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Argentine Sign Language
[aed] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LSA, Lengua de Señas Argentina. Dialects: Córdoba Sign Language. Some regional variation (e.g. between Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Mendoza), but most deaf people ignore differences and strongly identify with one national sign language (2013 R. Caceres). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Deaf schools began in 1885. Historical relationship to Italian Sign Language [ise] (Zeshan et al 2013). 37 Deaf schools, some of which use LSA in class. Sign language stories and drama on film. A committee for a national sign language, and organizations for sign language teachers and interpreters.

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Ava Guaraní
[nhd] Misiones province; possibly also in Buenos Aires, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Jujuy, Salta, and Santa Fe provinces. L1 users: 8,940 (2004 census). Ethnic population: 21,800. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Apytare, Chiripá, Nhandeva, Tsiripá, Txiripá, Ñandeva. Dialects: Apapocuva. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Aymara, Central
[ayr] Jujuy and Salta provinces: in the mountains and urban areas. L1 users: 30,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aimara. Classification: Aymaran, Aymara. Comments: Non-indigenous. Quite a few come from Bolivia looking for work.

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Chorote, Iyojwa’ja
[crt] Salta province: near the Pilcomayo river. L1 users: 800 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 ethnic Chorote [crt] and [crq] (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chorote, Choroti, Eklenjuy, Yofuaha. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Iyo’wujwa Chorote [crq] (Drayson). Classification: Matacoan, Chorote. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chorote, Iyo’wujwa
[crq] Salta province. L1 users: 1,500 (Crevels 2007). 750 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Crevels 2007). Includes all ethnic Chorote, both [crt] and [crq]. Total users in all countries: 2,150. Status: 5 (Developing). Autonym: Yojwaja. Dialects: Chorote (Iyowujwa), Manjui (Inkijwas, I’no’, Manjuy). Classification: Matacoan, Chorote. Comments: Live intermixed with Iyojwa’ja Chorote [crt]. Traditional religion.

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German, Standard
[deu] L1 users: 400,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Alemán, Deutsch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Corrientes and Misiones provinces: south bank, Alto Parana river, Posadas area; shared border. L1 users: 4,000 (2008 CTI). Ethnic population: 8,200 (INDEC). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Argentina Guaraní, Mbua, Mbya, Mbyá. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Guaraní, Western Argentine
[gui] Jujuy and Salta provinces. L1 users: 15,000 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 21,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Bolivian Guaraní, “Chabanco” (pej.), “Chaguanco” (pej.), “Chawuncu” (pej.), “Chiriguano” (pej.). Dialects: Chané, Izoceño (Isocenio, Izocenyo). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní. Comments: Non-indigenous. ’Guarayo’ is a collective name in Argentina; distinct from Guarayo of Bolivia. Chané is a group that formerly spoke an Arawakan language, but now speak a dialect of Western Argentine Guaraní. Traditional religion.

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Mapudungun
[arn] Neuquén, Río Negro, and Chubut provinces; Mendoza province, possibly Buenos Aires. L1 users: 8,410 (2004 census). Ethnic population: 114,000 (2004). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Huilliche, Manzanero, Mapuche, Mapudungu, Maputongo, Pehuenche, Ranquel, “Araucanian” (pej.), “Araucano” (pej.). Dialects: Pehuenche. Classification: Mapudungu. Comments: Recent migration from Chile.

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Mocoví
[moc] Chaco and Santa Fe provinces. L1 users: 3,000 (2011 E. Zugasti). A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,100 (2004 INDEC). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mbocobí, Mocobí, Mokovi. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Nivaclé
[cag] Salta province: Rivadavia and San Martín departments; Tartagal outskirts and Misión La Paz. L1 users: 220 (2004 INDEC). Ethnic population: 550 (2001 INDEC). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ashlushlay, Guisnai, “Chulupe” (pej.), “Chulupi” (pej.), “Chulupie” (pej.), “Churupi” (pej.). Dialects: Forest Nivaclé, River Nivaclé. Classification: Matacoan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Ona
[ona] Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur province: Patagonia. L1 users: No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2007). The ethnic group disintegrated by early 20th century; last speakers died in the 1970s (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aona, Choon, Selknam, Shelknam. Classification: Chon, Island Chon. Comments: Lost their land to outside settlers, mines, and cattle. In 2000, there were reports of a group of 450 persons claiming Selknam ethnic affiliation.

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Piedmontese
[pms] L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Piamontés, Piemontèis. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Emigrants from the Cuneo and Turin areas of Italy settled in Córdoba and Santa Fe provinces, especially during the late 19th and early 20th century. Piedmontese was in daily use in this area into the 1950s (Giolitto 2016).

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Pilagá
[plg] Chaco province; Formosa province: Bermejo and Pilcomayo river valleys; Salta province. L1 users: 4,000 (2004 FEL). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pilaca. Dialects: Toba-Pilagá (Sombrero Negro), Chaco Pilagá. Intelligibility between dialects needs investigation. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Puelche
[pue] Chubut Province. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. The last L1 speaker was Trruúlmani, a woman who died in 1934. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gennaken, Gününa Küne, Northern Tehuelche, Pampa. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Distinct from Pehuenche dialect of Mapudungun [arn].

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Quechua, South Bolivian
[quh] Buenos Aires, Jujuy, and Salta provinces. L1 users: 5,120 (2004 census). Ethnic population: 70,500 (2004 INDEC). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Central Bolivian Quechua. Dialects: Northwest Jujuy (Colla). Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay. Comments: Different from Santiago del Estero [qus] (R. Nardi).

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Quichua, Santiago del Estero
[qus] Chaco province; Santiago del Estero province: Figueroa, Moreno, Robles, Sarmiento, Brigadier J. F. Ibarra, San Martín, Silipica, Loreto, Atamisqui, Avellaneda, Salavina, Quebrachos, Mitre, and Aguirre departments; perhaps Buenos Aires and Salta provinces. L1 users: 60,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Santiagueño Quichua. Autonym: Quichua. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Bolivian or other Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Spanish
[spa] 41,370,000 in Argentina, all users. L1 users: 40,300,000 (2013). L2 users: 1,070,000 (2013). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Español. Dialects: Portuñol, Portunhol, Rioplatense, Lunfardo, Porteño. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tapieté
[tpj] Salta province: Misión Tapieté, San Martín district, Curbita, near Pilcomayo river. L1 users: 180 (2004 census). Ethnic population: 520 (2001 INDEC). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guarayo, Guasurangue, Tirumbae, Yanaigua, Ñanagua. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Tehuelche
[teh] Chubut province. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the 1960s or 1970s (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 10,600 (2004 INDEC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aoniken, Gunua-Kena, Gununa-Kena, Gününa Küne, Gününa Yajich, Inaquen. Classification: Chon. Comments: From Chile.

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Toba
[tob] Chaco province: Bermejito, Castelli, Fontana, La Leonesa, Las Palmas, Miraflores, Pampa del Indio, Pcia, Resistencia, Roca, Saenz Peña, San Martín, Tres Isletas; Corrientes province; Formosa province: El Colorado, Misión Laishí, San Carlos; Santa Fe province: Rosario. L1 users: 40,000 (Crevels 2007). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 69,500 (2004 INDEC). Total users in all countries: 40,760. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chaco Sur, Namqom, Qoml’ek, Toba Qom, Toba Sur. Autonym: Qom. Dialects: Southeast Toba, Northern Toba, Toba Sur, Toba-Pilagá (Toba Sombrero negro, Toba del Oeste). Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern. Comments: Different from Toba-Maskoy [tmf] or Toba-Pilagá [plg]. Christian.

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Vilela
[vil] Chaco province: Resistencia; near Paraguay border. L1 users: No known L1 speakers (2011 M. Del Pozzi). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Language isolate.

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Welsh
[cym] Chubut province. L1 users: 25,000 (1998 A. Leaver). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cymraeg, Galés. Dialects: Patagonian Welsh. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Welsh speakers in Argentina since around 1865.

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Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay
[mzh] Formosa and Salta provinces: Pilcomayo river right bank, near Bolivia border. L1 users: 15,000 (1999). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Güisnay, Wichí, “Mataco” (pej.), “Mataco Güisnay” (pej.), “Mataco Pilcomayo” (pej.). Autonym: Wichí Lhamtés. Classification: Matacoan, Mataco. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wichí Lhamtés Nocten
[mtp] Chaco province: General Güemes department; Formosa province: Bermejo, Matacos, Patiño, Ramón Lista departments; Salta province: Anta, Metán, Orán, Rivadavia, and San Martín departments. L1 users: 100. Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nocten, Noctenes, Oktenai, “Mataco Nocten” (pej.). Classification: Matacoan, Mataco. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wichí Lhamtés Vejoz
[wlv] Chaco, Formosa, Salta, and Jujuy provinces: upper Bermejo river valley and Pilcomayo river. L1 users: 25,000 (1991 UBS). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten (2004 INDEC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vejos, Vejoz, “Mataco Vejoz” (pej.). Dialects: Bermejo Vejoz. Not intelligible of other Chaco languages. Classification: Matacoan, Mataco. Comments: Language family also called Mataco-Mataguayo. Traditional religion.

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Yámana
[yag] Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur province: Extreme south Isla Grande. L1 users: No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2007). In the last decades of the 20th century the language became extinct in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Háusi Kúta, Yahgan. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] L1 users: 200,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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