Antigua and BarbudaPrint
Antigua and Barbuda Creole English
[aig] Throughout Antigua and Barbuda. L1 users: 67,000 (2001), increasing. It is difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. Total users in all countries: 147,520. Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Broken English, Dialect, Leeward Caribbean Creole, Patwa. Autonym: Creole. Dialects: Antiguan Creole English, Barbuda Creole English. Slight comprehension of Jamaican and perhaps Bahamas creoles. May be similar to English Creoles of the Virgin Islands and Netherlands Antilles. One dialect is spoken mainly by older generations who live in Jennings and Bolans villages, near Johnson. People perceive the Southern variety, spoken along Fig Tree Drive Road from Swetes to Bolans, as being most different and difficult to understand. Barbudan is perceived as being more linguistically distant than the Creole English of Montserrat Point (2003 K. Decker). Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Southern. Comments: Most villagers deny the existence of a creole, though they speak it. Although some negative attitudes toward it, its use in the community is quite strong. Its uniqueness and cultural role is valued. Many migrated to Antigua from Montserrat after the eruption of Soufriere Hills volcano on 18 July, 1995. Christian.
[eng] 68,000 in Antigua and Barbuda, all users. L1 users: 66,000 (Crystal 2003a). It is difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. L2 users: 2,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.