Venezuela

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Akawaio
[ake] Bolívar state: upper Kamarang river; Monagas state: near Delta Amacuro border. Population: 180 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 250 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acahuayo, Acawayo, Acewaio, Akawai, Akawayo, Kapon, Kapóng, Waicá, Waika. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong.

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Arawak
[arw] Bolívar and Delta Amacuro states; coastal area near Guyana. Population: 130 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 430 (2008). 230 of the ethnic group are monolingual in Spanish [spa], some in English [eng]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arhwak, Arowak, Aruaco, Lokono. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

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Arutani
[atx] Bolívar state: Paraqua and Uraricáa rivers’ headwaters below Karum river area. Population: No known L1 speakers in Venezuela. Last known speaker probably survived into the 2010s. Ethnic population: 29 (2002 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aoaqui, Auakê, Auaqué, Awaké, Oewaku, Uruak, Urutaní. Classification: Language isolate.

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Baniva
[bvv] Amazonas state: Atabapo and Casiquiare regions; Colombia border area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by late 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abane, Avani, Ayane, Banibo, Baniva Yavitero. Dialects: Baniva, Quirruba. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Yavitero.

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Baniwa
[bwi] Amazonas state: Colombia border area, between Curipaco [kpc] and Guarequena [gae] language areas. Population: 610 in Venezuela (2007 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,410 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 6,420. Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Baniba, Banibo, Baniua do Içana, Baniva, Maniba. Dialects: The Carutana dialect is extinct. Related to Curripaco [kpc]. Groups on middle Içana and Ayarí rivers speak Baniwa: Hohodené, Kadaupuritana, Sucuriyu-Tapuya, Siusy-Tapuya, Irá-Tapuya, Kawá-Tapuya, Waliperedakenai (Ribeiro 1967). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu.

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Baré
[bae] Amazonas state: Maroa town; upper Río Negro from Brazil-Venezuela border to Casiquiare Canal, extreme southwest at Colombia border. Population: A few elders. 2 semi-speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,820 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 2. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arihini, Balé, Barauana, Barauna, Barawana, Cunipusana, Ihini, Maldavaca, Mitua, Yavita. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Baré.

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Barí
[mot] Zulia state: Sierra de Perijá southern zone, to Yukpa territory north and Catatumbo river south. Population: 1,520 in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Significant number are still monolingual (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,200. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bari, Motilone, Motilón. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian.

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Carib
[car] Anzoátegui, Bolívar, and Monagas states: Orinoco river mouth area; Guyana border; some in Delta Amacuro state. Population: 4,450 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 11,200 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 8,558. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibi, Kalihna, Kalinya, Kari’nja, Kari’ña, Kariña. Autonym: Karìna auran. Dialects: Tabajari, Murato (Myrato, Western Carib). Eastern dialect primarily in eastern Suriname and in French Guiana and Brazil; western dialect in central and western areas of Suriname and in Guyana and Venezuela. Classification: Cariban.

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Chaima
[ciy] Monagas state: south of Maturin; northeast border with Anzoátegui state; possibly also Sucre state. Population: 63 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 4,080 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chayma, Guaga-Tagare, Sayma, Warapiche. Classification: Cariban, Central, Cumaná.

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Cuiba
[cui] Apure state: upper Capanaparo river area and Riecito tributary. Population: 440 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Nearly all monolingual. Ethnic population: 450 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5* (Developing). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4), The Amorua dialect of Cuiba [cui] is listed separately in the statute. Alternate Names: Cuiva, Kuiva. Dialects: Chiricoa, Amaruwa (Amorua), Masiguare, Siripu, Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara, Mella, Ptamo, Sicuane (Sicuari). Classification: Guajiboan.

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Cumanagoto
[cuo] Sucre state: east coastal region. Population: No known L1 speakers (Campbell 1997). Probably extinct by late 20th century. Ethnic population: 550 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cumanagota, Cumanogota, Cumaná, Kumanagoto, Kumaná. Classification: Cariban, Central, Cumaná.

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Curripaco
[kpc] Amazonas state: San Fernando de Atabapo and Victorino zones. Population: 3,740 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 4,930 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Baniva-Kurripako, Baniwa del Isana, Curipaco, Kuripako, Kurripako, Wakuénai, Yaverete-Tapuya. Dialects: Ôjo-Kjárru, Âja-Kurri, Êje-Kjénim. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu.

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E’ñapa Woromaipu
[pbh] Bolívar state: savannah and highland groups 240 km south of Caicara de Orinoco, west of Cuchivero river. 20 or more settlements. Population: 4,180 (Crevels 2012). 2,480 monolinguals. Nearly all women monolingual; men fairly bilingual in Spanish [spa]. Ethnic population: 4,270 (2001 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Abira, Eye, Eñapa, Eñepa, Mapoyo, Panare, Panari. Autonym: E’ñepa. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian.

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German, Colonia Tovar
[gct] Aragua state: southwest of Caracas. Population: 1,500 (2009 H. Collin). Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Alemán Coloniero, Patois. Dialects: Developed from Alemannisch [gsw] (Oberdeutsch) of 1843 under the influence of many other dialects of south Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Not intelligible with Standard German [deu]; may be close to Alsatian dialect of Swiss German [gsw] in France. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic.

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Guahibo
[guh] Amazonas, Apure, and Bolívar states; Upper Orinoco and Meta rivers, Orinoco river from Caicaro de Orinoco. Population: 12,000 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). 37% urban (2001 census). Ethnic population: 14,800 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Guajibo, Hivi, Hiwi, Jivi, Jiwi, Sikuani, Wahibo. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo.

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Guarequena
[gae] Amazonas state: Guzmán Blanco on San Miguel river below Maroa. Population: 160 in Venezuela (2001 census). Ethnic population: 510 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 180. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arequena, Guarekena, Uerequema, Urequema, Warekena. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena.

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Japreria
[jru] Zulia state: north Sierra de Perija. Population: 170 (2002 census). 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 220. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Yapreria. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with other Carib languages of the area (1973 M. Durbin). Lexical similarity: 60% with Yukpa [yup] (2009 W. Largo and J. Morales). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria.

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Maco
[wpc] Amazonas state: Mariche, Marueta, Morocoto, Porvenir, Tavi-Tavi, and Wapuchi villages; Marueta, Paru, Wapuchi, and Yureba rivers, Ventuari river tributaries. Population: 1,100 (2011). Ethnic population: 1,130 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Itoto, Jojod, Maco-Piaroa, Mako, Maku, Sáliba-Maco, Wirö, Wirú, Wotuja. Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco.

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Macushi
[mbc] Bolívar state: southeast border area, Caroni river, west of Pan American highway. Population: The number of Makushi speakers in Venezuela is not clear since 1992 Indigenous Census probably included them in the Pemon group (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 83 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Makushi, Makusi, Makuxi, Teweya. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Máku
[xak] Amazonas state: San Fernando de Atabapo zone, between the Padamo and Cunucunuma rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers in Venezuela. The last speaker died in 2001. Total users in all countries: none known. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maku, Makú, Máko. Classification: Language isolate.

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Mandahuaca
[mht] Amazonas state: Colombia border, extreme southwest on Baria river and Casiquiare canal, east of Baré [bae] language area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers may have survived into the 1990s. Ethnic population: The size of the ethnic group is not clear since the usually cited number of 3,000 (1975 G. Indigenista) probably includes Baré [bae], Baniva [bwi] and Mandahuaca (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arihini, Bale, Cunipusana, Ihini, Maldavaca, Mandauaca, Mandauáca, Mandawaca, Mandawaka, Mandawáka, Mitua, Yavita. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena.

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Mapoyo
[mcg] Amazonas state: confluence of Orinoco and Toro rivers and downstream; Bolívar state: Palomo community and savanna between Caño Caripo north and Villacoa river south, near Caicara del Orinoco road to Puerto Ayacucho. Population: 2 (2014), decreasing. A few semi-speakers left (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mapayo, Mapoio, Mapoye, Mopoi, Nepoye, Wanai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yabarana [yar]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana.

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Maquiritari
[mch] Bolívar and Amazonas states: Brazilian border area on upper Auaris, Caura, Cuntinamo, Cunucunuma, Erebato, Matacuni, Padamo, mid-Paragua, and upper Ventuari rivers. Population: 6,200 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 6,520 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 6,630. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Cunuana, De’cuana, De’kwana, De’kwana Carib, Maiongong, Maquiritai, Maquiritare, Pawana, Soto, Ye’cuana, Ye’kwana, Yekuana. Autonym: Ye’kuana. Classification: Cariban, Central, Makiritare.

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Nengatu
[yrl] Amazonas state: Brazil border area, Río Negro area, lower Guainía department, San Pedro and Bultón. Population: Very few, if any, speakers left in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,290 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Geral, Modern Tupi, Nheengatu, Waengatu, Yeral, Ñengatú. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí.

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Ninam
[shb] Bolívar state: Karun and Paragua rivers. Population: 560 in Venezuela (2010 L. Campbell). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Shiriana, Yanam. Dialects: Northern Ninam, Southern Ninam. Classification: Yanomaman.

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Paraujano
[pbg] Zulia state: Lake Maracaibo, near Guajiro. Population: 20 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 11,200 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Anun, Añú, Parahujano. Dialects: Alile, Toa. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

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Patamona
[pbc] Bolívar state: Guyana and Brazil east border area. Population: Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kapon. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong.

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Pemon
[aoc] Bolívar state: Gran Sabana and adjacent areas. Population: 23,100 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 27,200 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 24,080. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4), Three dialects listed separately: Kamarakoto, Arekuna, and Taurepan. Alternate Names: Pemong. Autonym: Kamarakotos. Dialects: Camaracoto (Kamarakoto), Taurepan (Taulipang, Taurepa, Taurepang), Arecuna (Arekuna, Aricuna, Daigok, Jarecouna, Jaricuna, Kamaragakok, Pemon, Pemóng, Pishauco, Potsawugok, Purucoto). Marginally intelligible with Akawaio [ake] and Patamona [pbc]. Camaracoto dialect may be a distinct language. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Pémono
[pev] Amazonas state: Upper Majagua village, with Yabarana [yar] speakers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker likely died in the mid-2000s (2000 M. Muller). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mapoyo [mcg] and Yabarana [yar]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana.

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Piapoco
[pio] Amazonas state: San Fernando de Atapapo area along the Orinoco. South of Vichada department. Population: 1,750 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,940 (2001 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Amarizado, Dzaze, Enegua, Kuipaco, Piapoko, Piapoko Dejá, Tsáçe, Wenewika, Wenéwika, Yapoco. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco.

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Piaroa
[pid] Amazonas state: Orinoco river south bank, inland from Paguasa river to Manapiare; into southwestern Bolívar state. Population: 13,000 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 14,500 (2001 census). 2,200 urban; 12,300 rural (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 13,770. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Amazonas and Bolivar states (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Amorua, Dearwa, Deruwa, Deá’ru’wa, Piaroa-Mako, Uhothha, Uwotjüja, Wo’tiheh, Wotjüja, Wu’tjuja, Wöthüha. Autonym: De’aruwã thiwene. Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco.

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Playero
[gob] Apure state: western zone, to north of Arauca river and Colombian Pepojivi settlements. Population: 200 in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Guahibo Playero, Pepojivi. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo.

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Puinave
[pui] Amazonas state: lower Guaviare and Inírida river basins down to San Fernando de Atabapo region. Population: 550 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,310 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Puinare, Wanse, Wãnsöhöt. Classification: Puinavean.

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Pumé
[yae] Mainly eastern Apure state; Bolívar and Guárico states: Apure, Meta, Orinoco, and Sinaruco rivers. Population: 7,900 (2001 census). 590 urban, 7,310 rural. Ethnic population: 8,220 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Llaruro, Yaruro, Yaruru, Yuapín. Autonym: Pumé. Classification: Unclassified.

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Sáliba
[slc] Amazonas state: Cedoño municipality. Population: 36 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 270 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sáliva. Classification: Sálivan.

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Sanumá
[xsu] Amazonas and Bolívar states: Caura, Erebato, and Ventuari rivers; Upper Auaris west to upper Padamo river area. Population: 3,040 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 3,040 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 3,500. Status: 5* (Developing). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Caura, Chirichano, Guaika, Samatali, Samatari, Sanema, Sanɨma, Sanima, Sanma, Sanïma, Tsanɨma, Tsanuma, Xamatari. Autonym: Sanöma. Dialects: Yanoma (Kohoroxitari), Cobari (Cobariwa, Kobali). Classification: Yanomaman.

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Sapé
[spc] Bolívar state: 3 small settlements on Karuna and Paragua rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker died in 2004. Ethnic population: 20 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Caliana, Chirichano, Kaliána, Kariana. Dialects: None known. Some lexical correspondences with Warao [wba]. Greenberg classified it provisionally as Macro-Tucanoan. Classification: Language isolate.

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Spanish
[spa] Population: 31,131,000 in Venezuela, all users. L1 users: 30,400,000 in Venezuela (2016). L2 users: 731,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 9). Alternate Names: Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian.

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Tamanaku
[tmz] Amazonas state: north, near Mapoyo [mcg] and Yabarana [yar] language areas. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by the 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tamanaco, Tamañkú. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Eñepa [pbh]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana.

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Tunebo, Central
[tuf] Apure state: Paéz district, Urdaneta municipality, south of San Cristobal, on Arauca river, near Colombian border, east of Guahibo [guh] language area. Population: No known L1 speakers in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Possibly extinct in Venezuela (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tunebo, Uw Cuwa, Uwa-Tunebo. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese.

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Venezuelan Sign Language
[vsl] Scattered. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Venezolana. Dialects: None known. Sign language used in school is different from that used by adults outside. Classification: Sign language.

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Warao
[wba] Delta Amacuro, Monagas, and Sucre states: Orinoco river delta. Population: 32,400 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 36,000 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 32,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Guarao, Guarau, Guarauno, Warau, Warrau. Classification: Language isolate.

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Wayuu
[guc] Mérida, Trujillo, and Zulia states: Guajira peninsula and surrounding Lake Maracaibo. Population: 294,000 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 294,000 (2001 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Goajiro, Guajira, Guajiro, Wayuunaiki. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

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Yabarana
[yar] Amazonas state: Manapiare river basin, above San Juan de Manapiare. Population: 150 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 320 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Yauarana, Yavarana, Yawarana. Dialects: Curasicana (Orechicano), Wokiare (Guaiquiare, Guayqueri, Uaiquiare). Reportedly similar to Mapoyo [mcg] and Pémono [pev]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Mapoyo-Yavarana.

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Yanomamö
[guu] Amazonas state: Orinoco-Mavaca area; Eastern dialect: Parima mountains, east of Batau river; Western dialect: Manaviche, Ocamo, and upper Orinoco rivers, Padamo river basin; south of Orinoco river, Cauaburi and Marania rivers’ headwaters; large villages in Siapa river area south. Population: 12,200 in Venezuela (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 12,200 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 16,200. Status: 5* (Developing). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Cobari Kobali, Cobariwa, Guaharibo, Guaica, Guajaribo, Ianomami, Shamatari, Yanoama, Yanoamae, Yanoamï, Yanomame, Yanomami, Yanomamï. Autonym: Yanomamɨ. Dialects: Eastern Yanomami (Parima), Western Yanomami (Padamo-Orinoco). Cobari dialect is easily intelligible of the others. Classification: Yanomaman.

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Yavitero
[yvt] Amazonas state: Yavita region. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker survived into the 2000s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Paraene, Parene, Yavitano. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Yavitero.

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Yukpa
[yup] Zulia state: Cesar region, north Sierra de Perijá, on the Colombia border, between Palmar river north and Tucuco river south. Population: 3,020 in Venezuela (2007). 2,220 urban; 800 rural. Ethnic population: 7,520 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Macoíta, Manso, Northern Motilone, Northern Motilón, Yucpa, Yuko, Yukpa-Japería, Yupa. Dialects: Atapshi (Yukpa Norte), Iroka, Pariri (Yukpa Central), Wasama, Yikta, Macoíta, Irapa (Yukpa Sur). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria.

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Yuwana
[yau] Amazonas state: isolated groups on Iguana, an Asita river tributary, and on the Parucito, a Manapiare river tributary; Bolívar state: Kaima river, a Cuchivero river tributary. Population: 770 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 770 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Recognized language (2008, Indigenous Languages Law, Article 4). Alternate Names: Chicano, Chikano, Ho, Hodï, Hoti, Jodi, Joti, Waruwaru, Yoana, Yuana. Dialects: None known. Linguistic similarities to Yanomamö [guu] and Piaroa [pid] (Salivan). Classification: Language isolate.

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