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Barwe
[bwg] Manicaland province: Nyanga district, Nyamaropa area, Mashumba, Mbiriyade, Mukatsa, Mukwewa, and Sangoma wards; possibly Mashonaland East province: Mudzi district. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: ChiBarwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.44).

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Birwa
[brl] Matabeleland South province: Beitbridge, Bulilimamangwe, Gwanda and Matobo districts. 56,000 (1982 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Sotho. Dialects: None known. Related to Northern Sotho [nso], Southern Sotho [sot], and Setswana [tsn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.32).

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Chichewa
[nya] Mashonaland Central province; possible communities in Harare and other urban areas. 405,000 (2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Chicheŵa, Chinyanja, Nyanja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Chewa-Nyanja (N.31). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dombe
[dov] Matabeleland North province: Hwange district, Lukosi area; southwest of confluence of Shangani and Zambezi rivers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly has Nambya [nmq] influences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.64).

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English
[eng] 5,550,000 in Zimbabwe, all users. L1 users: 250,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 5,300,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kalanga
[kck] Matabeleland South province: Bulilimamangwe and Matobo districts; Matabeleland North province: Tsholotsho district. 196,000 (2012). Total users in all countries: 338,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Bakaa, Chikalanga, Kalana, Kanana, Makalaka, Sekalaña, Wakalanga, Western Shona. Autonym: Ikalanga, Tjikalanga. Dialects: Lilima (Humbe, Limima, Peri), Rozvi (Abanyai, Banyai, Nyai, Wanyai), Talahundra, Romwe, Lemba (Remba), Lembethu (Rembethu), Twamamba (Xwamamba), Pfumbi, Jawunda. Talahundra has no remaining speakers. Peri are an ethnic group of Birwa and Tswapong assimilated into Kalanga and speak the Lilima dialect. Humbe are ethnically different from the Lilima but now share the same language. Similar to Nambya [nmq] and the Karanga, Zezuru, and Shangwe dialects of Shona [sna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.16). Comments: Most Kalanga are in Zimbabwe; most Lilima are in Botswana.

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Kunda
[kdn] Mashonaland Central province: Guruve district. 145,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 157,260. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Achikunda, Cikunda. Autonym: Chikunda. Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Nyungwe [nyu] than to Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.42). Comments: Different from Kunda which is a dialect of Chichewa [nya].

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Lozi
[loz] Matabeleland North province: Zambia border west of Victoria Falls. 70,000 (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Kololo, Rotse, Rotvi, Rozi, Rutse, Silozi, Tozvi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Lozi (K.21).

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Manyika
[mxc] Manicaland province: Makoni, Mutasa, Mutare, and Nyanga districts, northwest of Umtali. 405,000 (2012). Total users in all countries: 505,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamanyeka, Chimanyika, Manika, Wamanyika, Wanyika. Dialects: Bocha (Boka), Bunji, Bvumba, Domba, Guta, Here, Hungwe, Jindwi, Karombe, Nyamuka, Nyatwe, Unyama. A bit more divergent from Shona [sna] than the Karanga, Zezuru, and Korekore dialects. Partially intelligible with Shona. Lexical similarity: 74%–81% with Ndau [ndc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.13).

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Nambya
[nmq] Matabeleland North province: primarily Hwange district; Binga and Lupane districts; Bulawayo. 90,000 (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Total users in all countries: 105,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Banyai, Chinambya, Nambzya, Nanzva. Autonym: chiNambya. Dialects: None known. Slight pronunciation difference in Jambezi area. Reportedly most similar to Kalanga [kck]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.16). Comments: Christian.

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Ndau
[ndc] Manicaland province: Melsetter area south of Umtali; Masvingo province: Bikita district. 800,000 (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Chindau, Ndzawu, Njao, Sofala, Southeast Shona. Dialects: Changa (Chichanga, Chixanga, Shanga), Garwe, Tonga (Abatonga, Atonga, Batoka, Batonga, Watonga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.15). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ndebele
[nde] Bulawayo, Matabeleland North, and Matabeleland South provinces; Midlands province: Gokwe South, Gueru, Kwekwe, Mberengwa, and Shurugwi districts. 1,610,000 (2012). Total users in all countries: 1,634,800. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Isinde’bele, Ndebele of Zimbabwe, Northern Ndebele, Sindebele, Tabele, Tebele. Autonym: isiNdebele. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Zulu [zul]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.44). Comments: Different from Ndebele [nbl] of Transvaal, South Africa.

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Nsenga
[nse] Mashonaland Central province: Mozambique border; Mount Darwin, Muzarabani, and Rushinga districts. 16,100 (1969 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chinsenga, Cinsenga, Senga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.41). Comments: Different from Senga dialect of Tumbuka [tum] of Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania.

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Pidgin Bantu
[fng] Mashonaland Central province; widespread in Shona speaking areas, mining camps, and urban centers. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Isilololo, Isipiki, Lololo, Piki, “Fanagalo” (pej.), “Fanakalo” (pej.), “Fanekolo” (pej.), “Isikula” (pej.). Dialects: Chilapalapa. Classification: Pidgin, Zulu based. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Setswana
[tsn] Matabeleland South province: Bulilimamangwe district, between Ramoquabane and Simukwe rivers. 29,400 (1969 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Beetjuans, Chuana, Chwana, Coana, Cuana, Sechuana, Tshwana, Tswana. Dialects: Ngwatu (Mangwato), Tlhaping. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.31). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Shona
[sna] Harare, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, and Midlands provinces. Manicaland province, Nyanga district (Hwesa dialect); Mashonaland East, Mudzi and Mutoko districts (Budja dialect). 8,960,000 in Zimbabwe, all users. L1 users: 7,160,000 (2012). L2 users: 1,800,000 (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Total users in all countries: 9,026,290 (as L1: 7,226,290; as L2: 1,800,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: chiShona, “Swina” (pej.). Autonym: Chishona. Dialects: Karanga (Chikaranga), Zezuru (Bazezuru, Bazuzura, Chizezuru, Harava, Hera, Mazizuru, Shawasha, Vazezuru, Wazezuru), Korekore (Goba, Gova, Northern Shona, Shangwe), Hwesa (Chihwesa), Budja. Subdialects: Karanga: Duma, Jena, Mhari (Mari), Ngova, Nyubi, Govera; Korekore: Budya, Gova, Tande, Tavara, Nyongwe, Pfunde, Shan Gwe; Zezuru: Shawasha, Gova, Mbire, Tsunga, Kachikwakwa, Harava, Nohwe, Njanja, Nobvu, Kwazwimba (Zimba); Shona: Toko, Hwesa. Rozvi (Rozwi, Ruzwi, Chirozwi) speak Karanga dialect. Ndau [ndc] and Manyika [mxc] are partially intelligible of Shona. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tonga
[toi] Mashonaland Central: Mount Darwin district; Mashonaland West province: Kariba district; Matabeleland North province: Binga district; Midlands province: Gokwe North and Gokwe South districts. South shore of Lake Kariba and inland. 200,000 (Hachipola 1998). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Batonga, Chitonga, Zambezi. Dialects: Chitonga, Leya, Toka, We. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.64). Comments: Different from Tonga [tog] of Malawi, Tonga [toh] of Mozambique, or Tsonga (Tonga) [tso] of Mozambique.

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Tsoa
[hio] Matabeleland North province: Hwange and Tsholotsho districts; Matabeleland South province: Bulilimamangwe district; Botswana border. 3,540 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Amasili, Bakhwa, Basarwa, Chware, Haitshuwau, Hiechware, Hietshware, Khoisan, Tshikwa, Tshuwau, Tshwawo. Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Kalahari Khoe, Northeast. Comments: Non-indigenous. Nomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tsonga
[tso] Masvingo province, Chiredzi, Mwenezi, and Zaka districts; near Mozambique border. 100,000 (Hachipola 1998). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Gwamba, Shangani, Shitsonga, Thonga, Tonga, Vatsonga, Xitsonga. Dialects: Bila (Vila), Changana (Changa, Hanganu, Hlanganu, Langanu, Shangaan, Shangana, Shilanganu, Xichangana), Jonga (Djonga, Dzonga), Ngwalungu (Shingwalungu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.53). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tswa
[tsc] Manicaland province: southern area; Masvingo province; Matabeleland South province: Beitbridge; Midlands province: Mberengwa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kitshwa, Sheetshwa, Shitshwa, Tshwa, Xitshwa. Dialects: Hlengwe (Makakwe-Khambana), Tshwa (Dzibi-Dzonga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.51).

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Venda
[ven] Matabeleland South province: Beitbridge, Bulilimamangwe, and Gwanda districts; Midlands province: Mberengwa district. 91,400 (2012). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Cevenda, Chivenda, Luvenḓa, Tshivenḓa. Dialects: Phani, Tavhatsindi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Venda (S.21). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zimbabwe Sign Language
[zib] Mashonaland Central province: Muzarabani district, Centenary area. 280,000 (2008 WFD). 280,000 deaf members of the Zimbabwe National Association of the Deaf (2008 WFD). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2013, Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Zimsign. Dialects: Zimbabwe School Sign, Masvingo School Sign, Zimbabwe Community Sign. Signing varies significantly in different schools. Masvingo sign language is different from that used in other schools. School languages differ from those used by adults outside. Inherent intelligibility unclear. Dictionary publication intended to bring standardization. Possible influence from several European sign languages. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 15 interpreters, trained by Zimbabwe National Association of the Deaf (2008 WFD).

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