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Adithinngithigh
[dth] Queensland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adetingiti Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Adnyamathanha
[adt] South Australia, Flinders ranges area, Nepabunna. 110 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ad’n’amadana, Adynyamathanha, Anjimatana, Anjiwatana, Archualda, Benbakanjamata, Binbarnja, Gadjnjamada, Jandali, Kanjimata, Keydnjmarda, Mardala, Nimalda, Nuralda, Umbertana, Unyamootha, Wailbi, Wailpi, Waljbi, Wipie Dialects: None known. Related to Guyani [gvy], Barngarla [bjb], Nugunu [nnv], and Narungga [nnr], which may have no remaining speakers. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Aghu-Tharnggala
[gtu] Queensland, Dixie, Maramie, Lakefield. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aghu Tharnggala, Aghu Tharnggalai, Aghu Tharnggalu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama

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Alawa
[alh] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper river. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kallana, Leealowa Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Alawic

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Alngith
[aid] Queensland, northeast Cape York peninsula just north of Weipa. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Alyawarr
[aly] Northern Territory and Queensland, Sandover and Tennant creek areas. 1,660 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aljawara, Alyawarra, Alyawarre, Iliaura, Yowera Dialects: None known. Related to Western Arrarnte [are], Anmatyerre [amx], and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Ami
[amy] Northern Territory, Coast along Anson bay, southwest of Darwin. 30 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ame, Amijangal Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Wadjiginy [wdj]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy

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Amurdak
[amg] Northern Territory, Oenpelli, Goulburn island. 1 (2007 B. Birch). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amarag, Amarak, Amardak, A’moordiyu, Amurag, Amurdag, Amurrag, Amurrak, Amurtak, Amuruk, Mamurug, Monobar, Namurug, Nga:mr:rak, Nga:mu:rak, Ngamurag, Umoreo, Umoriu, Umorrdak, Wardadjbak, Woraidbug, Wureidbug Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Amaragic

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Andajin
[ajn] Western Australia, King Leopold ranges south to east Philips north, from Lungra Yard in the west to Tharlow Hill area east. 2 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andidja, Andidjara Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Ngarinyinic

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Andegerebinha
[adg] Northern Territory, Hay river, Pituri creek area, east of Alyawarra; also in Queensland. 10 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andigibinha, Antekerrepinhe Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Angkamuthi
[avm] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, narrow coastal stretch from north of Port Musgrave to Doughboy river, inland area of Crystal creek, middle Jardine river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Anggamudi, Ankamuti, Ngamiti, Nggamadi, Nggammadi, Ngkamadyi’ Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Anguthimri
[awg] Queensland, northern Cape York peninsula, Mission river mouth west to Duyfken Point, north to Pennefather river; Wenlock river south and west banks between Batavia Landing area and Gibson waterhole. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death is unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Angadimi, Angutimi, Ba:tyana, Batjana, Mbatyana, Ngerikudi, Nggerikudi, Nggirikudi, Nigger-Ikudi, Ra:kudi, Wimaranga, Wimarangga, Wimarango, Wimmarango, Yopngadi, Yupangati, Yupnget, Yupungati, Yupun-Gatti, Yuupngati Dialects: Mpakwithi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama Comments: Date of last speaker’s death is unknown.

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Anindilyakwa
[aoi] Northern Territory, Groote Eylandt, Gulf of Carpenteria. 1,290 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andiljangwa, Andilyaugwa, Aninhdhilyagwa, Enindhilyagwa, Enindiljaugwa, Groote Eylandt, Ingura, Wanindilyaugwa Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa

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Anmatyerre
[amx] Northern Territory, Mount Allen, northwest Alice Springs region. 1,000 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anmatjirra, Anmatyerr Dialects: Eastern Anmatyerre, Western Anmatyerre (Kalenthelkwe, Kelentheyewelrere, Kelenthwelkere). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Antakarinya
[ant] South Australia, north central area. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andagarinya Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Warnman [wbt]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Arabana
[ard] South Australia, west side Lake Eyre to Stuart range, Maree, Port Augusta. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arabunna Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku

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Arakwal
[rkw] New South Wales, from Ballina and northern bank of Richmond river to Cape Byron; south to Ballina, inland to Lismore, Casino, and Coraki. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coo-al, Gundurimba, Jawhumjeri, Kawhul, Kogung, Naiang, Njung, Nyung, Tugurimba, Yawkum-yere Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic

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Aranda, Lower Southern
[axl] Northern Territory: Alice Springs; Andado; Arltunga; Blood creek; Charlotte waters; Connor well; Deep well; Finke river; Gillen creek; Hale river; Henbury; Horseshoe bend; Hugh river; Idracowra; Intea; James range; MacDonnell range; Macumba river; Maryvale; Mount Dare. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aldolanga, Aldolinga, Alitera, Aranda, Aranta, Arinta, Arranda, Arrinda, Arrundta, Arrunta, Arunda, Arunndta, Arunta, Arunta Bu, Arunta Ulpma, Eastern Aranda, Lower Aranda, Southern Aranda, Western Aranda Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Areba
[aea] Queensland, southwest Cape York peninsula, Gilbert river, northeast of Normanton. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003). Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama

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Arrarnta, Western
[are] Northern Territory, Alice Springs area, Hermannsburg. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aranda, Arunta Dialects: Akerre (Akara), Southern Aranda, Western Aranda. Reportedly similar to Alyawarr [aly] and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Arrernte, Eastern
[aer] Northern Territory, Alice Springs area (Mparntwe), Santa Teresa (Ltyentye Apurte), Alcoota, Harts range (Artetyerre), Bonya (Uthipe Atherre), Amoonguna (Amwengkwerne). 2,380 (2006 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Arunta, Eastern Aranda, Upper Aranda Dialects: Akarre, Antekerrepenh, Ikngerripenhe, Mparntwe Arrernte, Upper Aranda. Related to Alyawarr [aly], Western Arrarnta [are], Anmatyerre [amx], and Kaytetye [gbb]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Atampaya
[amz] Queensland, extreme north Cape York peninsula, Eliot creek. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Australian Aborigines Sign Language
[asw] Southern Australia, central, and west desert regions, coastal Arnhem Land; north coast islands, Torres Strait islands, west side of Cape York peninsula. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not related to Australian Sign Language [asf]. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Australian Sign Language
[asf] 7,150 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in New South Wales. Alternate Names: Auslan Dialects: None known. Related to British Sign Language [bfi], with influences also from Irish [isg] and American sign languages [ase]. Many structural similarities between British Sign Language (BSL) [bfi], Australian Sign Language (Auslan) [asf], and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) [nzs] and a high degree of mutual intelligibility (2003 T. Johnston). Linguists sometimes use the name BANZSL to refer to them as a group, while still recognizing them as separate related languages. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Earliest schools for the deaf established by British deaf immigrants in 1860. Many agencies for the deaf. Sign language instruction for parents of deaf children. Committee on national sign language.

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Awabakal
[awk] New South Wales, Lake Macquarie, south from Newcastle. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Awabagal Dialects: Awabagal, Cameeragal, Wonarua. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Worimi

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Awngthim
[gwm] Queensland, northern Cape York peninsula, east of the Anguthimri, on Mission river north side. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Angutimi, Mamangidigh Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama Comments: Date of the last speaker’s death is unknown.

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Ayabadhu
[ayd] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, north of Coleman river, south of Coen. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Ayerrerenge
[axe] Queensland, Urandangi, Bathurst, Headingly, north to Lake Nash and Barkly Downs, east toward Mount Isa, west to near Mount Hogarth and Argadargada. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aroinga, Bulamu, Bulanja, Bulanu, Jarionga, Jaroinga, Jurangka, Manda, Pulanja, Yaringa, Yaroinga, Yarroinga, Yarrowin, Yorrawinga, Yorrowinga, Yuruwinga Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic Comments: The date of the last speaker’s death unknown.

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Badimaya
[bia] Western Australia, northeast of Moora to south of Cue; east to Paynes Find; west to Mullewa. 20 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Parti-Maya, Widimaya Dialects: None known. Related to Wajarri [wbv]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wadjari

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Badjiri
[jbi] New South Wales: from near Hungerford to Eulo on the Paroo river; east to near Barringun, Tinnenburra, Tuen, and Cunna-mulla; at Caiwarro and eastern side of Currawinya. Not extending very far west of Paroo river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baddjeri, Badjari, Ngura Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura

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Bandjalang
[bdy] New South Wales, northeast, Woodenbong; southeast Queensland. 100 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bandjelang, Bogganger, Bundala, Gidabal, Yugumbe Dialects: Gidabal (Gidhabal), Yugumbir. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic

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Barababaraba
[rbp] New South Wales, Murrumbidgee river south side, north of Hay to Victoria, Kerang; Cohuna, Gunbower, Brassi, Conargo, and across the river from Carrathool. 5 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baraba Baraba, Baraba-Baraba, Baraparapa, Barappur, Bareber Bareber, Barrababarraba, Barraba-Barraba, Beraba-Beraba, Birraba-Birraba, Boorabirraba, Booraboora, Boora-Boora, Boort, Burabura, Burappa, Burapper, Bureba, Burrabura-ba, Burraburburaba, Burrappa, Burrapper, Burreba-Burreba, Karraba, Perapa-Perapa Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin, Western

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Barbaram
[vmb] Queensland, Almaden, Great Dividing ridge, Irvinebank, Koorboora (Kaboura), Mareeba, Mount Garnett, Petford. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Balbarum, Barbarem, Barbarum, Booburam, Mbabaram, Mbara, Mogmnanarim, Oombarrmbarum, Umbarbarem, Woombarbarram, Wumbabaram Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southern Pama

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Bardi
[bcj] Western Australia, Western Kimberley region, One Arm Point Aboriginal community, Lombadina Aboriginal community, Broome, Derby. 160 (2006 census), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baadi, Baardi, Badi, Bard Dialects: Bardi, Jawi. Intelligibility adequate between Bardi and Jawi dialects. Related to Nyikina [nyh], Warrwa [wwr], Djawi [djw], Nimanbur [nmp], Nyulnyul [nyv], Dyaberdyaber [dyb], Dyugun [dyd], and Yawuru [ywr]. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan Comments: Christian.

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Barngarla
[bjb] Southern Australia, Port Lincoln to Spencer gulf head. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bahanga-La, Bangala, Banggala, Banggarla, Bungeha, Bungela, Kortabina, Pakarla, Pangkala, Pankalla, Parnkala, Parnkalla, Punkalla Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Barrow Point
[bpt] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, Barrow Point on Princess Charlotte bay and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Guugu-Yimidhirr

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Batyala
[xby] Queensland: Cairns; Fraser island; Great Sandy island; Kabikabi mission; Noosa Head; Pialba; Tinana creek; Yarrabah; Thoorgine. 7 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Badjela, Badtala, Badtjala, Badyala, Batjala, Bidhala, Butchulla, Dulingbara, Gnoolongbara, Koolaburra, Ngulungbara, Olungbura, Patyala, Thoorgine Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic

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Bayali
[bjy] Queensland, Fitzroy river mouth inland to Boomer range, Marlborough, Yeppon, Yamba, and Rockhampton. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biyali, Charumbul, Darambal, Darawal, Darumbal, Ningebal, Orambul, Tarumbal, Tharumbal, Urambal, Warabal Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Kingkel

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Bayungu
[bxj] Western Australia, lower Lyndon and Minilya rivers, West Pilbara. 6 (Wurm 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baiong, Baiung, Bajungu, Biong, Giong, Mulgarnoo, Pajungu, Payungu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Kanyara

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Bibbulman
[xbp] Western Australia: Lower Blackwood river, on the hills between the Blackwood and Warren rivers, east to Gardner river and Broke inlet, on Scott river, inland to Manjimup and Bridgetown. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bajongwongi, Bebleman, Bibbulmun, Bibilum, Bibulman, Bibulmun, Bibuulmoun, Meeraman, Murram, Peopleman, Pepelman, Pibilum, Piblemen Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Bidyara
[bym] Queensland, between Tambo and Augathella, Warrego and Langlo rivers. No known L1 speakers. No remaining speakers (Ruhlen 1987). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bidjara, Bithara, Bitjara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Bigambal
[xbe] New South Wales. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bigambul, Bigumbil Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan

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Bindal
[xbd] Victoria: from mouth of Burdekin river north to Cape Cleveland; inland to Leichhardt range; Ayr. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nyawaygi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan

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Biri
[bzr] Queensland southeast of Charters Towers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wirri Dialects: Yetimarala. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Birrpayi
[xbj] Victoria: mouth of Manning river at Taree, inland to near Gloucester; principally on south side of river, also on the Forbes, upper Hastings and Wilson rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biribi, Birippi, Birrapee, Birripai, Birrpai, Bripi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Broome Pearling Lugger Pidgin
[bpl] Broome, Lombardinie, Beagle Bay, La Grange, One Arm Point, Derby. No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 40. Status: 9 (Second language only).Lingua franca on pearling boats between Malays, Japanese, Chinese, and Aborigines. Alternate Names: Broom Creole, Japanese Pidgin English, Koepang Talk, Malay Talk Classification: Pidgin, Malay based Comments: Some Japanese [jpn] and Aboriginal creole or pidgin English words.

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Bunaba
[bck] Western Australia, Fitzroy Crossing area. 110 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bunuba, Punapa, Punuba Classification: Australian, Bunaban

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Bunganditj
[xbg] South Australia: Balmoral; Cape Jaffa; Casterton; Dartmoor; Glenelg river; Lake Mundi; Mount Gambier; Mount Zero; Penola; Robe; Wannon river; Western Grampians. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bak-on-date, Banaditj, Bangandadj, Bangandidj, Barconedeet, Baundik, Boandic, Boandik, Booandik, Booandik-ngolo, Booandki-ngolo, Booganitch, Booganity, Boongandity, Borandikngolo, Buadik, Buandic, Buandig, Buandik, Buanditj, Bugandity, Bunganadity, Bungandaetch, Bung’andaetch, Bungandaetcha, Bungandaitj, Bungandidj, Bungandij, Bunganditjngolo, Bungandity, Bunjanditj, Burhwundeirtch, Drualatngolonung, Drualat-ngolonung, Nguro, Pungandaitj, Pungandik, Pungantitj, Pungatitj Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bungandidj

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Burarra
[bvr] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Maningrida. 1,070 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anbarra, Barera, Bawera, Burada, Bureda, Burera, Gidjingaliya Gujingalia, Gujalabiya, Gun-Guragone, Jikai, Tchikai Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran

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Burduna
[bxn] Western Australia, Henry and upper Lyndon rivers. 3 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Boordoona, Budina, Budoona, Buduna, Pinneegooroo, Poodena, Poordoona, Purduma, Purduna Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Kanyara

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 218,000 in Australia (2006 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Dadi Dadi
[dda] Northwestern Victoria State, southwestern New South Wales, Murray river to south bank, north to Benanee. 10 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dadidadi, Dardidardi, Dardi-Dardi, Tatitati, Tharrthi-Tharrthi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic

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Dagoman
[dgn] Northern Territory. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Wardaman [wrr]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic

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Dalabon
[ngk] Northern Territory, Katherine area, Oenpell, Arnhem Land. 11 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bouin, Boun, Buan, Buin, Buwan, Dangbon, Gundangbon, Nalabon, Ngalabon, Ngalkbon, Ngalkbun Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Ngalkbun

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Darkinyung
[xda] New South Wales; Cessnock, Colo river, Hawkesbury river, Hunter river, Jerry’s plain, Macdonald river, Putty, Rylstone, Wisemans ferry, Wollombi. A few speakers reported in 2008. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Darginjang, Darginyung, Darkinjang, Darkinoong, Darkinung, Darknung Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Daungwurrung
[dgw] Northeastern Victoria State, Broken, Delatite, Goulburn, Coliban, and Campaspe watersheds. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Daung Wurrung, Dhagung-wurrung, Taungurong, Taungurung, Thagawurung Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Dayi
[dax] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper river, Yirrkala, Lake Evella, Galiwinku, Numbulwam. 170 (2006 census). 53 Dhalwangu, 115 Dayi speakers (2006 census). 0 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dha’i, Dhay’yi Dialects: Dhalwangu, Djarrwark. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Dhalandji
[dhl] Western Australia, Exmouth gulf head inland to Ashburton river, West Pilbara. 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Only a few speakers remain (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dalandji, Dalendi, Djalendi, Talaindji, Talandi, Talandji, Talangee, Tallainga, Taloinga, Thalantji, Thalanyji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Dhalandji

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Dhargari
[dhr] Western Australia, Kennedy range, upper Minilya and lower Lyons rivers, West Pilbara. 1 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dal’gari, Targari, Tarkarri, Thargari, Tharrgari, Tharrkari Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda Comments: Ruhlen (1987) classifies it in a separate Mantharda group.

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Dharuk
[xdk] New South Wales: Camden; Campbelltown; Hawkesbury river; Liverpool; Mount Victoria; Penrith; Windsor; Sydney. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Darrook, Dharrook, Dhar’rook, Dharruk, Dharug Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Dharumbal
[xgm] Queensland: Bombandy; Broad sound; Cape Palmerston; Coast range; Normanby range; Pine mountain; Saint Lawrence; Styx; Yaamba. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Charumbul, Darambal, Darawal, Darumbal, Koinbal, Koinjmal, Kungalburra, Kungmal, Mamburra, Tarumbal, Tharumbal, Urambal Dialects: Kuinmabara (Guwinmal, Kooinmarburra, Kooinmerburra, Kuinmurbara, Kuinmurbura). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Dhungaloo
[dhx] Queensland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dungaloo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Dhurga
[dhu] New South Wales, Bermagui to Jervis bay. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhu’rga, Dhuurga, Durga, Duurga, Tharumba, Thoorga, Thurga Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Dhuwal
[duj] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper river. 600 (2006 census). 140 Dhuwal, 26 Datiwuy, 320 Dhuwaya, 59 Liyagawumirr, 12 Marrangu, 45 Djapu (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dual, Duala, Wulamba Dialects: Datiwuy (Daatiwuy), Dhuwal, Dhuwaya, Djapu, Liyagalawumirr, Liyagawumirr, Marrakulu, Marrangu. Reportedly similar to Djangu [dhg]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Dieri
[dif] South Australia, Leigh creek. 10 (2013 P. Austin). Ethnic population: 600. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Diyari Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Dirari
[dit] Southern Australia, east of Lake Eyre North. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhirari Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Djabwurrung
[tjw] Victoria, Ararat, Hamilton, Hopkins river, Mount Rouse, Mount William, Stawell, Wickliffe, Maroona. 7 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chaa wuurong, Chaap Wuurong, Chaap-Warrong, Chaapwurra, Chaapwurru, Chaapwuurong, Chap wurong, Chap wurrung, Chap-wurong, Djab Wurrung, Djab wurung, Djabwuru, Djabwurung, Dyabwurung, Dyapwurong, Jab Wurrong, Jab wurrung, Kolor, Kolorer, Kooloor, Pirtkopannoot, Punoinjon, Purteetchally, Tchapwurong, Thapwurong, Tjap, Tjapwuron, Tjapwurong, Tjap-wurong, Tjapwurun, Tjapwurung, Tjapwuurong, Tyapawurru, Tyapwurru, Tyapwuru Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Djadjawurrung
[dja] Victoria State, Kyneton, Boort, Lake Buloke, Wallaloo creek, Navarre hill. No known L1 speakers. Date of the last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Djadja Wurrung, Djadjawurung, Dyadyawurung, Jaara, Jaja-Wurrung, Jajawurung, Le Wurrung, Lewurru, Lewurrung, Yaara, Yaura Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Djambarrpuyngu
[djr] Northern Territory, Elcho island. 2,760 (2006 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Lingua franca. Alternate Names: Djambarbwingu, Jambapuing, Jambapuingo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Djamindjung
[djd] Northern Territory, Victoria river. 120 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jaminjung Dialects: Ngaliwuru (Ngaliwerra). Classification: Australian, Djamindjungan

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Djangu
[dhg] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Elcho island. 270 (2006 census). 58 Djangu, 170 Gaalpu, 44 Wangurri (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Budalpudal, Burada, Buralbural, Buratha, Dangu, Dhangu, Dhangu’mi, Warameri, Waramiri, Warramiri, War-ramirri, Warumeri Dialects: Dhangu-Djangu, Gaalpu (Kalbu), Golumala, Ngaymil, Rirratjingu, Wangurri. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhangu Comments: Glossonym: Yolngu-Matha, ‘people language’.

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Djangun
[djf] Queensland, Mount Mulligan south to Alma-den, east to Dimbula, west to Mungana. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adho-Adhom, Butju, Chungki, Chunkumberries, Chunkunburra, Jangun Djanggun, Koko-Mudju, Koko-Tyankun, Mutyu, Ngaigungo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic

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Djauan
[djn] Northern Territory, Bamyili settlement, Katherine. 43 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Adowen, Jawan, Jawony, Jawoyn, Kumertuo Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Djauanic

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Djawi
[djw] Western Australia, islands from King sound to Brunswick bay. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2003). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Djeebbana
[djj] Northern Territory, West Arnhem Land, Maningrida north coast area. 240 (2006 census). L2 users: 100 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gunavidji Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran Comments: Ethnic autonym: Gunavidji.

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Djinang
[dji] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Ramingining, Goyder, and Blyth rivers. 210 (2006 census). 170 Djinang, 43 Wulaki (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jandijinung Dialects: Balurbi, Djadiwitjibi, Manyarring, Mildjingi, Murrungun, Wulaki (Wurlaki). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Djinang Comments: Intermarry with the Djinba [djb].

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Djinba
[djb] Northern Territory in Ngangalala, Arnhem Land, southeast adjoining Djinang area. 45 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dabi, Ganalbingu, Mandjalpingu. Lexical similarity: 60% with Djinang [dji]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Djinang Comments: Intermarry with the Djinang [dji].

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Djingili
[jig] Northern Territory, Elsey station, Newcastle waters, Ash Burton range area, Elliott. 52 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chingalee, Chunguloo, Djingila, Djingulu, Jingali, Jingulu, Lee, Tchingalee, Tjingilu Classification: Australian, West Barkly

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Djiwarli
[dze] Western Australia: Ashburton river; Elliott creek; Henry river; Lyons river; Mount Florry; Mount Hamlet; Yannarie river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Djiwali, Djwarli, Jivali, Jiwali, Tivali, Tjiwali, Tjiwarli Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Thiin [iin]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda Comments: Ruhlen (1987) classifies it in a separate Mantharda group.

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Dyaabugay
[dyy] Queensland, Barron river south of Mareeba to Kuranda, north to Port Douglas on a plateau. 29 (2006 census). Only 3 speakers in 1981 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bulum-Bulum, Check-Cull, Chewlie, Djabugai, Dyabugay, Hileman, Kikonjunkulu, Kodgotto, Kokonyungalo, Koko-Tjumbundji, Ngarlkajie, Orlow, Tjabakai-Thandji, Tjabogaijanji, Tjankir, Tjankun, Tjapukai, Tjapunkandji, Tjunbundji Dialects: Dyaabugay, Gulay, Njakali (Nyagali, Nyakali). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yidinic

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Dyaberdyaber
[dyb] Western Australia, coast south of Beagle Bay and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jabirr-Jabirr Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Dyangadi
[dyn] New South Wales, Kempsey area, Armidale, Macleay river. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Extinct for 2 decades (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Boorkutti, Burgadi, Dainggati, Dangadi, Dangati, Danggadi, Danggetti, Djan-Gadi, Ghangatty, Tangetti, Thangatti, Thangatty Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyangadi

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Dyirbal
[dbl] Northeast Queensland, Herberton south to Herbert river headwaters to Cashmere, at Ravenshoe, Millaa Millaa, and Woodleigh, east to Tully falls. 29 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Djirubal Dialects: Dyiru, Girramay (Keramai), Gulnguy (Gulngay), Mamu, Ngadjan (Ngatjan). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic

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Dyugun
[dyd] Western Australia, Broome coast area and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jukun Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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English
[eng] 15,600,000 in Australia (2006 census). L2 users: 3,500,000 in Australia (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Aboriginal English, Australian Standard English, Neo-Nyungar (Noogar, Noonga, Noongar). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English Comments: Minor regional dialect differences. Neo-Nyungar is the community dialect of the Nyungar people.

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Erre
[err] Northern Territory, Red Lily area west of Oenpelli; East Alligator river area, Mount Howship. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ari, Ere Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu

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Flinders Island
[fln] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, Flinders island, Princess Charlotte bay. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Yalgawarra Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Flinders Island

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Gabi-Gabi
[gbw] Queensland, Caboolture, Bribie island, Childers, Jimna range, Maryborough, Hervey bay, Mary river, Cooroy, Burnett, Coast ranges, Kilkivan, Gympie, Fraser island. No known L1 speakers. Speaker numbers are not known but there is a sizable community in Brisbane who identify with this group. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cabee, Carby, Carby-carbery, Dhapil, Dhipil, Dippil, Dipple, Doon-dooburra, Doondoora, Dowarburra, Dundubara, Dunduura, Gabi, Gabigabi, Kabbi, Kabi, Kabikabi, Kahby, Karabi, Karbi, Maiba Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic

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Gadjerawang
[gdh] Western Australia and Northern Territory, north coast from Wyndham to Victoria river mouth and inland. 3 (2011 SIL). A few elderly speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gadjerong, Kajirrawung Classification: Australian, Djeragan

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Gagadu
[gbu] Northern Territory, Oenpelli. 1 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Abdedal, Abiddul, Gaagudju, Kakadu, Kakakta, Kakdju, Kakdjuan Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gagudjuan

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Gambera
[gma] Western Australia, Admiralty gulf, far north Kimberleys area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gamberre, Gambre, Gamgre, Guwan, Kambera Classification: Australian, Worrorran

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Gamilaraay
[kld] Central northern New South Wales, along Barwon, Bundarra, Balonne rivers, Liverpool Plains and upper Hunter river; 2 small areas in southeast Queensland. 35 (2006 census). Recently extinct in its original form, but spoken by many as a mixture of English [eng] and Gamilaraay (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Camileroi, Gamilaroi, Kamilaroi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric

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Ganggalida
[gcd] Queensland near Bourketown. 1 (Wurm 2007). Six semi-speakers; one full speaker (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ganggalita, Jakula, Jugula, Kangkalita, Yokula, Yugulda, Yukala, Yukulta Dialects: Kangkalita, Nguburindi. Classification: Australian, Tangic

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Gangulu
[gnl] Queensland, Isaac river area, west of Marlborough. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Garig-Ilgar
[ilg] Northern Territory, Mainland of Cobourg peninsula, Port Essington area. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 2003. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Garig, Ilgar. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic

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Garingbal
[xgi] Queensland: Bedourie; Brown river; Carnavon range; Comet river; Consuelo peak; Expedition range; Rolleston. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kaingbul, Kanoloo, Karingbal, Karingbool, Karranbal Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Garlali
[gll] Victoria: at Bulloo Downs; north to Orient, west to Grey range; east to Clyde, south to Bulloo lake floodplain. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galali, Kalali Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura

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Garrwa
[wrk] Northern Territory, eastern bank of Macarthur river at Borroloola near Queensland border, towards Doomadgee and Nicolson river. 59 (Mushin 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gaarwa, Garawa, Garrawa, Grawa, Karawa, Kariwa, Karrawar, Karrwa, Korrawa, Kurrawar, Leearawa, Leearrawa, Wollongorang, Wulungwara Dialects: Gunindirri. Lexical similarity: 66% with Wanyi [wny], 28% with Yanyuwa [jao], 25% with Gudanji [nji], 17% with Wambaya [wmb], 4% with Ganggalida [gcd]. Classification: Australian, Yanyi Comments: Intermarry with Yanyuwa [jao].

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Githabul
[gih] Queensland and New South Wales; Clarence river, Drake, Killarney, Logan river, Rathdowney, Richmond river, Spicer Gap, Tabulam, Tooloom, Unumgar, Urbenville, Woodenbong. 20 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gidabul, Gidjoobal, Kidabal, Kidjabal, Kitabool, Kita-bool, Kitapul, Kittabool, Kitta-bool, Kuttibul, Noowidal Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic

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Giyug
[giy] Northern Territory, Anson Bay, Peron islands, southwest of Darwin. 2 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy

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Golpa
[lja] Northern Territories, Wessels, Elcho, Murru’ga. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Golba, Golbu, Gorlba, Kolpa Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu

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Gooniyandi
[gni] Western Australia, Gogo, Fossil Downs, Louisa, and Margaret river stations. 410 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gunian, Guniandi, Guniyan, Guniyandi, Guniyn, Konejandi, Koneyandi, Kunan, Kunian, Kuniyan Classification: Australian, Bunaban

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Goreng
[xgg] Western Australia: Badgebup; Bremer bay; Broome Hill; Ceranbrook; Gairdner river; Gnowangerup; Jeramungup; Kibbleup; Kojonup; Nampup; Nyabing; Ongerup; Pallinup river; Pingrup; Qualeup; Salt river; Stirling range; Tambellup. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Corine, Coro-ran, Kaialiwongi, Kokar, Koorengi, Kuriny, Mongup, Warangu, Warranger, Warrangle, Warrangoo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Gudang
[xgd] Queensland; Albany island; Escape river; Mount Adolphus island; Cape York. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Alauikeno, Gootung, Kekoseno Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman

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Gudanji
[nji] Northern Territory, Barkly tableland, northeast of Lake Woods, Tennant creek, Elliott, and Borroloola. 3 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kurdanji, Ngarnga Dialects: Binbinka, Ngarnga. Classification: Australian, West Barkly

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Gugadj
[ggd] Queensland, north coast, west of Karumba inland on Norman river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Flinders Pama

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Gugu Badhun
[gdc] Queensland, west of Ingham and Abergowrie, almost to Einasleigh. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Gugu Warra
[wrw] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, west bank of Normanby river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Guguwarra, Kuku-Wara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mbariman

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Gugubera
[kkp] Queensland, Mission river mouth area, Mitchell river. 100 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Berang, Kok Kaber, Koko Bera, Koko Pera, Kukubera, Paperyn Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Coastal Pama

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Guguyimidjir
[kky] Queensland, Hopevale. 780 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gugu Yimijir, Gugu-Yimidhirr, Guugu Yimidhirr, Guugu Yimithirr, Koko Imudji, Kukuyimidir Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Guugu-Yimidhirr

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Gumatj
[gnn] Northern Territory, Yirrkala. 240 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gomadj, Gumait, Gumaj Dialects: Mangalili. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Gunditjmara
[gjm] Victoria: Cape Bridgewater; Caramut; Hamilton; Hopkins river; Lake Condah; Port Fairy; Portland; Warrnambol; Woolsthorpe. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhauhurtwurru, Gournditch-mara, Gurnditschmara, Kirurndit, Kuunditjmara, Kuurn-kopan-noot, Ngutuk, Nil-can-cone-deets, Tourahonong, Weeritch-Weeritch Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bungandidj

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Gundungurra
[xrd] New South Wales: Berrima; Camden; Goulburn; Wollondilly. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Burragorang, Cundunorah, Gandangara, Gundanora, Gundungari, Gundungorra, Gurra-gunga Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ngunawal [xul]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Gungabula
[gyf] Queensland, Injune area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Gunwinggu
[gup] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Oenpelli, Maningrida, Croker Island. 1,220 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gunawitji, Gunwinjgu, Kuninjku, Kunwinjku, Mayali Dialects: Gumadir, Gundjeipme, Gunei (Kune), Muralidban, Naiali. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gunwinggic

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Gunya
[gyy] Queensland, Wyandra area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Gupapuyngu
[guf] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Milingimbi, Elcho Islands. 330 (2006 census). 500 use other Dhuwal varieties. L2 users: 950. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gobabingo, Gubabwingu Dialects: Dhuwala, Gupapuyngu, Madarrpa, Manggalili, Munyuku, Walangu, Wubulkarra. About 45 related dialects. Reportedly similar to Gumatj [gnn]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Guragone
[gge] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, south of Maningrida, Mann river area, northwest of Rembarunga [rmb] language area, east of Gunwinyggu [gup] language area. 60 (2011 R. Singer and C. Bowern). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gorogone, Gunagoragone, Gungorogone, Gun-Guragone, Gurrgoni, Gurrogone, Gutjertabia Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran

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Gurdjar
[gdj] Western Queensland, Norman river, northeast side, Normanton. 1 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kurtjjar Dialects: None known. Users report it is similar to Kunggari [kgl]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama

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Gureng Gureng
[gnr] Queensland, southeast, Abercorn area, north Burnett river district. No known L1 speakers. L2 users: L2 by fewer than 100 children and adults. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gureng-Gureng, Gurreng Gurreng Dialects: Gurreng Gurreng dialect uses the trilled r. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Than

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Gurinji
[gue] Northern Territory, Victoria river and Wave Hill, Kalkaringi. 590 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gurindji, Wurlayi Dialects: Malngin, Wanyjirra (Wandjirra). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin Comments: Gurinji children’s language is a mixed language from Gurinji and Kriol.

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Guwa
[xgw] Queensland; Victoria river, headwaters of Diamantina north to Kynuna, and Hamilton creek divide; west to Middleton creek; east to Winton and Sesbania; south almost to Cork. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coa, Coah, Goa, Goamulgo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Guwamu
[gwu] Queensland, between St. George, Surat, Moonie and Maranoa rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Guyani
[gvy] South Australia, south Yorke Peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kijani, Kuyani, Kwiani Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Narungga [nnr]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Ikaranggal
[ikr] Queensland: Lakeland, Dixie, Palmer, Goldfield. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ikarranggali Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama

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Iwaidja
[ibd] Northern Territory, Croker Island. 140 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eiwaja, Ibadjo, Iwaidji, Iwaydja, Jiwadja, Karadjee, Limba Dialects: Iwaydja. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic

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Jaitmatang
[xjt] Victoria, Lake Dartmouth. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jadjmadang, Jaithmathang, Jaitmathang, Yadymadhang Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Jandai
[jan] Victoria State, southern two-thirds of Stradbroke Island. No known L1 speakers (1996 AUSTLANG). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coobenpil, Djandai, Djendewal, Dsandai, Goenpul, Janday, Jendairwal, Jundai, Koenpel, Noogoon, Tchandi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic

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Jaru
[ddj] Western Australia, southeast Kimberley region, Halls Creek, Ringers Soak; Northern Territory, southeast of Gurinji [gue] area. 360 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djaru, Jaroo, Tjaru, Wawari Dialects: Djaru, Nyininy. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Kala Lagaw Ya
[mwp] Queensland, Western Torres Strait islands, Mabuiag, Badu, Moa, Kubin, Saibai, Boigu, Dauan, Yam, Sue, Yorke, Coconut, Thursday, Bamaga Islands; Townsville, Brisbane. 1,210 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Torres Strait, Kala Lagau Langgus, Kala Lagaw, Kala Yagaw Ya, Langus, Mabuiag, Yagar Yagar Dialects: Kalaw Kawaw. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kala Lagaw Ya

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Kalaamaya
[lkm] Victoria: at Boorabbin and Southern Cross; east to Bullabull-ing, north to Youanmi, Lake Barlee, and Pigeon Rocks; west to Burracoppin, Mukinbudin, Kalannie, and Lake Moore; south to about Mount Holland in the Parker range. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kalamaia, Karlamay, Karlamayi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West

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Kalarko
[kba] Western Australia, Fraser and Bremer ranges area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galaagu, Kalaaku, Kalako, Kalakul, Malba, Malpa Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mirning

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Kalkutung
[ktg] Queensland, Mount Isa area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Galgadungu, Galgaduun, Kalkadoon, Kalkatungu, Kalkutungu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic

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Kamu
[xmu] Northern Territory, south of Darwin, east of Daly river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gamor Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Daly Proper

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Kanju
[kbe] Queensland, Central Cape York. 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gandanju, Gandju, Jabuda, Kaantyu, Kamdhue, Kandju, Kandyu, Kanyu, Karnu, Neogulada, Yaldiye-Ho Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama

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Karadjeri
[gbd] Western Australia, Roebuck Bay and inland, Broome, La Grange mission. 26 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Garadjiri, Garadyari, Gard’are, Guradjara, Karajarri, Karrajarri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Marngu

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Karenggapa
[eaa] Queensland, Mount Bygrave and Woodbum lake; at Yalpunga and Connulpie Downs; on the Bulloo river about Bulloo lakes; southwest to near Milpa-rinka; east to Therloo Downs; New South Wales, Tiboo-burra. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Garanggaba, Karrengappa, Kurengappa Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Kariyarra
[vka] Western Australia, south of Port Hedland. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1991. Some people still know some words (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gariera, Kariera, Kariyara, Karriara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Karnic, Eastern
[ekc] Northwest New South Wales, southwest Queensland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dhiraila, Garandala, Karendala, Ngura Dialects: Bidjara, Dhiraila, Garandala, Mambangura, Mingbari, Ngurawarla, Yarumarra. Related to Garlali [gll], Punthamara [xpt], Badjiri [jbi], and Wangkurmara [xwk]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura

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Karranga
[xrq] Northern Territory: Yarralin, Victoria River Downs homestead, Moolooloo, Killarney homestead. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karanga, Karangpurru, Karrangpurru Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mudburra [dmw]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Karuwali
[rxw] Queensland, Beal range; Beetoota; Connemara; Diamantina river; Durrie; Farrars creek; Haddon Corner; Monkira; Morney plains. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gara-wali, Goore, Karawalla, Karorinje, Kuriwalu, Kurrawulla Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Kayardild
[gyd] Queensland, Gulf of Carpentaria, Mornington Island. 23 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gajadilt, Gajardild, Gayadilt, Gayardild, Gayardilt, Kaiadilt, Malununda Classification: Australian, Tangic

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Kaytetye
[gbb] Northern Territory, North of Alice Springs. 140 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gaididj, Kaiditj, Kaititj Dialects: None known. Related to Alyawarr [aly]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic

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Kitja
[gia] Western Australia, near Hall’s and Turkey creeks. 210 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gidja, Kidja, Kija Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Miriwung [mep]. Classification: Australian, Djeragan Comments: Nomadic.

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Kok-Nar
[gko] Queensland. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in the early 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gundara, Kok Nar, Koknar, Kok-Narr, Kwanthar Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama

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Kokata
[ktd] South Australia, Pimba, Mount Eba, Coober Peby. 19 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gugada, Kokatha, Kokitta, Koocatho, Koogurda, Kugurda, Kukata, Madutara, Maduwonga, Wanggamadu, Wongamardu Dialects: None known. Different from Kukatja [kux]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati Comments: People may adequately understand Pintupi-Luritja [piu] or Pitjantjatjara [pjt].

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Koko Babangk
[okg] Queensland, lower Cape York peninsula, Gulf of Carpenteria coast, between Mitchell and Nassau rivers. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kok Peponk, Kok-Babonk, Koko Kunaniy, Kok-Papangk, Kok-Paponk Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama

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Kriol
[rop] Western Australia, Northern Territory, Kimberley region, Roper river, Katherine areas, Ngukurr; Queensland, Gulf country, Lower Cape York peninsula. 4,200 (2006 census). L2 users: 10,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Roper-Bamyili Creole Dialects: Bamyili Creole, Barkly Kriol, Daly River Kriol, Fitzroy Valley Kriol, Roper River Kriol (Roper River Pidgin). Both Kriol and Torres Strait Creole [tcs] are spreading and are nearly overlapping in Queensland. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific

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Kukatja
[kux] Western Australia, Balgo, Lake Gregory and east, south of Halls Creek. 440 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gugadja, Kukaja Dialects: None known. Different from Kokata [ktd]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Kuku-Mangk
[xmq] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Mangk Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Kuku-Mu’inh
[xmp] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Mu’inh Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Kuku-Muminh
[xmh] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. 31 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kugu, Kugu-Muminh, Wik Muminh, Wik-Mumin Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Kuku-Ugbanh
[ugb] Queensland, Cape York peninsula west coast, south of Aurukun. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kugu-Ugbanh Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Kuku-Uwanh
[uwa] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kugu-Uwanh Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Kuku-Yalanji
[gvn] Queensland, Wujal-Wujal, Bloomfield River (Ayton), Daintree and Mossman, between Cooktown and Mossman. 360 (2006 census), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guguyalanji, Koko-Yalanji, Kuku-Yalangi Dialects: Kuku-Biraji, Kuku-Nyungkul. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kumbainggar
[kgs] New South Wales, Grafton and north coast. 42 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baanbay, Gambalamam, Gumbaingari, Gumbaynggir, Kumbaingeri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Gumbaynggiric

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Kunbarlang
[wlg] Northern Territory, Oenpelli, Maningrida, and Goulburn Island. 16 (2006 census), decreasing. Ethnic group members generally speak Gunwinggu [gup]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gunbalang, Gunbarlang, Gungalang, Walang, Warlang Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gunwinggic

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Kungarakany
[ggk] Northern Territory, Finniss river; south of Darwin, Darwin river and Rum Jungle area. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1989. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gunerakan, Gungaragan, Gungarakanj, Kangarraga, Kungarakan Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gungaraganyan

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Kungardutyi
[gdt] Victoria. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gungadidji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Kunggara
[kvs] Queensland, Normanton, Delta. 10 (1971 SIL). Possibly has no remaining speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Goom-Gharra, Gunggara, Kunggera Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama

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Kunggari
[kgl] Queensland, Upper Nebine and Mungallala creeks. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coongurri, Gungari, Gunggari, Ungorri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Kungkari
[lku] Queensland: Thomson and Cooper (Barcoo) rivers, Jundah; Westland, Longreach; Avington, Blackall, Terrick Terrick; Grey range, Cheviot range, Powell creek, Welford. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koongerri, Koonkerri, Kungeri, Kunggari, Mokaburra, Tarawalla, Torra-burri, Yangeeberra, Yankibura Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Kunjen
[kjn] Queensland, Wrotham Park, Kowanyama, Edward river. 20 (1991 B. Sommer), decreasing. 40 with some knowledge. Ethnic population: 300 (1991 B. Sommer). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guguminjen, Kukumindjen Dialects: Oykangand (Ogondyan, Olgel, Olgol). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Central Pama

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Kurnai
[unn] Victoria: almost all of Gippsland from Inverloch to Cann river. 26 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cunni, Ganai, Gooni, Gunna, Gunnai, Kunnai Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan

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Kurrama
[vku] Western Australia, northwest, southeast of Pannawonica. 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gurama, Karama, Korama, Kurama Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Kuthant
[xut] Queensland, southwest Cape York peninsula, north of Karumba and Normanton. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama

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Kuuk-Yak
[uky] Queensland, Cape York peninsula mid-western coast and inland, between Edward and Coleman rivers. No known L1 speakers. Estimated 40 speakers in 1975, but the date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koko Yak, Kuku Yak, Kuuk Yak Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southwestern Pama

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Kuuku-Ya’u
[kuy] Queensland, northeastern Cape York peninsula south of Temple bay. 21 (1996 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bagadji, Gugu Yau, Koko-Ja’o, Kokoyao, Pakadji, Ya’o Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama

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Kwini
[gww] Western Australia, Kalumburu. 50 (Black 1983). Number of speakers has seriously dropped since 1979 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cuini, Gunin, Gwiini, Gwini, Kunan, Wunambal Classification: Australian, Worrorran Comments: Ethnonym: Kwini. Glossonym: Goonan (Kunan). Gwini is Wunambal word for ‘east’ and was used by some people to refer to both Kwini and Wunambal (Yeidji)[wub].

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Ladji Ladji
[llj] Victoria State. No known L1 speakers. Estimated 10 speakers in 2005 (National Indigenous Languages Survey Report). Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Acaxee, Laci-Laci, Ladji-Ladji, Laitchi-Laitchi, Laitu, Laitu-Laitu, Latja Latji, Latjalatji, Latje Latje, Latjilatji, Latjoo-Latjoo, Latyoo-Latyoo, Ledjiledji, Ledji-Ledji, Leitch-Leitchi, Litchoo-Litchoo, Litchy-Litchy, Lutchye-Lutchye Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Lamu-Lamu
[lby] Queensland, Bamiga, and Coen. 19 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lamalama, Lama-Lama, Lamulamul, Mba Rumbathama Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Lamalamic Comments: Ethnic groups include Baganambia, Gan-Ganda, Wurangung.

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Lanima
[lnw] Victoria: Julaolinja, Carlo springs on upper Mulligan river. They shifted east to Marion downs in postcontact times. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lhanima, Pitta Pitta, Ulaolinya, Yurlayurlanya Classification: Australian

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Laragia
[lrg] Northern Territory, Darwin area. 23 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gulumirrgin, Laragiya, Larakia, Larakiya Classification: Australian, Laragiyan

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Lardil
[lbz] Queensland, Mornington Island. 54 (2006 census). More semi-speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kunana, Ladil, Laierdila, Lardill Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Lardil

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Leningitij
[lnj] Queensland, Winduwinda area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Linngithig, Linngithigh Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Limilngan
[lmc] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Mary River to west Alligator river, coast and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Manadja, Minitji Classification: Australian, Limilngan-Wulna

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Madhi Madhi
[dmd] New South Wales, Murray to Balranald districts, north to the Lachlan. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Madhimadhi, Madhi-Madhi, Muthimuthi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin Comments: Sound recordings made with Madhi Madhi speaker, Jack Long, in January 1969.

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Madngele
[zml] Northern Territory, south of Darwin and Daly rivers, Muldiva river west bank. 15 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maangella, Madngela, Mandella, Matngala, Matngele, Muttangulla, Warat Dialects: None known. Related to Kamu [xmu]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Daly Proper

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Malay, Cocos Islands
[coa] Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island. 1,000 in Australia (1987). 500 in Cocos Islands, 560 on Christmas Island (1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cocos, Kokos, Kukus Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Muslim.

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Malgana
[vml] Western Australia, Shark Bay, south of Wooramel river to Hamelin Pool area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maldjana, Maljanna, Malkana Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Malgana

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Malyangapa
[yga] Milparinka, New South Wales, Yancannie creek head, east beyond Mount Arrowsmith, south to about Mootwin-gee and Sturt Meadow. No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker, Laurie Quayle, died in 1976. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bulali, Bulalli, Karikari, Malgaaljangaba, Malgangara, Malja:pa, Maljangaba, Maljangapa, Malyanapa, Malya-napa, Malyangaba, Malyapa, Malynapa, Milyauppa, Milya-uppa, Muliaarpa, Mullia-arpa, Multyerra, Mulyanapa, Mulya-napa, Mulyanappa, Mulya-nappa, Nalyanapa Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli

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Manangkari
[znk] Northern Territory, Cobourg Peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Iwaidja [ibd]. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic

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Manda
[zma] Northern Territory, coast southwest of Anson Bay, southwest of Darwin. 25 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy

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Mandandanyi
[zmk] Queensland, Roma Area, Maranoa river to Miles and Wandoan areas. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mandandanjnjdji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Mangala
[mem] Western Australia, southwest, Fitzroy, West Pilbara, Broome, Jurgurra creek, Edgar range. 61 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Djawali, Djuwali, Jiwali, Jiwarli, Koalgurdi, Manala, Mangalaa, Mangarla, Minala, Yalmbau Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mangala

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Mangarayi
[mpc] Northern Territory, Mataranka and Elsey stations. 12 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mangarai, Mangarrayi, Manggarai, Mungarai, Mungerry, Ngarrabadji Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Mangarayic Comments: Different from Mangerr [zme].

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Mangerr
[zme] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Oenpelli Area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Giimbiyu, Mangerei, Mangeri, Mengerrdji, Mennagi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Urningangg [urc]. Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu

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Mara
[mec] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper river area. 57 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Leelalwarra, Leelawarra, Mala, Marra Dialects: None known. Related to Wandarang [wnd]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Mara Comments: Intermarry with Yanyuwa [jao].

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Maranunggu
[zmr] Northern Territory, southwest of Darwin, inland from Anson Bay, east of Manda. 15 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Emmi, Merranunggu, Warrgat Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy

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Margany
[zmc] Queensland, between Quilpie and Wyandra, Bulloo and Paroo rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Marrganj Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Margu
[mhg] Northern Territory, Croker island. 1 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ajokoot, Croker, Island Margu, Jaako, Marrgu, Raffles Bay, Terrutong, Terutong, Yaako, Yako Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Margic

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Maridan
[zmd] Northern Territory, southwest of Darwin, north of Moyle river, east of Magadige. 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Meradan Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Maridjabin
[zmj] Northern Territory, inland from Anson bay, south of Mariyedi and Manda, southwest of Darwin. 20 (Oates and Oates 1970). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maredyerbin, Maretyabin, Maridyerbin, Maritjabin Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Marithiel [mfr] or Maringarr [zmt]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Marimanindji
[zmm] Northern Territory, south of Darwin and Daly river, west of Muldiva river, near headwaters. 15 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maramanandji, Maramarandji, Marimanindu, Marramaninjsji, Murinmanindji Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Maringarr
[zmt] Northern Territory south of Moyle river, southwest of Darwin. 30 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Marenggar, Maringa Dialects: Maranunggu (Maramanunggu, Marranunga, Merranunggu, Warrgat). May be intelligible with other Bringen languages. Lexical similarity: 40% with Mullukmulluk [mpb] and Murrinh-Patha [mwf]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Marithiel
[mfr] Northern Territory, south of Daly river and central Daly river; Daly river and Roper river missions, Bagot, Delissaville. 15 (2006 census). L2 users: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Berringen, “Bringen” (pej.), “Brinken” (pej.), Maridhiel, Maridhiyel, Marithiyel, Marrithiyel Dialects: Mare-Ammu (Mari-Ammu), Marithiel, Nganygit. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Mariyedi
[zmy] Northern Territory, inland from Anson bay, south of Manda, southwest of Darwin. 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Marriammu
[xru] Northern Territory, Wadeye, Belyuen; possibly in Western Australia. 5 (2006 A. Brown). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mareammu Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maridjabin [zmj]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Marriammu

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Marti Ke
[zmg] Northern Territory, Wadeye, coast south from Moyle river estuary to Port Keats, southwest of Darwin. 3 (2001 I. Alexander). Ethnic population: 100. L2 users: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Magadige, Magati Gair, Magati-Ge, Mati Ke Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maringarr [zmt] and Marithiel [mfr]. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen

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Martu Wangka
[mpj] Western Australia, Jigalong area, Lake Disappointment west side, Great Sandy Desert. 880 (2006 census). 650 Martu Wangka, 25 Kartujarra, 170 Manyjilyjarra, 16 Wangkajunga, 21 Yulparija (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mardo, Targudi Dialects: Kartujarra (Gagudjara, Gardudjara, Kadaddjara, Kardutjara, Kardutjarra, Kartutjara, Kiadjara), Manyjilyjara (Mantjiltjara, Manyjilyjarra), Puditara (Budidjara, Putujara), Wangkajunga (Wangkajungka), Yulparitja (Yilparitja, Yulbaridja, Yulparija). Manyjilyjara and Kartujarra are 2 ethnic groups speaking almost identical dialects. High inherent intelligibility between Yulparitja and Wangkajunga dialects. Puditara dialect is extinct. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Martuyhunira
[vma] Western Australia, northwest coast southwest of Dampier and inland. 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Martuthunira Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Maung
[mph] Northern Territory, Goulburn island, Arnhem Land. 260 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gunmarung, Gun-Marung, Mawng, Mawung Dialects: None known. Garig-Ilgar [ilg] reportedly related. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic

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Mayaguduna
[xmy] Queensland, near north coast, inland between Leichhardt and Flinders rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mayi-Kutuna Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Mayawali
[yxa] Victoria: on the Diamantina river from Davenport downs and Diamantina lakes north to Old Cork; on Mayne river to Mount Vergemont; west to Springvale; southeast to Farrars creek; at Connemara and Brighton downs. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maiawali, Mayuli Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Mayi-Kulan
[xyk] Queensland, Middle Norman, Yappar, and Clara rivers, north to Milgarra, east to Gregory range, west to Iffley and Canobie stations. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maidhagudi, Maigudina, Maigudung, Maigulung, Maikolon, Maikudun, Maikudung, Maikudunu, Maikulan, Maikulung, Majadhagudi, Makulu, Mayagoondoon, Mayagulan, Mayatagoorri, Maygulan, Mayhulan, Maykulan, Miccoolin, Micoolan, Mikadoon, Mikkoolan, Mikoodoono, Mikoolu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Mayi-Thakurti
[xyt] Queensland: from Williams river and Cloncurry north to Canobie on Cloncurry river, east to the Julia creek junction with Cloncurry river and to Mount Fort Bowen, at Dalgonally. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maidakadi, Maidhagari, Maidhaggaria, Maioakuri, Maitakeidi, Maitakudi, Maithagudi, Maithakari, Maithakudi, Mayadhagurdifagurdi, Mayatagoori, Maydhagurdi, Maytagoori, Mitagurdi, Mitakoodi, Mitroogoordi, Mittagurdi, Mittaka, Mythaguddi, Mythugadi, Mythuggadi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Mayi-Yapi
[xyj] Queensland, Cloncurry river south to Canobie, north to Donor Hills, at Numbera (Cowan Downs), east to Flinders river and the Lower Saxby, west to upper Dismal creek and Leichhardt-Alexandra divide. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Majabi, Miappe, Miappi, Miubbi, Myabi, Myappe Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Mbara
[mvl] Queensland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Mbara

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Mbariman-Gudhinma
[zmv] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, Princess Charlotte bay southwest coast. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Rimang-Gudinhma Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mbariman

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Meriam
[ulk] Queensland, Eastern Torres Strait islands, Darnley island. 210 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: East Torres, Mer, Meriam Mir, Mir, Miriam, Miriam-Mir Dialects: Boigu, Buglial, Bulgai, Tagota. Limited mutual intelligibility of Gizrra [tof]. Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly

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Minang
[xrg] West Australia: Boat harbor; Cowerup; King George’s sound; Lac Muir; Minang; Mount Barker; Nornalup; Pallinup river; Porongurup range; Shannon river; Stirling range; Tenterden; West Cliff Point; Wilson inlet. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mean-anger, Meenung, Meernanger, Minnal Yungar, Minung, Mirnong, Noongar, Nyungar Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Minjungbal
[xjb] New South Wales: Cape Byron; Clarence river; Murwillumbah; Nerang creek; Southport; Cudgen. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Cood-jingburra, Cudgingberry, Gando Minjang, Gan-dowal, Gendo, Minjangbal, Minyowa, Minyung, Ngandowul Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic

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Miriwung
[mep] Western Australia, Kununurra, Turkey creek; extends into Northern Territory towards mouth of Victoria river. 210 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Merong, Miriwoong, Miriwun, Mirung Classification: Australian, Djeragan

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Miwa
[vmi] Western Australia, Drysdale river, far north Kimberleys area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bagu Classification: Australian, Worrorran

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Mpalitjanh
[xpj] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, middle and upper Ducie river area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mbalidjan, Mpalit Yan, Mpalitjan, Mpalityanh Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Uradhi [urf]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama Comments: No information regarding the last known user.

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Mudburra
[dmw] Northern Territory: Armstrong river; Camfield river; Cattle creek; Newcastle waters; Pigeon Hole station; Thjambutjambulani; Top Springs; Victoria river. 48 (2003). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Madbara, Moodburra, Mootburra, Mudbara, Mudbera, Mudbra, Mudbura, Mutpura, Pinkagama, Pinkagarna Dialects: Eastern Mudburra, Western Mudburra. Reportedly similar to Karranga [xrq]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Mullukmulluk
[mpb] Northern Territory, Daly river north bank. 33 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Malagmalag, Malak-Malak, Ngolak-Wonga, Nguluwongga Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Malagmalag Proper

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Muluridyi
[vmu] Queensland, Mitchell river headwaters to Mount Carbine, Rumula, Mareeba, Woodville. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Binjara, Kokomoloroij, Kokomoloroitji, Kookanoona, Molloroidyi, Mooloroiji, Mularitchee, Mullridgey, Mulurutji, Waluridji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic

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Murrinh-Patha
[mwf] Northern Territory, Port Keats area, Wadeye. 1,830 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Garama, Murinbada, Murinbata Dialects: Murrinhdiminin, Murrinhkura, Murrinhpatha. Classification: Australian, Daly, Murrinh-Patha

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Muruwari
[zmu] Queensland and New South Wales from Bollon, Dirranbandi, Weilmoringle, Bourke, almost to Cunnamulla. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Murawari, Muruwarri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Muruwaric

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Nakara
[nck] Northern Territory, Maningrida, Arnhem Land, Goulburn island. 57 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kokori, Nagara, Nakkara Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran

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Nari Nari
[rnr] New South Wales, from Booligal to near Balranald. No known L1 speakers. Date of the last speaker’s death is unknown. Two speakers, Jack Wise and Mary Moore, provided language information in 1965 and 1967. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Narinari, Nari-Nari, Narri-Narri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Narrinyeri
[nay] South Australia. 160 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ngarinyeri, Ngarrindjeri, Yaralde Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic

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Narungga
[nnr] South Australia, south Yorke peninsula. 24 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanunga, Naranga, Narangga, Narranga, Narranggu, Narrangu Dialects: Adjabdurah (Adjahdurah), Turra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Nauo
[nwo] South Australia, half of Eyre peninsula; west to Cape Radstock, north past Minnipa; east near Darke peak; west of Cleve and halfway between Carrow and Franklin harbor; Port Lincoln, Mount Hope, Coffin bay, and Elliston. No known L1 speakers. There were two potential speakers in the 1920s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Battara, Growoo, Naua, Nawo, Nawu, Nowo, Nyaawa Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Wirangu [wgu]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Ndra’ngith
[dgt] Queensland, south of Pera Head; Norman river. No known L1 speakers. No information on the date of the last speaker’s death. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Ngaanyatjarra
[ntj] Western Australia, Warburton ranges; small area, southwest corner, Northern Territory. 1,000 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngaanjatjarra, Ngaanyatjara, Nyanganyatjara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Ngadjunmaya
[nju] Western Australia, Eyre’s Sand Patch, Goddard creek to Port Malcolm, Fraser range, Naretha and Point Culver; Mount Andres, Russell range, Balladonia, and Norseman. No known L1 speakers. Probably recently extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Badonjunga, Bardojunga, Ngadju, Ngadjumaja, Ngadjunmaia, Ngatju, Ngatjumay, Tchaakalaaga Dialects: None known. Related to Kalarko [kba]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mirning

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Ngadjuri
[jui] Angaston and Freeling north to Clare, Crystal Brook, Gladstone, Carrieton; north of Waukaringa to Koonamore, east to Mannahill; Orroroo, Peterborough, Burra, and Robertstown districts. No known L1 speakers. No speakers in 1996 (AUSTLANG census). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aluri, Alury, Boanawari, Burra, Burra Burra, Doora, Eeleeree, Eura, Hillary, Hilleri, Manu, Manuley, Manuri, Mimbara, Monnoo, Ngadhuri, Ngadluri, Ngadyuri, Ngaluri, Ngarluri, Weera, Werra, Wiramaya, Wirameju, Wirameyu, Wirra, Wirramaya, Wirra-Maya, Wirramayo, Wirrameyu, Yilrea, Youngye Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Ngalakan
[nig] Northern Territory, Roper river area. No known L1 speakers (Baker 2007). Last fluent speaker died in 2004 (Baker 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Hongalla, Ngalakgan, Ngalangan Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Rembargic

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Ngamini
[nmv] South Australia, Warburton creek area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karangura, Yarluyandji Dialects: None known. May have no remaining speakers. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Nganakarti
[xnk] Western Australia: Mingenew, Carnamah, Gullewa, Champion bay, Hill river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Barimaia, Jaburu, Minango, Nanakari, Nanakati, Nhanhagardi, Wiri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Ngandi
[nid] Northern Territory, Upper Wilton river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa Comments: Believed to be extinct for some time, but it seems that some speakers may still remain (Wurm 2007).

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Ngan’gityemerri
[nam] Northern Territory, Mission, Tipperary Station, Flora and Daly rivers junction, Daly river. 180 (2006 census). Ngenkiwumerri dialect is endangered, moving towards seriously endangered (Wurm 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Moil, Ngangi-Tjemerri, Tyemeri Dialects: Nangikurrunggurr (Nangikurunggurr, Ngangikarangurr, Ngankikurrunkurr, Ngenkikurrunggur), Ngan’gimerri, Ngan’giwumirri (Ngangi-Wumeri, Ngenkiwumerri). Ngan’giwumirri dialect is 84% similar with other dialects. Classification: Australian, Daly, Murrinh-Patha

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Ngantangarra
[ntg] Victoria: on upper Wilson river; north to Eromanga and beyond toward Thylungra and Ray; south to Nockatunga. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ngandangara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Nganyaywana
[nyx] New South Wales, northeast, between Inverell, Ashford, and Glen Innes. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aniwan, Nganjaywana Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyangadi

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Ngardi
[rxd] Northern Territory: Balgo hill; Chilla well; Gardiner range; Granites; Ima Ima; Lake Hazlett; Lake Lucas; Lake Mackay; Lake White; Lake Wills; Manggai; Milidjipi; Ngaima Ngaima; Pallotine Mission; Sturt creek; Tanami track; Tekkari; also, Western Australia. 14 (2012 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Boonara, Bunara, Buruwatung, Kolo, Kukuruba, Manggai, Munga, Ngadi, Ngari, Nyardi, Panara, Puruwantung, Waiangadi, Waiangara, Waiangari, Wain-gara, Walmala, Wanayaga, Warangari, Waringari, Wommana, Woneiga Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Ngarigu
[xni] New South Wales: Australian Alps; Bombala river; Delagate; Monaro Tableland; Nimmitabel; Queanbeyan. 5 (2004 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bemeringal, Bradjerak, Brajerak, Brajerang, Currak-da-bidgee, Garego, Guramal, Gur-mal, Murring, Ngarago, Ngarego, Ngarico, Ngarigo, Ngarroogoo, Ngarrugu, Ngaryo, Nguramal Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Ngarinman
[nbj] Northern Territory, Victoria river, Jasper creek area. 370 (Black 1983). 360 Ngarinman, 15 Bilinara (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Airiman, Hainman, Ngaiman, Ngarinyman, Ngrarmun Dialects: Bilinara (Pilinara). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Ngarinyin
[ung] Western Australia, Kimberley, Derby to King river. 57 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ungarinjin, Ungarinyin Dialects: Guwidj, Wilawila, Wolyamidi, Wurla (Ola, Walar, Worla, Worlaja, Wula, Wuladja, Wuladjangari). Classification: Australian, Worrorran Comments: A different Wurla dialect reportedly still spoken (1990 A. Rumsey).

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Ngarla
[nlr] Western Australia, Port Hedland area: Angelo, Ashburton, and Hardey rivers, Kunderong Range, Mount Vernon Station, Rocklea, Turee creek. 3 (2006 AUSTLANG). 10 semispeakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Inawangga, Inawonga, Inawongga, Nalawonga, Ngalawonga, Ngalawongga, Ngarla-warngga, Ngaunmardi, Ninanu, Yinhawangka Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda

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Ngarluma
[nrl] Western Australia, northwest coast Roebourne area and inland. 26 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gnalluma, Gnalouma, Ngallooma, Ngaluma Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Ngawun
[nxn] Queensland, southwest of Croydon, between Flinders and Norman rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Ngayawung
[nwg] South Australia, along Murray river from Herman Landing to Penn Reach, west to Mount Lofty ranges, south to Ngautngaut. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ngaiawang, Ngaiawung, Ngayawang Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic

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Ngunawal
[xul] New South Wales: Booroowa; Canberra; Goulburn; Queanbeyan; Shoalhaven river; Tumut; Yass. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gurungada, Ngoonawal, Ngunuwal, Nungawal, Wonnawal, Yarr Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gundungurra [xrd]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin Comments: Not related to Ngurawarla, a dialect of Eastern Karnic [ekc].

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Ngurmbur
[nrx] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, between West and South Alligator rivers, northeast of Umbugarla. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gnormbur, Gnumbu, Koarnbut, Ngormbur, Ngumbur, Oormbur Classification: Australian, Umbugarla-Ngumbur

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Nhanda
[nha] Western Australia, Shark bay coast south to Kalbarri. In 1995, a few speakers were reported. Some still survive (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanda, Nanta, Nhanta, Nubda, Nunta Dialects: Bulinya. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yinggarda

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Nhirrpi
[hrp] Victoria. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Nhuwala
[nhf] Western Australia, northwest, Barrow and Monte Bello islands and nearby coast. No known L1 speakers. May have no remaining speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Nijadali
[nad] Western Australia, MarbleBar. 6 (1990 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bailko, Balgu, Balygu, Jauna, Njijapali, Nyiyabali, Nyiypali, Paljgu, Palyku Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nijadali Comments: 2 groups: Bailko and Jauna.

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Nimanbur
[nmp] Western Australia, southwest of King sound, and inland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nimanburru Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Nugunu
[nnv] South Australia, south of Gugada [ktd] language area to coast west to Fowler’s bay and east to Streaky bay, east Spencer gulf. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Doora, Njuguna, Nokunna, Noocoona, Nookoona, Nuguna, Nukana, Nukuna, Nukunnu, Nukunu, Pukunna, Tjura, Tyura, Wallaroo, Warra, Wongaidya Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Nukunul
[xnu] Queensland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic

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Nungali
[nug] Northern Territory, Upper Daly river area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Djamindjungan

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Nunggubuyu
[nuy] Northern Territory, Numbulwar, east Arnhem Land. 110 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nunggubuju, Wubuy, Yingkwira Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa

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Nyamal
[nly] Western Australia, northwest, Bamboo creek area, Marble Bar, Nullagine, to coast east of Port Hedland. 35 (2006 census), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gnamo, Namel, Njamal, Njamarl, Nyamel Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda

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Nyangga
[nny] Queensland, Gilbert river head, south of Forsayth to Gledswood, Gregory range to Oak Park and Glenora; Northern Territory, coast east of Robinson river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Janga, Jangaa, Jangga, Jang-Kala, Njangga, Njanggala, Yangarella, Yanggal, Yangkaal, Yuckamurri Classification: Australian, Tangic Comments: Reportedly the same as Ganggalida [gcd].

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Nyangumarta
[nna] Western Australia, Marble Bar, Port Hedland, Tjalku Wara. 310 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nyangumarda, Nyangumata Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Marngu

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Nyawaygi
[nyt] Northeast Queensland, Herberton south to Herbert river headwaters, to Cashmere, at Ravenshoe, Millaa Millaa and Woodleigh, east to Tully Falls. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nawagi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic

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Nyigina
[nyh] Western Australia, Lower Fitzroy river. 63 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Njigina, Nyikina Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Nyiyaparli
[xny] Western Australia: Davis river; Fortescue river; Jigalong creek; Oakover river; Ophtalmia range; Roy hill; Savory creek; Talawana; Weediwolli creek. 3 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Iabali, Jana, Janari, Niabali, Njiabadi, Njiabali, Njijabadi, Njijabali, Njijapali, Nyiyabali, Nyiyapali, Nyiypali Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Nyulnyul
[nyv] Western Australia, West Kimberley, Beagle Bay coast area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Nyunga
[nys] South, Western Australia. 240 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Neo-Nyunga, Nyungar Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar Comments: Former Nyungar languages: Tjapanmay, Karlamay, Pipelman (Pipalman), Ngatjumay, Kwetjman, Mirnong, Kaniyang Pindjarup, and Whadjuk. There are about 8,000 people who are descended from the Nyunga who speak a mixture of English and Nyunga, included as a dialect of English [eng] in Australia. They are sometimes called Noonga, Noongar, or Noogar, and their speech Neo-Nyunga.

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Olkol
[olk] Queensland, Coleman river, Crosbie river. 5 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Koka-ollugul, Koko Olkol, Koko Olkolo, Koko-olkol, Olcoola, Olgolo, Ol’kol, Olkulo, Ulkulu, Wulgulu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman

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Paakantyi
[drl] New South Wales, Darling river basin. 24 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baagandji, Darling, Kula, Paakanti, Paakintyi, Southern Baagandji Dialects: Kurnu, Marrawarra (Maruara), Milpulo, Nhaawuparlku, Paaruntyi, Pantyikali (Bandjigali), Parrintyi (Baarrundji, Barindji), Pulaali, Southern Paakantyi, Thangkaali, Wanyuparlku, Wilyaali. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Baagandji

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Pakanha
[pkn] Queensland, central Cape York peninsula, south of Coleman river. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bakanha Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Pallanganmiddang
[pmd] Northern Victoria State, east of Albury. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Pallangahmiddang, Wavaroo, Wave Veroo, Waveroo, Way.you.rong, Way.you.roo, Wayerroo, Waywurru, Wee.er.roo, Wee.her.roo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Pallanganmiddang

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Panytyima
[pnw] Western Australia, northwest, east southeast of Tom Price. 98 (2006 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bandjima, Banjima, Pandjima, Panjima, Panjtjima, Panyjima Dialects: None known. Related to Ngarla [nlr], Tjurruru [tju], and Nyamal [nly]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda

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Pini
[pii] Western Australia, Three Rivers. 10. May have no remaining speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bini, Birni, Piniritjara, Pirniritjara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Pinigura
[pnv] Western Australia, northwest, inland on Duck creek. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Binigura, Pinikura Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Dhalandji

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Pinjarup
[pnj] West Australia: Harvey inlet; Leschenaut inlet; Murray river; Pinjarra; Woonerup. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bangoula, Banyoula, Banyowla, Binjarup, Kuriwongi, Peejine, Penjarra, Pidjain, Pinjarra, Yaberoo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Pintiini
[pti] Western Australia, Nullarbor plain north edge north of Hughes; South Australia, west of Nullabor. 320 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyanganyatjara, Pindiini, Wangada, Wanggaji, Wangkatja, Wonga, Wongai-I, Wonggaii Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Pintupi-Luritja
[piu] Western Australia, Northern Territory, Papunya settlement, Yuendumu and Kintore, Balgo hills. 1,690 (2006 census). 1,520 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binddibu, Loridja, Pintubi, Pintupi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Pirlatapa
[bxi] South Australia, Lake Blanche area, Lake Callabonn. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biladaba Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dieri [dif]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Pirriya
[xpa] Queensland: Canaway range; Coopers creek; Gilpeppee; Jundah; Keeroongooloo; Thomson river; Whitula creek. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bidia, Biria, Birria, Piria Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Pitcairn-Norfolk
[pih] 66 in Australia (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pitcairn English Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific Comments: Christian.

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Pitjantjatjara
[pjt] Northwest South Australia, Pitjantjatjara freehold lands, Yalata; southwest corner, Northern Territory; also in Western Australia. 2,660 (2006 census). 2,130 monolinguals. L2 users: 500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Pitjantjara Dialects: Pitjantjatjara (Pithantjatjarra), Yankunytjatjara. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Pitta Pitta
[pit] Queensland, Boulia. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bida-Bida, Bidhabidha, Pita Pita, Pitha-Pitha Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku

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Punthamara
[xpt] Victoria: on creeks running east of Grey range from Orient and Thargomindah north to near Quilpie; at Tobermory; on the west side of Grey range only to Mount Margaret and Congie. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bundhamara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura

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Rembarunga
[rmb] Northern Territory, Roper river area, Maningrida and outstations, Katherine area. 36 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaltuy, Rainbargo, Rembarranga, Rembarrnga, Rembarrunga Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Rembargic

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Ritarungo
[rit] Northern Territory, Eastern Arnhem Land (Rose and Roper rivers). 32 (2006 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ridarngo, Ridharrngu, Ritarnugu, Ritharngu, Ritharrngu, Wagelak, Wawilag Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal

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Tagalaka
[tgz] Queensland, Croydon, Einasleigh River, Forest Home, Forsyth, Georgetown, Gilbert river, Gregory river. 1 (2005 National Indigenous Languages Survey). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Da:galag, Dagalang, Takalak, Targa-lag, Tarkalag Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman

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Thawa
[xtv] New South Wales: Cooma; Green cape; Merimbula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Baianga, Guyanagal, Guyangal-yuin, Katungal, Murring, Paienbera, Paiendra, Tadera-manji, Tharawal, Thauaira Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Thayore
[thd] Queensland, west Cape York, between Edward and Coleman rivers. 29 (2006 census), decreasing. Kuuk-Yak dialect recently extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 350 (1982 A. Hall). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Behran, Gugudayor, Kuktayor, Kukudayore, Kuuk Thaayoore, Kuuk Thaayorre, Taior, Thaayore, Thayorre Dialects: Kuuk-Yak. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Western Pama

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Thaypan
[typ] Queensland, central Cape York peninsula, Coleman river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kuku-Thaypan Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama

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Thiin
[iin] Western Australia. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Deen, Deenma, Denma, Dhiyin, Dhiyinma, Teen, Teenma, Tenma, Thenma, Thiinma Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Djiwarli [dze]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Thurawal
[tbh] New South Wales, Port Hacking to Shoalhaven river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dharawaal, Dharawal, Turrubul Dialects: Dharrabal, Wadiwadi (Wodiwodi). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin

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Tiwi
[tiw] Northern Territory, Bathurst and Melville islands, Nguiu. 1,740 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Australian, Tiwian

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Tjurruru
[tju] Western Australia, northwest, Hardey river, southwest of Tom Price. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tjururu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda

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Torres Strait Creole
[tcs] Torres Strait Islands, towns on upper Cape York, some towns on north Queensland east coast. 6,040 (2006 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ap-Ne-Ap, Blaik, Creole, Torres Strait Broken, West Torres, Yumplatok Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with English. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific Comments: A creolization of Tok Pisin [tpi] or Bislama [bis] and Kala Lagaw [mwp].

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Tyaraity
[woa] Northern Territory, Delissaville. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Daktjerat, Djeradj, Djerag, Dyeraidy, Kuwema, Tjerait Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Malagmalag Proper

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Umbindhamu
[umd] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, north of Coen. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Umbindhamuic

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Umbugarla
[umr] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, southeast of Limilngan language area [lmc], between Mary and South Alligator rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mbakarla Classification: Australian, Umbugarla-Ngumbur

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Umbuygamu
[umg] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, Princess Charlotte bay east coast. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Moroba-Lama Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Lamalamic

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Umiida
[xud] Western Australia, Bathurst, Bayliss, Koolan, and Macleay islands, Beagle, Cone, Shoal, and Strickland bays, Oobagooma, Yampi Sound. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aobidai of Ongkarango, O:ka:ta, O:kada, Okat, Oken, Okwata, Oomida, Umeda, Umede, Umida, Umidi, Wumide Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran

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Umpila
[ump] Queensland, Cape Sidmouth north nearly to Night island. 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama

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Unggaranggu
[xun] Western Australia, northeast King sound from east Stokes bay north to Crawford bay, eastern islands of the sound from Helpman island to Caffarelli. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ongkarango, Oonggarrangoo, Ungarangi, Ungaranji, Unggarangi Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran

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Unggumi
[xgu] Western Australia: Chestnut creek; Isdell and Lennard rivers; Leopold Range; Richenda river; Robinson river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ngarangari, Ong Komi, Ongaranjan, Ungami, Ungumi, Wongkomi Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran

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Uradhi
[urf] Queensland, northeast Cape York peninsula, North Alice creek. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama

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Urningangg
[urc] Arnhem Land, northwest; upper reaches of Alligator river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Uningangk, Wuningak Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mangerr [zme]. Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu

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Wadi Wadi
[xwd] New South Wales, Murray river, Murrumbidgee Junction, Piangil, Swan Hill, Tyntynder; Victoria, Moolpa. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Biangil, Dacournditch, Wathiwathi, Wattewatte, Watthiwatthi, Watty-watty, Withaija, Woani, Wohdi Wohdi, Woonyi, Wotti-wotti Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Wadikali
[wdk] New South Wales, Callabonna creek, Evelyn creek, Lake Pinaroo, Milparinka, Naryilco, Tilcha, Yandama, Yandama creek. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wadigali Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli

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Wadjabangayi
[wdy] Queensland: Blackall; Glenbower; Lancevale; Maryvale. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Inningai, Kariimari, KunGait, Kun-Gait, Wadjabangai, Wadjabangay Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Wadjiginy
[wdj] Northern Territory, southwest of Darwin along coast and inland along Finniss river. 12 (1988 SIL). Ethnic group members understand the language when old people speak it, but use Kriol [rop] as L1 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Wagaydy, Wogaity Dialects: Pungupungu (Kandjerramal, Kuwama, Patjtjamalh). Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy

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Wadjigu
[wdu] Queensland, southwest of Fairbairn reservoir. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Wagaya
[wga] Northern Territory, Avon Downs, Camooweal, Austral Downs, area north of Lake Nash. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Leewakya, Ukkia, Waagai, Waagi, Wagai, Wagaja, Waggaia, Wakaja, Wakaya, Wakkaja, Warkya, Worgai, Worgaia, Workia Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa

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Wageman
[waq] Northern Territory, South of Pine creek, Tipperary station, and Bagot. 10 (2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wagiman, Wogeman Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Wagiman

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Wajarri
[wbv] Western Australia, Mount Magnet to Geraldton. 89 (2006 census). Ethnic population: 200 (1981 W. Douglas). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wadjari, Wadjeri, Watjari, Watjarri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wadjari

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Wajuk
[xwj] Western Australia. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Beelia, Beeloo, Derbal, Ilakuri wongi, Juadjag, Juadjuk, Karakata, Karrakatta, Minalnjunga, Minnal Yungar, Wadjug, Wadjuk, Wadjup, Wadyuk, Whadjuk, Whajook, Witjaari, Yooadda, Yooard, Yoongar, Yuard, Yuatjek, Yungar, Yungur Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Wakabunga
[wwb] Northwestern Queensland, Gregory and Gunpowder creeks, Leichhardt river, Morstone. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Waggaboonyah, Waggabundi, Wakobungo, Waukaboonia, Worgabunga, Workabunga, Workoboongo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic

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Wakawaka
[wkw] Nanango north to Mount Perry, west to Boyne river; Queensland, Kingaroy, Murgon, and Gayndah. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Last native speaker of Duunidjawu dialect died in 1965 (Wurm 2007). L2 users: 2 (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Enibura, Nukunukubara, Waga, Wagawaga, Waga-Waga, Wakka Dialects: Duungidjawu, Wagawaga. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Miyan

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Walangama
[nlw] Queensland: Croydon, Gregory range. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Boogoolmurra, Bugulmara, Karan, Wahlongman, Wallan-kammer, Wallenkammer, Wollangama, Wollongurmee Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West

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Walmajarri
[wmt] Western Australia, Fitzroy river valley area, Lake Gregory and La Grange. 510 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pililuna, Walmajiri, Walmatjari, Walmatjiri, Wolmeri Dialects: Djuwarliny (Juwaliny, Tjuwalinj). The western group speaks the Juwaliny dialect. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin

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Wambaya
[wmb] Northern Territory, Barkly tableland, Limmen bight and McArthur rivers headwaters; east of Lake Woods. 89 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Umbaia, Wambaia, Wambaja, Wombya, Wom-By-A, Yumpia Dialects: Binbinga (Binbinka), Gudandji, Wambaya. Dialects inherently intelligible. (Black 1983). Classification: Australian, West Barkly

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Wamin
[wmi] Queensland, south central Cape York peninsula, Einasleigh river, northwest of Einasleigh. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Agwamin Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southern Pama

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Wandarang
[wnd] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper river area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wandaran, Warndarang, Wuyarrawala Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Mara

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Wangaaybuwan-Ngiyambaa
[wyb] New South Wales, Darling, Barwon and Bogan rivers, Yanda creek. 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Ngiyambaa (Giamba, Narran, Ngeumba, Ngiamba, Ngiumba, Ngjamba, Ngumbarr, Noongaburrah), Wangaaybuwan (Wombungee, Wongagibun, Wongaibon, Wonghi, Wonghibon, Wonjhibon), Wayilwan (Waljwan). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric

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Wanggamala
[wnm] Northern Territory, Hay river, south of Andegerebinha. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku

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Wangganguru
[wgg] Northern Territory, southeast corner. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku

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Wangkayutyuru
[wky] Victoria: At Glenormiston and Herbert downs; on Malvina creek; north toward Roxborough. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wanggadjara, Wanggayudyuru, Wangkayutjuru Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Wangkumara
[xwk] Victoria: northwest of Annandale, at Kalidawarry, lower portion of Field and Cooper creek east of Nappa Merrie and Orientos to the Wilson river at Nockatunga. 100 (2004 AUSTLANG). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Wangumarra, Wongkumara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura

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Wanman
[wbt] Western Australia, Marble Bar area, Nullagine station, Strelley. 20 (1973 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nanidjara, Nyaani, Warnman Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Wanyi
[wny] Northern Territory, near Queensland border, southwest of Calvert. 10 (Tryon 2007). May be 2 Wanji semi-speakers and 1 full speaker (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Waangyee, Waanyi, Wainyi, Wanee, Wanji, Wanyee, Wonyee Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Garrwa [wrk]. Classification: Australian, Yanyi

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Waray
[wrz] Northern Territory, Adelaide river area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arwur, Awarai, Awarra, Warrai, Warray Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Warayan

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Wardaman
[wrr] Northern Territory, upper Daly river. 84 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wadaman, Waderman, Waduman, Warda’man, Wardman, Warduman, Wartaman, Wordaman Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yangman [jng] and Dagoman [dgn]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic

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Wardandi
[wxw] Western Australia: from Bunbury to Cape Leuwin, chiefly along the coast, at Geographe bay, Nannup and Busselton. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Belliman, Dardanup, Doonin, Dordenup, Dornderupwongy, Dunanwongi, Jabaru, Kardagur, Nghungar, Waadandi, Waddarndi, Wadjandi, Yabaroo Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar

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Wariyangga
[wri] Western Australia, southeast of Mount Augustus, West Pilbara. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Warriyangka Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda Comments: Ruhlen (1987) classifies it in a separate Mantharda group.

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Warlmanpa
[wrl] Northern Territory, Mount Leichhardt area. 47 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Walmala Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngarga

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Warlpiri
[wbp] Northern Territory, Yuendumu, Ali Curung Willowra, Alice Springs, Katherine, Darwin, and Lajamanu; Western Australia, into area shared with Kukatia [kux]. 2,510 (2006 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Elpira, Ilpara, Ngaliya, Ngardilpa, Wailbri, Walbiri, Walmama, Walpiri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngarga

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Warluwara
[wrb] Queensland, Roxborough Downs. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kapula, Maula, Mauula, Mawula, Parnkarra, Walookera, Walugera, Waluwara, Wollegara, Yunnalinka Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa

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Warrgamay
[wgy] Queensland, coast south of Hinchinbrook island, and inland along Herbert river. 3 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Biyay Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic

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Warrwa
[wwr] Western Australia, West Kimberley, Derby region. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Warrawai, Warwa Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Warumungu
[wrm] Northern Territory, Tennant creek area. 310 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Warramunga Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Warumungic

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Warungu
[wrg] Queensland, northeast of Einasleigh. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Gudjala, Gugu-Badhun, Warrongo, Warrungu Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Wathawurrung
[wth] Victoria, Ballarat, Barwon river, Cape Otway, Geelong, Lake Burrambeet, Princetown, Queenscliff, Pitfield. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wada wurrung, Wadawio, Waddorow, Wadhaurung, Wadjawuru, Wadourer, Wadthaurung, Waitowrung, Warra, Wathaurong, Wathaurung, Wathawurung, Wathurung, Watorrong, Wiityahuurong, Wioura, Witaoro, Witawurong, Witoura, Witouro, Witowro, Witowurong, Witowurrong, Witowurrung, Witowurung, Wittyawhuurong, Woddowro, Woddowrong, Wod-dowrong, Wollowurong, Wooeewoorong, Wothowurong, Wuddyawurra, Wuddyawurru, Wudjawuru, Wudjawurung, Wudja-wurung, Wudthaurung Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Wemba Wemba
[xww] Victoria, on Loddon river, north to Swan Hill, on Avoca river, south to near Quambatook, northeastward to Boorooban and Moulamein (N.S.W.); near Barham, at Lake Boga and Boort. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gorrmjanyuk, Gourrmjanyuk, Jambajamba, Jupa-galk-wournditch, Mallenjerrick, Waamba, Waimbiwaimbi, Wamba, Wamba Wamba, Wambawamba, Wembawemba, Weumba, Womba, Yamba, Yambayamba, Yowewnillurn, Yuppila Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Wergaia
[weg] Northwest Victoria, from Dimboola to Lake Hindmarsh and Lake Albacutya along the Wimmera river, and from Yanac to Warracknabeal. 5 (2005 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wergaya, Werkaya, Wimmera, Worgaia Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Wik-Epa
[wie] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wik-Ep Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wik-Iiyanh
[wij] Queensland, central Cape York peninsula, southwest of Coen. 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wik-Keyangan
[wif] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wik-Me’anha
[wih] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Wik-Em’an Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wik-Mungkan
[wim] Queensland, Edward river to Aurukun. 1,060 (2006 census). L2 users: 600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Munkan, Wik-Mungkhn, Wik-Munkan Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wik-Ngathana
[wig] Queensland, Cape York peninsula, west coast below Aurukun. 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wikalkan
[wik] Queensland, Aurukun. 86 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Wikngatara, Wik-Ngathara, Wik-Ngatharra, Wik-Ngathrr Dialects: Ngadanja, Wik-Ngandjara (Ngandjara). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wikngenchera
[wua] Queensland, Aurukun. 50 (Oates and Oates 1970). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nantjara, Ngandjara, Ngantjeri, Njinturawik-Nganhcara, Wik, Wik-Nantjara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama

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Wilawila
[wil] Western Australia, central Kimberleys. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wila-Wila Classification: Australian, Worrorran

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Wiradhuri
[wrh] New South Wales, Murray river to Macquarie river, Lachlan river area from Murrumbidgee river to Parkes. 100 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Berrembeel, Warandgeri, Werogery, Wiiratheri, Wira-Athoree, Wiradhurri, Wiradjuri, Wiraduri, Wiraidyuri, Wirajeree, Wirashuri, Wiratheri, Wirracharee, Wirrai’yarrai, Wooragurie, Wordjerg Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric

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Wirangu
[wgu] South Australia, coast between head of Bight and Streaky bay head, and inland to Ooldea region. 2 (2011 AUSTLANG). 2 semi-speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jilbara, Naljara, Ngoleiadjara, Nhawu, Njangga, Nonga, Nyangga, Tidni, Tidnie, Titnie, Wanbiri, Wangon, Warrangoo, Willeuroo, Windakan, Wirangga, Wirongu, Wironguwongga, Wirrongu, Wirrung, Wirrunga, Yilrea Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nauo [nwo]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura

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Woiwurrung
[wyi] Victoria, Healesville, Lancefield, Macedon, Melbourne, Moe, Mordialloc, Mount Bawbaw, Mount Disappointment, Saltwater river, Warragul, Woodend, Yarra river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gungung-willam, Mort Noular, Ngarukwillam, Oorongie, Urunjeri, Waarengbadawa, Wainworra, Wairwaioo, Warerong, Warorong, Warwaroo, Waverong, Wavoo-rong, Wawoorong, Wawoo-rong, Wawurong, Wawurrong, Woewo-rung, Woiworung, Woiwurong, Woi-wurrong, Woiwurru, Woiwurung, Wooeewoorong, Wowerong, Wurrundyirra-baluk, Wurrunjeri, Wurundjeri, Wurunjeri, Wurunjerri-baluk, Yarra Yarra Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kulin

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Worimi
[kda] New South Wales, between Hunter and Hastings rivers, from Port Macquarie to Hawkesbury river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Birbay, Gadang, Gadhang, Gadjang, Kattang, Warimi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Worimi

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Worrorra
[wro] Western Australia, Secure bay and Walcott inlet, Collier bay to Prince Regent river; northern boundary passes up Rothsay Water, inland about 40–50 km along Princess May ranges to Mount Hann and Mount French and cliff base of the tablelands. 20 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maialnga, Ong Komi, Worora, Wororra, Worrara, Worrora, Wurara, Wurora, Yangibaia Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran Comments: Former lingua franca.

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Wotjobaluk
[xwt] Victoria: Dimboola; Kaniva; Lake Albacutya; Lake Hindmarsh; Lake Korong; Outlet creek; Pine plains; Servicetown; Warracknabeal; Wimmera river; Yanac. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Guli-ballaiuk, Watjo, Wattyabullak, Woitu-bullar, Wotjbaluk, Wotjo, Wotjo-ba-laiuruk, Wotjobalak, Wotjobalek, Wotjoballaiuk, Wotjoballuck, Wotjoballuk, Wotjo-balluk, Wotjo-baluk, Wotjobolak, Wotjobuluk, Woychibirik, Wudjubalug, Wudjubaluk, Wutjubaluk, Wuttyabullak, Wuttyubullak, Wutyuballeak Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Wuliwuli
[wlu] Queensland, southwest, Dawson river, Baralaba, Banana, Theodore. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Miyan

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Wulna
[wux] Northern Territory, Arnhem Land around Darwin, mouth of Adelaide river and inland. 1 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Limilngan-Wulna

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Wunambal
[wub] Western Australia, Kalumburu, Wyndham and Mowanjum. 30 (2006 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jeidji, Jeithi, Unambal, Wumnabal, Wunambullu, Yeidji, Yeithi Dialects: Gambera, Miwa, Wunambal. Classification: Australian, Worrorran Comments: Different from Kwini [gww]. Glossonym: Yeidji, ‘talk, speech’.

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Wunumara
[wnn] Queensland, Cambridge Downs, Cloncurry, Dalgonally, Flinders river, Kynuna, Richmond, Williams river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Oonoomurra, Quippen-bura, Unamara, Woonamurra, Woonomurra, Wunamara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic

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Wurrugu
[wur] Northern Territory, Cobourg peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Iwaidja [ibd]. Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic

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Yabula Yabula
[yxy] Victoria and New South Wales states. No known L1 speakers. Date of last speaker’s death unknown. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jabalajabala, Jabulajabula, Maraban, Maragan, Moiraduban, Moitheriban, Ngarrimowro, Owanguttha, Pallaganmiddah, Panggarang, Waningotbun, Yabala-Yabala, Yoorta, Yurt Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yotayotic

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Yagara
[yxg] Queensland, Brisbane river from Cleveland district inland to Gatton area, north to near Esk, Ipswich. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Biriin, Cateebil, Jagara, Jagarabal, Jagera, Jergarbal, Jinibara, Ninghi, Terabul, Tor-bul, Turibul, Turrbal, Turrubal, Turrubul, Turubul, Yackarabul, Yaggara, Yerongban, Yeronghan, Yerongpan, Yuggara, Yugg-ari Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Durubulic

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Yalarnnga
[ylr] Queensland, Burke river area, Dajarra. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jalanga, Yalarrnga, Yelina, Yellanga, Yellunga Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic

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Yan-nhangu
[jay] Northern Territory, 2 of westernmost Crocodile islands, adjacent to Cape Stewart, Maningrida and Milingimbi. 40 (Black 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jarnango, Nangu, Yanangu Dialects: Garmalangga, Gurjindi. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhangu

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Yanda
[yda] Queensland: Hamilton river; Lucknow; Toolebuc; Warenda. Few speakers reported in 2012. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Janda, Yunda Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Guwa [xgw]. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Yandjibara
[xyb] Queensland, Barcaldine, Longreach. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Yandruwandha
[ynd] South Australia Moomba area, and east into Queensland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Yangman
[jng] Northern Territory, Elsey creek and Katherine. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (Black 1983). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dagoman, Jungman Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Wardaman [wrr]. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic

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Yankunytjatjara
[kdd] South Australia, Yalata, Musgrave, and Everard ranges, east Pitjantjatjara freehold lands and surrounding areas; southern Northern Territory, mostly west of Kulgera-Erldunda road. 560 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jangkundjara, Kulpantja, Yankunjtjatjarra, Yankuntatjara Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati

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Yanyuwa
[jao] Queensland, Borroloola, Northern Territory, Doomadgee. 120 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aniula, Anula, Anyula, Janjula, Leeanuwa, Wadiri, Yanula, Yanyula Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yanyuwan

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Yardliyawarra
[yxl] South Australia and New South Wales, Yardliyawara (Jadliaura), eastern side of northern Flinders range from Wertaloona south to Carrieton and Cradock, east to Frome Downs, at Holowilena station on Siccus river, west to Arkaba and Hawker. 2 (Hercus and Austin 2004). 2 speakers in 1987 (Hercus and Austin 2004). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aluri, Alury, Arabatura, Arkabatura, Jadliaura, Jadlijawara, Jadloori, Yadliaura, Yadlikowera, Yadliura, Yadliyawarra, Yadlouri, Yaldikowera, Yardliwarra Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yarli

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Yarluyandi
[yry] South Australia: Alton Downs; Annandale; Atna Hill; Birdsville; Diamantina river; Mulligan river. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jeljujendi, Yarleeyandee, Yelyuyendi Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic

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Yatay
[yty] Queensland: Albany island and Mount Adolphus island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Iataj Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman

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Yawarawarga
[yww] South Australia and Queensland, north of Cooper creek, southeast of Lake Yamma Yamma. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna

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Yawijibaya
[jbw] Western Australia, Collier Bay, Jawutjap, Montgomery islands. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bergalgu, Jadjiba, Jadjibaia, Jaudjibaia, Jaudjibara, Jaudji-Bara, Jawadjag, Jawdjibaia, Jawdjibara, Jawdjobara, Jawutjubar, Winjawindjagu, Yaudjibaia, Yaudjibara, Yaujibaia, Yawjibara, Yawjibarra Classification: Australian, Worrorran, Western Worrorran

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Yawuru
[ywr] Western Australia, coast south of Broome and inland. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Recently extinct. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Eastern Inland Yawuru, Northern Yawuru, Southern Coastal Yawuru. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan

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Yaygir
[xya] New South Wales: Clarence river; Grafton. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jeigir, Jungai, Yegera, Yiegera, Youngai Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Gumbaynggiric

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Yidiny
[yii] Queensland, formerly Atherton region. A few at Palm Island Babinda, north to Gordonvale. 150 (2006 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boolboora, Deba, Eneby, Gerrah, Gijow, Gillah, Guwamal, Idin Idindji, Idinji, Idin-Wudjar, Indindji, Jidindji, Kitba, Maimbie, Mungera Ohalo, Pegullo-Bura, Warra-Warra, Warryboora, Woggil, Yetinji, Yiddinji, Yidin, Yidindji, Yidini, Yitintyi, Yukkaburra Dialects: Gunggay, Madyay, Yidiny. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yidinic

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Yindjibarndi
[yij] Western Australia, Roebourne area. 310 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jindjibandi, Yinjtjipartnti Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda

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Yindjilandji
[yil] Northern Territory, northeast of Wonarah. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bularnu, Dhidhanu, Injdjiladji Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa

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Yinggarda
[yia] Western Australia, Shark bay coast between Gascoyne and Wooramel rivers, inland to Red Hill, West Pilbara. 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ruhlen (1987) reported no remaining speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ingara, Ingarda, Ingarra, Ingarrah, Inggarda, Inparra, Jinggarda, Kakarakala, Yingkarta Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yinggarda

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Yinhawangka
[ywg] Western Australia: Angelo river; Ashburton river; Hardey river; Kunderong range; Mount Vernon station; Rocklea; Turee creek. 3 (2006 AUSTLANG). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda

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Yiningayi
[ygi] Queensland: West of Dividing range to Forsyth range, Maneroo creek and Longreach; south along Alice river tributaries to about Mexico; north to Muttaburra, Cornish creek, Tower Hill, Bowen Downs, and North Oakvale; at Aramac. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Iningai, Iningayi, Inningai, Mootaburra, Moothaburra, Muta-bura, Muttaburra, Tateburra, Terreburra, Yiningay Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Yinwum
[yxm] Queensland: Batavia river; Moreton; Wenlock river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Yeemwoom Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman

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Yir Yoront
[yiy] Queensland, west central Cape York peninsula, just southeast of Edward river. 15 (1991 B. Sommer). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gwandera, Jir Joront, Kokomindjen, Mandjoen, Millera, Mind’jana, Mundjun, Myunduno, Yir Yiront Dialects: Dangedl (Dhanu’un, Djudjan, Dudjym), Gorminang, Jir’jorond (Jirmel Mel-Jir, Ngamba’wandh, Yir Thangedl, Yirmel, Yirtangettle, Yirtutiym). Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Yir Yoront

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Yirandali
[ljw] Queensland: Caledonia; Corfield; Dutton river; Flinders river; Great Dividing range; Hughenden; Lammermooor; Landsborough creek; Mount Sturgeon; Richmond; Tangorin; Torrens creek; Tower Hill creek; Winton. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dalebura, Dal-leyburra, Irendely, Pooroga, Yerrundulli, Yerrunthully Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric

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Yitha Yitha
[xth] New South Wales: Balranald, Booligal, Carrawathal, Lachlan river; South Australia. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Eetha-eetha, Eethee Eethee, Eethie-eethie, Ita-ita, Ithi-ithi, Iti-iti, Tjuop, Yetho, Yitsa, Yit-tha Classification: Unclassified

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Yolngu Sign Language
[ygs] Northern Territory, Elcho and Milingimbi islands, Maningida and Yirrkala. 5,000 (2012 D. Adone). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hands in action Classification: Deaf sign language

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Yorta Yorta
[xyy] New South Wales, Cohuna, Conargo, Deniliquin, Echuca, Tullah creek, Tuppal, Yielima, Gunbower, Murray river. No known L1 speakers. Likely still spoken (AUSTLANG). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arramouro, Bangerang, Gunbowerooranditchgoole, Gunbowers, Jotijota, Kwart Kwart, Moira, Ngarrimouro, Ngarrimowro, Unungun, Wol-Lithiga, Woollathura, Yoorta, Yota Yota Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yotayotic

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Yugambal
[yub] Queensland, Logan and Albert river basins from Jimboomba to MacPherson range. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jugumbir, Jukamba, Manaldjali, Minjanbal, Ngarrbal, Ngarrubul, Yugabeh, Yugambeh, Yugumbal Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yugambal

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Yugul
[ygu] Northern Territory, Ngukurr, Saint Vidgeon homestead, Nawaparr gorge, Namiliwirri lagoon. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jokul, Yikil, Yikul, Yookala, Yookil, Yookull, Yukul Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran

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Yuru
[ljx] Queensland: from Bowen north to the Burdekin river at Home Hill; southwest to Bogie range; at Upstart bay; south to Mount Pleasant and Mount Abbot. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Arwur-angkana, Euronbba, Mal Mal, Malmal, South Murri Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic

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Yuyu
[yxu] New South Wales: Along Murray river covering Waikerie, Chowilla, west to Morgan, east to Lake Victoria, and south of Alawoona. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Eramwir-rangu, Eraweerung, Erawiruck, Jeraruk, Jirau, Juju, Meru, Pomp-malkie, Rankbirit, Willoo, Wilu, Yerraruck, Yiran, Yirau, You-you Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan

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