Burkina Faso

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Biali
[beh] Kompienga Province, at Benin border, south of Arli, 3 villages. 1,500 in Burkina Faso (1991). 450 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Berba, Bieri, Bjerb, Bjeri, Burba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern Comments: Different from Baatonum [bba] (Berba). Traditional religion.

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Birifor, Malba
[bfo] Southwest, Noumbiel, Poni, Bougouriba, and Ioba provinces; west of Volta Noire. 108,000 in Burkina Faso (1993). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo, Malba-Birifor, Northern Birifor Dialects: Birifor, Wile. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor Comments: Dagaari [dgd], Wali [wlx], and Birifor [biv] of Ghana are separate languages. Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant).

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Bisa
[bib] South central, Boulgou and Zoundweogo provinces, Garango, Zabré, Gomboussougou, Tenkodogo cities; Ganzourgou Province, Boudry department; Koulpelogo Province, several areas; also in Bazega and Kouritenga provinces. 350,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population does not include the Bisa southern Barka region. Population total all countries: 591,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Barka, Lebir, Lere. Related to Samo languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa Comments: Different from Busa [bqp] of Nigeria. Ethnonym: Boussanse by the Mòoré. Muslim, Christian (Protestant), Christian (Roman Catholic), traditional religion.

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Bobo Madaré, Southern
[bwq] Mainly Houet Province, Bobo Dioulasso area, and Banwa Province; also in Kenedougou and Tuy provinces. 160,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fing Dialects: Benge, Sogokiré, Syabéré (Sya), Voré, Zara (Bobo Dioula, Bobo Jula). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo Comments: The government calls them Bobo Madaré. ‘Bobo’ is the general Bambara word for Bobo Fing, Buamu, or Bomu. Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant), Muslim.

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Bolon
[bof] Kenedougou and Houet provinces, N’Dorola and Samorogouan areas. 12 villages. 17,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 22,920. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bo, Boka, Boon, Boron Dialects: Black Bolon (Northern Bolon), White Bolon (Southern Bolon). The White Bolon dialect has higher inherent intelligibility with Jula [dyu] (81%) than the Black Bolon dialect (52%). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bomu
[bmq] Mainly Banwa Province, Sami department; also in Houet and Kenedougou provinces. 56,000 in Burkina Faso (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bobo Oule, Boomu, Bore, Western Bobo Wule Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Buamu
[box] Tuy, Kossi, Mouhoun, Banwa, Bale, Bougouriba, Houet, Nayala, Ioba and Sissili provinces; area 80 km east-west and 200 km north-south. 186,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bwamu, Eastern Bobo Oule, Eastern Bobo Wule, Red Bobo Dialects: Ouarkoye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bwa (sg.), Bwaba (pl.) in Dedougou dialect. Ethnonym: Bobo, Bambara name for Buamu, Bomo, or Bobo Fing, but properly applies only to Bobo Fing. Pwe is a town, not a dialect (1973 CMA). Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant).

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Bwamu, Cwi
[bwy] Border area, 10 km north-south, and 40 km east-west; Tuy Province, Founzan; Bale Province, Kabourou area; some in Ioba Province. 24,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coo, Cwi, Twi Dialects: None known. Intelligibility within Cwi area is over 90%, 50%–70% with Láá Láá Bwamu [bwj], 30% with Ouarkoye Buamu [box], and 65%–70% with Dakwi Bwamu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bwamu, Láá Láá
[bwj] Tuy and Bale provinces, Bagassi, Pâ, and Boni villages area. 69,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kàdenbà, Yere Dialects: Reportedly similar to Ouarkoye dialect of Buamu [box] and Bwamu Twi [bwy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cerma
[cme] Comoe Province, north of Ouangolodougou, Cote d’Ivoire along main road to Banfora. 61,400 in Burkina Faso (1991). Population total all countries: 63,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gouin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma Dialects: Banfora-Sienena, Gouindougouba, Niangoloko-Diarabakoko, Soubakanedougou. The Gouindougouba dialect is spoken in 1 or 2 villages. Turka [tuz] is reportedly the most similar language, but not inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dagaari Dioula
[dgd] Sissili and Ziro provinces, scattered, Diébougou, To, Boromo, Soukoulaye, Silly, Pa, Dano, Leo, Gao, Dissin, Wessa, Fara, French Hamele. 21,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dagaari Jula, Dagari Dyoula, Jari, Wala, Yari Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Dagaare [dgi], Jula [dyu], or Mòoré [mos]. Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with Northern Dagaare [dgi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari Comments: Muslim.

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Dagara, Northern
[dgi] Southwest, mainly Ioba and Bougouriba provinces; also in Noumbiel, Sissili, Poni, and Tuy provinces. 388,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dagaare, Dagaari, Dagari, Dagati, Degati, Dogaari, Northern Dagaare Dialects: Lober (Lobr), Nura (Lawra Lobi), Wule. Dagara and Birifor [bfo] are partly intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari Comments: Different from Southern Dagaare [dga] in Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant), Muslim.

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Dogon, Jamsay
[djm] North border with Mali, Yatenga and Soum provinces. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dyamsay Tegu Dialects: Bama, Domno, Gono, Guru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Tomo Kan
[dtm] Kossi Province, Kombori department, near Mali border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tomo-Kan Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogosé
[dos] Southwest, Comoe Province, Sidéradougou subdistrict, Ouo, Sidéradougou, Kouere, Koro, and Sirakoro; also in Houet and Poni provinces. 20,000 (1991 O. Balagassina). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doghose, Doghosié, Dokhobe, Dokhosié, Dorhossié, Dorhosye, Doro Doghosié, Dorobé, Dorosie, Dorossé Dialects: Gbeyãse, Gbogorose, Klamaasise, Lutise, Mesise, Sukurase. Different from Bambadion dialects Dogoso [dgs] and Khe [kqg]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Khisa [kqm], 68% with Kaansa [gna], 15% with Dogoso [dgs], 14% with Khe [kqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose Comments: Clans are Ouattara or Coulibaly. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Dogoso
[dgs] Comoe Province, Dandougou, Torokoro, Sokoura, Bondokoro, Tolandougou, Sakédougou, near the Dogose [dos], Khisa [kqm], and Khe [kqg] language areas. 9,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bambadion-Dogoso, Bambadion-Dokhosié, Black Dogose, Dorhosié-Finng, Dorhosié-Noirs, Dorossié-Fing Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 56% with Khe [kqg], 15% with Dogosé [dos], 16% with Khisa [kqm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dogoso-Khe Comments: Traditional religion.

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Dyan
[dya] Bougouriba Province, Dolo, near Diébougou; small areas in Bale and Houet provinces. 14,100 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dan, Dian, Dya, Dyane, Dyanu Dialects: Zanga. Zanga is a dialect or closely-related language. Reportedly not similar enough to Lobi [lob] to be intelligible. Distinct from Dan [dnj] (Gio, Yacouba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dyan Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Dzùùngoo
[dnn] Kenedougou Province, Samorogouan and Samogohiri departments, Orodara town area; Samogo-Iri, Saraba, Diomou, Gnalé, Sokouraba, Todié, and Samogogouan. Kpeengo dialect: Leraba Province, Sindou and Kankalaba departments. 13,400 (1998 E. Solomiac). 4,020 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Duun, Kpango, Samogho, Samogo, Samoro Dialects: Dzùùngoo (Samogohiri), Kpangoo (Samorogouan), Kpeengo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo Comments: Ethnic autonym: Dzùùn. Ethnonym: Samogo is the Jula name. Muslim.

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French
[fra] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 35). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Fulfulde, Northeastern Burkina Faso
[fuh] Northeast corner, Oudalan, Soum, Seno, Yagha provinces; some in Namentenga and Bam provinces; also in Kossi Province, Mali border, south of Mopti town. 750,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Dialects: Barani (Barain, Baraniire), Barkoundouba, Bogandé, Fada Ngurma, Gourmantche, Jelgoore, Liptaakoore, Ouhiguyua, Seeba-Yaga (Yaaga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central Comments: Muslim.

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Gourmanchéma
[gux] East, Gourma, Tapoa, Gnagna, Komondjari, Yagha, Kompienga, Seno, Namentenga, and Koulpelogo provinces. 600,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 813,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goulmacema, Gourma, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gulmancema, Gurma, Migulimancema Dialects: Central Gourmanchema, Northern Gourmanchema, Southern Gourmanchema. Central and eastern dialects are inherently intelligible; northern only with difficulty. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Hausa
[hau] Tapoa and Gourma provinces, scattered. 500 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haoussa Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Comments: Muslim.

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Jalkunan
[bxl] Leraba Province west of Banfora, Blédougou near Sindou town. 500 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 (1995 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Blé, Dyala, Dyalanu, Jalkuna Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 19% with Jula [dyu], 17% with Bolon [bof]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jeri-Jalkuna Comments: Muslim.

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Jula
[dyu] Mainly in Comoe and Houet provinces; scattered, Kenedougou, Leraba and Kossi provinces. 1,000,000 in Burkina Faso (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). L2 users: 3,000,000 in Burkina Faso (2012 V. Vydrine). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity.Used as a trade language in the western half of the country, and sub-populations in all major cities. Alternate Names: Dioula, Dioula Véhiculaire, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan, Trade Jula Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Different from Jola [dyo] (Diola) of Senegal. Majority not ethnic Jula. Muslim.

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Kaansa
[gna] Poni Province, Gaoua subdistrict, Loropéni department, bounded by Loropéni west, Derbi east, Djigoué south, and Yérifoula north; also in Comoe and Bougouriba provinces. 6,000 (1990 S. Showalter). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gã, Gan, Gane, Kaan, Kaanse, Kãasa, Kan Dialects: Kaansa, Kpatogo (Bodoro, Gbadogo, Kpatogoso, Padogho, Padorho, Padoro). Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects, 71% with Khisa [kqm], 68% with Dogosé [dos]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose Comments: 4 clans: Farma, Suwa, Khama, Thama. The Kpatogo separated politically and geographically from the Kamba. At least 7 primary schools in towns and villages serving Kaan villages. Obiré, 8 km northwest of Loropéni, is cultural center and residence of the Kaan Iya, the traditional ruler of the Kaan people. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kalamsé
[knz] Sourou Province, Tougan subdistrict, 540 square km bordering Mali. 9,570 in Burkina Faso (1985 census). Population total all countries: 12,070. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalemsé, Kalenga, Sàmòmá Dialects: Kasoma (East Kalamsé), Logremma (Logma, West Kalamsé). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Glossonym: Kalemse (pl.), Kalenga (sg.) distinct from Samo. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Karaboro, Eastern
[xrb] South, Comoe Province, east of main Ferké to Bobo-Dioulosso road and Banfora. 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 40,610. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kar, Ker, Kler Dialects: Kar dialect averages 70% comprehension by Western Karaboro [kza], but the reverse is 30%. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Karaboro Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Karaboro, Western
[kza] South, Comoe Province, west of main Ferké to Bobo-Dioulosso road and Banfora. 30,200 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Syer-Tenyer Dialects: Syer, Tenyer. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Karaboro Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kasem
[xsm] Nahouri Province, Po and Tiébélé towns; also in Zoundweogo, Bazega, and Ziro provinces. 120,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 250,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kasena, Kasim, Kassem, Kassena Dialects: East Kasem, West Kasem. West and East Kasem mutually inherently intelligible. Reportedly similar to Nuni [nuv] and Lyélé [lee]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kasena. East Kasem is more prestigious. Loanwords from French and Mòoré in Burkina Faso, English, Akan [aka] in Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khe
[kqg] Comoe Province, Noumoukiedougou, Tiébata, Moromoro, Boli, Sessagbo, and Lobo, near Dogose [dos], Khisa [kqm], and Dogoso [dgs] language areas. 1,300 in Burkina Faso (1983 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bambadion-Kheso, Kheso Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 56% with Dogoso [dgs] (Bambadion-Dogoso), 14% with Dogosé [dos], 13% with Khisa [kqm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dogoso-Khe Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khisa
[kqm] Southwest, near Côte d’Ivoire border, Comoe Province, Mangodara prefecture. 25 villages. 3,000 in Burkina Faso (1991 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Khi, Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose Comments: ‘Komono’ is the Jula name. Muslim.

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Konabéré
[bbo] Banwa Province, in and around Tansilla; some in Kossi Province. 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fign, Bobo Fing, Northern Bobo Madare Dialects: Jèrè, Kukoma (Koma), Kure, Sankuma (Sarokama), Tankri, Yaba. Northern Bobo Madaré has 20%–30% intelligibility of Southern Bobo Madaré. All dialects of Northern understand Yaba, centered in Tansilla. Separate literature may be needed for the Mali dialect. Some linguists treat Bobo as a separate major branch of Mande. Sya is the prestige dialect in Mali and used for literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo Comments: Ethnonym: Bobo Madaré. ‘Bobo’ is Bambara word for Bobo Madaré, Buamu or Bomu. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Koromfé
[kfz] Soum, Djibo-Aribinda subdistrict, Yatenga Province, Titao subdistrict; and Loroum, Bam, and Sanmatenga provinces. 196,000 in Burkina Faso (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 202,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fula, Fulse, Kuruma, Kurumfe Dialects: Fulse, Koromba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe Comments: Muslim.

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Kpeego
[cpo] Leraba Province, Kankalaba department, Noumousoba and Tourny villages; in villages throughout southwest Burkina Faso. 2,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Noumou, Noumoukan, Numu Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern Comments: Kpeego speakers are blacksmiths.

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Kusaal
[kus] South central, Nahouri and Boulgou provinces, villages south of Zabré. 17,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koussassé, Kusale, Kusasi Dialects: Tonde (Toende, Western Kusaal). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Lobi
[lob] Poni Province, Gaoua southwest border area; also in Bougouriba, Noumbiel, and Comoe provinces. 286,000 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 442,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lobiri, Miwa Dialects: Gongon Lobi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant).

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Lyélé
[lee] North and central Sanguie Province: Réo, Kyon, Tenado, Dassa, Didyr, Godyr, and Kordie subdistricts, Réo principal center; adjacent areas in Passore, Boulkiemde, and Nayala provinces; thousands of migrants in neighboring countries, especially Côte d’Ivoire. 130,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lele Dialects: Central Lyélé, Kandéré, Northern Lyélé, Southern Lyélé (Reo). Most Central and Northern Lyélé speakers have nearly 100% comprehension of Southern Lyélé dialect. Kandéré have 75% comprehension of Southern Lyélé; Southern Lyélé understand all dialects except Kandéré well. Reportedly similar to Nuni [nuv], but low mutual inherent intelligibility. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Lyela or Lela; Gurunsi is also used but applies more properly to the wider grouping. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Marka
[rkm] Kossi and Mouhoun provinces, Nouna and Dedougou areas; also Bale, Nayala, Sourou, and Banwa provinces. 200,000 in Burkina Faso (1992 CMA). Population total all countries: 225,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marka Dafing Dialects: Gassan, Nouna, Safané. More than 80% inherent intelligibility of southeastern dialect around Safané; however, northwestern dialect region is 70%. The central dialect around Dembo village is well understood. Reportedly similar to Bambara [bam] or a variant of Jula [dyu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Marka-Dafin Comments: Marka is used for followers of the traditional religion, Dafing for Muslim speakers. Different from the Marka dialect of Soninke. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Moba
[mfq] Koulpelogo Province, Ouargaye subdistrict. 1,800 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben, Moa, Moab, Moare Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba

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Mòoré
[mos] Central Ouagadougou area; widespread. 5,000,000 in Burkina Faso. 15,700 Yana (1991). Population total all countries: 5,061,700. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity.Used as a trade language in the central part of the country, with sub-populations in all major cities. Alternate Names: Mole, Moose, More, Moshi, Mossi Dialects: Ouagadougou, Saremdé, Taolendé, Yaadré, Yaande, Yana (Jaan, Yanga), Zaore (Joore). Yana dialect has over 90% intelligibility with the Ouagadougou dialect 75%–80% with the Joore dialect. Joore with Ouagadougou varies from 88% in Tibga to 95% in Diabo. Yanga in Togo, completely intelligible with Central Mòoré. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: Ethnic autonym: Moose (pl.), Moaaga (sg.); Autoglottonym: Mòoré. Other spellings are obsolete or reflect pronunciations of nonspeakers. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Natioro
[nti] Leraba Province, Sindou subdistrict, west of Banfora, Sindou town area; Dinaoro, Timba, and Kawara. 2,400 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Koo’ra, Natjoro, Natyoro Dialects: Ginaourou, Kaouara-Timba-Sindou-Koroni. Reportedly similar to Wara [wbf], but not inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ninkare
[gur] Nahouri Province, Zecco and Ziou subdistricts, some in Boulgou and Zoundweogo provinces. 25,100 in Burkina Faso (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Frafra, Gurenne, Gurne, Nankani Dialects: Booni, Frafra, Gudeni, Nankana, Nankani. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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N’ko
[nqo] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Mixed language

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Nuni, Northern
[nuv] Mouhoun, Bale, and Sanguie provinces, near Boromo, dialect dividing line is Mouhoun river. 45,000 (1995 SIL). 15,000–25,000 in Northwestern Nuni, 25,000–35,000 in Northeastern Nuni. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nibulu, Nouni, Nounouma, Nuna, Nune, Nunuma, Nuruma Dialects: Northeastern Nuni, Northwestern Nuni. Northern Nuni users have no comprehension of Southern Nuni [nnw]. Reportedly similar to Kasem [xsm] and Lyélé [lee]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Nuni, Southern
[nnw] Mainly Ziro and Sissili provinces; also, east Mouhoun, Sanguie, west Nahouri, Bale, south Boulkiemde and Bazega provinces; over 100 villages. 168,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nibulu, Nouni, Nounouma, Nuna, Nune, Nunuma, Nuruma Dialects: Basinyari (Sundoni), Bwana, Gori, Micari, Sankura, Yatini. Reportedly similar to Kasem [xsm] and Lyélé [lee]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant), Muslim.

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Paleni
[pnl] Leraba Province, Loumana department, Faniagara village. 260 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wara Dialects: None known. 15%–20% intelligibility of Wara [wbf]. Lexical similarity: 19% with Wara [wbf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro

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Pana
[pnq] Sourou Province, Kassoum Subdistrict, Oué town area, Sourou River valley entering from Mali. 5,000 in Burkina Faso (1998). Population total all countries: 7,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sama Dialects: Pana North, Pana South. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Phuie
[pug] Tuy, Bougouriba, and Ioba provinces, north and west of Diébougou; northeast of Dano; some in Houet Province; scattered villages in Dagaari [dgd] language area. 14,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buguli, Buguri, Phuien, Pougouli, Puguli, Pwa, Pwe, Pwie, Pwien, Pwo Dialects: None known. Phuie is closely related to Winye [kst] and Sisaala [sld]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Ethnic autonym: Phuo (pl.) Phu (sg.). Puguli is an exonym. Traditional religion.

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Samo, Matya
[stj] Sourou Province, Mouna and Solenzo areas; also in Kossi Province; Ouagadougou, Bobo-Diolaso, Dedougou, and Koudougou cities. 105,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 105,230. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northwestern Samo, San, Sane, Tougan, West Central Goe Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo Comments: The Rimaïbé are Samo who were former Fula slaves, now also speak Fulfulde [fuh]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Samo, Maya
[sym] North central, Sourou Province; some in Zondoma and Yatenga provinces. 38,000 (1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northeastern Samo, Sa, San Dialects: Bangassogo, Bounou, Gomboro, Kiembara (Northeastern Goe). Intelligibility of Matya Samo [stj] varies between 28% and 50%, depending on the village and text tested; of Southern Samo [sbd] less than 10%. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Samo, Southern
[sbd] Mainly Nayala Province, Nouna and Solenzo areas; others in Sourou, Sanguie, and Passore provinces; Ouagadougou, Bobo-Dioulasso, Dedougou, and Koudougou cities; Toma dialect: Toma, Yaba, Gossina, Ye, Kougny, and Gassan departments. 85,000 (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: San, Sane Dialects: Toma (Makaa, Nyaana). Intelligibility low across Samo varieties. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo Comments: The Rimaïbé are Samo who were former Fula slaves, now speak Fulfulde [fuh] as L2, and live in Kawara, Kassan, Zoumou, and Teri in the Tougan area. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Seeku
[sos] Houet Province, Bobo-Dioulasso department, west of Bobo-Dioulasso, Karankasso, Bouendé, Torosso, Banzo, Tiara, and Bama villages; some in Kenedougou Province. 17,000. 5,000 in the northern dialect (4 villages), 12,000 in the southern (7 villages). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sambla, Samogho, Sembla, Southern Samo Dialects: Northern Seeku (Timiku), Southern Seeku (Gbeneku). Dialects have good inherent intelligibility. 3 minor dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo Comments: Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Nanerigé
[sen] North Kenedougou Province, Djigouera and north; small area in Houet Province, Bobo-Dioulasso department. 50,000 (1985 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naani, Nandereke, Nandergé, Nanergé, Nanergué Dialects: Some intelligibility with Sicite Senoufo [sep]. No significant dialects or subgroups. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: Ethnic autonym: Nanerige. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Senara
[seq] Southern Leraba Province; also in Comoe Province. 50,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Niangolo, Sénoufo Dialects: None known. Intelligibility testing of Cebaara Senoufo [sef] varies from 51% in Konadougou to 71% in Niankorodougou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Sìcìté
[sep] Kenedougou Province, Tagouara plateau, Koloko and Ouelaní prefectures, west of Bobo-Dioulasso, to Mali border; Leraba Province, Oueleni department. 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 38,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sìcìré, Sìcìté, Sìpììté, Sucite, Tagba Dialects: None known. Intelligibility low of Nanerige Senoufo [sen]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: Little intermarriage with others in the southern area. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Siamou
[sif] Kenedougou Province, Orodara is center, Tin, Diossogou, Diéri, Kotoudéni, Diéridéni, Didéri, Lidara, and Bandougou small villages; also in Houet Province, Toussiana department. 20,000 in Burkina Faso (1999). Population total all countries: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seme, Sému, Siémou, Siemu, Syémou Dialects: Bandougou. Minor dialect differences between villages and within Orodara. The Bandougou dialect is considered different, but intelligibility among dialects seems adequate. No closely related languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Seme Comments: Previously classified as Mande. Their tradition says they came from the south. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sininkere
[skq] Sanmatenga Province, near Pensa. 6,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Silanke, Silinkere Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding Comments: Muslim.

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Sissala
[sld] Sissili Province, between Léo and Hamale, 30 villages; Ioba Province, Niego and Ouessa departments. 13,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sisaali Dialects: All one dialect in Burkina Faso. Distinct from Sisaala languages in Ghana, although reportedly most similar to Western Sisaala [ssl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian (Protestant), Muslim.

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Songhay
[hmb] Central northeast, Oudalan and Seno provinces; Ouanobian, Falagountou, and other towns. 10,000 in Burkina Faso (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Songai, Humburi Senni Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai Dialects: Marensé (Koroboré, Maransé). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Tamasheq, Kidal
[taq] Two separate northern areas, Oudalan and Loroum provinces; into Yatenga Province. 31,200 in Burkina Faso (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tamashekin, Timbuktu, Tomacheck, Tuareg Dialects: Tadghaq (Kidal), Timbuktu (Tanaslamt, Tombouctou). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Téén
[lor] Poni Province, Kampti subdistrict, 2 pockets just west of Kampti. 2,000 in Burkina Faso (1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Ténhé Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tiéfo
[tiq] Comoe Province, east of Toussiana, Dramandougou Tiéfo, 1 village. Ethnic Tiéfo in about 20 villages, into Houet Province. 1,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kiefo, Tyefo, Tyeforo Dialects: Dramandougou-Nyarafo, Noumoudara-Koumoudara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tiefo Comments: Endogamous within the village. Traditional religion.

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Toussian, Northern
[tsp] Houet Province west of Bobo-Dioulasso; Kenedougou Province, north, east, and south of Orodara. 19,500 (1995 SIL). 1,000 in Wenteene dialect, 18,500 in the other dialects. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tusia, Tusian Dialects: Kebeenton, Ter, Tru, Wenteene. Northern region dialects inherently intelligible to speakers but have 45% inherent intelligibility of Southern Toussian [wib]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tusia Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Toussian, Southern
[wib] Comoe and Houet provinces, halfway between Banfora and Bobo-Dioulasso; Toussiana is center area. 19,500 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tusia, Tusian, Win Dialects: 40% inherent intelligibility of Northern Toussian [tsp]. Nianha dialect is central. Each village has a separate dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tusia Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Turka
[tuz] Comoe Province, north and west of Banfora; Leraba, Kenedougou, and Houet provinces; principal villages are dialect names. 37,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Curama, Cuuramã, Tchourama, Tourka, Turuka, Tyurama Dialects: Beregadougou-Toumousseni, Douna. Reportedly most similar to Cerma [cme]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Viemo
[vig] Houet Province, Karankasso Vigué department, 40 km southeast of Bobo Dioulasso; Comoe and Bougouriba provinces, Ouo and Dolo departments. 8,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vige, Vigué, Vigye Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Viemo Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wara
[wbf] Leraba Province, west of Banfora, Sindou town area. Main village is Néguéni. 4,500 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ouala, Ouara, Samoe, Samwé Dialects: Negueni-Klani, Ouatourou-Niasogoni, Soulani. The Negueni dialect has over 95% intelligibility of the Niansogoni dialect, but Niansogoni below 80% of Negueni. No intelligibility of Natioro [nti]. Reportedly similar to Paleni [pnl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Winyé
[kst] Bale Province, Boromo subdistrict, Boromo area, halfway between Bobo-Dioulosso and Ouagadougou; 17 to 18 villages; also in Sanguie Province. 20,000 (1999 SIL). Most are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kõ, Kols, Kolsi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sissala [sld]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zarma
[dje] Tapoa Province, scattered settlements. 600 in Burkina Faso (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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