[rup] Pazardzhit province: Peshtera, Velingrad, and Rakitovo municipalities; Kyustendil province: Rakitovo municipaity; Blagoevgrad province. 10,600 in Bulgaria (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Armina, Arumanian, Macedo, Macedo-Rumanian, Romanian Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: Ethnonym: Armini, refers to those whose relatives emigrated from Macedonia and northern Greece between 1850 and 1914. Romanian Cultural Institute was closed in 1948.
Balkan Gagauz Turkish
[bgx] Silistra province: Dulova municipality, near Isperih town; Gajal dialect: Deli Orman area. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Gajal. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish
[bul] 7,020,000 in Bulgaria (European Commission 2012). Population total all countries: 7,799,970. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Balgarski Dialects: Palityan (Bogomil, Palitiani). Palityan dialect is functionally intelligible with standard Bulgarian. The Pomak dialect spoken in Greece is reportedly similar to Serbian [srp] and Bulgarian; geographical dialect variation toward each. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern Comments: Christian.
Bulgarian Sign Language
[bqn] Scattered. 37,000 (2014 IMB). 50,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balgarski žestomimicen ezik, BŽE Dialects: None known. Different sign languages are used in school and by adults outside. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: 200 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Instruction for parents of deaf children available. Christian (Orthodox).
[crh] Dobrich province: Krushari municipality. 1,370 in Bulgaria (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean, Crimean Turkish Dialects: Central Crimean, Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Southern Crimean. Classification: Turkic, Southern Comments: Muslim.
[gag] Dobrich province: Krusheri and Dobrich municipalities; Silistra province: Kaybardzha and Atafar municipalities; Varna province: Aksakovo municipality. 5,000 in Bulgaria (Salminen 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gagauzi Dialects: Bulgar Gagauz, Maritime Gagauz. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Christian.
[mkd] Blagoevgrad province: Strumjani, Simitli, and Blagoevgrad minicipalities. 1,400 in Bulgaria (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern Comments: Some in Pirin Region claim Macedonian as L1 (1998 W. Brown).
[rmn] Scattered near urban areas; Burgas, Gabrovo, Sliven, Sofiya, and Sofiya-Grad provinces; Stara Zagora province: Kazanlak municipality; Central dialect is from Sofia to the Black Sea; Tinsmiths’ dialect is in central and northwest Bulgaria; Arlija in Sofia region. 281,000 in Bulgaria (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). 100,000 Arlija, 20,000 Dzambazi, 10,000 Tinsmiths, 10,000 East Bulgarian. L2 users: 200,000 in Bulgaria (Gunnemark 1985). Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Gypsy Dialects: Arli, Dzambazi, East Bulgarian Romani, Greek Romani, Ironworker Romani, Paspatian, Tinners Romani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Ethnic groups: Jerlídes (western Bulgaria), Drindári (central Bulgaria). Muslim.
[rmy] 1,830 in Bulgaria (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.
Russian Sign Language
[rsl] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Originated 1806.
[tur] Burgas province: Kameno, east Sredets, Sozopol, Malko Tarnovo, and Tsarevo municipalities; Khaskovo and Kurdzhali provincesSmolyan province: Madan, Banite, and Nedelino municipalities; also in Stara Zagora and Yambol provinces, small border areas. 606,000 in Bulgaria (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Osmanli, Turki Dialects: Danubian, Dinler, Macedonian Turkish, Razgrad. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Gradually being replaced by Bulgarian [bul], although Islam and ethnic identity remain strong. Natural growth balanced by emigration to Turkey. Muslim.