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Akawaio
[ake] Bolívar state: upper Kamarang river; Monagas state: near Delta Amacuro border. 180 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 250 (Crevels 2011). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acahuayo, Acawayo, Acewaio, Akawai, Akawayo, Kapon, Kapóng, Waicá, Waika. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong. Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kapon, by both Akawaio and Patamona [pbc].

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Arawak
[arw] Bolívar and Delta Amacuro states; coastal area near Guyana. 130 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 430 (2008). 230 of the ethnic group are monolingual in Spanish [spa], some in English [eng]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arhwak, Arowak, Aruaco, Lokono. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean. Comments: Non-indigenous. Came to Venezuela from Guyana.

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Arutani
[atx] Bolívar state: Paraqua and Uraricáa rivers’ headwaters below Karum river area. 25 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 29 (2002 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aoaqui, Auakê, Auaqué, Awaké, Oewaku, Uruak, Urutaní. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Most intermarried with the Ninam, some with the Pemón (Arecuna), a few with the Sape and do not speak Arutani fluently.

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Baniva
[bvv] Amazonas state: Atabapo and Casiquiare regions; Colombia border area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abane, Avani, Ayane. Dialects: Baniva, Quirruba. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Yavitero. Comments: Distinct from Baniwa [bwi] in Río Negro region.

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Baniwa
[bwi] Amazonas state: Colombia border area, between Curipaco [kpc] and Guarequena [gae] language areas. 610 (2007 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,410 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 6,420. Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Baniba, Banibo, Baniua do Içana, Baniva, Maniba. Dialects: The Carutana dialect is extinct. Related to Curripaco [kpc]. Groups on middle Içana and Ayarí rivers speak Baniwa: Hohodené, Kadaupuritana, Sucuriyu-Tapuya, Siusy-Tapuya, Irá-Tapuya, Kawá-Tapuya, Waliperedakenai (Ribeiro 1967). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu.

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Baré
[bae] Amazonas state: Maroa town; upper Río Negro from Brazil-Venezuela border to Casiquiare Canal, extreme southwest at Colombia border. A few elders. 2 semi-speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,820 (Crevels 2011). Total users in all countries: 2. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arihini, Balé, Barauana, Barauna, Barawana, Cunipusana, Ihini, Maldavaca, Mitua, Yavita. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Baré. Comments: ‘Baré’ is also a cover term for separate languages: Baré, Mandahuaca [mht], Guarequena [gae], Baniwa [bwi], and Piapoco [pio].

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Barí
[mot] Zulia state: Sierra de Perijá southern zone, to Yukpa territory north and Catatumbo river south. 1,520 (Crevels 2007). Significant number are still monolingual (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bari, Motilone, Motilón. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian. Comments: Unrelated to Carib Motilón [yup] (Yukpa). M. Durbin questions its classification as Chibchan; also classified as Arawakan (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977).

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Carib
[car] Anzoátegui, Bolívar, and Monagas states: Orinoco river mouth area; Guyana border; some in Delta Amacuro state. 4,450 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 11,200 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 8,558. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibi, Kalihna, Kalinya, Kariña. Autonym: Kari’na auran, Kari’ña. Dialects: Tabajari, Murato (Myrato, Western Carib). Eastern dialect primarily in eastern Suriname and in French Guiana and Brazil; western dialect in central and western areas of Suriname and in Guyana and Venezuela. Classification: Cariban.

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Chaima
[ciy] Monagas state: south of Maturin; northeast border with Anzoátegui state; possibly also Sucre state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 4,080 (Crevels 2011). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chayma, Guaga-Tagare, Sayma, Warapiche. Classification: Cariban, Central, Cumaná.

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Cuiba
[cui] Apure state: upper Capanaparo river area and Riecito tributary. 440 (Crevels 2011). Nearly all monolingual. Ethnic population: 450 (Crevels 2011). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4), The Amorua dialect of Cuiba [cui] is listed separately in the statute. Alternate Names: Cuiva, Kuiva. Dialects: Chiricoa, Amaruwa (Amorua), Masiguare, Siripu, Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara, Mella, Ptamo, Sicuane (Sicuari). Classification: Guajiboan. Comments: Seminomadic bands.

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Cumanagoto
[cuo] Sucre state: east coastal region. No known L1 speakers (Campbell 1997). Ethnic population: 550 (Crevels 2011). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kumanagoto. Classification: Cariban, Central, Cumaná.

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Curripaco
[kpc] Amazonas state: San Fernando de Atabapo and Victorino zones. 3,740 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 4,930 (Crevels 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Baniva-Kurripako, Baniwa del Isana, Curipaco, Kuripako, Kurripako, Wakuénai, Yaverete-Tapuya. Dialects: Ôjo-Kjárru, Âja-Kurri, Êje-Kjénim. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu.

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E’ñapa Woromaipu
[pbh] Bolívar state: savannah and highland groups 240 km south of Caicara de Orinoco, west of Cuchivero river. 20 or more settlements. 4,180 (Crevels 2011). 2,480 monolinguals. Nearly all women monolingual; men fairly bilingual in Spanish [spa]. Ethnic population: 4,270 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Abira, Eye, Eñapa, Eñepa, Mapoyo, Panare, Panari. Autonym: E’ñepa. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian.

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German, Colonia Tovar
[gct] Aragua state: southwest of Caracas. 1,500 (2009 H. Collin). Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Alemán Coloniero, Patois. Dialects: Developed from Alemannisch [gsw] (Oberdeutsch) of 1843 under the influence of many other dialects of south Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Not intelligible with Standard German [deu]; may be close to Alsatian dialect of Swiss German [gsw] in France. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic.

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Guahibo
[guh] Amazonas, Apure, and Bolívar states; Upper Orinoco and Meta rivers, Orinoco river from Caicaro de Orinoco. 12,000 (Crevels 2011). 37% urban (2001 census). Ethnic population: 14,800 (Crevels 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Guajibo, Hivi, Hiwi, Jivi, Jiwi, Sikuani, Wahibo. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo. Comments: Dispute about whether Guahiban languages are in the Arawakan language family.

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Guarequena
[gae] Amazonas state: Guzmán Blanco on San Miguel river below Maroa. 160 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 510 (Crevels 2011). Total users in all countries: 180. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arequena, Guarekena, Uerequema, Urequema, Warekena. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena.

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Japreria
[jru] Zulia state: north Sierra de Perija. 170 (2002 census). 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 220. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Yapreria. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with other Carib languages of the area (1973 M. Durbin). Lexical similarity: 60% with Yukpa [yup] (2009 W. Largo and J. Morales). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria. Comments: Possibly came from the Yukpas in central Colombia.

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Maco
[wpc] Amazonas state: Mariche, Marueta, Morocoto, Porvenir, Tavi-Tavi, and Wapuchi villages; Marueta, Paru, Wapuchi, and Yureba rivers, Ventuari river tributaries. 1,100 (2011). Ethnic population: 1,130 (Crevels 2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Itoto, Jojod, Maco-Piaroa, Mako, Maku, Sáliba-Maco, Wirö, Wirú, Wotuja. Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco.

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Macushi
[mbc] Bolívar state: southeast border area, Caroni river, west of Pan American highway. The number of Makushi speakers in Venezuela is not clear since 1992 Indigenous Census probably included them in the Pemon group (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 83 (Crevels 2011). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Makushi, Makusi, Makuxi, Teweya. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Máku
[xak] Amazonas state: San Fernando de Atabapo zone, between the Padamo and Cunucunuma rivers. No known L1 speakers (2015). Total users in all countries: none known. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maku, Makú, Máko. Classification: Language isolate.

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Mandahuaca
[mht] Amazonas state: Colombia border, extreme southwest on Baria river and Casiquiare canal, east of Baré [bae] language area. No known L1 speakers. The size of the ethnic group is not clear since the usually cited number of 3,000 (1975 G. Indigenista) probably includes Baré [bae], Baniva [bwi] and Mandahuaca (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arihini, Bale, Cunipusana, Ihini, Maldavaca, Mandauaca, Mandawaca, Mandawaka, Mitua, Yavita. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena. Comments: ’Baré’ is a cover term for separate languages: Baré [bae], Mandahuaca, Guarekena [gae], Baniwa [bwi], Piapoco [pio]. Sometimes considered a dialect of Baré [bae].

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Mapoyo
[mcg] Amazonas state: confluence of Orinoco and Toro rivers and downstream; Bolívar state: Palomo community and savanna between Caño Caripo north and Villacoa river south, near Caicara del Orinoco road to Puerto Ayacucho. 12 (2001 census), decreasing. A few semi-speakers left (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mapayo, Mapoio, Mapoye, Mopoi, Nepoye, Wanai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yabarana [yar]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana.

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Maquiritari
[mch] Bolívar and Amazonas states: Brazilian border area on upper Auaris, Caura, Cuntinamo, Cunucunuma, Erebato, Matacuni, Padamo, mid-Paragua, and upper Ventuari rivers. 6,200 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 6,520 (Crevels 2011). Total users in all countries: 6,630. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Cunuana, De’cuana, De’kwana, De’kwana Carib, Maiongong, Maquiritai, Maquiritare, Pawana, Soto, Ye’cuana, Ye’kwana, Yekuana. Autonym: Ye’kuana. Classification: Cariban, Central, Makiritare.

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Nengatu
[yrl] Amazonas state: Brazil border area, Río Negro area, lower Guainía department, San Pedro and Bultón. Very few, if any, speakers left in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,290 (Crevels 2011). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Geral, Modern Tupi, Nheengatu, Waengatu, Yeral, Ñengatú. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí.

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Ninam
[shb] Bolívar state: Karun and Paragua rivers. 560 (2010 L. Campbell). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Shiriana, Yanam. Dialects: Northern Ninam, Southern Ninam. Classification: Yanomaman.

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Paraujano
[pbg] Zulia state: Lake Maracaibo, near Guajiro. 20 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 11,200 (Crevels 2011). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Anun, Añú, Parahujano. Dialects: Alile, Toa. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

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Patamona
[pbc] Bolívar state: Guyana and Brazil east border area. Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kapon. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Pemon
[aoc] Bolívar state: Gran Sabana and adjacent areas. 23,100 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 27,200 (Crevels 2011). Total users in all countries: 24,080. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4), Three dialects listed separately: Kamarakoto, Arekuna, and Taurepan. Alternate Names: Pemong. Autonym: Kamarakotos. Dialects: Camaracoto (Kamarakoto), Taurepan (Taulipang, Taurepa, Taurepang), Arecuna (Arekuna, Aricuna, Daigok, Jarecouna, Jaricuna, Kamaragakok, Pemon, Pemóng, Pishauco, Potsawugok, Purucoto). Marginally intelligible with Akawaio [ake] and Patamona [pbc]. Camaracoto dialect may be a distinct language. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Pémono
[pev] Amazonas state: Upper Majagua village, with Yabarana [yar] speakers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mapoyo [mcg] and Yabarana [yar]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana. Comments: Different from Pemón [aoc] of Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana. Unknown until 1998.

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Piapoco
[pio] Amazonas state: San Fernando de Atapapo area along the Orinoco. South of Vichada department. 1,750 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 1,940 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Amarizado, Dzaze, Enegua, Kuipaco, Piapoko, Piapoko Dejá, Tsáçe, Wenewika, Wenéwika, Yapoco. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco.

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Piaroa
[pid] Amazonas state: Orinoco river south bank, inland from Paguasa river to Manapiare; into southwestern Bolívar state. 13,000 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 14,500 (2001 census). 2,200 urban; 12,300 rural (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 13,770. Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Amazonas and Bolivar states (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Amorua, Dearwa, Deruwa, Deá’ru’wa, Piaroa-Mako, Uhothha, Uwotjüja, Wo’tiheh, Wotjüja, Wu’tjuja, Wöthüha. Autonym: De’aruwã thiwene. Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco.

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Playero
[gob] Apure state: western zone, to north of Arauca river and Colombian Pepojivi settlements. 200 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Guahibo Playero, Pepojivi. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo.

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Puinave
[pui] Amazonas state: lower Guaviare and Inírida river basins down to San Fernando de Atabapo region. 550 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 1,310 (Crevels 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Puinare, Wanse, Wãnsöhöt. Classification: Puinavean.

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Pumé
[yae] Mainly eastern Apure state; Bolívar and Guárico states: Apure, Meta, Orinoco, and Sinaruco rivers. 7,900 (2001 census). 590 urban, 7,310 rural. Ethnic population: 8,220 (Crevels 2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Llaruro, Yaruro, Yaruru, Yuapín. Autonym: Pumé. Classification: Unclassified.

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Sáliba
[slc] Amazonas state: Cedoño municipality. 36 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 270 (Crevels 2011). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sáliva. Classification: Sálivan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Very acculturated in Venezuela.

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Sanumá
[xsu] Amazonas and Bolívar states: Caura, Erebato, and Ventuari rivers; Upper Auaris west to upper Padamo river area. 3,040 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 3,040 (Crevels 2011). Total users in all countries: 3,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Caura, Chirichano, Guaika, Samatali, Samatari, Sanema, Sanɨma, Sanima, Sanma, Sanïma, Tsanɨma, Tsanuma, Xamatari. Autonym: Sanöma. Dialects: Yanoma (Kohoroxitari), Cobari (Cobariwa, Kobali). Classification: Yanomaman.

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Sapé
[spc] Bolívar state: 3 small settlements on Karuna and Paragua rivers. 5 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 20 (Crevels 2011). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Caliana, Chirichano, Kaliána, Kariana. Dialects: None known. Some lexical correspondences with Warao [wba]. Greenberg classified it provisionally as Macro-Tucanoan. Classification: Language isolate.

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Spanish
[spa] 29,794,000 in Venezuela, all users. L1 users: 29,100,000 (2013). L2 users: 694,000 (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 9). Alternate Names: Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tamanaku
[tmz] Amazonas state: north, near Mapoyo [mcg] and Yabarana [yar] language areas. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Eñepa [pbh]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana.

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Tunebo, Central
[tuf] Apure state: Paéz district, Urdaneta municipality, south of San Cristobal, on Arauca river, near Colombian border, east of Guahibo [guh] language area. No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2007). Possibly extinct in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tunebo, Uwa-Tunebo. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Venezuelan Sign Language
[vsl] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Venezolana. Dialects: None known. Sign language used in school is different from that used by adults outside. Classification: Sign language.

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Warao
[wba] Delta Amacuro, Monagas, and Sucre states: Orinoco river delta. 32,400 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 36,000 (Crevels 2011). Total users in all countries: 32,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Guarao, Guarauno, Warrau. Classification: Language isolate.

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Wayuu
[guc] Mérida, Trujillo, and Zulia states: Guajira peninsula and surrounding Lake Maracaibo. 294,000 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 294,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Goajiro, Guajira, Guajiro, Wayuunaiki. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

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Yabarana
[yar] Amazonas state: Manapiare river basin, above San Juan de Manapiare. 150 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 320 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Yauarana, Yavarana, Yawarana. Dialects: Curasicana (Orechicano), Wokiare (Guaiquiare, Guayqueri, Uaiquiare). Reportedly similar to Mapoyo [mcg] and Pémono [pev]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana. Comments: Distinct from Yabaana [ybn] of Brazil.

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Yanomamö
[guu] Amazonas state: Orinoco-Mavaca area; Eastern dialect: Parima mountains, east of Batau river; Western dialect: Manaviche, Ocamo, and upper Orinoco rivers, Padamo river basin; south of Orinoco river, Cauaburi and Marania rivers’ headwaters; large villages in Siapa river area south. 12,200 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 12,200 (Crevels 2011). Total users in all countries: 16,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Cobari Kobali, Cobariwa, Guaharibo, Guaica, Guajaribo, Ianomami, Shamatari, Yanoama, Yanoamae, Yanoamï, Yanomame, Yanomami, Yanomamï. Autonym: Yanomamɨ. Dialects: Eastern Yanomami (Parima), Western Yanomami (Padamo-Orinoco). Cobari dialect is easily intelligible of the others. Classification: Yanomaman.

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Yavitero
[yvt] Amazonas state: Yavita region. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Paraene. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Yavitero.

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Yukpa
[yup] Zulia state: Cesar region, north Sierra de Perijá, on the Colombia border, between Palmar river north and Tucuco river south. 3,020 (2007). 2,220 urban; 800 rural. Ethnic population: 7,520 (Crevels 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Macoíta, Manso, Northern Motilón, Yucpa, Yuko, Yupa. Dialects: Atapshi (Yukpa Norte), Iroka, Pariri (Yukpa Central), Wasama, Yikta, Macoíta, Irapa (Yukpa Sur). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria. Comments: Most live in urban areas.

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Yuwana
[yau] Amazonas state: isolated groups on Iguana, an Asita river tributary, and on the Parucito, a Manapiare river tributary; Bolívar state: Kaima river, a Cuchivero river tributary. 770 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 770 (Crevels 2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Chicano, Chikano, Ho, Hodï, Hoti, Jodi, Joti, Waruwaru, Yoana, Yuana. Dialects: None known. Linguistic similarities to Yanomamö [guu] and Piaroa [pid] (Salivan). Classification: Language isolate.

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