga. Dialects: Kinga, Mahanji (Mahanzi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.65).

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Kisankasa
[kqh] Arusha region. Population: 4,670 (1987). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Distinct from Aasáx [aas]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi.

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Kisi
[kiz] Njombe region: Ludewa district, Mwambao division, Lupingu and Makonde wards, Lifuma, Lupingu, Makonde, and Nindi are main villages; Lake Nyasa northwest shore. Population: 11,000 (2012 SIL). Ethnic population: 15,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kese, Kikisi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 62% with Pangwa [pbr], 55% with Kinga [zga], 53% with Sangu [sbp], 52% with Vwanji [wbi], and 47% with Bena [bez]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.67).

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Konongo
[kcz] Katavi region: Mpanda district, southwest of Ugalla river; possibly Tabora region. Population: 51,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kikonongo. Dialects: May be a dialect of Nyamwezi [nym]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.22).

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Kuria
[kuj] Mara region: Musoma rural and Tarime districts, near Kenya border; some in north Serengeti. Population: 424,000 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Total users in all countries: 684,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Egikuria, Ekikuria, Ikikuria, Kikuria, Kikuria cha Mashariki, Kikuria cha juu, Koria, Kulia, Kurya, Kurye. Autonym: Igikuria. Dialects: 15–20 clans in Tanzania, each with slightly different dialect. Clans consider themselves to speak the Kuria language rather than the language of their clan. Lexical similarity: 73% with Ngoreme [ngq], 84% with Kiroba (Suba-Simbiti [ssc] dialect). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.43).

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Kutu
[kdc] Morogoro region: Kilosa and Morogoro rural districts; Pwani region: west of Dar es Salaam. Population: 27,500 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Khutu, Kikutu, Kixutu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kami [kcu], 68% with Zaramo [zaj], 64% with Kwere [cwe], 61% with Doe [doe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.37).

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Kw’adza
[wka] Manyara region: Mbulu district. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers probably died in the 1980s (Sommer 1992). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kwadza, Ng’omvia, Ngomvya, Qwadza. Dialects: None known. Related to Iraqw [irk]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South.

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Kwaya
[kya] Mara region: Musoma rural district, Nyanja division, and Musoma urban district. Population: 100,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Includes 26,000 Ruri. Ethnic population: 115,000. 70,000 Kwaya and 45,000 Ruri. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kikwaya. Dialects: Ruri (Ciruri, Eciruri, Eciruuri, Kirori, Kiruri, Kishyola, Luri, Rori). Lexical similarity: 89% with Ruri dialect; 83% with Jita [jit], 80% with Kara [reg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.251).

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Kwere
[cwe] Morogoro region; Pwani region: Bagamoyo district. Population: 152,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kakwere, Kikwere, Kinghwele, Kwele, Ng’were, Ngh’wele, Ngwele, Nhwele, Nwele, Tsinghwele. Autonym: Nghwele. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Doe [doe], 69% with Kami [kcu], 64% with Kutu [kdc], 61% with Zaramo [zaj], 62% with Zigula [ziw], 54% with Luguru [ruf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.32).

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Lambya
[lai] Mbeya region: Ileje district, south Ulambya division, on Malawi border. Population: 30,400 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ichilambya, Icilambya, Icirambia, Iramba, Lambia, Lambwa, Rambia. Dialects: Northern Lambya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.201).

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Langi
[lag] Dodoma region: Kondoa district; Manyara region: some south. Urban groups in Arusha, Babati, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Morogoro, Mwanza, Singida, and Tanga regions. Population: 371,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), increasing. 38,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Irangi, Kelangi, Kilaangi, Kilangi, Kirangi, Rangi, Valaangi. Autonym: Kɨlaangi, Langi. Dialects: Kondoa, Haubi, Kolo, Mondo, Busi. Limited comprehension of other languages. Lexical similarity: 74% with Mbugwe [mgz], 49% with Nyaturu [rim] and Sukuma [suk], 48% with Nyamwezi [nym], 47% with Kimbu [kiv] and Nilamba [nim], 40% with Sumbwa [suw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nilamba-Rangi (F.33).

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Logooli
[rag] Mara region: Serengeti district, Kyambahi ward. Population: 300 in Tanzania (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Maragoli. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.41).

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Luguru
[ruf] Morogoro region: Kilosa and Morogoro districts; Pwani region: Bagamoyo district, Luguru mountains, and Dar es Salaam; central Zanzibar. Population: 404,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cilugulu, Guru, Ikiruguru, Kiluguru, Kiruguru, Lughuru, Lugulu, Ruguru. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 54% with Kami [kcu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.35).

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Luo
[luo] Mara region: Tarime district, Girango, Luo Imbo, Nyancha, and Suba divisions. Population: 185,000 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dholuo, Doluo, Kavirondo, Kidjaluo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Luo.

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Maasai
[mas] Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Manyara, and Tanga regions: Kenya border, east of Serengeti National Park; Dodoma and Mara regions: Baraguyu from Indian Ocean nearly to Malawi. Population: 682,000 in Tanzania (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimaasai, Lumbwa, Maa, Masai, Massai. Dialects: Arusha (Arusa, Arusha-Chini, Il-Arusha, Kuma, Larusha, L-Arusha, Rusa, Rusha), Parakuyo (Baraguyu, Kwavi), Kisonko (Kisongo), Sikirari, Salei, Serenget, L-Aitayiok. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa.

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Machame
[jmc] Arusha, Kilimanjaro, and Manyara regions: Chaga area. Population: 195,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ki-Mashami, Kimachame, Macame, Machambe, Madjame, Mashami. Autonym: Kimashami. Dialects: Masdama (Masama), Siha (Shira), Ng’uni, Bosho, Hai. Chaga dialect continuum member which include Rombo [rof], Mochi [old], and Vunjo [vun]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.621).

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Machinga
[mvw] Lindi region: Kilwa and Lindi districts, along the coast. Population: 36,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.23).

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Magoma
[gmx] Mbeya region; Njombe region: Makete district, near Kitulo plateau. Population: 9,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimagoma. Dialects: None known. 2 very closely related varieties: 1 in the lower villages and 1 in villages with a higher elevation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.651).

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Makhuwa-Meetto
[mgh] Mtwara region: Masasi district; some in Ruvuma region. Population: 577,000 in Tanzania (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chimakua, Emakhua, Emakhuwa, Imakua, Kimakua, Macua, Makhua, Makoa, Makua, Makuwa, Maquoua, Mato. Dialects: Medo (Emeto, Meto). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Makonde
[kde] Mtwara region: Mtwara rural, Mtwara urban, Newala, and Tandahomba districts; north into Lindi region. Population: 1,470,000 in Tanzania (2016). Total users in all countries: 1,987,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinimakonde, Kimakonde, Konde, Matambe, Matambwe, Mekwengo, Simakonde. Autonym: Chimakonde. Dialects: Maviha (Chimaviha, Cimabiha, Kimawiha, Mabiha, Mawia), Matambwe (Tambwe). Matambwe dialect may be more similar to Yao [yao] than Makonde, and may even be a separate language or dialect of Mwera [mwe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.23).

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Malila
[mgq] Mbeya region: Mbeya Rural district, 40 km southwest of Mbeya town. Population: 78,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ishimalilia, Kimalila, Malilia, Shimalilia. Autonym: Bamalila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.24).

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Mambwe-Lungu
[mgr] Rukwa region: Sumbawanga rural, Sumbawanga urban, and far south Nkansi districts, Matanga village south to Zambia border, Lake Tanganyika west to Tunko village east. Population: 6,680 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). 5,050 Mambwe and 1,630 Lungu (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mambwe-Rungu. Dialects: Mambwe (Cimambwe, Ichimambwe, Icimambwe, Kimambwe), Lungu (Cilungu, Icilungu, Icirungu, Kilungu, Kirungu, Rungu), Fipa-Mambwe (Kifipa cha Kimambwe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Fipa-Mambwe (M.14).

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Manda
[mgs] Njombe region: Ludewa district; Ruvuma region: Mbinga district; east shore of Lake Nyasa. Population: 43,100 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimanda, Kinyasa, Manda-Matumba, Nyasa. Dialects: Matumba. Matumba dialect is a distinct dialect but is completely intelligible with Manda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.11).

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Maraba
[ymk] Lindi and Mtwara regions. Population: 97,700 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chimaraba, Kimakwe, Makwe, Palma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.402).

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Matengo
[mgv] Ruvuma region: southwest and east of Lake Malawi. Population: 271,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chimatengo, Kimatengo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.13).

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Matumbi
[mgw] Lindi and Pwani regions. Population: 227,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimatumbi, Kimatuumbi, Matuumbi. Dialects: Kuchi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matuumbi (P.13).

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Mbugu
[mhd] Tanga region: Lushoto district, Usambara mountains. Population: 7,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 32,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kibwayo, Kibwyo, Kimaa, Kimbugu, Ma’a, Mbougou, Wa Maathi, Wa-Ma’a, Wama’a. Dialects: Inner Mbugu (Mbugu cha ndani), Normal Mbugu (Mbugu cha kawaida). Classification: Mixed language, Bantu-Cushitic.

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Mbugwe
[mgz] Manyara region: Babati district. Population: 37,200 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buwe, Kemboowɛ, Kimbugwe, Kiumbugwe, Mbuwe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Langi [lag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nilamba-Rangi (F.34).

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Mbunga
[mgy] Iringa and Morogoro regions. Population: 11,600 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bunga, Kimbunga. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Ndamba [ndj], 57% with Pogolo [poy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matuumbi (P.15).

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Mochi
[old] Kilimanjaro and Manyara regions: Chaga area. Population: 362,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Includes 40,000 Uru dialect. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chaga, Chagga, Kimochi, Kimoshi, Moshi, Mosi, Old Moshi. Dialects: Uru, Mbokomu. Chaga dialect continuum member which includes Rombo [rof], Machame [jmc], and Vunjo [vun]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.622).

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Mpoto
[mpa] Ruvuma region: Mbinga district, southwest, Lake Nyasa northeast shore. Population: 72,800 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chimpoto, Cimpoto, Kimpoto, Kinyasa, Nyasa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.14).

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Mwera
[mjh] Ruvuma region: Mbinga district, Mbamba bay, Lake Nyasa shore. Population: 6,000 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimwera, Kinyasa, Nyanza, Nyasa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mwera [mwe] in the Lindi Region, but not the same. Also reportedly similar to Nyanja (N.30) languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Tumbuka (N.201).

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Mwera
[mwe] Lindi region: Nachingwea, Ruangwa, and Lindi urban and rural districts, north of Makonde; Mtwara region. Population: 385,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chimwera, Cimwela, Cimwera, Kimwera, Mwela. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.22).

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Ndali
[ndh] Mbeya region: Ileje district, between Lambya and Nyakyusa. Population: 193,000 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), increasing. Total users in all countries: 263,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chindali, Cindali, Ici-Ndali, Icindali, Kindali, Ndari. Dialects: Sukwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyakyusa-Ngonde (M.301).

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Ndamba
[ndj] Iringa and Morogoro regions: northeast of Bena. Population: 196,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kindamba. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Mbunga [mgy], 56% with Pogolo [poy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Pogolo-Ndamba (G.52).

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Ndendeule
[dne] Ruvuma region: inland south of 10th parallel, and beyond Selous Game Reserve. Population: 140,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kindendeule, Kindendeuli, Ndendeuli. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ngindo [nnq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.101).

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Ndengereko
[ndg] Morogoro region; Pwani region: east Songea district, central coast. Population: 72,000 (Ström 2013). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kindengereko, Kingengereko, Ndengeleko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matuumbi (P.11).

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Ndonde Hamba
[njd] Lindi region: Nachingwea district, Kilimarondo division. Population: 2,460 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chindonde, Chindonde Hamba, Ishiwanda, Kidonde, Kimawanda, Kindonde Hamba, Mawanda, Ndomde, Ndonde, Wanda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.24).

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Ngasa
[nsg] Kilimanjaro region: Rombo district, Useri division, Ubetu-Kahe sub-division, Ubetu. Population: No known L1 speakers. 15 semi-speakers in 2003 (Legère 2012). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kingasa, Kingassa, Ongamo, Shaka. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Maasai [mas], 59% with Samburu [saq], 58% with the Chamus dialect of Samburu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa.

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Ngindo
[nnq] Lindi and Morogoro regions. Population: 171,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cingindo, Gindo, Kingindo, Magingo, Njindo, Njinjo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matuumbi (P.14).

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Ngoni
[ngo] Iringa and Morogoro regions; Ruvuma region: Songea area. Population: 258,000 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Total users in all countries: 311,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angoni, Chingoni, Kingoni, Kisutu, Sutu. Autonym: Xingoni. Dialects: Different from Ngoni which is an alternate name for Zulu [zul], Ngoni dialect of Nsenga [nse], Ngoni dialect of Tumbuka [tum]. Not related to Ngoni [nya] of Malawi. Lexical similarity: low percentage with Zulu [zul]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.12).

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Ngoreme
[ngq] Mara region: Serengeti district, Ikorongo and Ngoreme divisions. Population: 52,400 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dengurume, Ikingurimi, Kingereme, Kingoreme, Ngruimi, Ngurimi, Nguruimi. Dialects: None known. Limited comprehension of other languages. Lexical similarity: 73% with Kuria [kuj], 76% with Zanaki [zak], 77% with Ikoma [ntk], 49% with Gusii [guz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.401).

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Ngulu
[ngp] Dodoma region; Manyara region: 2 areas; Morogoro region: Morogoro rural district; Pwani region: northwest; Tanga region: Handeni district. Population: 215,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Geja, Kingulu, Nguru, Nguu, Wayomba. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 83% with Zigula [ziw], 73% with Bondei [bou], 68% with Shambala [ksb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.34).

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Nilamba
[nim] Shinyanga, Singida, and Tabora regions. Population: 682,000 (2016). 50,000 Iambi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikinilamba, Ikiniramba, Ilamba, Ilinilamba, Iramba, Kinilamba, Kiniramba, Nilyamba, Niramba, Nyilamba, Nyiramba. Dialects: Iambi (Nyambi), Mbuga, Ushoola (Kinaushoola). Lexical similarity: 56% with Nyamwezi [nym], 55% with Sukuma [suk], 45% with Sumbwa [suw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nilamba-Rangi (F.31).

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Nindi
[nxi] Ruvuma region: East Songea district, near Mozambique border. Population: 5,690 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kinindi, Manundi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ndendeule [dne]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.102).

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Nyakyusa-Ngonde
[nyy] Mbeya region: Kyela and Rungwe districts, Lake Malawi north end; Njombe region: Makete district. Population: 1,210,000 in Tanzania (2016), increasing. Total users in all countries: 1,359,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ikingonde, Ikinyakyusa, Ikinyikiusa, Ikinyikyusa, Kinyakyusa, Kinyakyusa-Ngonde, Konde, Mombe, Ngonde, Nkonde, Nyakusa, Nyakyusa, Nyekyosa, Nyikyusa, kiNyakyʉsa. Autonym: Kɨnyakyʉsa. Dialects: Nyakyusa (Nyekyosa), Kukwe (Lungulu, Ngumba), Mwamba (Cisociri, Sochile, Sokelo, Sokile, Sokili), Ngonde (IkyaNgonde, Konde), Selya (Kaaselya, Salya, Seria), Sukwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyakyusa-Ngonde (M.31).

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Nyambo
[now] Kagera region: Karagwe district, northwest corner, Uganda border, west of Lake Victoria. Population: 381,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekinyambo, Karagwe, Kinyambo, Ragwe, Rukaragwe, Runyambo, Ururagwe. Dialects: Yakahanga. Lexical similarity: 84% with Haya [hay], 81% with Zinza [zin], 75% with Kerewe [cwe] and Subi [xsj], 78% with Nyankore [nyn], 72% with Chiga [cgg], 68% with Tooro [ttj], 67% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.21).

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Nyamwanga
[mwn] Mbeya region: Momba district southwest corner, Zambia border; Rukwa region: Sumbawanga district southeast corner; southwest of Lake Rukwa; Saisi valley northwest to forested plateau southeast. Population: 141,000 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinamwanga, Chinyamwanga, Cinamwanga, Ichinamwanga, Inamwanga, Kinamwanga, Kinyamwanga, Mwanga, Namwanga. Dialects: Tambo, Iwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.22).

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Nyamwezi
[nym] Kigoma and Rukwa regions; Tabora region: between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa. Population: 1,470,000 (2016). 73% are in the traditional area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinyamuesi, Kinyamwesi, Kinyamwezi, Manjamuesi, Mwezi, Namwezi, Nyamwesi, Nyawezi. Dialects: Nyanyembe, Takama (Garaganza), Mweri (Kiya, Konongo, Sumbwa), Galaganza, Nangwila, Ilwana (Kilwana), Uyui, Rambo, Ndaala (Ndala), Nyambiu. Lexical similarity: 84% with Sukuma [suk], 61% with Sumbwa [suw], 56% with Nilamba [nim]. Dialect Continuum with Sukuma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.22).

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Nyaturu
[rim] Dodoma, Manyara, and Tabora regions; Singida region: Iramba and Singida rural districts, north central, south of Singida, west of Wembere river. Population: 892,000 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Keremi, Kilimi, Kinyaturu, Kiremi, Kirimi, Limi, Remi, Rimi, Turu. Dialects: Girwana (Rimi, Rwana), Chahi (Ahi, Cahi, Chahe), Ginyamunyinganyi (Nyamunying’anyi). Lexical similarity: 63% with Nilamba [nim], 59% with Sukuma [suk], 58% with Nyamwezi [nym], 53% with Kimbu [kiv], 44% with Sumbwa [suw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nilamba-Rangi (F.32).

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Nyiha, Tanzania
[nih] Mbeya region: Mbozi district, Lake Rukwa south and west. Population: 276,000 in Tanzania (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), increasing. Total users in all countries: 632,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Isinyixa, Kinyiha, Nyiha, Nyika, Nyixa. Autonym: Ishinyiha, Shinyiha. Dialects: Mbozi, Sumbawanga. Reportedly similar to Lambya [lai]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Nyika, Tanzania [nkt]; 74% with Malila [mgq]; 71% with Safwa [sbk] (Roth 2011). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.23).

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Nyika, Tanzania
[nkt] Rukwa region: Sumbawanga rural district, mainly Sandulula ward; Mollo ward. Population: 25,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinyiha, Kinyika. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Malawi Nyiha [nyr]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Nyiha,Tanzania [nih]; 74% with Malila [mgq], 71% with Safwa [sbk] (Roth 2011). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.23).

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Pangwa
[pbr] Njombe region: Ludewa district; Livingstone mountains, Lake Nyasa east shore. Population: 95,100 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ekipangwa, Kipangwa. Dialects: Kimwela. Kimwela has a distinctly different accent and the people consider themselves a separate ethnic group, but it is completely intelligible with Pangwa; intelligibility with Bena [bez] not demonstrated in preliminary tests. Lexical similarity: 71% with Bena [bez], 62% with Kisi [kiz], 61% with Kinga [zga], 59% with Hehe [heh], 58% with Sangu [sbp], 55% with Vwanji [wbi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.64).

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Pimbwe
[piw] Katavi region: Mpanda district; Rift valley to northwest of Lake Rukwa. Population: 64,600 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cipimbwe, Ichipimbwe, Icipimbwe, Kipimbwe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 88% with Rungwa [rnw], 67% with Fipa [fip], 63% with Wungu [wun] (Roth 2011). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Fipa-Mambwe (M.11).

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Pogolo
[poy] Iringa and Morogoro regions. Population: 201,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chipogolo, Chipogoro, Cipogolo, Pogolu, Pogora, Pogoro, Shipogolu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 57% with Mbunga [mgy], 56% with Ndamba [ndj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Pogolo-Ndamba (G.51).

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Rombo
[rof] Kilimanjaro region: Chaga area. Population: Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kirombo. Dialects: Keni, Mashati, Mkuu, Usseri (Kiseri, Useri). Chaga dialect continuum member which includes Mochi [old], Machame [jmc], and Vunjo [vun]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.623).

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Rufiji
[rui] Lindi region; central coast; Pwani region: Rufiji district. Population: 6,450 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fiji, Kiruihi, Ruihi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matuumbi (P.12).

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Rungwa
[rnw] Katavi region: Mpanda district, north Lake Rukwa plains. Population: 18,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ichirungwa, Icilungwa, Kirungwa, Lungwa, Nyalungwa, Runga. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 88% with Pimbwe [piw]; 69% with Fipa [fip], 63% with Wungu [wun] (Roth 2011). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Fipa-Mambwe (M.12).

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Rwa
[rwk] Arusha region: Mount Meru area. Population: 90,000 (1987). 50,000 Kihai. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimeru, Kirwa, Kirwo, Mero, Meru, Rwo. Dialects: Kihai (Meru). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.621).

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Safwa
[sbk] Mbeya region: Chunya, Mbeya rural, and Mbeya urban, and Mbozi districts, Mbeya and Poroto mountain ranges; Iringa region border area, north of Lake Malawi. Population: 322,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), increasing. Includes 22,000 Songwe. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cisafwa, Kisafwa, Shisafwa. Autonym: Ishisafwa. Dialects: Guruka (Guluxa, Kiguluka), Mbwila (Uleenje, Ulenje), Poroto (Kiporoto, Polooto), Songwe (Kisongwe, Soongwe), Central Safwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.25).

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Sagala
[sbm] Dodoma region: Mpwapwa district; Iringa region; Morogoro region: Kilosa and Ulanga districts. Population: 111,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Includes 4,000 Kwiva. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kisagala, Kisagara, Sagalla, Sagara, Saghala, Southern Kisagala. Dialects: Itumba, Kondoa (Solwe), Kweny, Nkwifiya (Kwifa, Kwiva). Lexical similarity: 63% with Kagulu [kki], 60% with Gogo [gog]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.39).

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Sandawe
[sad] Dodoma region: Kondoa district, between Bubu and Mponde rivers; Singida region. Population: 60,000 (Brenzinger 2013b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisandawe, Kissandaui, Sandaui, Sandaweeki, Sandawi, Sandwe. Autonym: Sandawso. Dialects: Western Sandawe, Eastern Sandawe. Classification: Language isolate.

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Sangu
[sbp] Iringa region: west central; Mbeya region: Mbarale district, Usangu plains. Population: 119,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ishisango, Ishisangu, Kisangu, Lori, Rori, Sangi, Sango, Shisangu. Autonym: Shisango. Dialects: Central Sangu, Eastern Sangu (Mahango), Northern Sangu, South-Central Sangu (Kapunga), Western Sangu (Kilambo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.61).

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Segeju
[seg] Tanga region: Muheza district, narrow strip of northeast coast between Tanga and Kenya border. Population: 23,200 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), decreasing. Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kisegeju, Sageju, Sengeju. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Digo [dig]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.731).

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Shambala
[ksb] Tanga region: Lushoto district, Usambara mountains; Kilimanjaro and Manyara regions. Population: 565,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisambaa, Kishambaa, Kishambala, Sambaa, Sambala, Sambara, Schambala, Shambaa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bondei [bou], 68% with Ngulu [ngp] and Zigula [ziw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.23).

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Shubi
[suj] Kagera region: Biharamulo district, northwest of Sumbwa, near Lake Victoria; north Kigoma and Shinyanga regions. Population: 92,400 (2016 SIL). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kishubi, Shuwi, Sinja, Sinya, Urushubi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Hangaza [han], 77% with Rundi [run] and Ha [haq], 71% with Kinyarwanda [kin], 49% with Sumbwa [suw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.64).

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Suba-Simbiti
[ssc] Mara region: Tarime district, Kisumwa, Komuge, Kyang’ombe, Nyahongo, Nyamagaro, Nyamtinga, and Nyamunga wards; Musoma rural district, Nyankanga ward; Musoma urban district, Bweri ward. Population: 113,000 (2011). Spoken by 6 ethnic groups in Tarime District: Hacha (4,200), Kine (14,500), Surwa (4,200), Sweta (12,800) and Simbiti (33,000), and Kiroba (30,000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisimbiti, Kisuba, Simbiti. Autonym: Suba-Simbiti. Dialects: Kiroba (Ekekeroobha), Kine (Kiine, Kikine), Sweta (Kisweta), Hacha (Haacha, Kihacha), Surwa (Kisurwa), Rieri (Ryeri), Kironi (Kikirone), Iryege (Ikiirëghë, Iregi, Kiiryege), Kiseru, Kisingiri. Lexical similarity: Simbiti dialect 84% with Kuria [kuj], 40% with Suba of Kenya [sxb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.431).

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Subi
[xsj] Kagera region: Biharamulo district. Population: 105,000 (2016 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kisubi. Dialects: None known. Most similar with Haya [hay], Nyambo [now], and Zinza [zin]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Nyambo [now]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.20).

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Sukuma
[suk] Geita, Kagera, Mwanza, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, and Tabora regions; some in Kigoma and Mara regions; between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa, to Serengeti plain, Gwe and Kiya; few in cities, 88% in the traditional area. Population: 8,130,000 (2016), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kesukuma. Autonym: Kisukuma. Dialects: Kiya (East Sukuma, Jinakiiya, Kemunakeeya, Kiiya, Kimunakiiya), Gwe (Kemunangweeli, Kigwe, West Sukuma), Kemunadakama (South Sukuma), Nasa (Kinaanasa), SumaaBu (KisumaaBu), Nelaa (Kinaanelaa), Ntuzu (Gina-Ntuzu, Kimunantuzu), Kemunasukuma (Kimuna-Sukuma, North Sukuma). Dialects contiguous with Nyamwezi and mutually intelligible along the border of the two people groups. Lexical similarity: 84% with Nyamwezi [nym], 59% with Sumbwa [suw] and Nyaturu [rim], 57% with Kimbu [kiv], 55% with Nilamba [nim], 49% with Langi [lag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.21).

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Sumbwa
[suw] Geita region: Bukombe district; Kagera and Mwanza regions; small area in Tabora region. Population: 361,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisumbwa, Shisumbwa, Shumbwa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Nyamwezi [nym], 59% with Sukuma [suk], 45% with Nilamba [nim]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.23).

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Swahili
[swh] Widespread. Unguja North and Unguja South regions: coastal areas. Population: 47,000,000 in Tanzania, all users. L1 users: 15,000,000 in Tanzania (2012), increasing. L2 users: 32,000,000 (2015 D. Nurse). Total users in all countries: 98,327,740 (as L1: 16,027,740; as L2: 82,300,000). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Kisuaheli. Autonym: Kiswahili. Dialects: Mrima (Mtang’ata), Unguja (Kiunguja, Zanzibar), Pemba, Mgao (Kimgao). Lexical similarity: Bajun dialect 85% with the Amu dialect, 78% with the Mvita dialect, 72% with the Mrima dialect; Mvita dialect 86% with Amu, 79% with Mrima; Mrima dialect 79% with Amu. A member of macrolanguage Swahili [swa]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42).

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Swahili
[swa] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 18,027,740. Includes: Congo Swahili [swc] (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Swahili [swh].

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Tanzanian Sign Language
[tza] Scattered, mainly in urban areas. Population: 278,000 (2008 WFD). 278,000 deaf signers (2008 WFD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lugha ya Alama ya Tanzania. Dialects: None known. The sign language in the Moshi-Kilimanjaro region is significantly different, to a degree yet to be determined. Distinct from sign languages in surrounding countries. Classification: Sign language.

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Temi
[soz] Arusha region: Ngorongoro district, north central near Kenya border, Maasai area. 7 villages: Digodigo, Kisangiro, Mdito, Mugholo, Oldonyo Sambu, Sale, and Samunga. Population: 24,600 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batem, Kisonjo, Kitemi, Sonjo, Sonyo, Wasonjo, Watemi. Autonym: GiTemi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly shows similarities to Gikuyu [kik] of Kenya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Temi (E.46).

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Tongwe
[tny] Kigoma region: Kigoma district; Kigoma and Rukwa regions east, small groups (20%–30% of the population) in Nguruka and Uvinza villages; Lake Tanganyika west shore. Population: 37,700 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kitongwe, Sitongwe. Dialects: Tongwe and Bende [bdp] are probably dialects of 1 language. Lexical similarity: 83%–91% with Bende [bdp] (with different varieties). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe-Bende (F.11).

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Vidunda
[vid] Morogoro region: south of Mikumi town, Vidunda mountains west, north of Great Ruaha and Udzungwa mountains. Population: 12,000 (2016 P. Mkwan’hembo). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kividunda, Ndunda. Autonym: Chividunda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.38).

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Vinza
[vin] Kigoma region: Kigoma rural district, Uvinza town area west; Rukwa and Tabora regions. Population: 10,000 (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kivinza. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.67).

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Vunjo
[vun] Kilimanjaro region: Chaga area. Population: 14,200 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kivunjo, Kivunjo-Chaga, Kiwunjo, Wunjo. Dialects: Marangu (Morang’u), Lema (Kilema), Mamba, Mwika, Kiruwa. Chaga dialect continuum member which includes Rombo [rof], Mochi [old], and Machame [jmc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.622).

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Vwanji
[wbi] Njombe region: Makete district, Kipengere mountain range. Population: 41,800 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kivwanji, Kiwanji, Wanji. Autonym: Bavwanji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.66).

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Wanda
[wbh] Mbeya region: Mbozi district; Rukwa region: Sumbawanga rural district. Population: 180 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ichiwanda, Iciwanda, Kiwanda, Vanda, Wandia. Dialects: Sichela. Lexical similarity: 68% with Nyamwanga [mwn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.21).

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Yao
[yao] Lindi region; Ruvuma region: Tunduru district, east of Lake Malawi; possibly Mtwara region; Mozambique border area. Population: 630,000 in Tanzania (2016). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achawa, Adsawa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Chiyao, Ciyao, Djao, Haiao, Hajao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Kihiau, Kihyao, Kiyao, Veiao, Wajao. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.21).

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Zanaki
[zak] Mara region: Musoma rural district, Makongoro division. Population: 97,400 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikizanaki, Ilizanaki, Kizanaki. Autonym: Ekizanaki. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 87% with Ikizu [ikz], 74% with Ikoma [ntk], 76% with Ngoreme [ngq], 66% with Kuria [kuj], 50% with Gusii [guz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.44).

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Zaramo
[zaj] Morogoro region; Pwani region: Bagamoyo and Kisarawe districts, between Bagamoyo and Dar es Salaam. Population: 293,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Includes 33,000 Nyagatwa. Ethnic population: 657,000 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dzalamo, Kizaramo, Myagatwa, Saramo, Zalamo, Zaramu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kutu [kdc], 65% with Kami [kcu], 61% with Kwere [cwe] and Doe [doe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.33).

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Zigula
[ziw] Manyara region: west central; Pwani region: Bagamoyo district; Tanga region: northeast; Maasai steppe. Population: 442,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chizigula, Kizigua, Kizigula, Msegua, Seguha, Wayombo, Wazegua, Zeguha, Zegura, Zigoua, Zigua, Zigwa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 83% with Ngulu [ngp], 75% with Bondei [bou], 68% with Shambala [ksb], 70% with Doe [doe], 62% with Kwere [cwe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.31).

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Zinza
[zin] Geita, Kagera, and Mwanza regions: Lake Victoria southwest shore; area islands. Population: 205,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009), decreasing. Includes 18,000 Longo. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abazinza, Binza, Dzinda, Dzindza, Echidzindza, Echijinja, Echizinza, Ecijinja, Ecizinza, Ekizinza, Jinja, Kizinza, Omuchizinza, Zinja. Autonym: Echiziinza, Zinza. Dialects: Longo, Kula. Lexical similarity: 81% with Nyambo [now] and Nyankore [nyn], 78% with Haya [hay], 76% with Kerewe [ked], 75% with Chiga [cgg], 67% with Nyoro [nyo] and Tooro [ttj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (E.23).

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