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Abenaki, Eastern
[aaq] Maine: Androscoggin-Kennebec and Penobscot valleys. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 90 (2000 census). Total Abenaki in the United States. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Abenaki, Eastern Abnaki. Dialects: Penobscot. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Abenaki. Comments: Penobscot dialect survived to the late 20th century near Bangor, Maine.

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Abenaki, Western
[abe] Vermont: north end of Lake Champlain. 4 in United States (2012 D. Stevens). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Abenaki. Comments: Non-indigenous. Four recognized Western Abenaki tribes in Vermont.

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Achumawi
[acv] California: northeast. 10 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Achomawi, Pitt River. Dialects: Originally 9 dialects. Classification: Palaihnihan. Comments: Both Achumawi and Atsugewi [atw] are heritage languages of the Pit River Tribe.

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Afro-Seminole Creole
[afs] Texas: Bracketville; Oklahoma: east of Norman. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Afro-Seminole, Black Seminole, Seminole. Dialects: Texas Afro-Seminole, Mexico Afro-Seminole. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ahtena
[aht] Alaska: Cantwell, Chickaloon, and Copper river above Eyak river mouth, upper Susitna and Nenana drainages, 8 total communities; Washington state. 80 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 500 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Ahtna, Atna, Copper River, Mednovskiy. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Growing interest in use among the population.

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Alabama
[akz] Alabama: Coushatta Reservation near Livingston; Texas: southeast. 250 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 460 (2000 census). Alabama and Texas. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Alibamu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: less than 50% with Koasati [cku]. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Central Muskogean, Apalachee-Alabama-Koasati, Alabama-Koasati.

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Aleut
[ale] Alaskan peninsula, east Aleutian Islands, and Pribilofs (Eastern Aleut dialect); Aleutian chain, Atka island (Western Aleut dialect). 150 in United States (Krauss 2007). Ethnic population: 2,300 (Dorais 2010). Total users in all countries: 155. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Anangax, Unangam tunnu. Dialects: Eastern Aleut (Pribilof Aleut, Unalaskan), Western Aleut (Atka, Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Unangany). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Aleut. Comments: Copper Island Aleut is mixed Aleut-Russian language, or pidgin, spoken on Mednyj Island. Many school texts have been produced.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered, especially in urban centers and near (present or former) residential Deaf schools. 250,000 in United States (Mitchell et al 2006). Total users in all countries: 271,550. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ameslan, ASL, SIGN AMERICA. Dialects: Black American Sign Language, Tactile American Sign Language (TASL). Some lexical variation across the United States and much of Canada, but intelligibility is high among all varieties called ASL. Black American Sign Language, developed in schools for African-American children due to segregation in the southern United States, contains some distinctive vocabulary and grammatical structure. Tactile ASL (TASL) is used throughout the United States by and with deaf-blind people, especially those with Usher’s Syndrome, concentrations of which are found in Louisiana and Seattle. TASL uses ASL vocabulary and grammar, except (1) the deaf-blind person receives signs through touch by feeling signs in the palms, and (2) there are minor syntactic modifications to compensate for the deaf-blind person’s lack of access to the signer’s facial expressions. Some deaf-blind people learn Braille for reading English. Varieties or closely-related languages derived from ASL are used in many other countries. Lexical similarity: 58% between modern ASL and French Sign Language (LSF) [fsl] on a comparison of 872 signs (Woodward 1978b). Although the 2 are historically related, ASL has undergone substantial creolization (Woodward 1975, Woodward 1976). Classification: Sign language. Comments: American Sign Language is different from Signed English, a range of signing registers influenced by English. Signing Exact English (SEE) and Seeing Essential English (SEE2) are artificially-constructed systems that attempt to match English word order and morphemic structure exactly. Pidgin Signed English does not follow English grammar exactly. Deaf schools and interpreters in mainstreamed educational settings may use any of these sign varieties. The alternate name “SIGN AMERICA” is a representation of the signs that sign language users in other countries often use for ASL. This name is not used in English, but is a word-for-sign translation of the signed name.

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Angloromani
[rme] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: English Romani, Romani, Romani English, Romanichal, Romanis. Classification: Mixed language, English-Romani. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Apache, Jicarilla
[apj] New Mexico: Dulce area. 300 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,100 (Golla 2007). All Apache varieties: 13,270 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Abáachi, Jicarilla. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache.

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Apache, Kiowa
[apk] Oklahoma: Caddo county. 3 (Golla 2007), decreasing. L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache.

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Apache, Lipan
[apl] New Mexico: Mescalero Reservation. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Lipan. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache.

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Apache, Mescalero-Chiricahua
[apm] New Mexico: Mescalero Reservation; Oklahoma: some Chiricahua at Fort Sill. 1,500 (Golla 2007). 1,500 Mescalero in New Mexico, 3 Chiricahua in Oklahoma (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: More than 3,000 Mescalero (Golla 2007). 175 Chiricawa, including 149 in New Mexico (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Chiricahua, Mescalero. Little dialectal variation between Chiricahua and Mescalero. Mostly a distinction in tribal identity (Golla 2007). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache.

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Apache, Western
[apw] Arizona: several reservations east central. 14,000 (Golla 2007). 6,000 on San Carlos, 7,000 on Fort Apache Reservation (White Mountain Apache Tribe); smaller numbers at Tonto, Camp Verde, and Fort McDowell reservations (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 20,200 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Coyotero. Dialects: Cibecue, San Carlos, Tonto, White Mountain. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache.

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Arapaho
[arp] Wyoming: Wind River Reservation; also associated with Cheyenne [chy] in western Oklahoma. 1,000 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,940 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arrapahoe. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Arapaho. Comments: No L1 speakers in Oklahoma.

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Arikara
[ari] North Dakota: Fort Berthold Reservation, mostly Parshall and White Shield. 10 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 94 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arikaree, Arikari, Arikaris, Ree, Ris. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan, Kitsai-Proto-Pawnee, Proto-Pawnee. Comments: Reportedly a group Lewis and Clark met in 1804 in North Dakota. 30,000 were reduced to 6,000 due to smallpox.

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Assiniboine
[asb] Montana: Fort Belknap and Fort Peck reservations. 150 L1 speakers in both countries; 3,500 ethnic population for both countries (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,500 ethnic population in the United States and Canada (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Assiniboin, Hohe. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Atsugewi
[atw] California: northeast. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). 1,350 with Achumawi (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Palaihnihan. Comments: No known speakers since 1998 (Golla 2007). Heritage language of 2 of the 11 bands that constitute the Pit River Tribe.

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Barbareño
[boi] California: near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007), but emerging L2 speakers. Last speaker died in 1965 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash.

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Basque
[eus] California: Chino; Idaho: Boise; Nevada: Reno. 1,600 in United States (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Euskara. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Blackfoot
[bla] Montana: Blackfeet Reservation. 100 in United States (2001 I. Goddard), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,600 (2000 census). 5,000 (2001 I. Goddard). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Blackfeet, Niitsipowahsin, Pikanii, Siksika(ipowahsin). Dialects: Piegan (Peigan). Classification: Algic, Algonquian. Comments: In Missoula, Montana, summer language classes are offered in Blackfoot.

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Caddo
[cad] Oklahoma: Caddo county. 25 (Golla 2007). No monolinguals (2000 B. Levy). Ethnic population: 45 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Caddoe, Kado, Kadohadacho. Dialects: None known. Related to Pawnee [paw], Wichita [wic], and 2 extinct languages: Kitsai [kii] and Adai. Classification: Caddoan. Comments: The tribes are Cahinnio, Hasinai, Kadohadacho, Nanatsoho, Upper Nasoni, Upper Natchitoches, and Upper Yatasi.

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Cahuilla
[chl] California: San Gorgonio Pass and Mohave Desert areas. 35 (2009 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 (Hinton 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cahuilla.

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Catawba
[chc] South Carolina: Rock Hill area. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 500 (1977 SIL). The last speaker died before 1960. Status: 9 (Reawakening). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Catawban.

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Cayuga
[cay] New York: Cattaraugus Reservation. 10 in United States (1991 M. Kinkade), decreasing. Ethnic population: 45 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock. Comments: The dialect in Oklahoma is extinct.

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Chamorro
[cha] Scattered. 18,000 in United States (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Chamorro. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chehalis, Lower
[cea] Washington: southwest coast. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Salish, Tsamosan, Maritime. Comments: Not well documented but some sound recordings were made around 1940.

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Chehalis, Upper
[cjh] Washington: south of Puget Sound. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 2001 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chehalis, Kwaiailk. Dialects: None known. Separate from Lower Chehalis [cea]. Different from Halkomelem [hur] on Chehalis river, British Columbia. Classification: Salish, Tsamosan, Inland.

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Cherokee
[chr] Oklahoma: Cherokee Reservation; North Carolina: Great Smokey Mountains area. 10,400 (2010 census). Spoken by 10,000 of the 122,000 member Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma, by 1,000 of the 10,000 Eastern Band of Cherokees in North Carolina, by a high percentage of the 7,500 members of the United Keetoowah Band of Oklahoma and Arkansas (Golla 2007). 130 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 140,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tsalagi, Tslagi. Dialects: Elati (Eastern Cherokee, Lower Cherokee), Kituhwa (Middle Cherokee), Otali (Overhill Cherokee, Upper Cherokee, Western Cherokee), Overhill-Middle Cherokee. Classification: Iroquoian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chetco
[ctc] Oregon: south coast. 5 (Chafe 1962), decreasing. Ethnic population: 100 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tolowa-Chetco.

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Cheyenne
[chy] Montana: northern Cheyenne Reservation; associated with Arapaho [arp] language users in western Oklahoma. 2,100 (Golla 2007). Spoken by 1,700 in Montana, 400 in Oklahoma (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,000 (Golla 2007). In Montana. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

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Chickasaw
[cic] Oklahoma: Byng and Happyland (near Ada) north, Davis and Ardmore west, to Fillmore and Wapanucka east. California: Los Angeles. 600 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 35,000 (1999 Chickasaw Nation). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Choctaw [cho] find Chickasaw unintelligible. Classification: Muskogean, Western Muskogean.

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Chimariko
[cid] California: northwest. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died around 1950 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: No ethnic group members left (1997 K. Turner). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Chimariko descendants consider both Hupa [hup] and Chimariko to be heritage languages but emphasize Hupa for cultural revitalization.

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Chinook
[chh] Oregon: Warm Springs Reservation; Washington: Yakima Reservation. 7 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 140 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lower Chinook, Shoalwater. Dialects: Klatsop (Clatsop, Tlatsop), Shoalwater (Chinook Proper). Classification: Chinookan.

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Chinook Wawa
[chn] Oregon: Polk and Yamhill counties, Grand Ronde reservation. 1 in United States (Grant 2013). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chinook Jargon, Chinook Pidgin, Chinuk Wawa, Jargon, Tsinuk Wawa. Dialects: None known. Many words from Chinook, large admixture of words from Nuu-chah-nulth [nuk], Canadian French [fra], and English [eng]. Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian.

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Chippewa
[ciw] Michigan; Minnesota; North Dakota; Wisconsin. 5,000. Ethnic population: 104,000 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Minnesota Ojibwe, Ojibway, Ojibwe, Southwestern Ojibwa. Dialects: Upper Michigan-Wisconsin Chippewa, Central Minnesota Chippewa, Red Lake Chippewa, Minnesota Border Chippewa. Turtle Mountain in North Dakota shares features with Central Minnesota. Red Lake includes Northwest Angle on shore of Lake of the Woods. Nett Lake on the Minnesota border is closely related to Lac la Croix (Rainy River Ojibwa of Northwestern Ojibwa [ojb]) in Ontario. A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

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Chitimacha
[ctm] Louisiana: south. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1940 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 300 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Language isolate.

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Choctaw
[cho] Louisiana; Mississippi: east central; Oklahoma: McCurtain county; Tennessee. 10,400 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 20,000 (Golla 2007). In Oklahoma. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Choctaw find Chickasaw [cic] unintelligible. Classification: Muskogean, Western Muskogean. Comments: The Houma are 12,000 racially mixed descendants of a Choctaw subgroup in southern Louisiana who speak a dialect of Cajun French [frc], and no longer speak Choctaw.

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Clallam
[clm] Washington: Port Angeles and northeast Olympic Peninsula. No known L1 speakers (2014 R. Allen), decreasing. Last speaker died in 2014. L2 users: 6. Ethnic population: 3,000 (2014 R. Allen). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Klallam, Na’klallam, S’klallam. Dialects: Reportedly similar to the Saanich dialect of Straits Salish [str]. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Cocopa
[coc] Arizona: lower Colorado river south of Yuma. 150 in United States (Golla 2007). 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 700 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cocopah, Cucapá, Delta River Yuman, Kikima, Kuapá, Kwikapa. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-California.

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Coeur d’Alene
[crd] Idaho: Coeur d’Alene Reservation. 2 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007). Ethnic population: 80 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern.

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Columbia-Wenatchi
[col] Washington: Colville Reservation on northeast Olympic Peninsula. 40 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007). 25 Columbia speakers (Golla 2007). L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 230 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chelan, Columbian, Moses-Colombia, Moses-Colombia Salish, Nxa’amxcin, Wenatchee, Wenatchi, Wenatchi-Columbia. Dialects: Columbia (Columbian, Sinkiuse), Wenatchi (Chelan, Entiat, Wenatchee). Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern.

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Comanche
[com] Oklahoma: west. 100 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Shoshoni [shh] and Timbisha [par]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central.

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Coos
[csz] Oregon: south coast. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1972 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 150 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Hanis. Classification: Coosan.

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Coquille
[coq] Oregon: southwest. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mishikhwutmetunee, Upper Coquille. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tututni-Chasta Costa-Coquille.

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Cowlitz
[cow] Washington: southwest. 110 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 200 (1990 M. Kinkade). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lower Cowlitz. Classification: Salish, Tsamosan, Inland.

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Cree, Plains
[crk] Montana: Rocky Boy Reservation north central. 100 in United States (2001 I. Goddard), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,560 (2000 census). Ethnic population may include Chippewa [ciw]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nehiyaw, Nēhiyawēwin, Western Cree. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Crow
[cro] Montana: south. 3,000 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apsaalooke. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Hidatsa [hid]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Missouri River Siouan.

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Cruzeño
[crz] California: Santa Barbara area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Island Chumash, Isleño. Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Had multiple dialects. Classification: Chumashan, Island Chumash.

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Cupeño
[cup] California: Pala reservation area, north of Valley Center. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1987 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 20 (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cahuilla.

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Czech
[ces] Scattered. Texas: around town of West (Texas Czech). 55,400 in United States (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ceský jazyk, Cestina. Dialects: Texas Czech. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dakota
[dak] Minnesota: Upper Sioux, Lower Sioux, Prior Lake, Prairie Island, Minneapolis; Montana: Fort Peck reservation; Nebraska: Santee; North Dakota: Devils Lake, northern Standing Rock reservation, Sisseton-Lakota Traverse reservation; South Dakota: Crow Creek, Sisseton-Lakota Traverse and Yankton reservations, Flandreau. 100 in United States (2016 W. Meya), decreasing. Ethnic population: 170,000 (2016 Lakota Language Consortium). Includes all ethnic Sioux. Total users in all countries: 290. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sioux. Dialects: Dakota (Dakhota, Santee, Santee-Sisseton), Nakota (Nakoda, Yankton, Yankton-Yanktonais). Lexical similarity: 83%–86% with Stoney [sto], 89%–94% with Assiniboine [asb], 90%–95% with dialects. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

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Degexit’an
[ing] Alaska: Anvik, Athapaskans, and Shageluk at Holy Cross, below Grayling on the Yukon river. 40 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 280 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Deg Xinag, Deg Xit’an, “Ingalik” (pej.), “Ingalit” (pej.). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Delaware
[del] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 7 Status: Comments: Includes: Munsee [umu] (Canada), Unami [unm].

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Delaware, Pidgin
[dep] Connecticut; Delaware; New Jersey; New York: Manhattan. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian.

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English
[eng] Widespread. 225,000,000 in United States (2010 census). L2 users: 25,600,000 in United States (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: African American Vernacular English (AAVE). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Esselen
[esq] California: central coast near Carmel. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 80 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Huelel. Classification: Language isolate.

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Eyak
[eya] Alaska: Copper river mouth. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in January 2008. Ethnic population: 50 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 9 (Dormant). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan.

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French
[fra] Maine; New Hampshire; Vermont. 1,300,000 in United States (2013 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Québécois, Acadian (Acadien). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous. Considered threatened. Christian.

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French, Cajun
[frc] Louisiana: west of the Mississippi to Allen, Avoyelles, Calcasieu, and Evangeline parishes; Texas: small border area west of Sabine river, east of Beaumont. 25,600 (2010 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acadian, Cadien, Cajan, Cajun, Louisiana French. Dialects: Marsh French, Prairie French, Big Woods French. Reportedly Cajun speakers can partially understand standard French [fra]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Ancestors came from French Canada in the 18th century. Christian.

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Galice
[gce] Oregon: southwest. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the 1960s (Golla 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan.

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German, Hutterite
[geh] Minnesota; Montana; North Dakota; South Dakota; Washington; Oregon. 10,800 in United States (2007 SIL). There are 128 colonies in the United States, with about 95 people per colony. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Carinthian German, Hutterian German, Hutterisch, Tirolean, Tyrolese. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian. Comments: Christian.

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German, Pennsylvania
[pdc] Scattered; Florida; Indiana; Iowa; Kansas; Missouri; Ohio; Oklahoma; Pennsylvania; Virginia; West Virginia; Wisconsin; new communities in other states. 118,000 in United States (2010 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 200,000 (Kloss and McConnell 1981). Total users in all countries: 133,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pennsylvania Deitsh, Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvanish. Dialects: Amish Pennsylvania German (Plain Pennsylvania German), Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Non-Plain Pennsylvania German, Pensylvanisch Deitsch). Blending of several German dialects, primarily Rhenish Palatinate (Pfalzer) German, with syntactic elements of High German and English. Mostly incomprehensible to those from the Palatinate (Kloss 1978). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German. Comments: Separate orthographies for Pennsylvania and Ohio dialects. Christian.

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Gros Ventre
[ats] Montana: Fort Belknap reservation, Milk river. 10 (Golla 2007), decreasing. No fully fluent speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ahahnelin, Ahe, Ananin, Atsina, Fall Indians, Gros Ventres, White Clay People. Dialects: None known. Intelligible with Arapaho [arp]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Arapaho.

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Gwich’in
[gwi] Alaska: Arctic village, Birch Creek, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, and Venetie; on Yukon river and tributaries. 300 in United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Krauss 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Dinju Zhuh K’yuu, Kutchin. Dialects: Arctic Red River, Arctic Village Gwich’in, Fort Yukon Gwich’in, Western Canada Gwich’in (Loucheux, Takudh, Tukudh). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Haida, Northern
[hdn] Alaska: Craig, Hydaburg, Kasaan, Ketchikan, and Prince of Wales island south tip; panhandle south tip. 15 in United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 130 (Golla 2007). 600 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Masset, Xaad Kil. Classification: Haida.

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Halkomelem
[hur] Washington state. 25 in United States (1997 B. Galloway), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,270 (1997 B. Galloway). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Halq’eméylem, Holkomelem, Hul’q’umi’num’. Dialects: Chiliwack, Cowichan, Musqueam, Nanaimo. Classification: Salish, Central Salish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Han
[haa] Alaska: Eagle; Yukon river near Alaska-Canada border. 12 in United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 50 (Golla 2007). Total users in all countries: 19. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Moosehide. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: There is a Han textbook with tapes for teaching the language.

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Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai
[yuf] Arizona: central and northwest. Walapai dialect: Grand Canyon south rim; Havasupai dialect: Grand Canyon bottom. 1,600 (Golla 2007). 500 Havasupai, 1,000 Walapai, 100–150 Yavapai (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,860 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Including 570 Havasupai, 1,870 Walapai, 1,420 Yavapai (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Upland Yuman, Upper Colorado River Yuman. Dialects: Havasupai, Walapai (Hualapai, Hualpai, Hwalbáy), Yavapai. 78%–98% intelligibility among dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–95% among dialects. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Pai.

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Hawai’i Pidgin
[hwc] Hawaii; Florida: Orlando; Nevada: Las Vegas; west coast. 600,000 (2012 J. Grimes). Another 100,000 on the United States mainland. L2 users: 400,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hawai’i Creole, Hawai’i Creole English, Hawaiian Creole, Hawaiian Creole English, HCE, Pidgin. Dialects: None known. The basilect is barely intelligible with standard English (McKaughan and Forman 1981). Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Hawaii Sign Language
[hps] Hawaii. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Hawai’i Pidgin Sign Language, Hawaiian Sign Language, HPS, HSL. Dialects: None known. Not related to American Sign Language [ase] or any other known sign language, less than 20% probable cognates with ASL (2013 J. Woodward). Many elderly use a mixture of HSL with ASL. Classification: Sign language.

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Hawaiian
[haw] Hawaii: mainly Ni’ihau island, Island of Hawai’i, some on all other islands; some in every state. 2,000 (Wurm 2007). 500 with Ni’ihau Island connections, another 500 in their 70s or 80s (1995 L. Wong). 8,000 can speak and understand it (1993 K. Haugen). In 1900 there were 37,000 L1 speakers (1995 Honolulu Advertiser). 2000 census lists 27,200. Ethnic population: 336,000. 237,000 in Hawaii (1996 Hawaii State Department of Health), 19% of the population (1990 Hawaii State Department of Health), and 99,000 ethnic Hawaiians on the United States mainland (1990 census), including 24,300 in California. Ethnic Hawaiians include 8,300 pure Hawaiian, 72,800 between 50% and 99% Hawaiian, 127,500 fewer than 50% Hawaiian in Hawaii (1984 Office of Hawaiian Affairs). In 1778 there were believed to have been more than 500,000 pure Hawaiians (1995 W. Harada). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Hawaii (1978, Hawaii Constitution, Article 15(4)), co-official with English. Alternate Names: ’Olelo Hawai’i, ’Olelo Hawai’i Makuahine. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Rarotongan [rar], 77% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 76% with Tahitian [tah] (Elbert), 71% with Maori [mri] (Schütz), 70% with Marquesan [mqm], 64% with Rapa Nui [rap]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Hidatsa
[hid] North Dakota: Fort Berthold Reservation. 200 (Golla 2007). 25–50 semifluent speakers. 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hinatsa, Hiraca, Minitari. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Crow [cro]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Missouri River Siouan.

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Ho-Chunk
[win] Iowa: south of Sioux City, east bank, Missouri river; Nebraska: Winnebago Reservation; Wisconsin: central, scattered. 250 (Golla 2007). 230 reported in 1997 (1997 V. Zeps). Ethnic population: 1,650 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hocák, Hocak Wazijaci, Hocank, Hochank, Winnebago. Dialects: Wisconsin, Nebraska. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Chiwere-Winnebago. Comments: The name is written with a hook under the ‘a’ of Hocák, representing a nasalized vowel. The official name for the people is Hocák Nation.

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Holikachuk
[hoi] Alaska: Grayling village on lower Yukon river. 6 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Hopi
[hop] Arizona: several villages northeast; New Mexico; Utah. 6,780 (2010 census), decreasing. 40 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,350 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan.

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Hupa
[hup] California: Hoopa Valley Reservation, northwest. 8 (1998 J. Brook), decreasing. L2 users: 30. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Hinton 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Hoopa. Dialects: Whilkut. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan.

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Ineseño
[inz] California: Santa Barbara area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash.

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Inupiaq
[ipk] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 5,580 Status: Comments: Includes: North Alaskan Inupiatun [esi], Northwest Alaska Inupiatun [esk].

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Inupiatun, North Alaskan
[esi] Alaska: Norton Sound and Point Hope. All Inupiatun: 3,000, including [esk] (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,420 (2000 census). May include Northwest Alaska Inupiatun [esk]. All Inupiatun: 13,500 including [esk] (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Eskimo, Inupiak, Inupiat, North Alaskan Inuktitut, North Alaskan Inupiaq, North Alaskan Iñupiaq, North Alaskan Inupiat. Dialects: North Slope Inupiaq, Anaktuvik Inupiaq, Kobuk Inupiaq, Kotzebue Inupiaq, Malimiutun Inupiaq, Point Barrow Inupiaq, Uummarmiutun. A member of macrolanguage Inupiaq [ipk]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq.

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Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska
[esk] Alaska: Bering Strait, Kobuk and Noatak rivers, and Seward Peninsula. 5,580 (2010 census), decreasing. All Inuit languages: 75,000 out of 91,000 in the ethnic group (1995 M. Krauss). Census lists this as Eskimo. Ethnic population: All Inupiatun: 13,500 (includes [esi]) (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eskimo, Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska Inupiat, Seward Inupiaq. Dialects: Seward Inupiaq, King Island Inupiaq, Bering Strait Inupiaq, Qawiaraq, Diomede Inupiaq, Wales Inupiaq. A member of macrolanguage Inupiaq [ipk]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq.

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Iowa-Oto
[iow] Oklahoma: central. No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speakers of Iowa and Oto died in 1996 (1997 J. GoodTracks). Ethnic population: 1,150 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Iowa (Baxoje, Ioway), Oto (Chiwere, Jiwele, Jiwere, Otoe), Niutaji (Missouri, Missouria, Nyut’chi). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Chiwere-Winnebago. Comments: Iowa and Oto formerly 1 language, with some family variations cross-cutting tribal affiliations. Missouri dialect extinct for many years. Language preservation activities taking place in Oklahoma.

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Jemez
[tow] New Mexico: north central. 1,790 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007), decreasing. 2,009 listed as Towa in 2000 census. 6 monolinguals (1990). Ethnic population: 1,940 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jemez Towa, Towa. Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan. Comments: Traditional Pueblo law forbids writing Jemez or teaching it to outsiders. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalapuya
[kyl] Oregon: northwest. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker (Santiam dialect) died in the 1950s (Golla 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kalapuyan, Lukamiute, Santiam, Wapatu. Dialects: Santiam. Classification: Takelman.

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Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille
[fla] Montana: Flathead Reservation; Washington: Kalispel Reservation. 64 (2005 T. Pete), decreasing. 58 in Salish and Pend d’Oreille; 4 in Kalispel (2000 census). Ethnic population: 6,800 (1997). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Flathead-Kalispel” (pej.), “Kalispel-Flathead” (pej.), Nqlispélišcn, Salish. Dialects: Pend d’Oreille, Kalispel, Bitterroot Salish, Flathead. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern, Kalispel. Comments: Spokane [spo] is a coordinate language variety.

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Kansa
[ksk] Oklahoma: north central. No known L1 speakers. No fluent speakers since the early 1980s; 12 people claim to know Kansa (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,700 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kanze, Kaw, Konze. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Omaha [oma], Osage [osa], Ponca [oma], and Quapaw [qua]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan.

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Karok
[kyh] California: northwest along Klamath river. 12 (Golla 2007). 30 have some L2 fluency (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 340 (2000 census). 1,900 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Karuk. Dialects: No significant dialect differences. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Standard writing system adopted in 1980s.

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Kashaya
[kju] California: Sonoma county. 45 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Southwestern Pomo. Classification: Pomoan, Western, Southern. Comments: Separate from other Pomo varieties.

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Kato
[ktw] California: Laytonville Reservation northwest. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007). The last speaker died in the 1960s. A few have fragmentary memories of the language (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 92 (1982 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Batem-Da-Kai-Ee, Cahto, Kai Po-Mo, Tlokeang. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan.

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Kawaiisu
[xaw] California: Tehachapi-Mojave area, Mojave desert. 5 (2005 J. Turner). Ethnic population: 150 (2005 J. Turner). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern.

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Keres, Eastern
[kee] New Mexico: Cochiti, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Santo Domingo, and Zia pueblos. 6,680 (Golla 2007). Includes 500 Zia speakers, 390 Santa Ana, 2,340 San Felipe, 2,850 Santo Domingo, 600 Cochiti (Golla 2007). 2000 census lists 11,200 as Keres. Ethnic population: 8,100 (Golla 2007). Includes 1,200 Cochiti, 2,600 San Felipe, 650 Santa Ana, 2,850 Santo Domingo, 800 Zia. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Keres Pueblo, Rio Grande Keresan. Dialects: Cochiti, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Santo Domingo, Zia. Classification: Keresan. Comments: Outsiders are discouraged from learning the language.

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Keres, Western
[kjq] New Mexico: north central. 3,990 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Includes 1,930 Acoma, 2,060 Laguna (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007); 2000 census lists 11,200 as Keres. Ethnic population: 10,700 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Includes 3,860 Acoma, 6,870 Laguna. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Western Keres Pueblo. Dialects: Acoma, Laguna. Classification: Keresan. Comments: The pueblo sponsors a language preservation project.

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Kickapoo
[kic] Kansas: Horton northeast; Oklahoma: Jones and McCloud; Texas: Nuevo Nacimiento. 400 in United States (Golla 2007), decreasing. 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 820 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 510. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kikapoo, Kikapú. Dialects: None known. Possibly intelligible with Meskwaki [sac]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Fox.

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Kiowa
[kio] Oklahoma: west central. 400 (Golla 2007). 1,100 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 6,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan.

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Kitsai
[kii] Oklahoma: Caddo county, among Caddo [cad] language speakers. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1940 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 S. DeLancey). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kichai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Pawnee [paw] than to Wichita [wic]. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan, Kitsai-Proto-Pawnee.

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Klamath-Modoc
[kla] Oregon: east and north of Klamath and Agency lakes. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 2003 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007). L2 users: 6 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 170 (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Klamath. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Molale [mbe]. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Active language programs and materials development in Modoc.

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Koasati
[cku] Louisiana: Koasati Reservation near Elton; Oregon; Texas: Alabama-Koasati Reservation near Livingston, others elsewhere. 200 (2000 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 220 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coushatta. Dialects: None known. Koasati and Alabama [akz] grammars are significantly different. Lexical similarity: less than 50% with Alabama [akz]. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Central Muskogean, Apalachee-Alabama-Koasati, Alabama-Koasati. Comments: Christian.

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Koyukon
[koy] Alaska: Koyukuk and middle Yukon rivers. 300 (Golla 2007). 300 (1995 M. Krauss); 100 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,300 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Ten’a. Dialects: Upper Koyukon, Central Koyukon, Lower Koyukon, Central Koyukuk River. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Kumiai
[dih] California: east of San Diego and some in Imperial Valley. 150 in United States (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Campo, Diegueño, Digueño, Kamia, Kumeyaay, Tipai’. Dialects: Ipai, Tipai (Jamul Tiipay), Kumeyaay. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-California.

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Kuskokwim, Upper
[kuu] Alaska: Upper Kuskokwim, McGrath, Nikolai, and Telida rivers. 40 (Golla 2007). 3 households (1997). Ethnic population: 160 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Kolchan, Mcgrath Ingalik. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Formerly regarded as part of Degexit’an [ing].

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Kutenai
[kut] Idaho: Flathead Reservation; Montana. 6 in United States (2002), decreasing. Ethnic population: 360 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kootenai, Ktunaxa. Classification: Language isolate.

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Lakota
[lkt] Nebraska: northwest corner; North Dakota: Bismark, Standing Rock reservation; South Dakota: Cheyenne River, Lower Brule reservation, Pine Ridge, Rapid City, Rosebud; Urban centers including Denver, Minneapolis, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle. 2,000 in United States (1997 W. Meya), increasing. 2,300 L1 speakers of all Sioux dialects in a total population of 175,000. L2 users: 100 in United States (2016 W. Meya). Ethnic population: 170,000 (2016 W. Meya). Includes all ethnic Sioux. Total users in all countries: 2,200 (as L1: 2,100; as L2: 100). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lakhota, Lakotiyapi, Teton. Dialects: Brulé. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

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Louisiana Creole
[lou] California: Sacramento; Louisiana: Iberia, Lafayette, Lafourche, Natchitoches, Pointe-Coupée, St. Charles, St. James, St. John the Baptist, St. Landry, St. Martin, St. Mary, and St. Tammany parishes; Texas: east. 10,000 (Neumann-Holzschuh and Klingler 2013). Ethnic population: 4,000,000 (1997 M. Melançon). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kréyol, Louisiana Creole French. Dialects: Bayou Teche Creole (Kourí-viní ), Pointe Coupée Creole (Gombó). Different from standard French [fra], Cajun French [frc] (also spoken in Louisiana), Haitian Creole [hat], and other creoles of the Caribbean. Classification: Creole, French based.

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Luiseño
[lui] California: south. 5 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Juaneño (Acgachemem, Agachemem, Ajachema, Ajachemem), Luiseño, Ajachemem. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic.

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Lumbee
[lmz] Maryland; North Carolina: south; South Carolina. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Croatan. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Unclassified. Comments: Racially mixed descendants of a Pamlico group. Still a distinct ethnic group.

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Lushootseed
[lut] Washington: Puget Sound area. 10 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007), decreasing. Population evenly divided between the northern and southern dialects. Ethnic population: 18,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Northern Lushootseed, Southern Lushootseed. Northern Lushootseed includes subdialect Swinomish. Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed.

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Maidu, Northeast
[nmu] California: Plumas and Lassen counties, northern Sierras. 1 (1994 L. Hinton). Only a few semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 110 (2000 census). Mountain Maidu. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maidu, Mountain Maidu. Classification: Maiduan, Maidu.

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Maidu, Northwest
[mjd] California: Butte, and Yuba counties, Feather river, Oroville area. Ethnic group scattered. 3 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Concow, “Digger” (pej.), Holólupai, Konkau, Konkow, Maiduan, Meidoo, Michopdo, Nákum, Secumne, Sekumne, Tsamak, Yuba. Dialects: None known. A separate language from other Maidu varieties. Classification: Maiduan.

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Maidu, Valley
[vmv] California. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Maiduan, Maidu.

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Makah
[myh] Washington: Neah Bay on northern tip of Olympic Peninsula, opposite Vancouver Island. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 2002. Ethnic population: 2,220 (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kweedishchaaht, Kwe-Nee-Chee-Aht. Classification: Wakashan, Southern Wakashan.

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Malecite-Passamaquoddy
[pqm] Maine: Indian Township and Pleasant Point. 100 in United States (Golla 2007), decreasing. 960 Passamaquoddy (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,500 (1997 K. Teeter). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy. Dialects: Malecite (Maliseet), Passamaquoddy. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian. Comments: Malecite dialect is mostly used in Canada; Passamaquoddy dialect is mostly used in Maine.

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Mandan
[mhq] North Dakota: Fort Berthold Reservation. 10 (Golla 2007). L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 130 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan.

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Maricopa
[mrc] Arizona: Phoenix area; associated with Pima [ood] language speakers on Gila River and Salt River reservations. 100 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 800 (Golla 2007). 160 in Arizona (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cocomaricopa, Piipaash. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Mohave [mov], 58% with Havasupai [yuf], 57% with Walapai [yuf] and Yavapai [yuf]. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, River, Mojave.

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Mattole
[mvb] California: north. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the 1950s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan. Comments: A few individuals retain some memory of the language (Golla 2007).

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Menominee
[mez] Wisconsin: former Menomini Reservation, northeast. 35 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 65 semispeakers (Golla 2007). L2 users: 25. Ethnic population: 800 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Menomini. Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

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Meskwaki
[sac] Iowa: Tama. Kansas and Nebraska: eastern border area (Mesquakie dialect): Oklahoma: central (Mesquakie dialect); Fox and Sac Reservation (Fox and Sac dialects). 200 (2001 I. Goddard). 200 Mesquakie in Iowa, more than 50 Sac and Fox in central Oklahoma, a few Nemaha Sauks on the Kansas-Nebraska border (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 760 Fox. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mesquakie, Sac and Fox, Sauk-Fox. Dialects: Fox, Sac, Mesquakie. Kansas and Oklahoma groups closely related to Kickapoo [kic] of Oklahoma and Mexico. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Fox.

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Miami
[mia] Indiana: north central (Miami dialect); Oklahoma: northeast (Miami and Peoria dialects). No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Illinois, Miami-Illinois, Miami-Myaamia, Wea. Dialects: Miami, Peoria. Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

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Michif
[crg] North Dakota: Turtle Mountain Reservation. 75 in United States (2010 census), decreasing. L2 users: 0 in United States. Total users in all countries: 725. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: French Cree, Mitchif. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Plains Cree [crk]. Several varieties in Canada. Classification: Mixed language, French-Cree. Comments: Spoken by some descendants of the children of Indian women and French fur traders.

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Micmac
[mic] Maine : north near Fort Fairfield; Massachusetts: Boston; scattered elsewhere. 230 in United States (2010 census). 8,150 L1 speakers in Canada and the United States(Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,800 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mi’gmaw, Miigmao, Mi’kmaq, Mi’kmaw, Restigouche. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Mikasuki
[mik] Florida: Big Cypress, Immokalee, Hollywood, and Tampa Seminole reservations. 190 (2010 census). Spoken by most of the 400 members of the Miccosukee Tribe as well as by many of the 2,700 members of the Seminole Tribe (Golla 2007). 35 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hitchiti, Miccosukee, Mikasuki Seminole. Dialects: Hitchiti, Mikasuki. Not intelligible with Alabama [akz] or Koasati [cku]. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Central Muskogean, Hitchiti-Mikasuki.

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Miwok, Central Sierra
[csm] California: upper valleys of the Stanislause and Tuolumne rivers. 12 (1994 L. Hinton). Eastern Central Sierra: 6, Western Central Sierra: 6. 50 Sierra Miwok (from 2000 census) may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Includes all Miwok. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Eastern Central Sierra Miwok, Western Central Sierra Miwok. Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan, Sierra Miwok.

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Miwok, Coast
[csi] California: coast from San Francisco Bay to Bodega Bay. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Bodega, Huimen, Marin Miwok. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Western Miwokan. Comments: Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Became extinct in 1960s or 1970s. Bodega and Marin Miwok dialects were possibly separate languages.

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Miwok, Lake
[lmw] California: Clear Lake basin. 1 (1994 L. Hinton). 2–3 semispeakers only, not actively using language (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Western Miwokan.

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Miwok, Northern Sierra
[nsq] California: Jackson Rancheria near Westpoint. No known L1 speakers. 2000 census lists 50 Sierra Miwok which may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan, Sierra Miwok. Comments: Extensive documentation including numerous audio recordings and videotapes of speakers.

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Miwok, Plains
[pmw] California: San Joaquin and Cosumnes rivers’ deltas. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the late 1990s (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Valley Miwok. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan.

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Miwok, Southern Sierra
[skd] California: Merced and Chowchilla rivers’ headwaters and Mariposa Creek. 7 (1994 L. Hinton). 2000 census lists 50 Sierra Miwok which may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Meewoc, Mewoc, Me-Wuk, Miwoc, Miwokan, Mokélumne, Moquelumnan, San Raphael, Talatui, Talutui, Yosemite. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan, Sierra Miwok.

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Mohave
[mov] Arizona-California border: Fort Mohave and Colorado River reservations. 100 (Golla 2007). 30–35 at Fort Mohave, 35–50 at Colorado River. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mojave, River Yuman, Upriver Yuman, Yuman. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Maricopa [mrc], 63% with Walapai and Havasupai [yuf], 62% with Yavapai [yuf]. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, River, Mojave. Comments: Language materials, programs for children.

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Mohawk
[moh] New York: Saint Regis Reservation, north. 3,000 in United States (Golla 2007). 1,300 (2000 census), which also lists 190 Iroquois. L2 users: 100 in United States (2011 M. Mithun). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kanien’kéha. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida.

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Mohegan-Pequot
[xpq] New York; Connecticut. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,400 ethnic population of Mohegan-Pequot and Narragansett [xnt] (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Wampanoag [wam]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian.

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Mokilese
[mkj] 450 in United States (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Pohnpeic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Molale
[mbe] Oregon; Washington. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1958 (Golla 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Molala, Molalla, Molele. Classification: Language isolate.

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Mono
[mnr] California: Sierra Nevada west side, between Yosemite National Park and King Canyon National Park; Sierra Nevada east side, Owens Valley, Lone Pine north to Big Pine. 37 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. More than 20 speakers and 100 semispeakers of Western Mono. Under 30 speakers of Eastern Mono (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 Eastern Mono (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Monache, Monachi. Dialects: Eastern Mono, Western Mono. Related to Northern Paiute [pao]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Western. Comments: Each of the communities has sponsored language revival programs.

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Muskogee
[mus] Oklahoma: south Alabama Creek, Creek and Seminole; Florida: Seminole of Brighton Reservation. 4,000 (Golla 2007). Spoken by 4,000–6,000 residents of the former territory of the Muscogee Nation and Seminole Nation in Oklahoma and by fewer than 200 of the Seminole Tribe of Florida (Golla 2007). 45 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 52,000 (1997 C. Pye). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Creek. Dialects: Creek, Seminole. Reportedly similar to Mikasuki [mik] in Florida. Dialects reportedly very similar. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Creek-Seminole.

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Nanticoke
[nnt] Delaware: south; Maryland: east. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 400 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Nanticoke-Conoy.

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Narragansett
[xnt] Connecticut; Rhode Island. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,400 ethnic population of Narragansett and Mohegan-Pequot [xpq] (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian.

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Natchez
[ncz] Louisiana (Taensa dialect); Mississippi (Taensa dialect); Oklahoma among Creeks and Cherokees. 6 (2011 H. Fields). Last speaker died in 1965 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Taensa. Classification: Language isolate.

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Navajo
[nav] Arizona: northeast; Colorado; New Mexico: northwest; Utah: southeast. 169,000 (2013 census). 7,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 266,000 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diné, Navaho. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean.

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Nez Perce
[nez] Idaho: Kamiah and Lapwai on Nez Perce Reservation; Washington: east on Colville Reservation (Upriver dialect). Oregon: Umatilla Reservation (Downriver dialect). 100 (1997 H. Aoki), decreasing. Spoken fluently only by a handful of elders on Nez Perce and Colville Reservations. 30–40 semispeakers, mostly in Idaho (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 610 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nuumiipuutimt, Nuumiipuutímt. Dialects: Downriver Nez Perce, Upriver Nez Perce. Classification: Sahaptian. Comments: Conversational Nez Perce taught in Nespelem, Washington. There is a formal program of Nez Perce language instruction at Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston, Idaho as well as an independent program run by the tribe itself on the Idaho reservation, in Lapwai, Kamiah, and Orofino, Idaho.

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Nisenan
[nsz] California: central foothills of the Sierras. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Neeshenam, Nishinam, Pujuni, Southern Maidu, Wapumni. Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Maidu varieties. Classification: Maiduan.

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Nomlaki
[nol] California: Grindstone Rancheria, Paskenta, and Round Valley reservation. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Central Wintun, Wintu, Wintun. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Patwin [pwi] and Wintu [wnw]. Classification: Wintuan.

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Nooksack
[nok] Washington: northwest. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died about 1988. Ethnic population: 1,600 (1997 B. Galloway). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Lhéchelesem, Nootsack. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Nottoway
[ntw] Virginia: Southampton county. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway. Comments: Extinct around 1958.

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Obispeño
[obi] California: near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan.

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Ohlone, Northern
[cst] California: Monterrey and San Benito counties. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Last fluent speakers in the 18th or early 19th centuries. Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: “Costanoan” (pej.). Dialects: East Bay, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Soledad. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Costanoan. Comments: Subdialects of East Bay were Huchiun (Juichun), Niles (Chocheño), San José, San Lorenzo. Soledad may be transitional between Northern and Southern Ohlone.

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Ohlone, Southern
[css] California: Monterrey and San Benito counties. 1 (2009). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Costanoan” (pej.). Dialects: Mutsun (San Juan Bautista), Rumsen (Carmel, Runsien, San Carlos). Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Costanoan. Comments: Became extinct in the 1950s.

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Okanagan
[oka] Washington: Colville Reservation. 400 in United States (Golla 2007). 400 on Colville Reservation, plus a few dozen elsewhere (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nsyilxcen, Okanagan-Colville, Okanagon, Okanogan. Dialects: Southern Okanogan, Sanpoil, Colville, Lake. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern.

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Omaha-Ponca
[oma] Nebraska: Macy and Walthill (Omaha dialect); Iowa: south of Sioux City, east bank, Missouri river; Oklahoma: Red Rock area (Ponca dialect). 85 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 525 (2000 census). 365 Omaha and 160 Ponca (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cegiha, Dhegiha, Mahairi, Ponka, Ppankka, Umanhan. Dialects: Omaha, Ponca. Ponca and Omaha are completely mutually intelligible, Reportedly similar to Osage [osa], Quapaw [qua], and Kansa [ksk]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan. Comments: Traditional religion, Baha’i, Christian, Mormon.

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Oneida
[one] New York: central; Wisconsin: east. 12 in United States (Golla 2007). No reliable estimates for number of speakers in New York state (Golla 2007). 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 11,000 (Golla 2007). At Green Bay, Wisconsin. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Onondaga
[ono] New York: south of Syracuse. 12 in United States (Golla 2007). 45 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,600 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Onandaga. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Osage
[osa] Oklahoma: north central. 10 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 11,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wazhazhe. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Omaha [oma], Ponca [oma], Quapaw [qua], and Kansa [ksk]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan.

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Ottawa
[otw] Michigan: near Sault Sainte Marie and elsewhere. 5,400 in United States (1990 census). 330 Ottawa, 5,070 Ojibwa. 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,910 (2000 census). 560 Ottawa, 8,350 Ojibwa. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chippewa, Eastern Ojibwa, Odawa, Ojibwe. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

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Paiute, Northern
[pao] Nevada: north; adjacent areas of California, Idaho, Oregon. About 20 reservations spread over 1,610 square km. 700 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Plus 400 semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Paviotso. Dialects: Bannock, North Northern Paiute (Mcdermitt), South Northern Paiute (Yerington-Schurz). Related to Mono [mnr]. Most reservations have their own dialect. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Western.

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Pangasinan
[pag] California; Hawaii; Ohio; Washington. 2,140 in United States (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Patwin
[pwi] California: Cortina, Grindstone, and Rumsey. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Southern Wintun, Wintu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nomlaki [nol] and Wintu [wnw]. Classification: Wintuan.

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Pawnee
[paw] Oklahoma: north central. 10 (Golla 2007). 79 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: South Band, Skiri (Skidi). Reportedly similar to Arikara [ari], but not inherently intelligible with it. Kitsai [kii] is somewhat similar to Wichita [wic], but reportedly more similar to Pawnee. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan, Kitsai-Proto-Pawnee, Proto-Pawnee. Comments: Extensive documentary materials archived at American Indian Studies Research Institute.

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Piscataway
[psy] Maryland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Conoy. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Nanticoke-Conoy.

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Plains Indian Sign Language
[psd] Scattered. Great Plains and neighboring regions. Total users in all countries: 75. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Formerly used as a lingua franca for inter-tribal contact among at least 40 different language groups by hearing and deaf people. In 1890, a private census reported 100,000 users (McKay-Cody 1996). Wide range of genres including story-telling, prayers, inter-tribal negotiation, and bantering (Davis 2010). Alternate Names: Hand Talk, Indian Language of Signs, Indian Sign Language, NAISL, North American Indian Sign Language, PISL, Plains Sign Language, Plains Sign Talk, PST, Sign Talk. Dialects: Some variation by ethnic group and region, but dialect differences do not impede communication among different tribes. Lexical similarity between different historical sources on PISL ranges from 80% to 92%. Comparison of these sources with American Sign Language [ase] shows 50% similarity (Davis 2010). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Sign language use by Native Americans is documented in many parts of North America, from the Arctic to Mexico, including the Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southwestern USA, and apparently predates European contact. Some of these varieties are recognized as separate languages, while for others this is not yet determined (and may never be, since some are extinct). The name “North American Indian Sign Language” is used when this broader range of varieties is considered (McKay-Cody 1996, Davis 2010).

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] California: Reedley; Kansas: Hillsboro; Oklahoma: Corn. 12,000 in United States (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Pomo, Central
[poo] California: north, Clear Lake area. 2 (1997 M. Mithun). Several speakers in the Hopland area and at Manchester and Point Areana on the coast (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,770 (1997 M. Mithun). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ballo-Kai-Pomo, Cabanapo, Habenapo, H’hana, Kábinapek, Khabenapo, Khana, Kulanapan, Kulanapo, Venaambakaia, Venambakaiia, Yokaia. Dialects: Point Arena, Hopland, Ukiah. Classification: Pomoan, Western, Southern.

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Pomo, Eastern
[peb] California: north, Clear Lake area. Speakers on the west side of Clear Lake (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Clear Lake Pomo. Classification: Pomoan.

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Pomo, Northeastern
[pef] California: Story Creek, coast range valley; Sacramento river tributary. No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker died in 1961 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Salt Pomo. Classification: Pomoan.

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Pomo, Northern
[pej] California: Sherwood Valley area. 1 (Golla 2007). One elderly speaker at Sherwood Rancheria, near Willits (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Guidiville, Sherwood Valley. Classification: Pomoan, Western.

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Pomo, Southeastern
[pom] California. 1 (2014 G. Reece). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lower Lake Pomo. Classification: Pomoan.

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Pomo, Southern
[peq] California: Cloverdale and Geyserville. Speakers in the Cloverdale and Geyserville areas. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gallinoméro. Classification: Pomoan, Western, Southern.

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Potawatomi
[pot] Kansas; Michigan: southwest and north; Wisconsin: north; Oklahoma: central. 50 in United States (1995 Potawatomi Language Institute). 50 L1 speakers in the United States and Canada, most in the United States. Ethnic population: 25,000 (1997 L. Buszard-Welcher). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Pottawotomi. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi. Comments: 85% have varying degrees of language retention.

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Powhatan
[pim] Virginia: Tidewater. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Virginia Algonkian, Virginia Algonquian. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian.

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Purepecha
[tsz] Alabama; California; Illinois; Missouri; North Carolina. 15,000 in United States (2005 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: P’orhepecha, P’urhepecha. Classification: Tarascan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Purisimeño
[puy] California: south, near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash.

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Quapaw
[qua] Oklahoma: northeast corner. 34 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 160 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Alkansea, Arkansas, Capa, Ogaxpa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kansa [ksk], Omaha [oma], Osage [osa], and Ponca [oma]; all called Dhegiha. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan.

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Quechan
[yum] California: Fort Yuma Reservation in southeast corner. 150 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kechan, Quecl, Yuma. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maricopa [mrc] and Mohave [mov]. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, River, Mojave.

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Quileute
[qui] Washington: Lower Hoh River and Quileute reservations on Pacific side of Olympic Peninsula. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1999 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 500 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Quileute, Hoh. Classification: Chimakuan.

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Quinault
[qun] Washington: Quinault Reservation, centered in Taholah Community on Olympic Peninsula west coast. No known L1 speakers (2016), but emerging L2 speakers. L2 users: 6 (2016 C. Terry-otewaste). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2016 C. Terry-itewaste). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Dialects: Lower Chehalis. Classification: Salish, Tsamosan, Maritime.

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Salinan
[sln] California: central coast. No known L1 speakers. Last speakers died in the early 1960s (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (1997 K. Turner). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Formerly 2 dialects, Antoniano and Migueleño. A few linguists have posited a relationship to Hokan. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Interest in language revival.

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Salish, Southern Puget Sound
[slh] Washington: south end of Puget Sound. 210 (2010 census). 5 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,300 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Duwamish, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, Puyallup, Snoqualmie, Suquh, Southern Lushootseed. Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed.

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Salish, Straits
[str] Washington: San Juan Islands (Samish dialect), mainland south of San Juan Islands (Lummi dialect). 5 in United States (Golla 2007). 5 speakers but mixed with other dialects and do not form a distinct speech community. No L1 speakers of Lummi (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lkwungen, Malchosen, Northern Straits Salish, Senčoten, Straits, T’Sou-ke. Dialects: Lummi, Samish, Ts’ooke, Songish, Semiahmoo. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Sea Island Creole English
[gul] Georgia: Sea Islands off coast; Michigan: Detroit; New York: New York City; North Carolina: Jacksonville coastal region; South Carolina: coastal lowlands to Jacksonville, Florida. 350 (2010 census). 10,000 in New York City (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 250,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Geechee, Gullah. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility with other English-based creoles is undetermined. Reportedly similar to Bahamas Creole English [bah]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Afro-Seminole [afs]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern. Comments: Linguistic influences from Fula [fub], Mende [men], upper Guinea coast, and Gambia River area (Hancock 1987).

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Seneca
[see] New York: Allegheny, Cattaraugus, and Tonawanda reservations. 100 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 900 (2000 census). 6,240 (1997 W. Chafe). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock.

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Serrano
[ser] California: south, San Bernardino and San Gorgonio Pass area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic.

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Shasta
[sht] California: north. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 12 (1990 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Sastean, Shastan. Dialects: Formerly 4 dialects. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: The people have merged their identity with the Karuk Tribe and consider Karuk [kyh] to be their heritage language.

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Shawnee
[sjw] Oklahoma: central and northeast. 200 (2002 B. Pearson), decreasing. Ethnic population: 11,500 (Golla 2007). 2,000 members of the Absentee Shawnee Tribe around Shawnee town (more than 100 speakers); 1,500 members of Eastern Shawnee Tribe in Ottawa County (a few elderly speakers). 8,000 members of the Loyal Shawnee in Cherokee region of Oklahoma around Whiteoak (fewer than 12 speakers) (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

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Shoshoni
[shh] Idaho: Fort Hall Reservation; Nevada: central to northeast. Wyoming: Wind River Reservation (Northern Shoshoni dialect); Utah: west (Gosiute dialect). 1,000 (Golla 2007). Also 1,000 speakers who are not fluent (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 7,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Shoshone. Dialects: Gosiute (Goshute), Western Shoshoni, Northern Shoshoni. Wind River Shoshoni is a subdialect of Northern Shoshoni, spoken at Wind River Reservation. Reportedly similar to Comanche [com] and Timbisha [par], which are not inherently intelligible of Shoshoni. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central.

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Siuslaw
[sis] Oregon: south coast. No known L1 speakers. No speakers by the 1970s (Golla 2007). No speakers of Siuslaw for many years (1998 M. Kinkade). Ethnic population: 100 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Language isolate.

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Skagit
[ska] Washington: Puget Sound east side. 100 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Swinomish. Dialects: Northern Lushootseed. Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed.

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Snohomish
[sno] Washington: northwest, Tulalip Reservation. 10 (1998 J. Brook). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Northern Lushootseed (Northern Puget Sound Salish). Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed.

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Spanish
[spa] Widespread. 37,000,000 in United States (Instituto Cervantes 2012). L2 users: 15,000,000 in United States (Instituto Cervantes 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in New Mexico. Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Dialects: Chicano (Caló), Isleno (Isleño, Islenyo). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Population increased 61% or more since 1970. About 40,000 Islenos in New Orleans speak Isleno, a distinct variety of Canary Island Spanish, which may now face extinction after Hurricane Katrina.

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Spokane
[spo] Washington: northeast. 2 (Golla 2007). A few semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Spokan. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille [fla]. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern, Kalispel.

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Tagalog
[tgl] Hawaii; scattered elsewhere. 1,590,000 in United States (2013 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tanacross
[tcb] Alaska: Dot Lake, Tanacross, Upper Tanana area, Healy Lake, and Tok. 60 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 220 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Dialects: Healy Lake, Mansfield-Ketchumstuck. Little dialect variation. Mansfield-Ketchumstuck is most important politically and numerically. Reportedly most similar to Upper Tanana [tau], but with different tone systems. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Recognized as a distinct language in the 1970s.

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Tanaina
[tfn] Alaska: Cook Inlet and adjacent area. 75 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 900 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Dena’ina, Kinayskiy. Dialects: Kenai Peninsula, Upper Inlet, Coastal-Inland, Stoney River. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Tanana, Lower
[taa] Alaska: Tanana river below Fairbanks, Minto, and Nenana. 15 (Krauss 2007). Ethnic population: 400 (Krauss 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Tanana. Dialects: Chena, Salcha-Goodpaster. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Chena River dialect became extinct in 1976 and Salcha-Goodpaster in 1993.

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Tanana, Upper
[tau] Alaska: upper Tanana river area, Northway, Tetlin, and Tot villages. 100 in United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 300 (Golla 2007). Total users in all countries: 110. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Nabesna. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Tenino
[tqn] Oregon: Warm Springs Reservation. 50 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Warm Springs. Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin.

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Tewa
[tew] Arizona: Hano and Hopi Reservation; New Mexico: Nambe, Pojoaque, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa Clara, North of Santa Fe, and Tesuque pueblos. 1,500 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 1,200 speakers in New Mexico, 300 in Arizona (Golla 2007). 18 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 4,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Hano, Nambe, Pojoaque, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa Clara, Tesuque. Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan.

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Tillamook
[til] Oregon: northwest. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1970. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Salish.

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Timbisha
[par] California: Little Lake area in south Eureka Valley; Owens Lake, Coso Range, south Owens Valley area; Nevada: Amargosa Desert, Argus range, Beatty area, north and central Death Valley; Funeral Range on California-Nevada border; Grapevine mountains; Inyo mountains east slopes, northern Panamint valley and mountains; Saline valley. 20 (Golla 2007). No speakers who did not also learn English [eng] as children (Golla 2007). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100 (1998 J. McLaughlin). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Coso, Koso, Koso Shoshone, Panamint, Panamint Shoshone, Tümpisa Shoshoni. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Shoshoni [shh] and Comanche [com] but not inherently intelligible with them. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central.

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Tiwa, Northern
[twf] New Mexico: north central. 1,070 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007), decreasing. 998 Taos, 66 Picuris speakers (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Picuris spoken by nearly all 230 members of the Picuris Pueblo. 800 Taos speakers out of 1,600 in the pueblo (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,830 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Taos, Picuris. Taos and Picuris are not mutually intelligible (Golla 2007). Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan, Tanoan.

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Tiwa, Southern
[tix] New Mexico: Isleta and Sandia pueblos, north and south of Albuquerque. 1,600 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 1,500 Isleta, 100 Sandia speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,500 (Golla 2007). Including 4,000 Isleta and 500 Sandia (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Sandia, Isleta (Isleta Pueblo). Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan, Tanoan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tlingit
[tli] Alaska: Carcross-Tagish inland, Ketchikan south to Yakutat north. 500 in United States (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Total users in all countries: 502. Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Kolosch, Kolosh, Łingít, Thlinget, Tlinkit. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Tlingit. Comments: Rich documentation of Tlingit literature and oratory in publications by Nora and Richard Dauenhauer (Golla 2007).

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Tohono O’odham
[ood] Arizona: south central. 60 villages on 7 reservations. 14,000 in United States (Golla 2007). 180 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 33,000 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Including 20,000 Papago, 13,000 Pima (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Total users in all countries: 14,094. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nebome, Nevome, O’odham, O’othham, Papago-Pima, Tohono O’otham, Upper Piman. Dialects: Tohono O’odam (“Papago” (pej.)), Akimel O’odham (Pima). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic. Comments: Different from Pima Bajo [pia] of Mexico.

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Tolowa
[tol] California: Smith River Rancheria, near Crescent City. 1 (Golla 2007). One elderly semispeaker in 2001 but growing numbers of younger emerging speakers with limited competence (Golla 2007). L2 users: 1 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Smith River. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tolowa-Chetco. Comments: Chasta Costa was a separate tribe in Oregon; now extinct.

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Tonkawa
[tqw] Oklahoma: central. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Language isolate.

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Tsimshian
[tsi] Alaska: Annette island, New Metlakatla, on panhandle tip; Ketchikan. 70 in United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,300 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Chimmezyan, Sm’algyax, Tsimshean, Zimshian. Classification: Tsimshian.

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Tübatulabal
[tub] California: south central near Bakersfield. 5 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 900 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan.

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Tunica
[tun] Louisiana: north central. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007). Became extinct after 1950 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Heritage language of the Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of Marksville, Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana.

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Tuscarora
[tus] New York: Tuscarora Reservation near Niagara Falls; North Carolina: east. 2 in United States (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,200 (1997 M. Mithun). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Skarohreh. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway.

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Tututni
[tuu] Oregon: southwest. No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker died in 1983 (Golla 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tututni-Chasta Costa-Coquille. Comments: Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation adopted Deene, a standardized form of Oregon Athabaskan based on Tolowa [tol] rather than Tututni, as the heritage language of the group.

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Twana
[twa] Washington: Puget Sound area. No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker died in 1980 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Skokomish. Dialects: Skokomish, Quilcene. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Umatilla
[uma] Oregon: Umatilla Reservation, northeast. 25 (Golla 2007). 25–50 Umatilla and Walla Walla [waa] speakers together. Ethnic population: 120 (1977 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Columbia River Sahaptin, Ichishkíin. Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin.

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Unami
[unm] Oklahoma: Andarko, Bartlesville, Moraviantown. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. 2000 census lists 310 who use it at home. Ethnic population: 13,500 (1997 J. Rementer). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Delaware, Lenape, Lenni-Lenape. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Delaware [del]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Delaware.

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Ute-Southern Paiute
[ute] Colorado: southwest and Utah: southeast and northeast (Ute dialect); Utah: southwest; Arizona:north; Nevada: south; New Mexico: northwest (Southern Paiute dialect); California: lower Colorado river (Chemehuevi dialect). 920 (Golla 2007). 3 Chemehuevi on Chemehuevi Reservation, 10 on Colorado River Reservation (Hinton 1994). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 6,230 (Golla 2007). Ute: 4,800; Southern Paiute: 1,430 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Southern Paiute, Ute-Chemehuevi. Dialects: Southern Paiute, Ute, Chemehuevi. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern.

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Ventureño
[veo] California: south near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Had multiple dialects. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash.

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Wailaki
[wlk] California: north. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan.

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Walla Walla
[waa] Oregon: Umatilla Reservation. 25 (Golla 2007). 25–50 Walla Walla and Umatilla [uma] speakers together (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 700 (1977 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ichishkíin, Northeast Sahaptin. Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin.

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Wampanoag
[wam] Massachusetts: southeast. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2006). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Massachusett, Massachusetts, Natick, Wôpanâak. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian.

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Wappo
[wao] California: north of San Francisco Bay. 3 (Golla 2007). All speakers are elderly and none fully fluent (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Yukian.

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Wasco-Wishram
[wac] Oregon: north central; Washington: south central. 58 (2010 census). 7 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 750 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Columbia Chinook, Kiksht, Upper Chinook, Wasco, Wishram. Dialects: Clackama (Clackamas), Kiksht, Multnomah, Cathlamet (Kathlamet). Classification: Chinookan, Upper Chinookan.

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Washo
[was] California; Nevada; southeast of Lake Tahoe. 10 (1998 J. Brook). Several dozen fully fluent speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Washoe. Classification: Language isolate.

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Wichita
[wic] Oklahoma: Caddo county, Anadarko. 1 (2008 B. Levy). Ethnic population: 2,100 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Waco, Tawakoni. Reportedly similar to Kitsai [kii] and Pawnee [paw]. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan.

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Wintu
[wnw] California: Hayfork, Redding, Trinity Center, Weaverville in north Sacramento valley, north of Cottonwood creek, into mountains to Trinity river headwaters. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Northern Wintun, Wintun. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nomlaki [nol] and Patwin [pwi]. Classification: Wintuan.

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Wiyot
[wiy] California: northwest. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1962 (1975 K. Teeter). Ethnic population: 450 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Algic, Ritwan.

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Wyandot
[wya] Oklahoma: Wyandotte, northeast. No known L1 speakers in United States. Last speaker died about 1960 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,600 (Golla 2007). Total users in all countries: NaN. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wendat, Wyandotte, Wyendat. Dialects: Huron, Wyandot. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Huronian, Huron-Petun.

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Yakama
[yak] Washington: Toppenish, on Yakima Reservation, south central. 25 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ichishkíin, Waptailmim, Yakima. Dialects: Klikitat. Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin. Comments: Together with Upper Cowlitz and Klikitat, sometimes called Northwest Sahaptin.

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Yaqui
[yaq] Arizona: Phoenix and Tucson areas. 430 in United States (2010 census). 2 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hiak-nooki, Yoeme. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Cahitan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Scattered with concentrations in major urban centers. 161,000 in United States (2013 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yokuts
[yok] California: San Joaquin river and valley; Sierra Nevada slopes. 50 (Golla 2007). Wukchumne dialect: fewer than 10; Choinumne dialect: 6; Yowlumne dialect: 20–25 fluent and semispeakers; Chukchansi: a few semispeakers; Tachi dialect: a few speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Southern Foothill Yokuts, Valley Yokuts, Wukchumne (Wukchumni), Choinumne (Choinimne, Choynumne), Yowlumne, Chukchansi (Northern Foothill Yokuts), Tachi, Dumna, Gashowu. Many subvarieties. Classification: Yokutsan.

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Yuchi
[yuc] Oklahoma: Bristow and Hectorsville, east central among Creek people, near Sapulpa. 4 (2016 R. Grounds). L2 users: 12 (2016 R. Grounds). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Uchean. Classification: Language isolate.

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Yuki
[yuk] California: Round Valley Reservation north. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died around 1990 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,200 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Yukian, Core Yukian.

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Yupik, Central
[esu] Alaska: Delta area, Nunivak Island, Unalakleet to Bristol Bay coast to Unalakleet on Norton Sound; inland along Kuskokwim, Nushagak, and Yukon rivers; Chevak (Cup’ik dialect). 10,000 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 25,000 (Dorais 2010). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Central Alaskan Yupik. Dialects: Western Mampruli, General Central Yupik, Hoopes Bay (Unaliq), Unaliq. 3 quite distinct dialects. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Alaskan Yupik.

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Yupik, Central Siberian
[ess] Alaska: Gambell, Savoonga on Saint Lawrence Island. 1,000 in United States (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 1,400 (Dorais 2010). Total users in all countries: 1,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Bering Strait Yupik, Saint Lawrence Island Eskimo. Dialects: Chaplino. Chaplino and Naukan have 60%–70% mutual intelligibility. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik.

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Yupik, Pacific Gulf
[ems] Alaska: Prince William Sound area, Tatitlek, Chenega Bay, Cordova, a few in Valdez; Kenai peninsula southwest coast, Cook Inlet entrance, Nanwalek, Port Graham, and Seldovia. 200 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 3,500 (Dorais 2010). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Aleut, Alutiiq, Chugach Eskimo, Koniag-Chugach, Pacific Yupik, South Alaska Eskimo, Sugcestun, Sugpiak Eskimo, Sugpiaq Eskimo, Suk. Dialects: Chugach, Koniag. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Alaskan Yupik.

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Yurok
[yur] California: northwest. 12 (Golla 2007). A few dozen semispeakers and passive speakers, middle-aged or older (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Algic, Ritwan.

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Zuni
[zun] New Mexico: south McKinley County Reservation, south of Gallup. 9,650 (2000 SIL), increasing. 2000 census lists 7,010 who use the language in the home. Few, if any, monolinguals (2000). Ethnic population: 9,650. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Shiwi’ma, Zuñi. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Traditional religion.

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