Ukraine

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, and Kharkiv regions; Krym, autonomous republic. 50,400 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 99,900 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)). Dialects: Crimea (Krim). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Belarusian
[bel] Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Kharkiv, Kiev, Luhansk, Odessa, Rivne, and Zaporizhia regions; Krym, autonomous republic; Kiev City, Sevastopol City. 56,200 (2003 UNSD). Ethnic population: 276,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)), protected language. Alternate Names: Belarusan. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Donetsk, Mykolaiv, Odessa, and Zaporizhia regions. 131,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 205,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)), protected language. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Crimean Tatar
[crh] Krym, autonomous republic. 228,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 248,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 541,540. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2009, No. 1167-VI, Autonomous Republic Crimea Republic Constitution (amended), Articles 11-13), protected language. Alternate Names: Crimean, Crimean Turkish. Autonym: Qirim, Qirimtatar. Classification: Turkic, Southern. Comments: Sometimes confused with, but distinct from, Tatar [tat]. Muslim.

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Gagauz
[gag] Odessa region: Izmail’s’kyj district. 22,800 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 31,900 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)), protected language. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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German, Standard
[deu] Scattered. 4,060 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 33,300 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)), protected language. Alternate Names: Deutsch, Nimetsʹkyy. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Greek
[ell] Donetsk region: Mariupol town, 18 villages. 5,830 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 91,500 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Hretsʹkyy, Urum. Dialects: Mariupol Greek (Crimeo-Rumeic, Tavro-Rumeic). Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Hungarian
[hun] Zakarpattia region. 162,000 (2003 UNSD). Ethnic population: 157,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)). Alternate Names: Magyar, Uhorsʹkyy. Classification: Uralic. Comments: Christian.

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Karaim
[kdr] Lviv region: Luts’k town; Chernivtsi region: Halych town. 6 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,200 (2001 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)). Alternate Names: Karaite. Dialects: Karaim, Trakai (Trakay), Halych (Galits). Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian. Comments: Non-indigenous. No speakers remaining in Israel. Lutzk-Halych dialect Russian-English dictionary being compiled (2006 V. Mireyev). Jewish.

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Krimchak
[jct] Krym, autonomous republic. 200 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,800 (Salminen 2007). 1,200 ethnic Krimchak in the Crimea, 600 elsewhere (Salminen 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Judeo-Crimean Tatar, Judeo-Crimean Turkish. Autonym: Кърымчах тыльы‎ (Krymchakh Tilyi). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Crimean Tatar [crh]. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian. Comments: Jewish.

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Polish
[pol] Lviv region: 3 small interior enclaves. 18,700 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 144,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)), protected language. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Kharkiv region. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Crimean Romani (Kyrymitika Roma). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Romani, Carpathian
[rmc] Zakarpattia region: 2 border strips near Tisa river. 21,300 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 47,600 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)). Alternate Names: Ungrike Romá. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Odessa and Zakarpattia regions. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rom. Dialects: Central Vlax Romani, Kalderash, Ukrainian Vlax. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax. Comments: Non-indigenous. Vlax speakers from Russia are called Rusurja. Ethnic groups: Sárvi (left-bank Ukraine), Volóxuja (right-bank Ukraine), Chache (Moldavia), Kalderari (Moldavia, Ukraine, Odessa, Transcarpathia), Lovári (Ukraine). Christian.

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Romanian
[ron] Chernivtsi region, at northern Romania border; Odessa region, south of Moldova, Renijs’kyj district, 2 enclaves near border. 328,000 (2003 UNSD). Ethnic population: 410,000 (2001 census). 151,000 ethnic Moldovians, 257,000 ethnic Romanians. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)). Alternate Names: Daco-Romanian, Moldavian, Română, Rumanian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern.

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Russian
[rus] Widespread, particularly in east and south. 39,100,000 in Ukraine, all users. L1 users: 14,300,000 (2003 UNSD). L2 users: 24,800,000 (Arefyev 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Autonomous Republic of Crimea (2009, Autonomous Republic of Crimea Constitution (amended), No. 1167-VI, Articles 10–13). Alternate Names: Rosiysʹkyy. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East.

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Rusyn
[rue] Zakarpattia region. 6,730 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 10,200 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 82,960. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Carpathian, Carpatho-Rusyn, Ruthenian. Autonym: русиньскый язык‎ (Rusynska mova). Dialects: Rusyn is called a dialect of Ukrainian [ukr], but speakers reportedly consider themselves distinct from Ukrainians. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Christian.

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Slovak
[slk] Zakarpattia region. 2,770 (2003 UNSD). Ethnic population: 6,400 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)), protected language. Alternate Names: Slovenčina, Slovenský Jazyk. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ukrainian
[ukr] 30,800,000 in Ukraine (2016), all users. L1 users: 25,000,000 (2016). Ethnic population: 34,400,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 32,948,980 (as L1: 27,148,980; as L2: 5,800,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 10). Autonym: українська мова‎ (Ukrayins’ka mova). Dialects: Northwest Ukrainian, Southwest Ukrainian, East Ukrainian. Dialect differences slight. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Christian.

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Ukrainian Sign Language
[ukl] Scattered. 54,000 (2008 WFD). Other population figures refer to audiological deafness: 43,000 registered Ukrainian nationals with hearing impairments (2015 Ukrainian Society of the Deaf); 223,000 (2016 IMB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2005, Law No. 2961–IV (06.10.2005)), for use in education (2008 WFD). Alternate Names: USL, Ukrayinska Mova Zhestiv, Ukrayinska Zhestova Mova. Dialects: None known. Relatively high lexical similarity to sign languages in Moldova [vsi] and Russia [rsl] (Bickford 2005). Classification: Sign language. Comments: 39 preschools and 61 secondary schools for the deaf, most of which emphasize oral proficiency in Ukrainian (2015 Ukrainian Society of the Deaf). 152 deaf students in universities (2010 Kyiv Post). Sign language interpretation in universities and daily on television (2008 WFD). Deaf associations, athletic organizations. Christian.

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Urum
[uum] Donetsk region: 10 villages. 95,000 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Turkic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic Greek speakers.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Scattered. 40,000 (2017). Total users in all countries: 509,160. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2004, Law, Status of Indigenous Peoples of Ukraine, Article 1(5)), protected language. Autonym: יידיש‎ (Yiddish). Dialects: Southeastern Yiddish (Podolian, Volhynian). Many loans from Hebrew [heb] and local languages. Eastern and Western [yih] Yiddish have difficult inherent intelligibility due to differing histories and influences from other languages. Some Western Yiddish [yih] in Israel (1977 M. Herzog). A member of macrolanguage Yiddish [yid]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish.

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