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Adithinngithigh
[dth] Queensland state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died in the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adetingiti. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Adnyamathanha
[adt] South Australia state: Nepabunna in Flinders ranges area. Population: 140 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ad’n’amadana, Adynyamathanha, Anjimatana, Anjiwatana, Archualda, Atynyamatana, Benbakanjamata, Binbarnja, Gadjnjamada, Jandali, Kanjimata, Keydnjmarda, Mardala, Nimalda, Nuralda, Umbertana, Unyamootha, Wailbi, Wailpi, Waljbi, Wipie. Dialects: None known. Related to Guyani [gvy], Barngarla [bjb], Nugunu [nnv], and Narungga [nnr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Aghu-Tharnggala
[gtu] Queensland state: Dixie, Lakefield, Maramie. Population: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aghu Tharnggala, Aghu Tharnggalai, Aghu Tharnggalu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama.

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Alawa
[alh] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Roper river. Population: 4 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kallana, Leealowa. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Alawic.

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Alngith
[aid] Queensland state: northeast Cape York peninsula just north of Weipa. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Alyawarr
[aly] Northern Territory; Queensland state: Sandover and Tennant creek areas. Population: 1,550 (2016 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Aljawara, Alyawarra, Alyawarre, Iliaura, Yowera. Autonym: Alyawarr. Dialects: None known. Related to Western Arrarnte [are], Anmatyerre [amx], and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Ami
[amy] Northern Territory: Anson bay coast, southwest of Darwin. Population: 30 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ame, Amijangal, Emmi, Maranunggu. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Wadjiginy [wdj]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy.

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Amurdak
[amg] Northern Territory: Goulburn island, Oenpelli. Population: 1 (2015). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: A’moordiyu, Amarag, Amarak, Amardak, Amurag, Amurdag, Amurrag, Amurrak, Amurtak, Amuruk, Mamurug, Monobar, Namurug, Nga:mr:rak, Nga:mu:rak, Ngamurag, Umoreo, Umoriu, Umorrdak, Wardadjbak, Woraidbug, Wureidbug. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Amaragic.

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Andajin
[ajn] Western Australia state: King Leopold ranges south to east Philips north, from Lungra Yard west to Tharlow Hill area east. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker may have survived into the 2010s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Andidja, Andidjara. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Ngarinyinic.

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Andegerebinha
[adg] Northern Territory: Hay river, Pituri creek area, east of Alyawarra; Queensland state. Population: No known L1 speakers (2016 census). 5 remaining speakers were reported in 2005. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Andigibinha, Antekerrepenh, Antekerrepinhe. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Angkamuthi
[avm] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, narrow coastal stretch from north of Port Musgrave to Doughboy river, inland area of Crystal creek, middle Jardine river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived late into the 20th century. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Anggamudi, Ankamuti, Ngamiti, Nggamadi, Nggammadi, Ngkamadyi’. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Anguthimri
[awg] Queensland state: north Cape York peninsula, Mission river mouth west to Duyfken Point, north to Pennefather river; Wenlock river south and west banks between Batavia Landing area and Gibson waterhole. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker, Don Fletcher, died in 1985. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Angadimi, Angutimi, Ba:tyana, Batjana, Mbatyana, Ngerikudi, Nggerikudi, Nggirikudi, Nigger-Ikudi, Ra:kudi, Wimaranga, Wimarangga, Wimarango, Wimmarango, Yopngadi, Yupangathi, Yupangati, Yupnget, Yupun-Gatti, Yupungati, Yuupngati. Dialects: Mpakwithi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Anindilyakwa
[aoi] Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt, Gulf of Carpenteria. Population: 1,480 (2016 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andiljangwa, Andilyaugwa, Aninhdhilyagwa, Enindhilyagwa, Enindiljaugwa, Groote Eylandt, Ingura, Wanindilyaugwa. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa.

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Anmatyerre
[amx] Northern Territory: Mount Allen, northwest Alice Springs region. Population: 640 (2016 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anmatjirra, Anmatyerr. Dialects: Eastern Anmatyerre, Western Anmatyerre (Kalenthelkwe, Kelentheyewelrere, Kelenthwelkere). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Antikarinya
[ant] South Australia state: north central area. Population: No known L1 speakers (2016 census). Last known speakers survived into the early 2010s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Andagarinya, Antakarinya, Antakirinya. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Warnman [wbt]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Arabana
[ard] South Australia state: Lake Eyre west side to Maree, Port Augusta, and Stuart range. Population: 15 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arabunna. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku.

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Arakwal
[rkw] New South Wales state: Ballina and Richmond river north bank to Cape Byron; south to Ballina, inland to Casino, Coraki, and Lismore. Population: No known L1 speakers. Critically endangered by 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coo-al, Gundurimba, Jawhumjeri, Kawhul, Kogung, Naiang, Njung, Nyung, Tugurimba, Yawkum-yere. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic.

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Aranda, Lower Southern
[axl] Northern Territory: Alice Springs, Andado, Arltunga, Blood creek, Charlotte waters, Connor well, Deep well, Finke river, Gillen creek, Hale river, Henbury, Horseshoe bend, Hugh river, Idracowra, Intea, James range, MacDonnell range, Macumba rive, Maryvale, Mount Dare. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker, Brownie Doolan Perrurle, died in 2011. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aldolanga, Aldolinga, Alitera, Aranda, Aranta, Arinta, Arranda, Arrinda, Arrundta, Arrunta, Arunda, Arunndta, Arunta, Arunta Bu, Arunta Ulpma, Eastern Aranda, Lower Aranda, Pertame, Southern Aranda, Western Aranda. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Areba
[aea] Queensland state: southwest Cape York peninsula, Gilbert river, northeast of Normanton. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: A:rap, Araba, Ariba, Aripa, Kurtjar, Ngariba, Rib, Ribh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama.

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Arrarnta, Western
[are] Northern Territory: Alice Springs area, Hermannsburg. Population: 440 (2016 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Aranda, Arunta. Autonym: Arrente. Dialects: Western Aranda, Akerre (Akara), Southern Aranda. Reportedly similar to Alyawarr [aly] and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Arrernte, Eastern
[aer] Northern Territory: Alice Springs area (Mparntwe), Alcoota, Amoonguna (Amwengkwerne), Bonya (Uthipe Atherre), Harts range (Artetyerre), Santa Teresa (Ltyentye Apurte). Population: 1,910 (2016 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Arunta, Eastern Aranda, Upper Aranda. Autonym: Arrernte. Dialects: Mparntwe Arrernte, Ikngerripenhe, Akarre, Antekerrepenh, Upper Aranda. Related to Alyawarr [aly], Western Arrarnta [are], Anmatyerre [amx], and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Atampaya
[amz] Queensland state: Eliot creek, extreme north Cape York peninsula. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Atambaya. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Auslan
[asf] Scattered. Population: 10,100 (2016 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in New South Wales. Alternate Names: Australian Sign Language. Dialects: None known. Related to British Sign Language [bfi], with influences also from Irish Sign Language [isg] and American Sign Language [ase]. Many structural and lexical similarities between British Sign Language (BSL) [bfi], Australian Sign Language (Auslan) [asf], and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) [nzs] and a high degree of mutual intelligibility (2003 T. Johnston, McKee and Kennedy 2000). Linguists sometimes use the name BANZSL to refer to them as a group, while still recognizing them as separate related languages. Classification: Sign language.

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Australian Aborigines Sign Language
[asw] Scattered. Population: Status: 6b* (Threatened). Dialects: None known. A collection of separate languages used by different aboriginal groups (e.g. Aranda, Warlpiri, Warumuŋu, Yolŋu), rather than just one language; only a few of these have been recognized separately in ISO 639-3, e.g. Miriwoong Sign Language [rsm], Yan-nhaŋu Sign Language [yhs], and Yolŋu Sign Language [ygs]. Not related to Auslan [asf]. Classification: Sign language.

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Australian Irish Sign Language
[isg] Scattered. Population: 50 in Australia (2016 R. Adam), decreasing. Estimated 50–100 users left, no monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: AISL. Classification: Sign language.

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Awabakal
[awk] New South Wales state: Lake Macquarie, south from Newcastle. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived late into the 19th century. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Awabagal. Dialects: Awabagal, Cameeragal, Wonarua. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Worimi.

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Awngthim
[gwm] Queensland state: north Cape York peninsula, Mission river north side, east of the Anguthimri. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker likely died in the mid 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Angudimi, Angutimi, Mamangidigh, Mamangiti, Mbadjana. Dialects: Mpakwithi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Ayabadhu
[ayd] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, north of Coleman river, south of Coen. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the late 1980s or early 1990s (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abadja, Ai ebadu, Aiabadu, Aiyabotho, Aiyaboto, Ajabadha, Ajabatha, Ajibyrdu, Apatya, Ayapathu, Badja, Baldya, Balfja, Jabuda, Kikahiabilo, Koka Ai-ebadu, Koka-aiebadu, Koko Aiebadu, Koko-Badja, Koko-Baldya, Koko-Baltjayiahjaba. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Ayerrerenge
[axe] Queensland state: Bathurst, Headingly, Urandangi, north to Lake Nash and Barkly Downs, east toward Mount Isa, west to Argadargada and Mount Hogarth area. Population: No known L1 speakers. On the brink of extinction in the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aroinga, Bulamu, Bulanja, Bulanu, Jarionga, Jaroinga, Jurangka, Manda, Pulanja, Yaringa, Yaroinga, Yarroinga, Yarrowin, Yorrawinga, Yorrowinga, Yuruwinga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Badimaya
[bia] Western Australia state: south of Cue to northeast of Moora; east to Paynes Find; west to Mullewa. Population: 3 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Parti-Maya, Widimaya. Dialects: None known. Related to Wajarri [wbv]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wadjari.

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Badjiri
[jbi] New South Wales state: Hungerford area to Eulo on Paroo river; east to Barringun, Cunna-mulla, Tinnenburra, and Tuen area; Caiwarro and eastern side of Currawinya. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the late 1980s or early 1990s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baddjeri, Badjari, Ngura. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura.

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Bandjalang
[bdy] New South Wales state: Woodenbong northeast; Queensland state: southeast. Population: 110 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bandjelang, Bogganger, Bundala, Bundjalung, Gidabal, Yugumbe. Dialects: Gidabal (Gidhabal), Yugumbir. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic.

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Banyjima
[pnw] Western Australia state: northwest, east southeast of Tom Price. Population: 100 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bandjima, Banjima, Pandjima, Panjima, Panjtjima, Panyima, Panyjima, Panytyima. Dialects: None known. Related to Ngarla [nrk], Tjurruru [tju], Nyamal [nly], and Yinhawangka [ywg]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Barababaraba
[rbp] New South Wales state: Murrumbidgee river south side, north of Hay to Victoria, Kerang; Brassi, cross river from Carrathool, Cohuna, Conargo, and Gunbower. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 2006 (2006 census). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baraba Baraba, Baraba-Baraba, Baraparapa, Barappur, Bareber Bareber, Barraba-Barraba, Barrababarraba, Beraba-Beraba, Birraba-Birraba, Boora-Boora, Boorabirraba, Booraboora, Boort, Burabura, Burappa, Burapper, Bureba, Burrabura-ba, Burraburburaba, Burrappa, Burrapper, Burreba-Burreba, Karraba, Perapa-Perapa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin, Western.

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Barbaram
[vmb] Queensland state: Almaden, Great Dividing ridge, Irvinebank, Koorboora (Kaboura), Mareeba, Mount Garnett, Petford. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Balbarum, Barbarem, Barbarum, Booburam, Mbabaram, Mbara, Mogmnanarim, Oombarrmbarum, Umbarbarem, Woombarbarram, Wumbabaram. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southern Pama.

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Bardi
[bcj] Western Australia state: Western Kimberley region, Broome, Derby, Lombadina Aboriginal community, One Arm Point Aboriginal community. Population: 30 (2005 AUSTLANG), decreasing. Ethnic population: 320 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baadi, Baardi, Badi, Bard. Dialects: Bardi, Jawi. Intelligibility adequate between Bardi and Jawi dialects. Related to Nyikina [nyh], Warrwa [wwr], Djawi [djw], Nimanbur [nmp], Nyulnyul [nyv], Dyaberdyaber [dyb], Dyugun [dyd], and Yawuru [ywr]. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Barngarla
[bjb] South Australia state: Port Lincoln to Spencer gulf head. Population: No known L1 speakers. The language died out in the 1960s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bahanga-La, Bangala, Banggala, Banggarla, Bungeha, Bungela, Kortabina, Pakarla, Pangkala, Pankalla, Parnkala, Parnkalla, Punkalla. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Barrow Point
[bpt] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, Barrow Point on Princess Charlotte bay and inland. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Guugu-Yimidhirr.

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Batjala
[xby] Queensland state: Cairns; Fraser island; Great Sandy island; Kabikabi mission; Noosa Head; Pialba; Tinana creek; Yarrabah; Thoorgine. Population: 24 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Badjela, Badtala, Badtjala, Badyala, Batyala, Bidhala, Butchulla, Dulingbara, Gnoolongbara, Koolaburra, Ngulungbara, Olungbura, Patyala, Thoorgine. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic.

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Bayali
[bjy] Queensland state: Marlborough, Yeppon, Yamba, and Rockhampton; Fitzroy river mouth inland to Boomer range. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 1960s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baiali, Bajali, Bieli, Biyali, Byellee, Ningebal, Orambul, Warabal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Kingkel.

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Bayungu
[bxj] Western Australia state: West Pilbara; lower Lyndon and Minilya rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Last known speaker likely died in 2006. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Baijungu, Baiong, Baiung, Bajungu, Biong, Giong, Mulgarnoo, Pajungu, Payungu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Kanyara.

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Bibbulman
[xbp] Western Australia state: Lower Blackwood river, on hills between Blackwood and Warren rivers, east to Broke inlet and Gardner river; Scott river, inland to Bridgetown and Manjimup. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 1990s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bajongwongi, Bebleman, Bibbulmun, Bibilum, Bibulman, Bibulmun, Bibuulmoun, Meeraman, Murram, Peopleman, Pepelman, Pibilum, Piblemen. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Bidjara
[bym] Queensland state: between Augathella and Tambo, Warrego and Langlo rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Ruhlen 1987). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bidyara, Bithara, Bitjara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Bigambal
[xbe] New South Wales state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1996. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bigambul, Bigumbil. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan.

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Bindal
[xbd] Victoria state: Ayr; Burdekin river mouth north to Cape Cleveland, inland to Leichhardt range. Population: No known L1 speakers. Extinct by the middle of the 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bindel, Nyawaygi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan.

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Biri
[bzr] Queensland state: southeast of Charters Towers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wirdi, Wirri. Dialects: Yetimarala. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Birrpayi
[xbj] New South Wales state: Taree at Manning river mouth, inland to Gloucester area; river south side; Forbes, upper Hastings and Wilson rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, James Davis, survived into the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Birbai, Biribi, Birippi, Birrapee, Birripai, Birrpai, Bripi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Broome Pearling Lugger Pidgin
[bpl] Western Australia state: Beagle Bay, Broome, Derby, La Grange, Lombardinie, One Arm Point. Population: 40, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Probably never used as L1, although some locals of Broome have retained some of it as part of their jargon. Most active use happened between 1900 and 1930 (Wurm et al 1996). L2 users: 40. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Lingua franca on pearling boats between Malays, Japanese, Chinese, and Aborigines. Alternate Names: Broom Creole, Japanese Pidgin English, Koepang Talk, Malay Talk. Classification: Pidgin, Malay based.

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Bunganditj
[xbg] South Australia state: Balmoral, Cape Jaffa, Casterton, Dartmoor, Glenelg river, Lake Mundi, Mount Gambier, Mount Zero, Penola, Robe, Wannon river, Western Grampians. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speakers probably died in the late 1800s (Blake 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bak-on-date, Banaditj, Bangandadj, Bangandidj, Barconedeet, Baundik, Boandic, Boandik, Booandik, Booandik-ngolo, Booandki-ngolo, Booganitch, Booganity, Boongandity, Borandikngolo, Buadik, Buandic, Buandig, Buandik, Buanditj, Bugandity, Bung’andaetch, Bunganadity, Bungandaetch, Bungandaetcha, Bungandaitj, Bungandidj, Bungandij, Bunganditjngolo, Bungandity, Bunjanditj, Burhwundeirtch, Drualat-ngolonung, Drualatngolonung, Nguro, Pungandaitj, Pungandik, Pungantitj, Pungatitj. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bungandidj.

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Bunuba
[bck] Western Australia state: Fitzroy Crossing area. Population: 41 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bunaba, Punapa, Punuba. Classification: Australian, Bunaban.

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Burarra
[bvr] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Maningrida. Population: 1,050 (2016 census). 1,000 Burarra and 50 Gun-narpta (2016 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Anbarra, Barera, Bawera, Burada, Bureda, Burera, Gidjingaliya Gujingalia, Gujalabiya, Gun-Guragone, Jikai, Tchikai. Autonym: Gu-jingarliya. Dialects: Gun-narpta (Gu-jarlabiya, Gun-nartpa). Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran.

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Burduna
[bxn] Western Australia state: Henry and upper Lyndon rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the early 1990s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Boordoona, Budina, Budoona, Buduna, Pinneegooroo, Poodena, Poordoona, Purduma, Purduna. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Kanyara.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Widespread. Population: 597,000 in Australia (2016 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Major cities. Population: 281,000 in Australia (2016 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Dadi Dadi
[dda] Victoria state: northwest; New South Wales state: southwest, Murray river area, north to Benanee. Population: No known L1 speakers (2016 census). The last fluent speakers probably died in the early 1900s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dadidadi, Dardi-Dardi, Dardidardi, Tatitati, Tharrthi-Tharrthi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic.

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Dagoman
[dgn] Northern Territory. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Martha Hart, died in 1982. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Wardaman [wrr]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic.

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Dalabon
[ngk] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Katherine area, Oenpell. Population: 5 (2010 ELDP). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bouin, Boun, Buan, Buin, Buwan, Dangbon, Gundangbon, Nalabon, Ngalabon, Ngalkbon, Ngalkbun. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Ngalkbun.

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Darkinyung
[xda] New South Wales state: Cessnock, Colo river, Hawkesbury river, Hunter river, Jerry’s plain, Macdonald river, Putty, Rylstone, Wisemans ferry, Wollombi. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speakers probably died in the early 1900s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Darginjang, Darginyung, Darkinjang, Darkinoong, Darkinung, Darknung. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Daungwurrung
[dgw] Northeastern Victoria state: Broken, Delatite, Coliban, Campaspe , adn Goulburn watersheds. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speakers probably died in the late1800s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Daung Wurrung, Dhagung-wurrung, Taungurong, Taungurung, Thagawurung, Thagungwurrung. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Dayi
[dax] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Galiwinku, Lake Evella, Numbulwam, Roper river, Yirrkala. Population: 80 (2016 census). 62 Dhalwangu and 18 Dayi speakers (2016 census). No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dha’i, Dhay’yi. Dialects: Dhalwangu, Djarrwark. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Dhalandji
[dhl] Western Australia state: Exmouth gulf head inland to Ashburton river, West Pilbara. Population: 6 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dalandji, Dalendi, Djalendi, Talaindji, Talandi, Talandji, Talangee, Tallainga, Taloinga, Thalantji, Thalanyji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Dhalandji.

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Dhangu-Djangu
[dhg] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Elcho island. Population: 230 (2016 census). 67 Dhangu, 89 Gaalpu, 17 Rirratjingu, 58 Wangurri (2016 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Budalpudal, Burada, Buralbural, Buratha, Dangu, Dhaangu, Dhangu, Dhangu’mi, Djangu, War-ramirri, Warameri, Waramiri, Warramiri, Warumeri, Yolngu-Matha, Yuulngu. Autonym: Dhangu-Djangu. Dialects: Gaalpu (Kalbu), Wangurri, Ngaymil, Rirratjingu, Golumala. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhangu.

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Dharawal
[tbh] New South Wales state: Port Hacking to Shoalhaven river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 1970s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dharawaal, Thurawal, Turrubul. Dialects: Wadiwadi (Wodiwodi), Dharrabal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Dhargari
[dhr] Western Australia state: Kennedy range, lower Lyons and upper Minilya rivers, West Pilbara. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 2000s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dal’gari, Dargari, Targari, Tarkarri, Thargari, Tharrgari, Tharrkari. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Dharuk
[xdk] New South Wales state: Camden, Campbelltown, Hawkesbury river, Liverpool, Mount Victoria, Penrith, Sydney, Windsor. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Eva Webb, died in 1970. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Darrook, Darug, Dhar’rook, Dharrook, Dharruk, Dharug. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Dharumbal
[xgm] Queensland state: Bombandy, Broad sound, Cape Palmerston, Coast range, Normanby range, Pine mountain, Saint Lawrence, Styx, Yaamba. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker died in 1973. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Charumbul, Darambal, Darawal, Darumbal, Koinbal, Koinjmal, Kungalburra, Kungmal, Mamburra, Tarumbal, Tharumbal, Urambal. Dialects: Kuinmabara (Guwinmal, Kooinmarburra, Kooinmerburra, Kuinmurbara, Kuinmurbura). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Dhungaloo
[dhx] Queensland state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Roy Hatfield was probably the last speaker, who died ca. 2012. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dungaloo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Dhurga
[dhu] New South Wales state: Bermagui to Jervis bay. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers survived into the 1970s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dhu’rga, Dhuurga, Durga, Duurga, Tharumba, Thaua, Thoorga, Thurga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Dhuwal
[dwu] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Roper river. Population: 300 (2015 C. Bow). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dual, Duala, Wulamba, Yolngu. Dialects: Datiwuy (Daatiwuy), Dhuwal, Djapu, Liyagalawumirr, Liyagawumirr, Marrakulu, Marrangu. Most closely related to Djambarrpuyngu [djr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Dhuwaya
[dwy] Northern Territory, North-east Arnhem Land, Yirrkala and surrounding outstations. Population: 1,500, all users. L1 users: 500 (2015 C. Bow). L2 users: 1,000 (2015 C. Bow). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Baby Gumatj. Autonym: Dhuwaya. Dialects: Most closely related to Gumatj [gnn]. Dhuwaya is Yolngu variety that has resulted from language contact between different Yolngu dialects (Amery 1993). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Dieri
[dif] South Australia state: Leigh creek. Population: 5 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 600. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Diyari. Autonym: Dieri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Diyari
[dit] South Australia state: east of Lake Eyre North. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhirari, Dirari. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Djabugay
[dyy] Queensland state: Barron river south of Mareeba to Kuranda, north to Port Douglas on a plateau. Population: 46 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bulum-Bulum, Check-Cull, Chewlie, Djabugai, Dyaabugay, Dyabugay, Hileman, Kikonjunkulu, Kodgotto, Koko-Tjumbundji, Kokonyungalo, Ngarlkajie, Orlow, Tjabakai-Thandji, Tjabogaijanji, Tjankir, Tjankun, Tjapukai, Tjapunkandji, Tjunbundji. Dialects: Njakali (Nyagali, Nyakali), Dyaabugay, Gulay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yidinic.

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Djabwurrung
[tjw] Victoria state: Ararat, Hamilton, Hopkins river, Maroona, Mount Rouse, Mount William, Stawell, Wickliffe. Population: No known L1 speakers (2016 census). Last known speaker survived into the 2010s (2016 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chaa wuurong, Chaap Wuurong, Chaap-Warrong, Chaapwurra, Chaapwurru, Chaapwuurong, Chap wurong, Chap wurrung, Chap-wurong, Djab Wurrung, Djab wurung, Djabwuru, Djabwurung, Dyabwurung, Dyapwurong, Jab Wurrong, Jab wurrung, Kolor, Kolorer, Kooloor, Pirtkopannoot, Punoinjon, Purteetchally, Tchapwurong, Thapwurong, Tjap, Tjap-wurong, Tjapwuron, Tjapwurong, Tjapwurun, Tjapwurung, Tjapwuurong, Tyapawurru, Tyapwurru, Tyapwuru. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Djadjawurrung
[dja] Victoria state: Boort, Kyneton, Lake Buloke, Navarre hill, Wallaloo creek. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by the end of the 19th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Djadja Wurrung, Djadjawurung, Dyadyawurung, Jaara, Jaja-Wurrung, Jajawurung, Le Wurrung, Lewurru, Lewurrung, Yaara, Yaura. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Djambarrpuyngu
[djr] Northern Territory: Elcho island. Population: 4,280 (2016 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Lingua franca. Alternate Names: Djambarbwingu, Jambapuing, Jambapuingo. Autonym: Djambarrpuyngu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Djamindjung
[djd] Northern Territory: Victoria river. Population: 29 (2016 census). 29 Ngaliwuru; no remaining Djadmindjung speakers (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jaminjung. Dialects: Ngaliwuru (Ngaliwerra, Ngaliwurru). Classification: Australian, Djamindjungan.

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Djangun
[djf] Queensland state: Alma-den north to Mount Mulligan, east to Dimbula, west to Mungana. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adho-Adhom, Butju, Chungki, Chunkumberries, Chunkunburra, Gugu Djangun, Jangun Djanggun, Koko-Mudju, Koko-Tyankun, Mutyu, Ngaigungo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic.

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Djauan
[djn] Northern Territory: Bamyili settlement, Katherine. Population: 16 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Adowen, Djawan, Jawan, Jawony, Jawoyn, Kumertuo. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Djauanic.

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Djawi
[djw] Western Australia state: islands from Brunswick bay to King sound. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Djaui, Jawi. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Djeebbana
[djj] Northern Territory: Maningrida north coast area, West Arnhem Land. Population: 280, all users. L1 users: 180 (2016 census). L2 users: 100 (1991). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gunavidji, Ndjebbana. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran.

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Djinang
[dji] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Blyth, Goyder, and Ramingining rivers. Population: 130 (2016 census). 120 Djinang, 10 Wulaki (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jandijinung. Dialects: Djadiwitjibi, Mildjingi, Wulaki (Wurlaki), Balurbi, Murrungun, Manyarring. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Djinang.

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Djinba
[djb] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, southeast adjoining Djinang area, Ngangalala. Population: 70 (2016 census). 14 Djinba, 54 Ganalbingu, 3 Mandjalpingu (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Ganalbingu, Dabi, Mandjalpingu. Lexical similarity: 60% with Djinang [dji]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Djinang.

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Djiwarli
[dze] Western Australia state: Ashburton river, Elliott creek, Henry river, Lyons river, Mount Florry, Mount Hamlet, Yannarie river. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Jack Butler, died in 1986. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Djiwali, Djwarli, Jivali, Jiwali, Jiwarli, Tivali, Tjiwali, Tjiwarli. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Thiin [iin]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Dyaberdyaber
[dyb] Western Australia state: Beagle Bay south coast and inland. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jabirr-Jabirr, Jabirrjabirr. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Dyangadi
[dyn] New South Wales state: Armidale, Kempsey area, Macleay river. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the 1980s (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Boorkutti, Burgadi, Dainggati, Dangadi, Dangati, Danggadi, Danggetti, Dhanggati, Dhanggatti, Djan-Gadi, Ghangatty, Tangetti, Thangatti, Thangatty. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyangadi.

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Dyirbal
[dbl] Queensland state: Millaa Millaa, Ravenshoe, and Woodleigh; east to Tully falls; Herberton south to Herbert river headwaters to Cashmere. Population: 52 (2016 census). 8 Dyirbal and 44 Girramay (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Djirubal. Dialects: Dyiru, Girramay (Keramai), Gulnguy (Gulngay), Mamu, Ngadjan (Ngatjan). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic.

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Dyugun
[dyd] Western Australia state: Broome coast area and inland. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Djugun, Jukun. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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English
[eng] Population: 21,900,000 in Australia, all users. L1 users: 18,400,000 in Australia (2015). L2 users: 3,500,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Australian Standard English, Aboriginal English, Neo-Nyungar (Noogar, Noonga, Noongar). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Erre
[err] Northern Territory: East Alligator river area, Mount Howship; Red Lily area west of Oenpelli. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ari, Ere. Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu.

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Estonian, Standard
[ekk] Population: 1,840 in Australia (2016 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Flinders Island
[fln] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, Flinders island, Princess Charlotte bay. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Johnny Flinders, died circa 2000. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Yalgawarra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Flinders Island.

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Gabi-Gabi
[gbw] Queensland state: Bribie island, Burnett, Caboolture, Childers, Cooroy, Fraser island, Gympie, Hervey bay, Jimna range, Kilkivan, Mary river, Maryborough; coast ranges. Population: No known L1 speakers. In 1983 there were only a few remembers of the language (Holmer 1983). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cabee, Carby, Carby-carbery, Dhapil, Dhipil, Dippil, Dipple, Doon-dooburra, Doondoora, Dowarburra, Dundubara, Dunduura, Gabi, Gabigabi, Gubbi Gubbi, Kabbi, Kabi, Kabi Kabi, Kabikabi, Kahby, Karabi, Karbi, Maiba. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic.

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Gadjerawang
[gdh] Western Australia state and Northern Territory: Wyndham to Victoria river mouth and inland on north coast. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker may have survived into the 2010s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gadjerong, Gadjerrong, Gadyerong, Gajerrong, Gajirrabeng, Gajirrawoong, Kadjerawang, Kadjeroen, Kadjerong, Kadpjeroen, Kajirrawong, Kajirrawung. Classification: Australian, Djeragan.

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Gagadu
[gbu] Northern Territory: Oenpelli. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Big Bill Neidjie, died in May 2002. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abdedal, Abiddul, Gaagudju, Gagadju, Gagudju, Kakadu, Kakakta, Kakdju, Kakdjuan. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gagudjuan.

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Gambera
[gma] Western Australia state: Admiralty gulf, far north Kimberleys area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gamberre, Gambre, Gamgre, Guwan, Kambera. Classification: Australian, Worrorran.

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Gamilaraay
[kld] New South Wales state: Balonne, Barwon, Bundarra rivers, upper Hunter river, Liverpool Plains; Queensland state: 2 small areas southeast. Population: 110, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Recently extinct in its original form, but spoken by many as a mixture of English [eng] and Gamilaraay (Wurm 2007). It stopped being used daily in the first half of 20th century (Austin and Nathan 1998). L2 users: 110 (2016 census). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Camileroi, Gamilaroi, Kamilaroi. Dialects: Yuwaalaraay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric.

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Ganggalida
[gcd] Queensland state: Burketown area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker likely survived into the 2010s. 6 semi-speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ganggalita, Jakula, Jugula, Kangkalita, Yokula, Yugulda, Yukala, Yukulta. Dialects: Kangkalita, Nguburindi. Classification: Australian, Tangic.

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Gangulu
[gnl] Queensland state: Isaac river area, west of Marlborough. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died in the 1980s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Cangoolootha, Ka-ngool-lo, Kaangooloo, Kangalo, Kangulu, Kanolu, Khang, Khangalu, Kongal, Kongul, Konguli. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Garig-Ilgar
[ilg] Northern Territory: Cobourg peninsula mainland; Port Essington area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 2003. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Ilgar, Garig. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic.

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Garingbal
[xgi] Queensland state: Bedourie, Brown river, Carnavon range, Comet river, Consuelo peak, Expedition range, Rolleston. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kaingbul, Kanoloo, Karingbal, Karingbool, Karranbal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Garlali
[gll] Victoria state: Bulloo Downs, north to Orient, west to Grey range, east to Clyde, south to Bulloo lake floodplain. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Peter Hood, died sometime between 1999 and 2009. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galali, Kalali. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura.

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Garrwa
[wrk] Northern Territory: Borroloola on Macarthur river east bank near Queensland state border, toward Doomadgee and Nicolson river. Population: 130 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gaarwa, Garawa, Garrawa, Grawa, Karawa, Kariwa, Karrawar, Korrawa, Kurrawar, Leearawa, Leearrawa, Wollongorang, Wulungwara. Autonym: Karrwa. Dialects: Gunindirri. Lexical similarity: 66% with Waanyi [wny], 28% with Yanyuwa [jao], 25% with Gudanji [nji], 17% with Wambaya [wmb], 4% with Ganggalida [gcd]. Classification: Australian, Yanyi.

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German, Standard
[deu] Scattered. Population: 79,400 in Australia (2016 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Deutsch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Githabul
[gih] Queensland state; New South Wales state: Clarence river, Drake, Killarney, Logan river, Rathdowney, Richmond river, Spicer Gap, Tabulam, Tooloom, Unumgar, Urbenville, Woodenbong. Population: 4 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gidabul, Gidjoobal, Kidabal, Kidjabal, Kita-bool, Kitabool, Kitapul, Kitta-bool, Kittabool, Kuttibul, Noowidal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic.

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Giyug
[giy] Northern Territory: Anson Bay, Peron islands, southwest of Darwin. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy.

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Golpa
[lja] Northern Territory: Elcho, Murru’ga, Wessels. Population: 3 (2015 ELDP). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Golba, Golbu, Gorlba, Gorlpa, Kolpa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu.

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Gooniyandi
[gni] Western Australia state: Fossil Downs, Gogo, Louisa, and Margaret river stations. Population: 130 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gunian, Guniandi, Guniyan, Guniyandi, Guniyn, Konejandi, Koneyandi, Kunan, Kunian, Kuniyan. Classification: Australian, Bunaban.

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Goreng
[xgg] Western Australia: Badgebup; Bremer bay; Broome Hill; Ceranbrook; Gairdner river; Gnowangerup; Jeramungup; Kibbleup; Kojonup; Nampup; Nyabing; Ongerup; Pallinup river; Pingrup; Qualeup; Salt river; Stirling range; Tambellup. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker and possibly the entire tribe died before 1963 (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Corine, Coro-ran, Kaialiwongi, Kokar, Koorengi, Kuriny, Mongup, Warangu, Warranger, Warrangle, Warrangoo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Greek
[ell] Widespread. Population: 238,000 in Australia (2016 census), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic.

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Gudang
[xgd] Queensland state: Albany island; Cape York; Escape river; Mount Adolphus island. Population: No known L1 speakers. Gudang or Djagaraga was presumed to be either almost extinct or extinct already in 1963, so the last speaker probably died in the 1960s or earlier (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Alauikeno, Djagaraga, Gootung, Kekoseno. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman.

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Gudanji
[nji] Northern Territory: Barkly tableland, Borroloola, Elliott, northeast of Lake Woods, and Tennant creek. Population: No known L1 speakers (2015 SIL). A few elderly speakers survived into the twenty-first century (Nordlinger 1998). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gurdanji, Kurdanji, Ngarnga. Dialects: Binbinka, Ngarnga (Ngarnji, Ngarnka). Classification: Australian, West Barkly.

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Gugadj
[ggd] Queensland state: north coast, west of Karumba inland on Norman river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kukatj. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Flinders Pama.

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Gugu Badhun
[gdc] Queensland state: west of Ingham and Abergowrie, almost to Einasleigh. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gugu-Badhun, Koko Padun, Koko Patun, Koko-Patun, Kokopatun, Patun. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Gugu Warra
[wrw] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, west bank of Normanby river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by 1960 (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Guguwarra, Koko Wara, Kokolaia, Kokowarra, Kuku-Wara, Laia. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mbariman.

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Gumatj
[gnn] Northern Territory: Yirrkala. Population: 120 (2016 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gomadj, Gumait, Gumaj. Dialects: Mangalili. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Gunditjmara
[gjm] Victoria state: Cape Bridgewater, Caramut, Hamilton, Hopkins river, Lake Condah, Port Fairy, Portland, Warrnambol, Woolsthorpe. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Frances M. Alberts, died in 1963 (Hercus 1986). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhauhurtwurru, Dhauwurd Wurrung, Gournditch-mara, Gundidj, Gurnditschmara, Kirurndit, Kuunditjmara, Kuurn Kopan Noot, Kuurn-kopan-noot, Ngutuk, Nil-can-cone-deets, Tourahonong, Warrnambool, Weeritch-Weeritch. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bungandidj.

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Gundungurra
[xrd] New South Wales state: Berrima, Camden, Goulburn, Wollondilly. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the 1970s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Burragorang, Cundunorah, Gandangara, Gundanora, Gundungari, Gundungorra, Gurra-gunga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ngunawal [xul]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Gungabula
[gyf] Queensland state: Injune area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Gunwinggu
[gup] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Croker Island, Oenpelli, Maningrida. Population: 2,130 (2016 census). 50 Gundjeipme, 180 Gunei, 1,760 Gunwinggu, 140 Mayali (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bininj Gun-Wok, Gunawitji, Gunwinjgu, Gunwinygu, Kuninjku, Kunwinjku. Dialects: Gumadir, Muralidban, Gunei (Kune), Gundjeipme (Gundjeihmi), Mayali. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gunwinggic.

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Gunya
[gyy] Queensland state: Wyandra area. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Margaret McKellar, died in 1972 (Breen 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kunja. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Gupapuyngu
[guf] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Elcho Islands, Milingimbi. Population: 1,250, all users. L1 users: 300 (2016 census). 130 Dhuwala, 150 Gupapuyngu, 8 Madarrpa, 15 Wubulkarra (2016 census). L2 users: 950. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gobabingo, Gubabwingu. Dialects: Gupapuyngu, Madarrpa, Manggalili, Munyuku, Wubulkarra, Walangu, Dhuwala. About 45 related dialects. Reportedly similar to Gumatj [gnn]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Gurdjar
[gdj] Queensland state: Delta, Normanton. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 2000s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Goom-Gharra, Gunggara, Kunggara, Kunggera, Kurtjar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kunggari [kgl]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama.

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Gureng Gureng
[gnr] Queensland state: north Burnett river district, Abercorn area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker survived into the 1980s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Curang-gurang, Curanggurang, Daribalang, Ginginburra, Goorang-goorang, Gooranggorang, Gooreng Gooreng, Goreng Goreng, Goreng-Goreng, Gurang, Gurang Gurang, Gurang-Gurang, Guranggurang, Gureng-Gureng, Gurreng Gurreng, Kooranga, Koreng-koreng, Korenggoreng, Korrengkorreng, Kurranga, Taribelang, Taribeleng, Tarribelung, Tulua, Wokka, Yawaim. Dialects: Gurreng Gurreng dialect uses the trilled r. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Than.

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Gurindji
[gue] Northern Territory: Kalkaringi, Victoria river and Wave Hill. Population: 410 (2016 census). 405 Gurinji and 4 Malngin (2016 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gurinji, Wurlayi. Dialects: Malngin, Wanyjirra (Wandjirra). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Gurindji Kriol
[gjr] Northern Territory, Victoria River district, Kalkaringi and Daguragu. Population: 1,000 (Meakins 2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gurindji, Gurindji Children’s Language, Gurinji, Gurinji Kriol, Miksimap. Classification: Mixed language, Gurindji-Kriol.

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Gurr-goni
[gge] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, south of Maningrida, Mann river area, northwest of Rembarrnga [rmb] language area, east of Gunwinyggu [gup] language area. Population: 46 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gorogone, Gun-Guragone, Gunagoragone, Gungorogone, Guragone, Gurrogone, Gutjertabia. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran.

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Guugu Yimidhirr
[kky] Queensland state: Hopevale. Population: 780 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gugu Yimijir, Gugu-Yimidhirr, Guguyimidjir, Guugu Yimithirr, Koko Imudji, Kukuyimidir. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Guugu-Yimidhirr.

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Guwa
[xgw] Queensland state: Victoria river, headwaters of Diamantina north to Kynuna, and Hamilton creek divide; west to Middleton creek; east to Winton and Sesbania; south almost to Cork. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker survived into the 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coa, Coah, Goa, Goamalku, Goamulgo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Guwamu
[gwu] Queensland state: between Maranoa, Moonie, St. George, and Surat rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the late 1990s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Guyani
[gvy] South Australia state: south Yorke Peninsula. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Alice Oldfield, died in 1978. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Cooyiannie, Gujani, Kijani, Koonarie, Kooteeuna, Kooteeunna, Kooyeeunna, Kooyiannie, Kujani, Kuyani, Kuyanni, Kwiana, Kwiani, Nganitjidi, Ngannityiddi, Owinia. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Narungga [nnr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Ikaranggal
[ikr] Queensland state: Dixie, Goldfield, Lakeland, Palmer. Population: No known L1 speakers. Prbably became extinct early in 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aghu Tharnggalu, Ikarranggali. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama.

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Italian
[ita] Widespread. Population: 272,000 in Australia (2016 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Italiano. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian.

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Iwaidja
[ibd] Northern Territory: Croker Island. Population: 120 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eiwaja, Ibadjo, Iwaidji, Iwaydja, Jiwadja, Karadjee, Limba, Yiwaidja. Dialects: Iwaydja. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic.

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Jaitmatang
[xjt] Victoria state: Lake Dartmouth. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gundungerre, Jadjmadang, Jaithmathang, Jaitmathang, Yadymadhang. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Jandai
[jan] Queensland state: southern two-thirds of Stradbroke Island. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the 1980s (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coobenpil, Djandai, Djendewal, Dsandai, Goenpul, Goinbal, Gonjbal, Janday, Jendairwal, Jundai, Koenpel, Noogoon, Tchandi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic.

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Japanese
[jpn] Major cities. Population: 56,000 in Australia (2016 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Japonic.

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Jaru
[ddj] Western Australia state: southeast Kimberley region, Halls Creek, Ringers Soak; Northern Territory: southeast of Gurindji [gue] area. Population: 220 (2016 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djaru, Jaroo, Tjaru, Wawari. Dialects: Nyininy, Djaru. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Jingulu
[jig] Northern Territory: Ash Burton range area, Elliott, Elsey station, Newcastle waters. Population: 23 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chingalee, Chunguloo, Djingila, Djingili, Djingulu, Jingali, Jingili, Lee, Tchingalee, Tjingili, Tjingilu. Classification: Australian, West Barkly.

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Kala Lagaw Ya
[mwp] Queensland state: Badu, Bamaga islands, Boigu, Coconut, Dauan, Kubin, Mabuiag, Moa, Saibai, Sue, Thursday, Yam, Yorke, Western Torres Strait islands; Brisbane, Townsville. Population: 960 (2016 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Torres Strait, Kala Lagau Langgus, Kala Lagaw, Kala Yagaw Ya, Kalau Lagau Ya, Langgus, Langus, Linggo, Mabuiag, Yagar Yagar. Dialects: Kalaw Kawaw. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kala Lagaw Ya.

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Kalaamaya
[lkm] Western Australia state: Boorabbin and Southern Cross; east to Bullabulling; north to Youanmi, Lake Barlee, and Pigeon Rocks; west to Burracoppin, Kalannie, Lake Moore and Mukinbudin; south to about Mount Holland in the Parker range. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galamai, Galamaya, Kalamai, Kalamaia, Karlamay, Karlamayi, Kelamai. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West.

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Kalarko
[kba] Western Australia state: Bremer and Fraser ranges area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably became extinct in the 1960s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galaagu, Kalaako, Kalaaku, Kalako, Kalakul, Malba, Malpa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mirning.

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Kalkutung
[ktg] Queensland state: Mount Isa area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galgadungu, Galgaduun, Kalkadoon, Kalkatungu, Kalkutungu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic.

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Kamu
[xmu] Northern Territory: south of Darwin, east of Daly river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gamor, Gamu. Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Daly Proper.

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Kanju
[kbe] Queensland state: Central Cape York. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker may have survived into the 2010s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gandanju, Gandju, Jabuda, Kaanju, Kaantyu, Kamdhue, Kandju, Kandyu, Kanyu, Karnu, Neogulada, Yaldiye-Ho. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama.

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Karajarri
[gbd] Western Australia state: Broome, La Grange mission, Roebuck Bay and inland. Population: 41 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Garadjari, Garadjiri, Garadyari, Gard’are, Guradjara, Karadjeri, Karrajarri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Marngu.

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Karenggapa
[eaa] Queensland state: Bulloo river about Bulloo lakes; Connulpie Downs and Yalpunga; Mount Bygrave and Woodbum lake; southwest to Milpa-rinka area; east to Therloo Downs; New South Wales state: Tiboo-burra. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died before the 1950s (Hercus and Austin 2004). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Garanggaba, Karrengappa, Kurengappa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Kariyarra
[vka] Western Australia state: south of Port Hedland. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1991. Some people still know some words (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gariera, Kariara, Kariera, Kariyara, Karriara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Karnic, Eastern
[ekc] New South Wales state: northwest; Queensland state: southwest. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died before 1960 (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhiraila, Garandala, Karendala, Ngura. Dialects: Bidjara, Dhiraila, Garandala, Mambangura, Mingbari, Ngurawarla, Yarumarra. Related to Garlali [gll], Punthamara [xpt], Badjiri [jbi], and Wangkurmara [xwk]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura.

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Karranga
[xrq] Northern Territory: Killarney homestead, Moolooloo, Victoria River Downs homestead, Yarralin. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers died in the mid 20th century (Meakins and Nordlinger 2014). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karanga, Karangpurru, Karrangpurru. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mudburra [dmw]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Karuwali
[rxw] Queensland state: Beal range, Beetoota, Connemara, Diamantina river, Durrie, Farrars creek, Haddon Corner, Monkira, Morney plains. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died during or before the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gara-wali, Garuwali, Goore, Karawalla, Karorinje, Kuriwalu, Kurrawulla, Midhaga, Mithaka. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Kaurna
[zku] South Australia state: Fleurieu peninsula; Cape Jervis south to Clare and Crystal Brook north, bounded by Gulf Saint Vincent west and Mount Lofty ranges east. Population: 53, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Last speaker, Ivaritji, died in 1929 (2015 R. Amery). L2 users: 53 (2016 census). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Coorna, Gaurna, Jaitjawarra, Karnuwarra, Kaura, Koornawarra, Kurumidlanta, Medaindi, Medaindie, Meljurna, Merelde, Merildekald, Meyu, Midlanta, Milipitingara, Nantuwara, Nantuwaru, Nganawara, Padnaindi, Padnayndie, Wakanuwan, Warra, Warrah, Widninga, Winaini, Winnay-nie, Winnaynie. Dialects: None known. Most similar to Narungga [nnr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Kayardild
[gyd] Queensland state: Gulf of Carpentaria, Mornington Island. Population: 8 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 25 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gajadilt, Gajardild, Gayadilt, Gayardild, Gayardilt, Kaiadilt, Malununda. Classification: Australian, Tangic.

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Kaytetye
[gbb] Northern Territory: North of Alice Springs. Population: 120 (2016 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gaididj, Kaiditj, Kaititj, Kaytej. Dialects: None known. Related to Alyawarr [aly]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic.

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Keerray-Woorroong
[wkr] Victoria: Mount Shadwell and Spring Creek. Population: 5 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gunditjmara [gjm]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan.

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Kija
[gia] Western Australia state: near Hall’s and Turkey creeks. Population: 170 (2016 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gidja, Kidja, Kitja. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Miriwoong [mep]. Classification: Australian, Djeragan.

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Kok-Nar
[gko] Queensland state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the early 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gundara, Kok Nar, Kok-Narr, Koknar, Kwanthar. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama.

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Kokata
[ktd] South Australia state: Coober Peby, Mount Eba, Pimba. Population: 16 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gugada, Kokatha, Kokitta, Koocatho, Koogurda, Kugurda, Kukata, Kukatha, Madutara, Maduwonga, Wanggamadu, Wongamardu. Dialects: None known. Different from Kukatja [kux]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Koko Babangk
[okg] Queensland state: lower Cape York peninsula, Gulf of Carpenteria coast, between Mitchell and Nassau rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker lived into the late 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kok Peponk, Kok-Babonk, Kok-Papangk, Kok-Paponk, Koko Kunaniy. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama.

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Koko-Bera
[kkp] Queensland state: Mission river mouth area, Mitchell river. Population: 10 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Berang, Gugubera, Kok Kaber, Kok-Kaper, Koko Pera, Kukubera, Paperyn. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Coastal Pama.

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Kriol
[rop] Western Australia state; Northern Territory: Kimberley region, Roper river, Katherine areas, Ngukurr; Queensland state: Gulf country, Lower Cape York peninsula. Population: 17,160, all users. L1 users: 7,160 (2016 census). L2 users: 10,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Roper-Bamyili Creole. Autonym: Kriol. Dialects: Roper River Kriol (Roper River Pidgin), Bamyili Creole, Barkly Kriol, Fitzroy Valley Kriol, Daly River Kriol. Both Kriol and Torres Strait Creole [tcs] are spreading and are nearly overlapping in Queensland. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific.

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Kugu-Muminh
[xmh] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. Population: No known L1 speakers (2016 census). Last speakers survived into the 2000s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kugu, Kuku-Muminh, Wik Muminh, Wik-Mumin. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Kukatja
[kux] Western Australia state: Balgo, Lake Gregory and east, south of Halls Creek. Population: 130 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gugadja, Kukaja. Dialects: None known. Different from Kokata [ktd]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Kuku-Mangk
[xmq] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Mangk. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Kuku-Mu’inh
[xmp] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the late 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Mu’inh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Kuku-Ugbanh
[ugb] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, west coast south of Aurukun. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Ugbanh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Kuku-Uwanh
[uwa] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1990s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gugu-Uwanh, Kugu-Uwanh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Kuku-Yalanji
[gvn] Queensland state: Bloomfield River (Ayton), Daintree, Mossman, Wujal-Wujal, and between Cooktown and Mossman. Population: 320 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gugu Yalandyi, Gugu Yalanji, Guguyalanji, Koko-Yalanji, Kuku-Yalangi. Dialects: Kuku-Nyungkul, Kuku-Biraji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic.

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Kumbainggar
[kgs] New South Wales state: Grafton and north coast. Population: 90 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baanbay, Gambalamam, Gumbaingari, Gumbainggar, Gumbainggir, Gumbaynggir, Gumbayunggir, Kumbaingeri, Kumbainggiri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Gumbaynggiric.

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Kunbarlang
[wlg] Northern Territory: Goulburn Island, Oenpelli, Maningrida. Population: No known L1 speakers (2016 census). Last speakers survived into the 2010s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gunbalang, Gunbarlang, Gungalang, Walang, Warlang. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gunwinggic.

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Kungarakany
[ggk] Northern Territory: Finniss river; south of Darwin, Darwin river and Rum Jungle area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker, Madeline England, died in 1989. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gunerakan, Gungaragan, Gungaragany, Gungarakanj, Kangarraga, Kungarakan. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gungaraganyan.

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Kungardutyi
[gdt] Queensland state: Cooper Creek north of Durham Downs; east to Mount Howitt and Kyabra Creek; northwest to near Lake Yamma Yamma. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gungadidji, Gungadudji, Gunganndji, Kunatatchee, Kungaditji, Kungadutji, Kungarditchi, Kungatutji, Kungatutyi, Kungkatutyi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Kunggari
[kgl] Queensland state: Upper Nebine and Mungallala creeks. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 1980s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Coongurri, Gungari, Gunggari, Kungkari, Ungorri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Kungkari
[lku] Queensland state: Avington, Blackall, Cheviot range, Grey range, Jundah, Longreach, Powell creek, Terrick Terrick, Welford, Westland; Cooper (Barcoo) and Thomson rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koongerri, Koonkerri, Kungeri, Kunggari, Mokaburra, Tarawalla, Torra-burri, Yangeeberra, Yankibura. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Kunjen
[kjn] Queensland state: Edward river, Kowanyama, Wrotham Park. Population: 7 (2005 AUSTLANG), decreasing. Ethnic population: 300 (1991 B. Sommer). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Guguminjen, Kukumindjen. Dialects: Oykangand (Ogondyan, Olgel, Olgol). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Central Pama.

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Kurnai
[unn] Victoria state: Gippsland from Inverloch to Cann river. Population: 4 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cunni, Ganai, Gooni, Gunna, Gunnai, Kanai, Kunnai. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan.

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Kurrama
[vku] Western Australia state: northwest, southeast of Pannawonica. Population: 10 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gurama, Karama, Korama, Kurama. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Kuthant
[xut] Queensland state: southwest Cape York peninsula, north of Karumba and Normanton. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Garandi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama.

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Kuuk Thayorre
[thd] Queensland state: west Cape York, between coleman and Edward rivers. Population: 210 (2016 census). Kuuk-Yak dialect recently extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 350 (1982 A. Hall). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Behran, Gugudayor, Kuktayor, Kukudayore, Kuuk Thaayoore, Kuuk Thaayorre, Taior, Thaayore, Thaayorre, Thayore, Thayorre. Dialects: Kuuk-Yak. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Western Pama.

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Kuuk-Yak
[uky] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula mid-west coast and inland, between Edward and Coleman rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Estimated 40 speakers in 1975, but the date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koko Yak, Kuku Yak, Kuuk Yak. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama.

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Kuuku-Ya’u
[kuy] Queensland state: northeast Cape York peninsula south of Temple bay. Population: 10 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bagadji, Gugu Yau, Koko-Ja’o, Kokoyao, Kuuk-Yak, Kuuku Ya’u, Pakadji, Ya’o. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama.

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Kuwema
[woa] Northern Territory: Delissaville. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1990s (Black 1983). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Daktjerat, Djeradj, Djerag, Djeraidy, Dyeraidy, Tjerait, Tyaraity, Tyeraity. Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Malagmalag Proper.

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Kwini
[gww] Western Australia state: Kalumburu. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker probably survived into the 2010s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cuini, Goonan, Gunin, Gwiini, Gwini, Kunan, Wunambal. Classification: Australian, Worrorran.

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Ladji Ladji
[llj] Victoria state. Population: No known L1 speakers (census). Probably became extinct early in 20th century. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Acaxee, Laci-Laci, Ladji-Ladji, Laitchi-Laitchi, Laitu, Laitu-Laitu, Latja Latji, Latjalatji, Latje Latje, Latjilatji, Latjoo-Latjoo, Latyoo-Latyoo, Ledji-Ledji, Ledjiledji, Leitch-Leitchi, Litchoo-Litchoo, Litchy-Litchy, Lutchye-Lutchye. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Lamalama
[lby] Queensland state: Bamiga, and Coen. Population: 3 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lama-Lama, Lamu-Lamu, Lamulamul, Mba Rumbathama. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Lamalamic.

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Lanima
[lnw] Victoria state: Carlo springs on upper Mulligan river; Julaolinja; east to Marion downs. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survivied into the 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lhanima, Pitta Pitta, Ulaolinja, Ulaolinya, Wanggamana, Wanggamanha, Wangkamanha, Wonggaman, Yurlayurlanya. Classification: Australian.

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Laragia
[lrg] Northern Territory: Darwin area. Population: 14 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gulumirrgin, Laragiya, Larakia, Larakiya, Larrakia, Larrakiya, Ngandalagarak. Classification: Australian, Laragiyan.

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Lardil
[lbz] Queensland state: Mornington Island. Population: 65 (2016 census). More semi-speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kunana, Ladil, Laierdila, Lardill. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Lardil.

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Leningitij
[lnj] Queensland state: Winduwinda area. Population: No known L1 speakers. The ‘most knowledgeable speaker’, Sam Kerindun, died ‘several years ago’ (Hale 1983). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Linngithig, Linngithigh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Limilngan
[lmc] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Mary River to west Alligator river, coast and inland. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Manadja, Manidja, Minitji. Classification: Australian, Limilngan-Wulna.

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Madhi Madhi
[dmd] New South Wales state: Balranald to Murray districts, north to the Lachlan. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Jack Long, died in 1978 (Blake et al 2011). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Madhi-Madhi, Madhimadhi, Mathi-Mathi, Muthi Muthi, Muthimuthi, Mutti Mutti. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Malak Malak
[mpb] Northern Territory: Daly river north bank. Population: 8 (2012 ELDP). Ethnic population: 37 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Malagmalag, Malak-Malak, Malakmalak, Mullikmullik, Mulluk-Mulluk, Mullukmulluk, Ngolak-Wonga, Ngolokwangga, Ngulukwongga, Nguluwongga. Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Malagmalag Proper.

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Malgana
[vml] Western Australia state: Shark Bay, Hamelin Pool area north to Wooramel river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speakers died in the 1990s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maldjana, Maljanna, Malkana. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Malgana.

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Malyangapa
[yga] New South Wales state: Milparinka; Yancannie creek head, east beyond Mount Arrowsmith, south to about Mootwin-gee and Sturt Meadow. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker, Laurie Quayle, died in 1976. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bulali, Bulalli, Karikari, Malgaaljangaba, Malgangara, Malja:pa, Maljangaba, Maljangapa, Malya-napa, Malyanapa, Malyangaba, Malyapa, Malynapa, Milya-uppa, Milyauppa, Muliaarpa, Mullia-arpa, Multyerra, Mulya-napa, Mulya-nappa, Mulyanapa, Mulyanappa, Nalyanapa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli.

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Manangkari
[znk] Northern Territory: Cobourg Peninsula. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by the mid 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mananggari, Manangkarri, Maung, Naragani. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Iwaidja [ibd]. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic.

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Manda
[zma] Northern Territory: coast southwest of Anson Bay, southwest of Darwin. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 1990s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Menthe. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy.

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Mandandanyi
[zmk] Queensland state: Roma Area; Maranoa river to Miles and Wandoan areas. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kogai, Mandandanji, Mandandanjnjdji, Mundaeinbura, Mundainbara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Mangala
[mem] Western Australia state: Broome, Edgar range, Fitzroy, Jurgurra creek, West Pilbara. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker, Jack Butler, died in 1986. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Djawali, Djuwali, Jiwali, Jiwarli, Koalgurdi, Manala, Mangalaa, Mangarla, Minala, Yalmbau. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mangala.

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Mangarrayi
[mpc] Northern Territory: Elsey and Mataranka stations. Population: No known L1 speakers (census). Last speakers survived into the 2010s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Mangarai, Mangarayi, Manggarai, Mungarai, Mungerry, Ngarrabadji. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Mangarayic.

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Mangerr
[zme] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Oenpelli area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Giimbiyu, Mangerei, Mangeri, Mengerrdji, Mennagi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Urningangg [urc]. Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu.

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Maranunggu
[zmr] Northern Territory: southwest of Darwin, inland from Anson Bay, east of Manda. Population: 5 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Emmi, Maranungku, Merranunggu, Warrgat. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy.

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Margany
[zmc] Queensland state: between Quilpie and Wyandra; Bulloo and Paroo rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Marrganj. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Margu
[mhg] Northern Territory: Croker island. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in September 2003. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ajokoot, Croker, Island Margu, Jaako, Marrgu, Raffles Bay, Terrutong, Terutong, Yaako, Yako. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Margic.

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Maridan
[zmd] Northern Territory: southwest of Darwin, north of Moyle river, east of Magadige. Population: No known L1 speakers (census). Last speakers survived into the 2000s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Maredan, Marridan, Meradan. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Maridjabin
[zmj] Northern Territory: inland from Anson bay, south of Mariyedi and Manda, southwest of Darwin. Population: 1 (2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maredyerbin, Maretyabin, Maridyerbin, Maritjabin, Marri Tjevin. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Marrithiyel [mfr] or Maringarr [zmt]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Marimanindji
[zmm] Northern Territory: south of Daly and Darwin rivers, west of Muldiva river, near headwaters. Population: No known L1 speakers (census). Last speakers survived into the 2000s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Maramanandji, Maramanindji, Maramarandji, Marimanindu, Marramaninjsji, Marramaninyshi, Murinmanindji. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Maringarr
[zmt] Northern Territory: south of Moyle river, southwest of Darwin. Population: 5 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Marenggar, Mari’ngar, Maringa, Marri Ngarr, Marringarr, Muringar, Ngangikadre. Dialects: Maranunggu (Maramanunggu, Marranunga, Merranunggu, Warrgat). May be intelligible with other Bringen languages. Lexical similarity: 40% with Malak Malak [mpb] and Murrinh-Patha [mwf]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Mariyedi
[zmy] Northern Territory: inland from Anson bay, south of Manda, southwest of Darwin. Population: 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). A few speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Marijadi, Marijedi, Murijadi. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Marra
[mec] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Roper river area. Population: 5 (2010 ELDP). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Leelalwarra, Leelawarra, Maarra, Mala, Mara. Dialects: None known. Related to Wandarang [wnd]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Mara.

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Marriammu
[xru] Northern Territory: Belyuen, Wadeye; possibly also Western Australia state. Population: 5 (2006 A. Brown). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mareammu, Mariamo, Mariamu, Marri Ammu, Marri Amu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maridjabin [zmj]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Marriammu.

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Marrithiyel
[mfr] Northern Territory: Bagot, Delissaville, Daly river and Roper river missions; south of Daly river and central Daly river. Population: 65, all users. L1 users: 15 (2016 census). L2 users: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Berringen, Maridhiel, Maridhiyel, Maridjiel, Marithiel, Marithiyel, “Bringen” (pej.), “Brinken” (pej.). Dialects: Marithiel, Nganygit, Mare-Ammu (Mari-Ammu). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Marti Ke
[zmg] Northern Territory: Wadeye, coast south from Moyle river estuary to Port Keats, southwest of Darwin. Population: 52, all users. L1 users: 2 (2010 Australian Broadcasting Corporation). L2 users: 50. Ethnic population: 100. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Magadige, Magati Gair, Magati Ke, Magati-Ge, Marri-ge, Mati Ke, Mirrinh-ge. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maringarr [zmt] and Marithiel [mfr]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen.

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Martu Wangka
[mpj] Western Australia state: Jigalong area, Lake Disappointment west side, Great Sandy Desert. Population: 1,080 (2016 census). 720 Martu Wangka, 21 Kartujarra, 310 Manyjilyjarra, 10 Wangkajunga, 16 Yulparitja (2016 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Jigalong, Mardo, Mardujara, Martuwangka, Targoodi, Targudi. Autonym: Martu Wangka. Dialects: Manyjilyjara (Manjiljarra, Mantjiltjara, Manyjilyjarra), Kartujarra (Gagudjara, Gardudjara, Kadaddjara, Kardutjara, Kardutjarra, Kartutjara, Kiadjara), Puditara (Budidjara, Putijarra, Putujara), Yulparitja (Yilparitja, Yulbaridja, Yulboridja, Yulparija), Wangkajunga (Wangkajungka, Wangkajunka). Manyjilyjara and Kartujarra are 2 ethnic groups speaking almost identical dialects. High inherent intelligibility between Yulparitja and Wangkajunga dialects. Puditara dialect is extinct. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Martuyhunira
[vma] Western Australia: northwest coast southwest of Dampier and inland. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker, Algy Paterson, died in 1995. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mardadhunira, Mardudhunira, Martuthunira. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Matngala
[zml] Northern Territory: south of Daly and Darwin rivers, Muldiva river west bank. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1990s (Black 1983). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maangella, Madngela, Madngele, Mandella, Matngele, Muttangulla, Warat. Dialects: None known. Related to Kamu [xmu]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Daly Proper.

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Maung
[mph] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Goulburn island. Population: 370 (2016 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gun-Marung, Gunmarung, Kunmarung, Mawng, Mawung. Dialects: None known. Garig-Ilgar [ilg] reportedly related. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic.

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Mayaguduna
[xmy] Queensland state: north coast area, inland between Flinders and Leichhardt rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mayi-Kutuna. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Mayawali
[yxa] Victoria state: Diamantina river from Davenport downs and Diamantina lakes north to Old Cork; Mayne river to Mount Vergemont, west to Springvale, southeast to Farrars creek; Brighton and Connemara downs. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker survived into the 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maiawali, Mayawarli, Mayuli. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Mayi-Kulan
[xyk] Queensland state: Clara, Middle Norman, and Yappar, rivers, north to Milgarra, east to Gregory range, west to Canobie and Iffley stations. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker survived into the 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maidhagudi, Maigudina, Maigudung, Maigulung, Maikolon, Maikudun, Maikudung, Maikudunu, Maikulan, Maikulung, Majadhagudi, Makulu, Mayagoondoon, Mayagulan, Mayatagoorri, Maygulan, Mayhulan, Maykulan, Miccoolin, Micoolan, Mikadoon, Mikkoolan, Mikoodoono, Mikoolu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Mayi-Thakurti
[xyt] Queensland state: Cloncurry and Williams river north to Canobie on Cloncurry river, east to the Julia creek junction with Cloncurry river and to Mount Fort Bowen; Dalgonally. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by 1960 (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maidakadi, Maidhagari, Maidhaggaria, Maidhargari, Maioakuri, Maitakeidi, Maitakudi, Maithagudi, Maithakadi, Maithakari, Maithakudi, Mayadhagurdifagurdi, Mayatagoori, Maydhagurdi, Maytagoori, Mitagurdi, Mitakoodi, Mitakudi, Mitroogoordi, Mittagurdi, Mittaka, Mythaguddi, Mythugadi, Mythuggadi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Mayi-Yapi
[xyj] Queensland state: Cloncurry river south to Canobie, north to Donor Hills, at Numbera (Cowan Downs); east to Flinders river and the Lower Saxby, west to upper Dismal creek and Leichhardt-Alexandra divide. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died no later than the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Majabi, Miappe, Miappi, Miubbi, Myabi, Myappe. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Mbara
[mvl] Queensland state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ambara, Bargal, Kumbulmara, Midjamba, Mitjamba. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Mbara.

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Mbariman-Gudhinma
[zmv] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, Princess Charlotte bay southwest coast. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Rimang-Gudinhma, Rimanggudinhma. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mbariman.

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Meriam Mir
[ulk] Queensland state: Darnley island, Eastern Torres Strait islands. Population: 220 (2016 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: East Torres, Mer, Meriam, Meryam Mir, Mir, Miriam, Miriam-Mir. Dialects: Boigu, Bulgai, Buglial, Tagota. Limited mutual intelligibility of Gizrra [tof]. Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly.

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Minang
[xrg] Western Australia state: Boat harbor, Cowerup, King George’s sound, Lac Muir, Minang, Mount Barker, Nornalup, Pallinup river, Porongurup range, Shannon river, Stirling range, Tenterden, West Cliff Point, Wilson inlet. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mean-anger, Mearn-anger, Meenung, Meernanger, Menang, Mineng, Mining, Minnal Yungar, Minung, Mirnong, Mount Barker tribe, Noongar, Nyungar. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Minjungbal
[xjb] New South Wales state: Cape Byron, Clarence river, Cudgen, Murwillumbah, Nerang creek, Southport. Population: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Cood-jingburra, Cudgingberry, Gan-dowal, Gando Minjang, Gendo, Minjangbal, Minyowa, Minyung, Ngandowul. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic.

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Miriwoong
[mep] Western Australia state: Kununurra, Turkey creek; Northern Territory: toward the mouth of the Victoria river. Population: 12 (2017 Mirima Dawang Woorlab-gerring Language and Culture Centre). Ethnic population: 160 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Merong, Miriwun, Miriwung, Mirung. Classification: Australian, Djeragan.

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Miriwoong Sign Language
[rsm] Western Australia, Kununurra. Population: 3 monolinguals (2014 D. Adone). Mostly used by hearing people. 3 deaf people identified by the Mirima Dawang Woorlab-gerring Language and Culture Centre. Ethnic population: A few hundred Miriwoong people; unclear how many use the sign language (2014 D. Adone). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Fingertalk, MwSL. Classification: Sign language.

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Miwa
[vmi] Western Australia state: Drysdale river, far north Kimberleys area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bagu. Classification: Australian, Worrorran.

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Morrobalama
[umg] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, Princess Charlotte bay east coast. Population: No known L1 speakers. The two last speakers, Nancy Gunnawarra and Mabel Kullakulla, lived into the 1990s (1994 S. Ogilvie). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baka, Banjigam, Barungguan, Barunguan, Ganganda, Jintjingga, Kuuku-yani, Moroba-Lama, Morrabalama, Morrobolam, Njindingga, Umbuygamu, Umbuykamu, Umpuykumu, Yintjingga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Lamalamic.

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Mpalitjanh
[xpj] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, middle and upper Ducie river area. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lɔ:tig, Ludhigh, Luthigh, Mbalidjan, Mpalit Yan, MpalitYan̯, Mpalitjan, Mpalityanh. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Uradhi [urf]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Mudburra
[dmw] Northern Territory: Armstrong river, Camfield river, Cattle creek, Newcastle waters, Pigeon Hole station, Thjambutjambulani, Top Springs, Victoria river. Population: 92 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Madbara, Moodburra, Mootburra, Mudbara, Mudbarra, Mudbera, Mudbra, Mudbura, Mutpura, Pinkagama, Pinkagarna. Dialects: Eastern Mudburra, Western Mudburra. Reportedly similar to Karranga [xrq]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Muluridyi
[vmu] Queensland state: Mitchell river headwaters to Mareeba, Mount Carbine, Rumula, Woodville. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Binjara, Kokomoloroij, Kokomoloroitji, Kookanoona, Molloroidyi, Mooloroiji, Mularitchee, Mullridgey, Muluridji, Mulurutji, Waluridji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic.

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Murrinh-Patha
[mwf] Northern Territory: Port Keats area, Wadeye. Population: 1,970 (2016 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Garama, Murinbada, Murinbata, Murinhpatha, Murinpatha, Murinypata. Autonym: Murrinh-Patha. Dialects: Murrinhpatha, Murrinhkura, Murrinhdiminin. Classification: Australian, Daly, Murrinh-Patha.

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Muruwari
[zmu] Queensland and New South Wales states: Bollon, Bourke, Dirranbandi, and Weilmoringle, almost to Cunnamulla. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Marawari, Murawari, Murawarri, Murrawari, Muruwarri, Muruwurri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Muruwaric.

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Na-kara
[nck] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Goulburn island, Maningrida. Population: 58 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kokori, Nagara, Nakara, Nakarra, Nakkara. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran.

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Nari Nari
[rnr] New South Wales state: Balranald to near Booligal. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last know speaker likely survived into the late 1960s (Wurm 1972). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nari-Nari, Narinari, Narri-Narri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Narungga
[nnr] South Australia state: south Yorke peninsula. Population: 25 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanunga, Naranga, Narangga, Narranga, Narranggu, Narrangu. Dialects: Adjabdurah (Adjahdurah), Turra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Nauo
[nwo] South Australia state: Coffin bay, Elliston, Mount Hope, and Port Lincoln; half of Eyre peninsula; west to Cape Radstock, north past Minnipa; east near Darke peak; west of Cleve and halfway between Carrow and Franklin harbor. Population: No known L1 speakers. There were two potential speakers in the 1920s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Growoo, Naua, Nawo, Nawu, Nowo, Nyaawa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Wirangu [wgu]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Ndra’ngith
[dgt] Queensland state: south of Pera Head; Norman river. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Andaˀaneti, Ndra?angid, Ndrag’ngith, Ndraˀangit, Ntra’angith, Ntʳaˀŋit̯. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Ngaanyatjarra
[ntj] Western Australia state: Warburton ranges; Northern Territory: southwest corner. Population: 1,110 (2016 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngaanjatjarra, Ngaanyatjara, Western Desert Language. Autonym: Ngaanyatjarra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Ngadjunmaya
[nju] Western Australia state: Eyre’s Sand Patch, Goddard creek to Fraser range, Naretha, Point Culver, and Port Malcolm; Balladonia, Mount Andres, Norseman, and Russell range. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably recently extinct (Wurm 2007); last known speakers probably survived into the first decade of the 2000s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Badonjunga, Bardojunga, Marlpa, Ngadju, Ngadjumaja, Ngadjumaya, Ngadjunmaia, Ngajumaya, Ngatju, Ngatjumay, Tchaakalaaga. Dialects: None known. Related to Kalarko [kba]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mirning.

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Ngadjuri
[jui] South Australia and Victoria states: Burra, Orroroo, Peterborough, and Robertstown districts; Angaston and Freeling north to Carrieton, Clare, Crystal Brook, Gladstone; north of Waukaringa to Koonamore, east to Mannahill. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aluri, Alury, Boanawari, Burra, Burra Burra, Doora, Eeleeree, Eura, Hillary, Hilleri, Manu, Manuley, Manuri, Mimbara, Monnoo, Ngadhuri, Ngadluri, Ngadyuri, Ngaluri, Ngarluri, Weera, Werra, Wiramaya, Wirameju, Wirameyu, Wirra, Wirra-Maya, Wirramaya, Wirramayo, Wirrameyu, Yilrea, Youngye. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Ngalakgan
[nig] Northern Territory state: Roper river area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker died in 2004 (Baker 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Hongalla, Ngalakan, Ngalangan. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Rembargic.

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Ngamini
[nmv] South Australia state: Warburton creek area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karangura, Yarluyandji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Nganakarti
[xnk] Western Australia state: Carnamah, Champion bay, Gullewa, Hill river, and Mingenew. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by the mid 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Barimaia, Jaburu, Minango, Nanakari, Nanakati, Nhanhagardi, Wiri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Ngandi
[nid] Northern Territory: Upper Wilton river. Population: 1 (2017). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa.

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Ngan’gityemerri
[nam] Northern Territory: Mission, Tipperary Station; Daly and Flora rivers junction, Daly river. Population: 26 (2016 census). Ngenkiwumerri dialect is endangered, moving towards seriously endangered (Wurm 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Moil, Ngangi-Tjemerri, Tyemeri. Dialects: Ngan’giwumirri (Ngangi-Wumeri, Ngenkiwumerri), Nangikurrunggurr (Nangikurunggurr, Ngan’gikurunggurr, Ngangikarangurr, Ngankikurrunkurr, Ngenkikurrunggur), Ngan’gimerri. Ngan’giwumirri dialect is 84% similar with other dialects. Classification: Australian, Daly, Murrinh-Patha.

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Ngantangarra
[ntg] Victoria state: upper Wilson river, north to Eromanga area, toward Thylungra and Ray, south to Nockatunga. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ngandangara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Nganyaywana
[nyx] New South Wales state: between Ashford, Glen Innes, and Inverell. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers probably lived into the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Anaiwan, Aniwan, Nganjaywana. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyangadi.

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Ngardi
[rxd] Northern Territory: Balgo hill, Chilla well, Gardiner range, Granites, Ima Ima, Lake Hazlett, Lake Lucas, Lake Mackay, Lake White, Lake Wills, Manggai, Milidjipi, Ngaima Ngaima, Pallotine Mission, Sturt creek, Tanami track, Tekkari; Western Australia state. Population: 3 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Boonara, Bunara, Buruwatung, Kolo, Kukuruba, Manggai, Munga, Ngadi, Ngari, Nyardi, Panara, Puruwantung, Waiangadi, Waiangara, Waiangari, Wain-gara, Walmala, Wanayaga, Warangari, Waringari, Wommana, Woneiga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Ngarigu
[xni] New South Wales state: Australian Alps, Bombala river, Delagate, Monaro Tableland, Nimmitabel, Queanbeyan. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker likely survived into early 2010s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bemeringal, Bradjerak, Brajerak, Brajerang, Currak-da-bidgee, Garego, Gur-mal, Guramal, Murring, Ngarago, Ngarego, Ngarico, Ngarigo, Ngarroogoo, Ngarrugu, Ngaryo, Nguramal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Ngarinyin
[ung] Western Australia: Derby to King river, Kimberley. Population: 12 (2011 ELDP). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ngarinjin, Ungarinjin, Ungarinyin. Dialects: Wilawila, Wolyamidi, Guwidj (Guwij), Wurla (Ola, Walar, Worla, Worlaja, Wula, Wuladja, Wuladjangari). Classification: Australian, Worrorran.

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Ngarinyman
[nbj] Northern Territory: Victoria river, Pigeon Hole. Population: 50 (2005 AUSTLANG). Only one L1 speaker of Bilinarra left (Meakins and Nordlinger 2014). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Airiman, Hainman, Ngaiman, Ngarinman, Ngrarmun. Dialects: Bilinara (Bilinarra, Pilinara). Ngarinman is mutually intelligible with Gurindji Kriol [gjr] (Meakins and Nordlinger 2014). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Ngarla
[nrk] Western Australia: Grey river, Kudingaranga, Mulyie, Pardoo, Solitary island, Taluirina pool, Tjaljaranja, Yarrie. Population: No known L1 speakers (2010 P. Austin). Last speaker, Alexander Brown, died on November 5, 2010. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gnalla, Kudjunguru, Ngala, Ngalana, Ngerla, Ngirla, Ngurla. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Ngarluma
[nrl] Western Australia state: Roebourne area, northwest coast and inland. Population: 42 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gnalluma, Gnalouma, Ngallooma, Ngaluma. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Ngarrindjeri
[nay] South Australia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the 1960s. Ethnic population: 310 (2016 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Narinjari, Narrinjeri, Narrinyeri, Ngarinyeri, Yaralde. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic.

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Ngawun
[nxn] Queensland state: southwest of Croydon, between Flinders and Norman rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Cherry O’Keefe (Tjapun), died in 1977. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Ngayawung
[nwg] South Australia state: Herman Landing to Penn Reach on Murray river, west to Mount Lofty ranges, south to Ngautngaut. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died before the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ngaiawang, Ngaiawung, Ngayawang. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic.

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Ngunawal
[xul] New South Wales state: Booroowa, Canberra, Goulburn, Queanbeyan, Shoalhaven river, Tumut, Yass. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gurungada, Ngoonawal, Ngunnawal, Ngunuwal, Nungawal, Wonnawal, Yarr. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gundungurra [xrd]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Ngurmbur
[nrx] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, between West and South Alligator rivers, northeast of Umbugarla. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gnormbur, Gnumbu, Koarnbut, Ngomburr, Ngormbur, Ngumbur, Oormbur. Classification: Australian, Umbugarla-Ngumbur.

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Nhanda
[nha] Western Australia: Kalbarri north to Shark bay coast. Population: In 1995, a few speakers were reported. Some still survive (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanda, Nanta, Nhanta, Nubda, Nunta. Dialects: Bulinya. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yinggarda.

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Nhirrpi
[hrp] Victoria state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker survived into the 1960s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Palpamadramadra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Nhuwala
[nhf] Western Australia: Barrow and Monte Bello islands and nearby coast. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers likely survived into the late 1990s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Nimanbur
[nmp] Western Australia: southwest of King sound, and inland. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1982. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nimanburru. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Nugunu
[nnv] South Australia state: south of Gugada [ktd] language area to coast west to Fowler’s bay and east to Streaky bay, east Spencer gulf. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Doora, Njuguna, Nokunna, Noocoona, Nookoona, Nuguna, Nukana, Nukuna, Nukunnu, Nukunu, Pukunna, Tjura, Tyura, Wallaroo, Warra, Wongaidya. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Nungali
[nug] Northern Territory: Upper Daly river area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ilngali, Jilngali. Classification: Australian, Djamindjungan.

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Nunggubuyu
[nuy] Northern Territory: east Arnhem Land, Numbulwar. Population: 280 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nunggubuju, Wubuy, Yingkwira. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa.

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Nunukul
[xnu] Queensland state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last known speaker, (Mary) Jane Sunflower, died in 1964 (Holmer 1983). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Moondjan, Ngundjan, Noonuccal, Noonukul, Nukunul, Nunagal, Nunungal, Nununkul. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic.

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Nyamal
[nly] Western Australia state: northwest, Bamboo creek area, Marble Bar, Nullagine, to coast east of Port Hedland. Population: 25 (2016 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gnamo, Namel, Njamal, Njamarl, Nyamel. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Nyangga
[nny] Queensland state: Gilbert river head, south of Forsayth to Gledswood, Gregory range to Oak Park and Glenora; Northern Territory: coast east of Robinson river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jang-Kala, Janga, Jangaa, Jangga, Njangga, Njanggala, Yangarella, Yanggal, Yangkaal, Yuckamurri. Classification: Australian, Tangic.

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Nyangumarta
[nna] Western Australia state: Marble Bar, Port Hedland, Tjalku Wara. Population: 210 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Njangumarda, Njangumarta, Nyangumarda, Nyangumata. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Marngu.

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Nyawaygi
[nyt] Queensland state: Herberton south to Herbert river headwaters, to Cashmere, at Millaa Millaa, Ravenshoe, and Woodleigh, east to Tully Falls. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Willie Seaton, died in 2009. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nawagi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic.

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Nyikina
[nyh] Western Australia state: Lower Fitzroy river. Population: 61 (2016 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Njigina, Njikena, Nyakina, Nyigina, Nyigini. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Nyiyaparli
[xny] Western Australia state: Davis river, Fortescue river, Jigalong creek, Oakover river, Ophtalmia range, Roy hill, Savory creek, Talawana, Weediwolli creek. Population: 5 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bailko, Balgu, Balygu, Balyku, Iabali, Jana, Janari, Jauna, Niabali, Nijadali, Njiabadi, Njiabali, Njijabadi, Njijabali, Njijapali, Nyiyabali, Nyiyapali, Nyiypali, Paljgu, Palyku. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Nyulnyul
[nyv] Western Australia state: West Kimberley, Beagle Bay coast area. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Mary Carmel Charles, died in 1999. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Nyungar
[nys] Western Australia state. Population: No known L1 speakers (2005 AUSTLANG). Recently extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 480 (2016 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Njunga, Njungar, Noongar, Nyunga, Wudjari. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Olkol
[olk] Queensland state: Coleman river, Crosbie river. Population: 5 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Koka-ollugul, Koko Olkol, Koko Olkolo, Koko-olkol, Kunjen, Ol’kol, Olcoola, Olgol, Olgolo, Olkola, Olkolo, Olkulo, Ulkulu, Wulgulu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman.

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Paakantyi
[drl] New South Wales state: Darling river basin. Population: 4 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baagandji, Bagandji, Darling, Kula, Paakanti, Paakintyi, Southern Baagandji. Dialects: Paaruntyi, Kurnu (Gurnu), Nhaawuparlku, Milpulo, Wilyaali, Thangkaali, Pulaali, Wanyuparlku, Pantyikali (Bandjigali), Marrawarra (Maruara), Southern Paakantyi, Parrintyi (Baarrundji, Barindji). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Baagandji.

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Pakanha
[pkn] Queensland state: central Cape York peninsula, south of Coleman river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1990s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bakanha, Pakanh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Pallanganmiddang
[pmd] Victoria state: east of Albury. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died ca. 1800. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Balangamida, Pallangahmiddang, Wavaroo, Wave Veroo, Waveroo, Wayerroo, Waywurru, Wayyourong, Wayyouroo, Weeerroo, Weeherroo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Pallanganmiddang.

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Pini
[pii] Western Australia state: Three Rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bandjanu, Banjanu, Bini, Biniridjara, Birni, Birniridjara, Buranudjara, Jabura, Madutjara, Nana, Nangaritjara, Pandjanu, Piniiri, Piniridjara, Piniritjara, Pirniritjara, Tjalkadjara, Tjubun, Tjupan, Wordako. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Pinigura
[pnv] Western Australia state: northwest, inland on Duck creek. Population: No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). The last speaker died in the 1980s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Binigura, Pinikura. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Dhalandji.

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Pinjarup
[pnj] Western Australia state: Pinjarra and Woonerup in Harvey and Leschenaut inlets, Murray river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by the mid 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bangoula, Banyoula, Banyowla, Bindjarub, Binjarup, Kuriwongi, Nyunga, Peejine, Penjarra, Pidjain, Pindjarup, Pinjarra, Yaberoo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Pintiini
[pti] Western Australia state: Nullarbor plain north edge, north of Hughes; South Australia state: west of Nullabor. Population: 230 (2016 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyanganyatjara, Pindiini, Wangada, Wanggaji, Wangkatha, Wonga, Wongai-I, Wonggaii. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Pintupi-Luritja
[piu] Northern Territory: Balgo hills, Kintore, Papunya settlement, and Yuendumu; Western Australia state. Population: 1,110 (2016 census). 150 Pintupi and 960 Luritja (2016 census). 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bindabu, Binddibu, Bindibu, Bindubi, Bindubu, Loridja, Luritja, Pintubi, Pintupi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Pirlatapa
[bxi] South Australia state: Lake Blanche area, Lake Callabonn. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died by the 1960s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biladaba, Pirladapa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dieri [dif]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Pirriya
[xpa] Queensland state: Canaway range, Coopers creek, Gilpeppee, Jundah, Keeroongooloo, Thomson river, Whitula creek. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Albert Upperty (or Uppity), died in 1969 (Breen 1990). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bidia, Biria, Birria, Piria. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Pitcairn-Norfolk
[pih] Scattered. Population: 1,040 in Australia (2016 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pitcairn English. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific.

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Pitjantjatjara
[pjt] Northern Territory: southwest corner; South Australia state: Pitjantjatjara freehold lands, Yalata; Western Australia state. Population: 4,050, all users. L1 users: 3,550 (2016 census). 3,130 Pitjantjatjara and 420 Yankunytjatjara (2016 census). L2 users: 500. 2,580 monolinguals (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Pitjantjara, Pitjantjatjarra. Autonym: Pitjantjatjara. Dialects: Yankunytjatjara, Pitjantjatjara (Pithantjatjarra). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Pitta Pitta
[pit] Queensland state: Boulia. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Ivy Nardoo, died in 1981. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bida-Bida, Bidhabidha, Pita Pita, Pitha-Pitha. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku.

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Punthamara
[xpt] Victoria state: creeks east of Grey range from Orient and Thargomindah north to near Quilpie; Tobermory; Grey range west side, Congie to Mount Margaret. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker probably died by the 1990s (Holmer 1988). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Banthamurra, Bundhamara, Bunka-burra, Puntamara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura.

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Rembarrnga
[rmb] Northern Territory: Katherine area, Maningrida and outstations, Roper river area. Population: 43 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaltuy, Rainbargo, Rembarnga, Rembarranga, Rembarrunga, Rembarunga. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Rembargic.

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Ritharrngu
[rit] Northern Territory: Eastern Arnhem Land, Roper and Rose rivers. Population: 40 (2016 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ridarngo, Ridarngu, Ridharrngu, Ritarnugu, Ritarungo, Ritharngu, Wagelak, Wawilag, Yakuy. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal.

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Tagalaka
[tgz] Queensland state: Croydon, Einasleigh River, Forest Home, Forsyth, Georgetown, Gilbert river, Gregory river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker likely survived into the early 2010s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Da:galag, Dagalang, Tagalag, Takalak, Targa-lag, Tarkalag. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman.

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Thawa
[xtv] New South Wales state: Cooma, Green cape, Merimbula. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baianga, Dhawa, Guyanagal, Guyangal-yuin, Katungal, Murring, Paienbera, Paiendra, Tadera-manji, Tharawal, Thauaira. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin.

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Thaypan
[typ] Queensland state: central Cape York peninsula, Coleman river. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Tommy George, died in 2016. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Awu Laya, Awu-Alaya, Coo-coo-warra, Gugu Dhayban, Gugu Thaypan, Koko Laia, Kokowara, Kuku-Thaypan, Laya, Wu-Laya. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama.

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Thiin
[iin] Western Australia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died by 2004. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Deen, Deenma, Denma, Dhiyin, Dhiyinma, Teen, Teenma, Tenma, Thenma, Thiinma. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Djiwarli [dze]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Tiwi
[tiw] Northern Territory: Bathurst and Melville islands, Nguiu. Population: 2,040 (2016 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Classification: Australian, Tiwian.

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Tjungundji
[tjj] Queensland: between Cullen Point and Janie Creek. Population: 10 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Yangathimri. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anguthimri [awg]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Tjupany
[tjp] Western Australia: Northwest Goldfields around the area of Barwidgee Station through to Leinster, Wiluna and west to Sandstone. Population: 6 (2018 Goldfields Aboriginal Language Centre). Ethnic population: 250 (2018 Goldfields Aboriginal Language Centre). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tjupan. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Tjurruru
[tju] Western Australia state: northwest, Hardey river, southwest of Tom Price. Population: No known L1 speakers. 2 speakers left in 1967. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Chooraroo, Choororoo, Churoro, Djuroro, Djurruru, Djururo, Dyururu, Jurruru, Jururu, Thuraru, Tjororo, Tjuroro, Tjururo, Tjururu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Torres Strait Creole
[tcs] Queensland state: Torres Strait Islands, towns on upper Cape York, some on north Queensland east coast. Population: 6,170 (2016 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ailan Tok, Ap-Ne-Ap, Big Thap, Blaik, Blaiman, Broken, Cape York Creole, Creole, Pizin, Tores Streit Yumplatok, Torres Strait Broken, Torres Strait Pidgin English, West Torres. Autonym: Yumplatok. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with English. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific.

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Umbindhamu
[umd] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, north of Coen. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Joan Liddy, died in 2012 (Verstraete 2010). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: ’Uuk-Umpithamu, Baka, Banjigam, Barungguan, Barunguan, Ganganda, Jintjingga, Koko Ompindamo, Kuuku-Umpinthamu, Njindingga, Umbuigamu, Umpinthamu, Umpithamu, Uuku Umpithamu, Yintjingga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Umbindhamuic.

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Umbugarla
[umr] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, southeast of Limilngan language area [lmc], between Mary and South Alligator rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Butcher Knight, is believed to have died in 2000. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mbakarla. Classification: Australian, Umbugarla-Ngumbur.

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Umiida
[xud] Western Australia state: Bathurst, Bayliss, Koolan, and Macleay islands; Shoal, and Strickland bays; Oobagooma, Yampi Sound. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker lived into the late 1980s (McGregor 1988). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aobidai of Ongkarango, O:ka:ta, O:kada, Okat, Oken, Okwata, Oomida, Umeda, Umede, Umida, Umidi, Wumide. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran.

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Umpila
[ump] Queensland state: Cape Sidmouth north nearly to Night island. Population: 12 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Umbila. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama.

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Unggaranggu
[xun] Western Australia state: northeast King sound from east Stokes bay north to Crawford bay, eastern islands of the sound from Helpman island to Caffarelli. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by the 1980s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ongkarango, Oonggarrangoo, Ungarangi, Ungaranji, Unggarangi. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran.

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Unggumi
[xgu] Western Australia state: Chestnut creek; Isdell and Lennard rivers; Leopold range; Richenda and Robinson rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker, Billy ‘Morndi’ Munro, died in the early 1990s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ngarangari, Ong Komi, Ongaranjan, Ungami, Ungumi, Wongkomi. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran.

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Unserdeutsch
[uln] East coast: scattered. Population: 100 in Australia (2016 P. Maitz). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Creole, German based.

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Uradhi
[urf] Queensland state: North Alice creek, northeast Cape York peninsula. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Otati. Dialects: Yadhaykanu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama.

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Urningangg
[urc] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land northwest, upper reaches of Alligator river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1990s (Black 1983). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Giimbiyu, Uningangk, Urningangga, Urningangk, Wuningak. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mangerr [zme]. Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu.

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Waanyi
[wny] Northern Territory: Queensland state border area southwest of Calvert. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker likely survived into the 2010s. 2 semi-speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Waangyee, Wainyi, Wanee, Wanji, Wanyee, Wanyi, Wonyee. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Garrwa [wrk]. Classification: Australian, Yanyi.

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Wadi Wadi
[xwd] New South Wales state: Murray river, Murrumbidgee Junction, Piangil, Swan Hill, Tyntynder; Victoria state: Moolpa. Population: No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Biangil, Dacournditch, Wathiwathi, Wattewatte, Watthiwatthi, Watty-watty, Withaija, Woani, Wohdi Wohdi, Woonyi, Wotti-wotti. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Wadikali
[wdk] New South Wales state: Callabonna creek, Evelyn creek, Lake Pinaroo, Milparinka, Naryilco, Tilcha, Yandama, Yandama creek. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Ned Palpilina, died in the 1930s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wadigali. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli.

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Wadjabangayi
[wdy] Queensland state: Blackall, Glenbower, Lancevale, Maryvale. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the early 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Inningai, Kariimari, Kun-Gait, KunGait, Wadjabangai, Wadjabangay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Wadjiginy
[wdj] Northern Territory: southwest of Darwin along coast and inland along Finniss river. Population: 5 (2005 AUSTLANG). Ethnic group members understand the language when old people speak it, but use Kriol [rop] as L1 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bachamal, Batjamalh, Patjtjamalh, Wadiginy, Wadyiginy, Wagaydy, Wogaity. Dialects: Pungupungu (Kandjerramal, Kuwama, Patjtjamalh). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy.

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Wadjigu
[wdu] Queensland state: southwest of Fairbairn reservoir. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maudalgo, Wadja, Wadjainggo, Wadjingu, Waindjago, Wainggo, Wainjago, Wainjigo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Wagaya
[wga] Northern Territory: Austral Downs, Avon Downs, Camooweal, area north of Lake Nash. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1990s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Leewakya, Ukkia, Waagai, Waagi, Wagai, Wagaja, Waggaia, Wakaja, Wakaya, Wakkaja, Warkya, Worgai, Worgaia, Workia. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa.

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Wagiman
[waq] Northern Territory: Bagot and Tipperary station south of Pine creek. Population: 18 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wagaman, Wageman, Wagoman, Wakiman, Wogeman. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Wagiman.

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Wajarri
[wbv] Western Australia state: Geraldton to Mount Magnet. Population: 20 (2005 AUSTLANG). Ethnic population: 200 (1981 W. Douglas). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wadjari, Wadjeri, Watjari, Watjarri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wadjari.

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Wajuk
[xwj] Western Australia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Beelia, Beeloo, Derbal, Ilakuri wongi, Juadjag, Juadjuk, Karakata, Karrakatta, Minalnjunga, Minnal Yungar, Wadjug, Wadjuk, Wadjup, Wadyuk, Whadjuk, Whajook, Witjaari, Yooadda, Yooard, Yoongar, Yuard, Yuatjek, Yungar, Yungur. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Wakabunga
[wwb] Queensland: Gregory and Gunpowder creeks, Leichhardt river, Morstone. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Waggaboonyah, Waggabundi, Wakobungo, Waukaboonia, Worgabunga, Workabunga, Workoboongo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic.

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Wakawaka
[wkw] Queensland state: Gayndah, Kingaroy, and Murgon; Nanango north to Mount Perry, west to Boyne river. Population: 2, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Last native speaker of Duunidjawu dialect died in 1965; Wakawaka dialect has been extinct for decades (Wurm 2007). L2 users: 2 (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Enibura, Nukunukubara, Waga, Waga-Waga, Wagawaga, Waka Waka, Wakka. Dialects: Duungidjawu, Wagawaga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Miyan.

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Walangama
[nlw] Queensland state: Croydon, Gregory range. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Boogoolmurra, Bugulmara, Karan, Uw Alngam, Wahlongman, Wallan-kammer, Wallenkammer, Wollangama, Wollongurmee. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West.

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Walmajarri
[wmt] Western Australia state: Fitzroy river valley area, La Grange and Lake Gregory. Population: 280 (2016 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Pililuna, Walmadjari, Walmajiri, Walmatjari, Walmatjarri, Walmatjiri, Wolmeri. Dialects: Djuwarliny (Juwaliny, Tjuwalinj). The western group speaks the Juwaliny dialect. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin.

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Waluwarra
[wrb] Queensland state: Roxborough Downs. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kapula, Maula, Mauula, Mawula, Parnkarra, Walookera, Walugera, Waluwara, Warluwara, Warluwarra, Wollegara, Yunnalinka. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa.

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Wambaya
[wmb] Northern Territory: Barkly tableland, Limmen bight and McArthur rivers’ headwaters; east of Lake Woods. Population: 61 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 88 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Umbaia, Wambaia, Wambaja, Wom-By-A, Wombya, Yumpia. Dialects: Wambaya, Binbinga (Binbinka), Gudandji. Dialects inherently intelligible. (Black 1983). Classification: Australian, West Barkly.

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Wamin
[wmi] Queensland state: south central Cape York peninsula, Einasleigh river, northwest of Einasleigh. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Agwamin. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southern Pama.

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Wandarang
[wnd] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land, Roper river area. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Isaac Joshua, died in 1974. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wamdarang, Wandaran, Warndarang, Warndarrang, Wuyarrawala. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Mara.

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Wangaaybuwan-Ngiyambaa
[wyb] New South Wales state: Barwon, Bogan and Darling rivers, Yanda creek. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers may have survived into the early 2010s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Wangaaybuwan (Wangaaypuwan, Wombungee, Wongagibun, Wongaibon, Wonghi, Wonghibon, Wonjhibon), Ngiyambaa (Giamba, Narran, Ngeumba, Ngiamba, Ngiumba, Ngiyampaa, Ngjamba, Ngumbarr, Noongaburrah), Wayilwan (Waljwan). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric.

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Wanggamala
[wnm] Northern Territory: Hay river, south of Andegerebinha. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker may have died in 2003. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku.

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Wangkangurru
[wgg] Northern Territory: southeast corner. Population: 3 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ongkonguru, Rangwa, Wangganguru, Wangka-Jutjuru, Wangka-Yutjurru, Wangkadjera, Wangkanguru, Wonggongaru, Wongkanguru, Wongkongaru, Wongonooroo, Wonkagnurra, Wonkaoora, Wonkaooroo, Wonkongaru, Wonkongnuru, Wonkonguru, Wychinga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku.

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Wangkayutyuru
[wky] Victoria state: Glenormiston and Herbert downs, on Malvina creek; north toward Roxborough. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wanggadjara, Wanggadyara, Wanggamanha, Wanggayudyuru, Wangka-Yutjurru, Wangka-Yutjuru, Wangka-jutjuru, Wangkatjera, Wangkayutjuru, Wongga-Jitjeru, Wongga-itjeru, Wonggadjara, Wongka-itjeru, Wongka-itjuru, Wongkadjera, Wongkatjera, Wonkajara, Wonkajera, Wonkatyeri, Wonkoyara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Wangkumara
[xwk] Victoria state: Kalidawarry, lower portion of Field and Cooper creeks, east of Nappa Merrie and Orientos to Wilson river at Nockatunga. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 1980s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wanggumara, Wanghumara, Wangumarra, Wongkumara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura.

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Waray
[wrz] Northern Territory: Adelaide river area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arwur, Awarai, Awarra, Warrai, Warray. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Warayan.

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Wardaman
[wrr] Northern Territory: upper Daly river. Population: 50 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 89 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Wadaman, Waderman, Waduman, Warda’man, Wardman, Warduman, Wartaman, Wordaman. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yangman [jng] and Dagoman [dgn]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic.

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Wardandi
[wxw] Western Australia state: Bunbury to Cape Leuwin, chiefly along the coast; Geographe bay, Nannup and Busselton. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Belliman, Dardanup, Doonin, Dordenup, Dornderupwongy, Dunanwongi, Jabaru, Kardagur, Nghungar, Waadandi, Waddarndi, Wadjandi, Yabaroo. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar.

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Wariyangga
[wri] Western Australia state: West Pilbara southeast of Mount Augustus. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 1980s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Warriyangka. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Warlmanpa
[wrl] Northern Territory: Mount Leichhardt area. Population: 26 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Walmala. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngarga.

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Warlpiri
[wbp] Northern Territory: Ali Curung Willowra, Alice Springs, Darwin, Katherine, Lajamanu, and Yuendumu; Western Australia state: into area shared with Kukatia [kux]. Population: 2,300 (2016 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Albura, Alpira, Alpiri, Elpira, Ilpara, Ilpira, Ilpirra, Nambuda, Ngalia, Ngaliya, Ngallia, Ngardilpa, Njambalatji, Ulperra, Waibry, Wailbri, Walbiri, Walbrai, Walbri, Waljbiri, Waljpiri, Walmala, Walmama, Walmanba, Walpari, Walpiri, Wanaeka, Wanajaga, Wanajaka, Wanajeka, Waneiga, Waringari, Wolperi, Wolpirra. Autonym: Warlpiri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngarga.

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Warnman
[wbt] Western Australia state: Marble Bar area, Nullagine station, Strelley. Population: 3 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanidjara, Nyaani, Wanman. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Warrgamay
[wgy] Queensland state: coast south of Hinchinbrook island, and inland along Herbert river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Biyay, Wargamay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic.

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Warrwa
[wwr] Western Australia state: Derby and West Kimberley regions. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Maudie Lennard, died in 2016. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Warrawai, Warwa. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Warumungu
[wrm] Northern Territory: Tennant creek area. Population: 320 (2016 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Waramunga, Waramungu, Warramunga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Warumungic.

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Warungu
[wrg] Queensland state: northeast of Einasleigh. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Alf Palmer, died in 1981. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gudjal, Gudjala, Warrongo, Warrungu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Wathawurrung
[wth] Victoria state: Ballarat, Barwon river, Cape Otway, Geelong, Lake Burrambeet, Pitfield, Princetown, Queenscliff. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last known competent speaker, Ellen Richards, died in 1921 (Blake et al 1998). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wada wurrung, Wadawio, Waddorow, Wadhaurung, Wadjawuru, Wadourer, Wadthaurung, Waitowrung, Warra, Wathaurong, Wathaurung, Wathawurung, Wathurung, Watorrong, Wiityahuurong, Wioura, Witaoro, Witawurong, Witoura, Witouro, Witowro, Witowurong, Witowurrong, Witowurrung, Witowurung, Wittyawhuurong, Wod-dowrong, Woddowro, Woddowrong, Wollowurong, Wooeewoorong, Wothowurong, Wuddyawurra, Wuddyawurru, Wudja-wurung, Wudjawuru, Wudjawurung, Wudthaurung. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Wemba Wemba
[xww] Victoria state: Loddon river, north to Swan Hillp; Avoca river south to Quambatook area, northeastward to Boorooban and Moulamein (N.S.W.); Boort and Lake Boga. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers survived into the 1960s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gorrmjanyuk, Gourrmjanyuk, Jambajamba, Jupa-galk-wournditch, Mallenjerrick, Waamba, Waimbiwaimbi, Wamba, Wamba Wamba, Wambawamba, Wembawemba, Weumba, Womba, Yamba, Yambayamba, Yowewnillurn, Yuppila. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Wergaia
[weg] Victoria state: Dimboola to Lakes Albacutya and Hindmarsh, along Wimmera river; Warracknabeal to Yanac. Population: 14 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wergaya, Werkaya, Wimmera, Worgaia. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Wik Ngathan
[wig] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, west coast below Aurukun. Population: 3 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wik-Ngathana. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wik-Epa
[wie] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wik Epa, Wik-Ep, Wik-Eppa, Wikepa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wik-Iiyanh
[wij] Queensland state: central Cape York peninsula, southwest of Coen. Population: 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wik Iyanh, Wik Iyanja. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wik-Keyangan
[wif] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wik-Me’anha
[wih] Queensland state: Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. Population: 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Eik-Me’anha, Wik-Em’an, Wik-Me’anh, Wik-Me’nh, Wikmean. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wik-Mungkan
[wim] Queensland state: Aurukun to Edward river. Population: 1,050, all users. L1 users: 450 (2016 census), decreasing. L2 users: 600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mungkañ, Munkan, Wik Munggan, Wik-Mungkana, Wik-Munkan. Autonym: Wik-Mungknh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wikalkan
[wik] Queensland state: Aurukun. Population: 86 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Wik Alkan, Wik Elken, Wik-Alkanh, Wik-Kalkan, Wik-Ngathara, Wik-Ngatharra, Wik-Ngathrr, Wikngatara. Dialects: Wik-Ngandjara (Ngandjara, Wik Ngatara), Ngadanja. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wikngenchera
[wua] Queensland state: Aurukun. Population: 30 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kugu Nganhcara, Nantjara, Ngandjara, Ngantjeri, Njinturawik-Nganhcara, Wik, Wik-Nantjara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama.

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Wilawila
[wil] Western Australia state: central Kimberleys. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wila-Wila. Classification: Australian, Worrorran.

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Wiradjuri
[wrh] New South Wales state: Macquarie river to Murray river, Lachlan river area from Murrumbidgee river to Parkes. Population: 30 (2005 AUSTLANG). Ethnic population: 460 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Berrembeel, Warandgeri, Werogery, Wiiratheri, Wira-Athoree, Wiradhuri, Wiradhurri, Wiraduri, Wiraidyuri, Wirajeree, Wirashuri, Wiratheri, Wirracharee, Wirrai’yarrai, Wooragurie, Wordjerg. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric.

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Wirangu
[wgu] South Australia state: coast between head of Bight and Streaky bay head, and inland to Ooldea region. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker may have survived into the 2010s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Jilbara, Naljara, Ngoleiadjara, Nhawu, Njangga, Nonga, Nyangga, Tidni, Tidnie, Titnie, Wanbiri, Wangon, Warrangoo, Willeuroo, Windakan, Wirangga, Wirongu, Wironguwongga, Wirrongu, Wirrung, Wirrunga, Yilrea. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura.

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Woiwurrung
[wyi] Victoria state: Healesville, Lancefield, Macedon, Melbourne, Moe, Mordialloc, Mount Bawbaw, Mount Disappointment, Saltwater river, Warragul, Woodend, Yarra river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably became extinct late in the 19th century. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gungung-willam, Mort Noular, Ngarukwillam, Oorongie, Urunjeri, Waarengbadawa, Wainworra, Wairwaioo, Warerong, Warorong, Warwaroo, Waverong, Wavoo-rong, Wawoo-rong, Wawoorong, Wawurong, Wawurrong, Woewo-rung, Woi-wurrong, Woiworung, Woiwurong, Woiwurru, Woiwurung, Wooeewoorong, Wowerong, Wurrundyirra-baluk, Wurrunjeri, Wurundjeri, Wurunjeri, Wurunjerri-baluk, Wuywurrung, Yarra Yarra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin.

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Worimi
[kda] New South Wales state: between Hunter and Hastings rivers; Port Macquarie to Hawkesbury river. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died in the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Birbay, Gadang, Gadhang, Gadjang, Gathang, Kattang, Warimi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Worimi.

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Worrorra
[wro] Western Australia state: Collier bay to Prince Regent river; Secure bay and Walcott inlet; northern boundary Rothsay Water, inland about 40–50 km along Princess May ranges to Mount Hann, Mount French and cliff base of the tablelands. Population: 7 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maialnga, Ong Komi, Worora, Wororra, Worrara, Worrora, Wurara, Wurora, Yangibaia. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran.

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Wotjobaluk
[xwt] Victoria state: Dimboola, Kaniva, Lake Albacutya, Lake Hindmarsh, Lake Korong, Outlet creek, Pine plains, Servicetown, Warracknabeal, Wimmera river, Yanac. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Guli-ballaiuk, Watjo, Wattyabullak, Woitu-bullar, Wotjbaluk, Wotjo, Wotjo-ba-laiuruk, Wotjo-balluk, Wotjo-baluk, Wotjobalak, Wotjobalek, Wotjoballaiuk, Wotjoballuck, Wotjoballuk, Wotjobolak, Wotjobuluk, Woychibirik, Wudjubalug, Wudjubaluk, Wutjubaluk, Wuttyabullak, Wuttyubullak, Wutyuballeak. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Wuliwuli
[wlu] Queensland state: Banana, Baralaba, and Theodore on Dawson river. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker was probably Queenie Dodd Meldrum, who died in 1986 (Holmer 1983). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wilili, Wililililee, Willillee, Wuli Wuli, Wuli-Wuli, Wuli-wuli, Wulili. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Miyan.

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Wulna
[wux] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land around Darwin, mouth of Adelaide river and inland. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wuna. Classification: Australian, Limilngan-Wulna.

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Wunambal
[wub] Western Australia state: Kalumburu, Mowanjum, and Wyndham. Population: 9 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jeidji, Jeithi, Unambal, Wumnabal, Wunambul, Wunambullu, Yeidji, Yeithi. Dialects: Wunambal, Gambera, Miwa. Classification: Australian, Worrorran.

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Wunumara
[wnn] Queensland state: Cambridge Downs, Cloncurry, Dalgonally, Flinders river, Kynuna, Richmond, Williams river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Oonoomurra, Quippen-bura, Unamara, Wanamara, Woonamurra, Woonomurra, Wunamara, Wunumura. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic.

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Yabula Yabula
[yxy] New South Wales and Victoria states. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jabalajabala, Jabulajabula, Maraban, Maragan, Moiraduban, Moitheriban, Ngarrimowro, Owanguttha, Pallaganmiddah, Panggarang, Waningotbun, Yabala-Yabala, Yabbil-Yabbila, Yabbilyabbila, Yabola, Yabula-Yabula, Yabula-yabula, Yabulla, Yillib-Yilliba, Yoorta, Yullaba Yullaba, Yurt. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yotayotic.

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Yagara
[yxg] Queensland state: Cleveland district, Brisbane river inland to Gatton area, north to Esk area, Ipswich. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 1960s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biriin, Cateebil, Jagara, Jagarabal, Jagera, Jergarbal, Jinibara, Ninghi, Terabul, Tor-bul, Turibul, Turrbal, Turrubal, Turrubul, Turubul, Yackarabul, Yaggara, Yerongban, Yeronghan, Yerongpan, Yugara, Yugg-ari, Yuggara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic.

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Yalarnnga
[ylr] Queensland state: Burke river area, Dajarra. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Lardie Moonlight, died in 1980 (Breen and Blake 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jalanga, Yalarrnga, Yelina, Yellanga, Yellunga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic.

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Yan-nhangu
[jay] Northern Territory: 2 westernmost Crocodile islands; Cape Stewart area, Maningrida and Milingimbi. Population: 64 (2005 AIATSIS). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gokulu mana dhanguny’ bulthun, Jarnango, Nangu, Nhangu, Yanangu. Dialects: Garmalangga, Gurjindi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhangu.

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Yan-nhangu Sign Language
[yhs] Northern Territory: East Arnhem, Murrungga island. Population: 10 (2014 D. Adone). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: YNSL. Dialects: None known. Similar to Yolngu Sign Language [ygs]. Classification: Sign language.

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Yanda
[yda] Queensland state: Hamilton river, Lucknow, Toolebuc, Warenda. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Janda, Yunda. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Guwa [xgw]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Yandjibara
[xyb] Queensland state: Barcaldine, Longreach. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably became extinct early in the 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kuungkari, Yangeeberra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Yandruwandha
[ynd] South Australia state: Moomba area; east into Queensland state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Benny Kerwin, died in 1976 (Breen 2004). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Innamincka. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Yangman
[jng] Northern Territory: Elsey creek and Katherine. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Jimmy Daniels, died in 1986. Ethnic population: 50 (Black 1983). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dagoman, Jungman. Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Wardaman [wrr]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic.

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Yankunytjatjara
[kdd] South Australia state: Everard, Musgrave, and Yalata ranges; east Pitjantjatjara freehold lands and surrounding areas; Northern Territory: mostly west of Kulgera-Erldunda road. Population: 70 (2005 AUSTLANG). Ethnic population: 560 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jangkundjara, Kulpantja, Southern Luritja, Yangkundjara, Yankuntatjara, Yankuntjara, Yankuntjatjara, Yankuntjatjarra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati.

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Yanyuwa
[jao] Northern Territory: Doomadgee; Queensland state: Borroloola. Population: 39 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 130 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aniula, Anula, Anyula, Janjula, Leeanuwa, Wadiri, Yanula, Yanuwa, Yanyula. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yanyuwan.

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Yardliyawarra
[yxl] South Australia and New South Wales states: Yardliyawara (Jadliaura); eastern side of northern Flinders range from Wertaloona south to Carrieton and Cradock, east to Frome Downs; Holowilena station on Siccus river, west to Arkaba and Hawker. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the late first decade of the 2000s (Hercus and Austin 2004). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aluri, Alury, Arabatura, Arkabatura, Jadliaura, Jadlijawara, Jadloori, Yadliaura, Yadlikowera, Yadliura, Yadliyawarra, Yadlouri, Yaldikowera, Yardliwarra, Yardliyawara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli.

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Yarluyandi
[yry] South Australia state: Alton Downs, Annandale, Atna Hill, Birdsville, Diamantina river, Mulligan river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 1970s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Jeljendi, Jeljujendi, Yarleeyandee, Yelyuyendi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic.

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Yatay
[yty] Queensland state: Albany and Mount Adolphus islands. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct before mid 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Iataj. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman.

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Yawarawarga
[yww] South Australia and Queensland states: north of Cooper creek, southeast of Lake Yamma Yamma. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Yawarrawarrka. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna.

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Yawijibaya
[jbw] Western Australia state: Collier Bay, Jawutjap, Montgomery islands. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died by the early 1990s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bergalgu, Jadjiba, Jadjibaia, Jaudji-Bara, Jaudjibaia, Jaudjibara, Jawadjag, Jawdjibaia, Jawdjibara, Jawdjobara, Jawutjubar, Winjawindjagu, Yaudjibaia, Yaudjibara, Yaujibaia, Yawjibara, Yawjibarra. Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran.

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Yawuru
[ywr] Western Australia state: Broome south coast and inland. Population: No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Last known native speakers died between 2001 and 2007 (Wurm 2007 and (2001 K. Hosokawa). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Dialects: Northern Yawuru, Southern Coastal Yawuru, Eastern Inland Yawuru. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan.

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Yaygir
[xya] New South Wales state: Clarence river, Grafton. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Sandy Cameron, died in 1973. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jeigir, Jungai, Yaygirr, Yegera, Yegir, Yiegera, Youngai. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Gumbaynggiric.

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Yidiny
[yii] Queensland state: formerly Atherton region. A few at Palm Island, Babinda, north to Gordonvale. Population: 19 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 140 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Boolboora, Deba, Eneby, Gerrah, Gijow, Gillah, Guwamal, Idin Idindji, Idin-Wudjar, Idinji, Indindji, Jidindji, Kitba, Maimbie, Mungera Ohalo, Pegullo-Bura, Warra-Warra, Warryboora, Woggil, Yetinji, Yiddinji, Yidin, Yidindji, Yidini, Yidinj, Yitintyi, Yukkaburra. Dialects: Gunggay, Yidiny, Madyay (Madjay). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yidinic.

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Yindjibarndi
[yij] Western Australia state: Roebourne area. Population: 380 (2016 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Indjibandi, Jindjibandi, Jindjibarndi, Yindjinbarndi, Yinjtjipartnti. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda.

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Yindjilandji
[yil] Northern Territory: northeast of Wonarah. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bularnu, Dhidhanu, Inchalachee, Inchalanche, Indjilandji, Indjilindji, Indjurandji, Indkilindji, Injdjiladji, Injilinji, Intjilatja, Yinjilanji. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa.

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Yinggarda
[yia] Western Australia state: Shark bay coast between Gascoyne and Wooramel rivers, inland to Red Hill, West Pilbara. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last know speaker probably survived into the 2010s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ingara, Ingarda, Ingarra, Ingarrah, Inggarda, Inparra, Jinggarda, Kakarakala, Yingkarta. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yinggarda.

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Yinhawangka
[ywg] Western Australia state: Angelo river, Ashburton river, Hardey river, Kunderong range, Mount Vernon station, Rocklea, Turee creek. Population: 39 (2016 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Inawangga, Inawonga, Inawongga, Nalawonga, Ngalawonga, Ngalawongga, Ngarla-warngga, Ngaunmardi, Ninanu. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda.

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Yiningayi
[ygi] Queensland state: west of Dividing range to Forsyth range, Longreach and Maneroo creek; south on Alice river tributaries to about Mexico; north to Bowen Downs, Cornish creek, Muttaburra, North Oakvale, and Tower Hill; Aramac. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Iningai, Iningayi, Inningai, Mootaburra, Moothaburra, Muta-bura, Muttaburra, Tateburra, Terreburra, Yiningay. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Yinwum
[yxm] Queensland state: Batavia river, Moreton, Wenlock river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jinwum, Yeemwoom. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman.

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Yir-Yoront
[yyr] Queensland state: Cape Peninsula, eastern coast, Gulf of Carpenteria, Coleman and Mitchell rivers area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 2000s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Jir Joront, Jir’jorond, Jirjiront, Koka-mungin, Koko-majoen, KokoMandjoen, KokoMindjin, KokoMinjen, Kokomindjan, Kokomindjen, Kokominjan, Mandjoen, Mind’jana, Mundjun, Yir Yiront, Yir Yoront, Yir-yiront. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Yir Yoront.

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Yirandali
[ljw] Queensland state: Caledonia, Corfield, Dutton river, Flinders river, Great Dividing range, Hughenden, Lammermooor, Landsborough creek, Mount Sturgeon, Richmond, Tangorin, Torrens creek, Tower Hill creek, Winton. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dal-leyburra, Dalebura, Dalleburra, Irendely, Jirandali, Pooroga, Yerrundulli, Yerrunthully, Yirandhali. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric.

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Yirrk-Mel
[yrm] Queensland state: South and Main Mitchell rivers’ mouths area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 2010s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kok-Cel, Kok-Wap, Yir Mel, Yirmel, Yirr-Mel, Yirr-Thangell, Yirrk-Thangalki. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Yir Yoront.

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Yitha Yitha
[xth] New South Wales state: Balranald, Booligal, Carrawathal, Lachlan river; South Australia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Eetha-eetha, Eethee Eethee, Eethie-eethie, Ita-ita, Itha-itha, Ithi-ithi, Iti-iti, Jidajida, Tjuop, Yetho, Yit-tha, Yitsa. Classification: Unclassified.

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Yolngu Sign Language
[ygs] Northern Territory: Arnhem Land region, Elcho and Milingimbi islands, Ramingining, Yirrkala, and Waraga. Population: 5,000 (2012 D. Adone). Of these, about 40–50 are deaf (Adone et al 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hands in action, Yolŋu Sign Language. Dialects: None known. Not a signed version of any of the surrounding Yolngu languages, but independent (Adone et al 2012). Classification: Sign language.

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Yorta Yorta
[xyy] New South Wales state: Cohuna, Conargo, Deniliquin, Echuca, Gunbower, Murray river, Tullah creek, Tuppal, Yielima. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speakers died in the 1960s (Bowe and Morey 1999). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arramouro, Bangerang, Gunbowerooranditchgoole, Gunbowers, Jotijota, Kwart Kwart, Moira, Ngarrimouro, Ngarrimowro, Unungun, Wol-Lithiga, Woollathura, Yoorta, Yota Yota, Yotayota. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yotayotic.

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Yugambal
[yub] Queensland state: Albert river and Logan basins from Jimboomba to MacPherson range. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died by the 1970s (Dixon and Barry 1979). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jugumbir, Jukamba, Manaldjali, Minjanbal, Ngarrbal, Ngarrubul, Yugabeh, Yugambeh, Yugumbal. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yugambal.

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Yugul
[ygu] Northern Territory: Namiliwirri lagoon, Nawaparr gorge, Ngukurr, Saint Vidgeon homestead. Population: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jokul, Yikil, Yikul, Yookala, Yookil, Yookull, Yukul. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran.

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Yuru
[ljx] Queensland state: Bowen north to Burdekin river at Home Hill, southwest to Bogie range; Upstart bay south to Mount Abbot and Mount Pleasant. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arwur-angkana, Euronbba, Juru, Mal Mal, Malmal, South Murri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic.

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Yuyu
[yxu] Victoria state: Loddon river, north to Swan Hill; Avoca river south to Quambatook area, northeastward to Boorooban and Moulamein; New South Wales state: Boort and Lake Boga. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Capell 1963). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Eramwir-rangu, Eraweerung, Erawiruck, Jeraruk, Jirau, Juju, Meru, Pomp-malkie, Rankbirit, Willoo, Wilu, Yerraruck, Yiran, Yirau, You-you. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan.

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