Angola

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Cokwe
[cjk] Widespread. East Bié, Cunene, central Kuando Kubango, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, and west Moxico provinces. L1 users: 456,000 (1991). Total users in all countries: 977,700. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Chokwe, Ciokwe, Djok, Kioko, Quioco, Shioko, Tschiokloe, Tshokwe. Dialects: Minungo, Ulanda, Ukhongo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.11). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dhimba
[dhm] Coastal Benguela and Namibe provinces: as far as Equimina; Cunene and Huíla provinces: near Namibia border. L1 users: 18,000 (2011). Total users in all countries: 30,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimba, Dimba, Oludhimba, Oluthimba, Otjidhimba, Simba, Tjimba, Zemba. Dialects: Hakawona, Tchavikwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.311). Comments: Dhimba is part of the southern Helelo (Herero) cluster.

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Diriku
[diu] Kuando Kubango province: southeast border with Namibia. L1 users: 24,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Dciriku, Diriko, Gciriku, Manyo, Mbogedo, Rugciriku, Rumanyo, Shimbogedu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.332).

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Holu
[hol] Northwest Lunda Norte and northeast Malanje provinces: Kwango river area. L1 users: 23,100 (2000). Total users in all countries: 28,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Holo, Hongu, Kiholo, Kiholu. Dialects: Holu, Yeci. Reportedly similar to Samba [smx]. Yeci may be a separate language. Reportedly related to Kimbundu [kmb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Pende (L.12). Comments: Different from Holoholo [hoo] of Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Khwedam
[xuu] Kuando Kubango province: Huthembo, northeast of Likuwa; Lukanga, west of Rivungu. L1 users: 200 (Brenzinger 2013). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: !Hukwe, Black Bushman, Cazama, Glanda-Khwe, Hukwe, Khwe, Kxoe, Kxoedam, Schekere, Vazama, Water Bushmen, Xu, Xuhwe, Xun, Zama, “Mbarakwena” (pej.), “Mbarakwengo” (pej.). Dialects: Buma-Kxoe. Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Kalahari Khoe, Northwest. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kibala
[blv] Kuanza Sul province: Libolo municipality southeast of Luanda. L1 users: 2,630 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bolo, Ipala, Kimbundu de Kwanza Sul, Ngoya, Pala. Dialects: Bolo (Libolo, Lubolo), Hebó, Ucela, Mbwĩ, Sende. Related to Kimbundu [kmb], Songo [nsx], and Sama [smd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kimbundu (H.23). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kikongo
[kng] Uige and Zaire provinces: north, along Congo river; North Bengo and Malanje provinces; south Cabinda province; Kuanza Norte province: small border areas. Cabinda (Kiyombe dialect); Angola proper (Kisikongo and San Salvador dialects). L1 users: 2,000,000 (2012 World Factbook). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Congo, Kikoongo, Kongo, Koongo. Dialects: South Kongo, South East Kongo (Nkanu, Pende, Zoombo), West Kongo (Fiote, Fioti), Ndingi (Ndinzi), Mboka, Kisikongo, Kizombo, Kindibu, Kimanyanga, Kiwoyo (Cabinda, San Salvador Kongo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16). Comments: Kisikongo is the principal dialect. Kiyombe is the main dialect of eastern Cabinda. Together with Kiwoyo, Kiyombe is referred to as Ibinda (the language of Cabinda). Christian.

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Kilari
[ldi] Zaire province: northwest corner; possibly scattered communities. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laadi, Laari, Ladi, Lari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16). Comments: Non-indigenous. Part of Kongo subgroup. Christian, Muslim.

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Kimbundu
[kmb] Widespread northwest, mainly Bengo, Kuanza Norte, and Malanje provinces; adjacent areas in Kuanza Sul, Luanda, and Uíge provinces. L1 users: 1,700,000 (2015 L. Jordan). Ethnic population: 6,000,000 (2015 L. Jordan). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dongo, Kimbundo, Kindongo, Loanda Mbundu, Loande, Luanda, Lunda, Mbundu, N’bundo, Nbundu, Ndongo, North Mbundu. Autonym: Kimbundu. Dialects: Njinga (Ginga, Jinga), Mbamba (Bambeiro, Kimbamba), Mbaka (Ambaquista), Ngola. Mbamba dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kimbundu (H.21).

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Kung-Ekoka
[knw] Cunene, Huíla, and Kuando Kubango provinces. L1 users: 5,500 (2016 L. Jordan). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: !Hu, !Ku, !Kung, !Xu, !Xun, !Xung, Ekoko-!Xû, Qxû. Classification: Kx’a, !Kung. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kuvale
[olu] Benguela and Namibe provinces: Atlantic coast to Huila province border east, from Dombe Grande north to Tombua south. L1 users: 70,000 (2015 L. Jordan). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mucubal. Autonym: Kuvale, Olukuvale. Dialects: None known. Most similar to Herero [her]. Lexical similarity: 52%–54% with Nyaneka [nyk] (2015 L. Jordan). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.101).

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Kwadi
[kwz] Namibe province: southwest corner, Coroca river area south of Namibe town. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bakoroka, Cuanhoca, Cuepe, Curoca, Koroka, Makoroko, Mucoroca. Dialects: Zorotua (Vasorontu). Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Kwadi.

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Kwandu
[xdo] Namibe province: Kumucuio municipality, on the Serra das Neves plateau, near Mamué. L1 users: 6,000 (2016 L. Jordan). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2016 L. Jordan). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kwando, Ovakwandu. Autonym: Kwandu, Olukwandu. Dialects: Similar to Kuvale [olu] and Nyaneka [nyk]. Lexical similarity: 70% with the Cilenge dialect of Nyaneka [nyk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.13). Comments: Different from the Kwandu dialects of Mashi [mho] in Zambia, Angola, and Namibia.

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Kwangali
[kwn] Kuando Kubango province: Kwangar municipality. L1 users: 10,900 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cuangar, Kwangare, Kwangari, Rukwangali, Rukwangari, Sikwangali. Dialects: Sambyu (Sambio, Sambiu, Shisambyu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.33). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lucazi
[lch] Kuando Kubango province: Kuito Kuanavale to Mavinga; southwest Moxico province: Lucazi municipality; adjacent areas. L1 users: 400,000 (2011 S. Floor). Total users in all countries: 430,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiluchazi, Luchazi, Lujash, Lujazi, Lutchaz, Lutshase, Luxage, Ponda. Dialects: None known. Part of Ngangela subgroup. Readily intelligible with all variants of the Ngangela macrolanguage. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.13). Comments: Lucazi is a prestige form of the Ngangela language cluster. Christian, traditional religion.

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Luimbi
[lum] North Bié and south Malanje provinces: Kuanza river watershed area. L1 users: 43,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiluimbi, Luimbe, Lwimbe, Lwimbi. Dialects: None known. Related to Nkangala [nkn] and Mbwela [mfu]; in Ngangela subgroup. Similar to Songo [nsx], less similar to Lucazi [lch] and Ngonzela of Ngangela cluster. Doubtful if intelligible with Mbwela [mfu], as they are not contact languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.12).

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Lunda
[lun] Lunda Norte province: Caungula municipality; Lunda Sul and Moxico provinces: contiguous border area with Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Zambia. L1 users: 178,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chilunda, Ruund. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.52).

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Luvale
[lue] Moxico and southeast provinces. L1 users: 464,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Balovale, Chiluvale, Lovale, Lubale, Luena, Lwena. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.14). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mashi
[mho] Kuando Kubango and Moxico provinces: Kuando river west bank. L1 users: 2,630 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamaxi, Masi. Dialects: North Kwandu, South Kwandu, Mashi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.34). Comments: Nomadic. Different from Mashi [shr] which is related to Havu [hav] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mashi dialect sometimes called Ndonga, which is not Oshiwambo Ndonga [kua]. Traditional religion.

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Mbangala
[mxg] West Lunda Norte province; northeast Malanje province; Malanje province: Canhica area; northwest Lunda Sul and Uíge provinces: small areas east; Kahombo, Kela e Kambundi Katembu; community in Luanda. L1 users: 400,000 (2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangala, Cimbangala. Dialects: Mbangala, Yongo. Reportedly similar to Kimbundu [kmb], but so distinct that different literature is needed. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.34).

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Mbukushu
[mhw] Kuando Kubango province: Okavango river north bank. L1 users: 4,000 (Andersson and Janson 1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cusso, Gova, Kuso, Mambukush, Mampukush, Mbukuhu, Mbukushi, Thimbukushu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.333). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mbunda
[mck] Moxico province. L1 users: 135,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Total users in all countries: 218,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimbunda, Mbuunda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.15). Comments: Different from Mbuun which is a dialect of Mpuono [zmp] in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia and is in Tende-Yanzi group.

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Mbwela
[mfu] Kuando Kubango province: large central, southern area; Bié, Cunene, Huíla, and Moxico provinces. L1 users: 222,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ambuela, Ambuella, Mbuela, Mbwera, Shimbwera. Dialects: None known. Part of Ngangela subgroup. Intelligible with Lucazi [lch], Ngonzela, and Nyemba [nba], and will be able to use the new Lucazi Bible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.17). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ndombe
[ndq] Benguela province: Ndombe area south and southeast of Benguela. L1 users: 22,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dombe. Dialects: Not a Uvimbundu [umb] dialect; survey needed. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.12).

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Ngandyera
[nne] Kuando Kubango province: southeast corner. L1 users: 13,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngandjera. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.24).

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Ngendelengo
[nql] Namibe Province: north of Kamucuio town, just south of Mamué; also south of Kamucuio municipality. L1 users: 900 (2016 L. Jordan). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2016 L. Jordan). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuendelengo, Kwendelengo, N’Guendelengo, Olungendelengo, Ovangendelengo. Dialects: None known. Most similar to Kuvale [olu]. Lexical similarity: 66% with Kuvale [olu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.101).

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Nkangala
[nkn] Kuando Kubango and Moxico provinces. L1 users: 22,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cangala, Ngangala. Dialects: None known. Member of Ngangela cluster. Intelligible with Nyemba [nba], Mbwela [mfu], Ngonzela, and Lucazi [lch]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.18).

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Nkumbi
[khu] Cunene and Huíla provinces: Cunene river west bank. L1 users: 150,000 (1996 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khumbi, Ngumbi, Nkhumbi, Ocinkumbi, Otjingumbi. Dialects: Nkumbi-mulondo. Part of Nyaneka [nyk] cluster, but low intelligibility with the central variants of Nyaneka. Bordering on and reportedly similar to the Nyaneka-Gambwe variant. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.14).

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Northwestern !Kung
[vaj] Cunene province: border area, surrounded by Oshiwambo [kua] language area, at least 8 communities; Huambo province; Kuando Kubango province: 3 enclaves, one between Mbwela [mfu] and Kwangali [kwn] language areas, another northeast on Kuando river. L1 users: 5,630 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: !O!kung, !O!ung, !Xun, Maligo, Northwestern !Xun, Sekela, Vasekela Bushman, Vasekele. Classification: Kx’a, !Kung. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Nyaneka
[nyk] Mainly Huíla and Namibe provinces; also Benguela and Cunene provinces. L1 users: 300,000 (1996 UBS). All Nyaneka variants together amount to 1,200,000 speakers (2012 Nyaneka Language Association). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lunyaneka, Nhaneca, Nhaneka, Olunyaneka. Dialects: Humbe, Mwila (Huila, Muila, Olumuila), Ngambwe (Olungambwe), Handa, Cilenge, Nyaneka. Nyaneka seems to be a cluster of related but distinct varieties. Nkumbi [khu] is probably part of this cluster too, more closely related to the Handa and Humbe dialects. The cluster is sometimes called Nyaneka-Humbi. Speakers of Humbe and Cilenge have difficulty understanding one another. Lexical similarity: Mwila 79% with Nyaneka, 74% with Ngambwe, 65% with Handa; Nyaneka 80% with Ngambwe, 76% with Handa; Ngambwe 68% with Handa. Humbe 74% with Cilenge. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.13). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nyemba
[nba] North Cunene, east Huíla, northwest Kuando Kubango provinces; some in Bié and Huambo provinces. L1 users: 222,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Total users in all countries: 231,540. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gangela, Ganguela, Ganguella, Ngangela, Nhemba. Dialects: None known. Part of Ngangela subgroup. Fully intelligible with Lucazi [lch], Nkangala [nkn], Mbwela [mfu], and Ngonzela. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.12).

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Nyengo
[nye] Kuando Kubango province. L1 users: 9,380 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nhengo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.16).

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Oshiwambo
[kua] South central, Namibian border: Cunene and Kuando Kubango provinces. 461,000 in Angola, all users. L1 users: 421,000 (Johnstone 1993). L2 users: 40,000 (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,481,000 (as L1: 1,441,000; as L2: 40,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Its use as an LWC has its origin in its status as the language of the powerful Kwanyama kingdom, influential in what is now southern Angola and northern Namibia throughout the colonial period up to the year 1917. Used in the eastern half of Kunene Province in church, market, business, and media domains. Alternate Names: Cuanhama, Humba, Kuanjama, Kwancama, Kwanjama, Kwanyama, Ochikwanyama, Oshikuanjama, Ovambo, Oxikuanyama, Wambo. Autonym: Oshikwanyama. Dialects: Kwanyama, Mbadja. Intelligible with Ndonga [ndo] and Kwambi [kwm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.21).

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Portuguese
[por] 14,630,000 in Angola, all users. L1 users: 9,750,000 (2014). Includes 60,000 foreign L1 users. In cities, Portuguese increasingly L1 of younger generation. 60% of Angolans use Portuguese, 40% as L1. High level of urbanization due to civil war led to increased use. L2 users: 4,880,000 (2014). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 19(1)). Alternate Names: Português. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ruund
[rnd] Northeast, north central Lunda Norte province: Luchibe river area. L1 users: 98,500 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chilu Wunda, Luunda, Muatiamvua, Northern Lunda, Ruwund, Uruund. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.53). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Sama
[smd] Coastal, southern third of Bengo province: south of Luanda, Bengo Kisama; northwest Kuanza Sul province. L1 users: 24,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kissama, Quissama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kimbundu (H.22).

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Songo
[nsx] North central, southeast of Luanda, Malanje, Kuanza Sul, Bié, and Lunda Norte provinces. L1 users: 50,000 (1978 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nsongo, Sungu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kimbundu (H.24).

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Umbundu
[umb] West central, mostly Huambo, Cuanza Sul, and Benguela provinces; also Bié, Huíla, Namibe, and Bengo provinces. L1 users: 6,000,000 (2012 World Factbook). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kimbari, M’bundo, Mbali, Mbari, Mbundu, Mbundu Benguella, Nano, Olumbali, Ovimbundu, South Mbundu, Umbundo. Autonym: Umbundu. Dialects: Mbalundu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.11). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yaka
[yaf] North central corner, east of the Kwango river; Uíge province: Kimbele municipality; Malanje province northeast corner. L1 users: 200,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iaca, Iaka, Iyaka, Kiyaka. Dialects: Yaka, Ngoongo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.31).

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Yauma
[yax] Southeast, isolated enclave in Lucazi [lch] language area, Moxico province; Kuando Kubango Province, Kuando river area. L1 users: 17,100 (2000). Total users in all countries: 22,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Part of the Ngangela Subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.16).

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Yombe
[yom] Cabinda. L1 users: 39,400 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bayombe, Ibinda, Iombe, Kiombi, Kiyombe. Dialects: Mbala (Mumbala), Vungunya (Kivungunya, Yombe Classique). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16). Comments: The dialect of Yombe spoken in the northern half of Cabinda is quite different from the Congolese dialect used in the Yombe NT translation, due to influence from the speech varieties of southern Cabinda. Christian, traditional religion.

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