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Afghan Sign Language
[afg] Balkh province: Mazar-e Sharif; Bamyan province: Bamiyan city; Herat province: Herat city; Kabul province: Kabul city; Kandahar province: Kandahar city; Laghman province; Nangarhar province: Jalalabad city and many surrounding districts; Parwan province; Takhar province: Faizabad. Most live in Kabul and Jalalabad. Population: 1,000 (2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: AFSL, Afghan Sign. Dialects: None known. Influenced by American Sign Language [ase] used by foreign workers in some of the deaf schools in Afghanistan. Classification: Sign language.

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Aimaq
[aiq] Badghis, Ghor, and Herat provinces; Farah and Faryab provinces: smaller border areas; west of Hazara. Population: 480,000 in Afghanistan (1993). Total users in all countries: 701,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barbari, Berberi, Chahar-Aimaq, Char Aimaq. Dialects: Taimuri (Taimouri, Teimuri, Timuri), Taimani, Zohri (Zuri), Jamshidi (Djamchidi, Dzhemshid, Jamshedi, Yemchidi), Firozkohi, Maliki, Mizmast, Chinghizi, Zainal. Dialect names could well be ethnic names, probably dialect of Dari [prs], at least Jamshidi is not much different from the Herati dialect of Dari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian.

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Arabic, Tajiki Spoken
[abh] Balkh province: Dawlatabad district, Khushalabad, Yakhdan; Jawzjan province: Mingajik district, Sultan Arigh; Sheberghan district, Hasanabad. Population: 16,000 in Afghanistan (2017), decreasing. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arabi. Dialects: Balkh Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Ashkun
[ask] Nuristan province: Wama district, Pech valley; Duab and Nurgaram districts, east side of lower Alingar valley; Bajagal, Kolatan, Malil wa Mushfa, and Titin valleys; Kunar province: Chapa Dara district. Population: 40,000 (2011), increasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ashkund, Ashkuni, Ashkunu viri, Wamais, Wamayi. Dialects: Ashuruviri (Kolata, Titin Bajaygul), Gramsukraviri, Suruviri (Wamai). Not intelligible with the other Nuristani languages. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Nuristani.

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Balochi, Western
[bgn] Helmand, Kandahar, and Nimroz, provinces: Zaranj city and Helmand river areas. Population: 415,000 in Afghanistan (2017 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Southwest Desert Region (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci. Dialects: Rakhshani (Raxshani). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi.

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Brahui
[brh] Helmand and Kandahar provinces: Chakhansoor to Shorawak among the Balochi [bgn]. Population: 200,000 in Afghanistan (Dupree 1980), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Birahui, Biravi, Brahuiki, Kur Galli, Kurd Gali. Classification: Dravidian, Northern.

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Dari
[prs] Widespread. Population: 7,600,000 in Afghanistan (2011 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 7,600,000. Total users in all countries: 9,000,400. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 16(1)). Alternate Names: Afghan Persian, Eastern Farsi, Parsi, Persian. Autonym: فارسی‎ (Farsi). Dialects: Tangshew (Tangshuri), Darwazi. Radio Afghanistan broadcasts promote a standardized pronunciation of the literary language based on the old dictional tradition of the country, with archaic phonetic characteristics. Phonological and lexical differences between Iran and Afghanistan cause little difficulty in comprehension. Most Afghan dialects are reportedly more similar to literary Persian than Iranian dialects are. Lexical similarity: 86%–90% among Dari dialects. A member of macrolanguage Persian [fas]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian.

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Degano
[wsv] Scattered in Kunar province: Watapur district, Katar Qala and Watapur villages. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the late 1950s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wotapuri-Katarqalai. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Dardic, Kohistani.

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Gawar-Bati
[gwt] Kunar province: Konar river valley. 8 or 9 villages. Population: 32,000 in Afghanistan (2017). Ethnic population: 32,000 (2017). Total users in all countries: 34,270. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arandui, Gowari, Narisati, Narsati, Satre. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 47% with Shumashti [sts], 44% with Dameli [dml], 42% with Savi [sdg] and Grangali [nli]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Dardic, Kunar.

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Grangali
[nli] Kunar province: Grangali and Zemiaki; Kandai on south Pech river, 2 small valleys; Nangarhar province: Dara-I-Nur district; Nangalami dialect in Ningalam village where Waigal and Pech rivers meet. Population: 5,000 (1994). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gelangali, Jumiaki. Dialects: Nangalami (Ningalami), Zemiaki (Zamyaki). Zemiaki may be related to Waigali [wbk]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Shumashti [sts], 42% with Gawar-Bati [gwt]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Dardic, Kunar.

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Gujari
[gju] Scattered. Nomadic, traveling in summer in eastern valleys. Population: 15,000 in Afghanistan (2015). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gojari, Gojri, Gujuri Rajasthani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified.

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Hazaragi
[haz] Widespread. Population: 1,770,000 in Afghanistan (2000). Total users in all countries: 2,247,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Azargi, Hazara, Hazaraghi, Hezareh. Autonym: آزرگی‎‎ (Azoragi). Dialects: None known. Related to Dari [prs]; possibly distinct. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian.

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Inku
[jat] Balkh, Faryab, Herat, and Kunduz provinces. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers probably survived into the 1990s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Enku, Jakati, Jat, Jataki, Jati, Jatu, Kayani, Musali. Dialects: None known. Related to Western Punjabi [pnb]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi.

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Ishkashimi
[isk] Badakhshan province: Ishkashim and Wakham districts; north of Ishkashim in Bahar Bazar, Darwan, Qaz Deh, Xermani, Zargaran, and Zayad villages. Population: 2,500 in Afghanistan (2009 S. Beck), decreasing. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 3,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eshkashimi, Ishkashim, Ishkashmi. Dialects: None known. Ishkashimi intelligible to Sanglechi [sgy] speakers, but Sanglechi not intelligible to Ishkashimi speakers. Lexical similarity: 70% with Sanglechi [sgy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir.

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Kamviri
[xvi] Nuristan province: Kamdesh and Kishtoz villages in lower Bashgal valley. Population: 18,000 in Afghanistan (2011), increasing. 3,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 18,000. Total users in all countries: 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamdeshi, Kamik, Lamertiviri, Shekhani. Dialects: Shekhani. Related to Kati [bsh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Nuristani.

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Kati
[bsh] Badakhshan, Kunar, and Nuristan provinces: smaller areas in Laghman and Panjsher provinces; Eastern Kativiri dialect: upper Bashgal valley (Barg-e-Matal); Mumviri dialect: Gabalgrom, Mangul, and Sasku villages in Bashgal valley; Western Kativiri dialect: Duab and Mondul districts, Ktivi (Kantiwo), Kulam, Paruk (Papruk), and Ramgal valleys. Population: 128,000 in Afghanistan (2017), increasing. Ethnic population: 128,000 (2017). Total users in all countries: 134,960. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Nuristan Province (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Bashgali, Kata viri, Kativiri, Nuristani. Dialects: Eastern Kativiri, Western Kativiri (Jadidi, Ramgulviri), Mumviri. Mumviri may be a separate language. Eastern and Western Kataviri are very similar dialects and almost completely mutually intelligible. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Nuristani.

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Kyrgyz
[kir] Badakhshan province: Wakhan district, Great Pamir and Little Pamir valleys. Population: 750 in Afghanistan (2000). 450 in the Great Pamir; a few in Badakhshan. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kirghiz, Kirghizi, Kirgiz, Kyrgyz tili, Kyrgyzcha. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian.

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Mogholi
[mhj] Herat province: Karez-i-Mulla and Kundur. Population: No known L1 speakers. Known to be in use in the 1970s by some older adults (Weiers 2003). Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Moghol, Mogol, Mogul, Mongul. Dialects: Kundur, Karez-I-Mulla. Unintelligible to other Mongol speakers; linguistically relatively well explored. Classification: Mongolic, Western.

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Munji
[mnj] Badakhshan province: Kuran wa Munjan district, Mamalgha and Munjan valleys. Population: 5,300 (2008 D. Beyer and S. Beck). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Badakhshan Province (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Munjani, Munjigi, Munjiwar. Dialects: Northern Munji, Southern Munji. Northern Munji and Southern Munji are mutually intelligible. The differences are found mostly in regular sound changes and some lexical items. Lexical similarity: 68% among dialects, 56%–80% with Yadgha [ydg] in Pakistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir.

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Ormuri
[oru] Logar province: Charkh district, Baraki-Barak. Population: 50 in Afghanistan (2011 SIL), decreasing. L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baraks, Bargista, Oormuri, Ormui. Dialects: Kanigurami, Logar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Ormuri-Parachi.

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Pahlavani
[phv] Nimroz province: Chakhansur district. Population: No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dari [prs]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian.

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Parachi
[prc] Kapisa province: Kabul area, Nijrau and Tagau villages; Hindu Kush valley (Pachaghan, Shutul, and Ghujulan). Population: 3,500 (Kiefer 2009). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Shutul, Ghujulan, Pachaghan. Dialect diversity seems slight. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Ormuri-Parachi.

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Parya
[paq] Laghman province; Kabul and Nangarhar provinces small border areas. Population: No known L1 speakers in Afghanistan. Ethnic population: 240. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Afghana-Yi Nasfurush, Afghana-Yi Siyarui, Laghmani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Unclassified.

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Pashai, Northeast
[aee] Kunar province: west of Asadabad, Konar and Pech rivers’ valleys; Nangarhar province: Dara-I-Nur and Kuz Konar districts. Population: 54,400 (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Statutory language of national identity (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Northeast Pashayi, Pashai. Dialects: Aret, Chalas (Chilas), Kandak, Kurangal, Kurdar. Unintelligible of other Pashai speakers. Lexical similarity: approximately 30% with Southeast Pashai [psi] and Southwest Pashai [psh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Dardic, Pashai.

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Pashai, Northwest
[glh] Kabul province: northwest of Kabul; Kapisa, Kunar, Laghman, and Nuristan provinces; some in Nangarhar and Parwan provinces; Alisheng valley and others north of Sarobi. Population: 70,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northwest Pashayi, Pashai. Dialects: Gulbahar, Kohnadeh, Laurowan, Sanjan, Shutul, Bolaghain, Pachagan, Alasai, Shamakot, Uzbin, Pandau, Najil, Parazhghan, Pashagar, Wadau, Nangarach. Unintelligible of other Pashai speakers. Lexical similarity: approximately 30% with Southeast Pashai [psi]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Dardic, Pashai.

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Pashai, Southeast
[psi] Nangarhar province: north of Shewa; Laghman province; Alingar valley area; Upper and Lower Darrai Nur valley, Damench, Shale (Shari). Population: 180,000 (2011 Pashai Language Development Project), increasing. 75,000 Laghman, 95,000 Nangarhar, 10,000 Kunar. 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 400,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Nangahar, Laghman provinces (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Pashai, Southeast Pashayi. Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible of Southwest Pashai [psh]; hardly intelligible of Northeast Pashai [aee] and Northwest Pashai [glh]. Lexical similarity: about 30% with Southwest Pashai [psh], Northeast Pashai [aee], and Northwest Pashai [psh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Dardic, Pashai.

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Pashai, Southwest
[psh] Northeast of Kabul, and in Kapisa province; north of Sarobi, Tagau (Tagab) valley. Population: 100,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pashai, Southwest Pashayi. Dialects: Tagau, Ishpi, Isken. Not intelligible of other Pashai languages. Lexical similarity: Less than 30% with other Pashai languages. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Dardic, Pashai.

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Pashto, Northern
[pbu] Nangarhar province and surrounding regions; scattered. Population: 1,700,000 in Afghanistan (2008), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Afghan, Eastern Afghan Pashto, Northwestern Pakhto, Pakhtoon, Pakhtun, Paktu, Pashtoon, Sharqi. Dialects: Ghilzai, Khogyani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto.

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Pashto, Southern
[pbt] Badghis, Farah, Helmand, Herat, Kandahar, Nimroz, Uruzgan, and Zabul provinces. Population: 6,000,000 in Afghanistan (2008). Total users in all countries: 10,878,800. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 16(1)). Alternate Names: Kandahar Pashto, Qandahar Pashto, Southwestern Pashto. Autonym: پښتو‎‎ (Pax̌tō). Dialects: Durani. Lexical similarity: 80% between northern and southern varieties of Pashto. A member of macrolanguage Pushto [pus]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto.

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Prasuni
[prn] Nuristan province: Sech, Shupu (Ishtivi, Shtevgrom), Ucu, Ushut, and Zumu villages; Prasun (Parun) valley on upper reaches of Pech river; small border area with Badakhshan province. Population: 8,000 (2011), increasing. 1,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nuristani, Parun, Paruni, Prasun, Vasi vari, Veron, Verou, Veruni, Wasi-Veri, Wasi-weri. Dialects: Upper Wasi-Weri (Ishtivi), Central Prasun, Lower Prasun (Pashki, Ushut). Related to Kati [bsh] but more archaic. The most aberrant Nuristani language. No mutual intelligibility of other Nuristani languages. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Nuristani.

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Sanglechi
[sgy] Badakhshan province: Zebok district, Dashte Rubat, Esketul, Faruq, Flaxmadek, Sar-Sanglech, and Takya villages in Sanglech valley. Population: 2,200 (2009 S. Beck). Ethnic population: 2,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dargi. Dialects: None known. Ishkashimi [isk] is moderately intelligible to Sanglechi speakers. Lexical similarity: 70% with Ishkashimi [isk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir.

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Savi
[sdg] Kunar province: Sau village on Konar river. Population: 3,000 in Afghanistan (1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sau, Sauji, Sawi. Dialects: None known. Savi, Palula [phl], and Kalkoti [xka] form a cluster of closely related varieties within the Shina group. Lexical similarity: 56%–58% with Palula [phl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Dardic, Shina.

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Shughni
[sgh] Badakhshan province: both sides of Afghanistan-Tajikistan border, 50 km north of Ishkashim, Pamir mountains. Population: 40,000 in Afghanistan (2009). Most are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khughnani, Khughni, Khughnoni, Khugnone, Shighnani, Shighni, Shughnani, Shughnoni, Shugni. Dialects: Rushani (Oroshani, Roshan, Roshani, Rushan). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami.

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Shumashti
[sts] Kunar province: Konar valley west side between Pech valley and Jalalabad city. Population: 1,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shumasht. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Grangali [nli], 47% with Gawar-Bati [gwt]. Heavily influenced by Northeast Pashai [aee]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Dardic, Kunar.

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Tirahi
[tra] Nangarhar province: Nangarhar village southeast of Jalalabad, west of Khyber Pass. Population: 100. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Kohistani languages of Pakistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Dardic, Kohistani.

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Tregami
[trm] Kunar province: Gambir and Katar villages in Tregam valley. Population: 3,500 (2011), increasing. 700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katar Gambir, Trigami. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76%–80% with Waigali [wbk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Nuristani.

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Turkmen
[tuk] Badghis, Balkh, Faryab, Herat, Jawzjan, and Kunduz provinces; most live outside cities, including Kabul; northern border of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan. Population: 1,500,000 in Afghanistan (2009). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Statutory language of provincial identity in Turkmenistan border areas (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: Turkman, Turkmencha, Turkmeni, Türkmen dili, Türkmençe. Dialects: Ärsare (Arsariy), Shirik, Teke (Taka), Yomut, Bayat, Xatap. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian.

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Uzbek, Southern
[uzs] Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Faryab, Ghor, Jawzjan, Kunduz, Samangan, and Takhar provinces; Aqcha, Maimana, Saripul, and Sheberghan towns. Population: 2,910,000 in Afghanistan (2011 UNSD), increasing. 1,000,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,910,000. Total users in all countries: 4,365,700. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in Fariab, Jawzjan, Saripul, other northern provinces (2004, Constitution, Article 16(2)). Alternate Names: O’zbek, Usbeki, Uzbak, Uzbeki. Autonym: ﯣزبېک‎ (o’zbek). Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible of, but differences in grammar from, Northern Uzbek [uzn]. Many loan words from Dari [prs]. A member of macrolanguage Uzbek [uzb]. Classification: Turkic, Eastern.

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Waigali
[wbk] Kunar province: north of Pech; Nuristan province: southeast; north Waigal valley (Varjan): Ameshdesh, Jamach, Waigal, Zonchigal villages, and east in Veligal valley villages; lower valley villages (Chima-Nishey). Population: 28,000 (2017), increasing. 2,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 28,000 (2017). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalasha ala, Suki, Wai, Wai-Ala, Waigala, Waigalii, Waigeli, Zhonjigali. Dialects: Varjan, Chima-Nishey. Lexical similarity: 76%–80% with Tregami [trm]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Nuristani.

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Wakhi
[wbl] Badakhshan province: Wakhan district, Panj river area to Sarhad village; Khandud village is the center. 42 villages. Population: 17,000 in Afghanistan (2011 S. Beck), increasing. Ethnic population: 17,000. Total users in all countries: 58,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khik, Khikwar, Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir.

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Warduji
[wrd] Badakhshan province: Werdoge river area west of Ishkashim. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Probably a Dari [prs] dialect. Classification: Unclassified.

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