Argentina

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Abipon
[axb] Chaco and Formosa provinces: north of Bermejo river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abipones. Dialects: None known. Related to Kadiweu [kbc]. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern.

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Argentine Sign Language
[aed] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas Argentina, LSA. Dialects: Córdoba Sign Language. Some regional variation (e.g. between Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Mendoza), but most deaf people ignore differences and strongly identify with one national sign language (2013 R. Caceres). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Deaf schools began in 1885. Historical relationship to Italian Sign Language [ise] (Zeshan et al 2013).

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Ava Guaraní
[nhd] Misiones province; possibly also in Buenos Aires, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Jujuy, Salta, and Santa Fe provinces. 8,940 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 21,800. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Apytare, Chiripá, Ñandeva, Nhandeva, Tsiripá, Txiripá. Dialects: Apapocuva. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Aymara, Central
[ayr] Jujuy and Salta provinces: in the mountains and urban areas. 30,000 in Argentina. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aimara. Classification: Aymaran, Aymara. Comments: Non-indigenous. Quite a few come from Bolivia looking for work.

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Chorote, Iyojwa’ja
[crt] Salta province: near the Pilcomayo river. 800 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 ethnic Chorote [crt] and [crq] (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chorote, Choroti, Eklenjuy, Yofuaha. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Iyo’wujwa Chorote [crq] (Drayson). Classification: Matacoan, Chorote. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chorote, Iyo’wujwa
[crq] Salta province. 1,500 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). 750 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Crevels 2007). Includes all ethnic Chorote, both [crt] and [crq]. Total users in all countries: 2,150. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Yojwaja. Dialects: Chorote (Iyowujwa), Manjui (Inkijwas, I’no’, Manjuy). Classification: Matacoan, Chorote. Comments: Live intermixed with Iyojwa’ja Chorote [crt]. Traditional religion.

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German, Standard
[deu] 400,000 in Argentina. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Corrientes and Misiones provinces: south bank, Alto Parana river, Posadas area; shared border. 4,000 in Argentina (2008 CTI). Ethnic population: 8,200 (INDEC). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Argentina Guaraní, Mbua, Mbya, Mbyá. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Guaraní, Western Argentine
[gui] Jujuy and Salta provinces. 15,000 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 21,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Chabanco” (pej.), “Chaguanco” (pej.), “Chawuncu” (pej.), “Chiriguano” (pej.), Eastern Bolivian Guaraní. Dialects: Chané, Izoceño (Isocenio, Izocenyo). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní. Comments: Non-indigenous. ’Guarayo’ is a collective name in Argentina; distinct from Guarayo of Bolivia. Chané is a group that formerly spoke an Arawakan language, but now speak a dialect of Western Argentine Guaraní. Traditional religion.

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Mapudungun
[arn] Neuquén, Río Negro, and Chubut provinces; Mendoza province, possibly Buenos Aires. 8,410 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 114,000 (2004). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: “Araucanian” (pej.), Araucano, Huilliche, Manzanero, Mapuche, Mapudungu, Maputongo, Pehuenche, Ranquel. Dialects: Pehuenche. Classification: Mapudungu. Comments: Recent migration from Chile.

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Mocoví
[moc] Chaco and Santa Fe provinces. 3,000 (2011 E. Zugasti). A few elderly monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,100 (2004 INDEC). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mbocobí, Mocobí, Mokovi. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Nivaclé
[cag] Salta province: Rivadavia and San Martín departments; Tartagal outskirts and Misión La Paz. 220 in Argentina (2004 INDEC). Ethnic population: 550 (2001 INDEC). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ashlushlay, “Chulupe” (pej.), “Chulupi” (pej.), “Chulupie” (pej.), “Churupi” (pej.), Guisnai. Dialects: Forest Nivaclé, River Nivaclé. Classification: Matacoan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Ona
[ona] Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur province: Patagonia. No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2007). The ethnic group disintegrated by early 20th century; last speakers died in the 1970s (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aona, Choon, Selknam, Shelknam. Classification: Chon, Island Chon. Comments: Lost their land to outside settlers, mines, and cattle. In 2000, there were reports of a group of 450 persons claiming Selknam ethnic affiliation.

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Pilagá
[plg] Chaco province; Formosa province: Bermejo and Pilcomayo river valleys; Salta province. 4,000 (2004 FEL). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pilaca. Dialects: Toba-Pilagá (Sombrero Negro, Toba del Oeste), Chaco Pilagá (Toba Sur). Intelligibility between dialects needs investigation. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Puelche
[pue] Chubut Province. No known L1 speakers. The last L1 speaker was Trruúlmani, a woman who died in 1934. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gennaken, Gününa Küne, Northern Tehuelche, Pampa. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Distinct from Pehuenche dialect of Mapudungun [arn].

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Quechua, South Bolivian
[quh] Buenos Aires, Jujuy, and Salta provinces. 5,120 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 70,500 (2004 INDEC). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Central Bolivian Quechua. Dialects: Northwest Jujuy (Colla). Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay. Comments: Different from Santiago del Estero [qus] (R. Nardi).

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Quichua, Santiago del Estero
[qus] Chaco province; Santiago del Estero province: Figueroa, Moreno, Robles, Sarmiento, Brigadier J. F. Ibarra, San Martín, Silipica, Loreto, Atamisqui, Avellaneda, Salavina, Quebrachos, Mitre, and Aguirre departments; perhaps Buenos Aires and Salta provinces. 60,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Quichua, Santiagueño Quichua. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Bolivian or other Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Spanish
[spa] 40,300,000 in Argentina (2013). L2 users: 1,070,000 in Argentina (2013). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Portuñol, Portunhol, Rioplatense, Lunfardo, Porteño. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tapieté
[tpj] Salta province: Misión Tapieté, San Martín district, Curbita, near Pilcomayo river. 180 in Argentina (2004 census). Ethnic population: 520 (2001 INDEC). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guarayo, Guasurangue, Ñanagua, Tirumbae, Yanaigua. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Tehuelche
[teh] Chubut province. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the 1960s or 1970s (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 10,600 (2004 INDEC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aoniken, Gunua-Kena, Gününa Küne, Gününa Yajich, Gununa-Kena, Inaquen. Classification: Chon. Comments: From Chile.

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Toba
[tob] Chaco province: Bermejito, Castelli, Fontana, La Leonesa, Las Palmas, Miraflores, Pampa del Indio, Pcia, Resistencia, Roca, Saenz Peña, San Martín, Tres Isletas; Corrientes province; Formosa province: El Colorado, Misión Laishí, San Carlos; Santa Fe province: Rosario. 40,000 in Argentina (Crevels 2007). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 69,500 (2004 INDEC). Total users in all countries: 40,760. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chaco Sur, Namqom, Qom, Qoml’ek, Toba Qom, Toba Sur. Dialects: Southeast Toba, Northern Toba. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern. Comments: Different from Toba-Maskoy [tmf] or Toba-Pilagá [plg]. Christian.

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Vilela
[vil] Chaco province: Resistencia; near Paraguay border. No known L1 speakers (2011 M. Del Pozzi). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Language isolate.

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Welsh
[cym] Chubut province. 25,000 in Argentina (1998 A. Leaver). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cymraeg. Dialects: Patagonian Welsh. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Welsh speakers in Argentina since around 1865.

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Wichí Lhamtés Güisnay
[mzh] Formosa and Salta provinces: Pilcomayo river right bank, near Bolivia border. 15,000 (1999). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Güisnay, “Mataco” (pej.), “Mataco Güisnay” (pej.), “Mataco Pilcomayo” (pej.), Wichí, Wichí Lhamtés. Classification: Matacoan, Mataco. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wichí Lhamtés Nocten
[mtp] Chaco province: General Güemes department; Formosa province: Bermejo, Matacos, Patiño, Ramón Lista departments; Salta province: Anta, Metán, Orán, Rivadavia, and San Martín departments. 100 in Argentina. Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Mataco Nocten” (pej.), Nocten, Noctenes, Oktenai. Classification: Matacoan, Mataco. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Wichí Lhamtés Vejoz
[wlv] Chaco, Formosa, Salta, and Jujuy provinces: upper Bermejo river valley and Pilcomayo river. 25,000 (1991 UBS). Ethnic population: 40,000 (2004 INDEC). 40,000 Wichí Güisnay, Wichí Vejoz and Wichí Nocten (2004 INDEC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Mataco Vejoz” (pej.), Vejos, Vejoz. Dialects: Bermejo Vejoz. Not intelligible of other Chaco languages. Classification: Matacoan, Mataco. Comments: Language family also called Mataco-Mataguayo. Traditional religion.

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Yámana
[yag] Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur province: Extreme south Isla Grande. No known L1 speakers in Argentina (Crevels 2007). In the last decades of the 20th century the language became extinct in Argentina (Crevels 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Háusi Kúta, Yahgan. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] 200,000 in Argentina. Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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