Benin

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Aguna
[aug] Zou department: Djidja commune, Agouna village area; Kouffo department: Aplahoue commune; Collines department: southern border areas. 14,000 in Benin (2014 SIL). Total users in all countries: 28,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agunaco, Awuna. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Aja
[ajg] Kouffo department: southwest on Mono river, Aplahoué, Djakotomè, Dogbo, Klouékanmè, Lalo, and Tovinklin communes; Mono department: Athiémè, Houéyogbé communes; Zou department: Djidja and Agbangnizoun communes. Cotonou and many southern mixed-language towns. 591,000 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 781,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adja, Ajagbe, Hwè. Dialects: Dogbo, Hwe (Ehoue), Tado (Tadou), Sikpi (Shikpi), Tala. The Hwe, Sikpi, and Tado dialects are linguistically very similar; Dogbo and Tala distinct from the other 3. Lexical similarity: 92% with Hwe-Sikpi dialect, 89% with Hwe-Dogbo dialect, Hwe-Tado dialect, and Hwe-Tala dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Tado and Tala speakers are mainly in Togo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. 12,500 in Benin (2008 WFD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ASL, Benin Sign Language, Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone, LSAF. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Although many people say they use ASL in Benin, they generally do not understand nor sign standard ASL from the United States. However, the sign language in Benin has not been separately recognized by ISO 639-3.

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Anii
[blo] Northwest Donga department: Bassila commune, on Togo border, and 18 area villages. 33,600 in Benin (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 48,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baseca, Basila, Bassila, Gisida, “Ouinji-Ouinji” (pej.), “Winji-Winji” (pej.). Dialects: Giseda (Bassila), Gifolanga (Guiguisso), Frinyio ka gija (Frignion), Gikodowarja (Kodowari), Gipenesulja (Pénéssoulou), Gipenelanja (Pénélan), Naagayili ka gija (Nagayilé), Gibodija (Bodi), Gibayaakuja (Bayaku), Gideenguja (Dengou), Ngmeelang ka gija (Melan), Gisaramangaja (Saramanga), Agerendebu ka gija (Agéréndébou), Giborokoja (Mboroko), Yaari ka gija (Yarí). Giseda is the main dialect that adults understand. Higher intelligibility among the dialects in the north. Lexical similarity: 89% with the Bodi dialect and 74% with the Balanka dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele. Comments: Muslim.

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Anufo
[cko] Atakora department: Cobly and Boukoumbée communes, a few villages. 13,800 in Benin (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Baatonum
[bba] Central, north Borgou department: Sinende, Bembereke, N’Dali, Parakou, eastern Tchaourou, Perere, Nikki, and Kalale communes; central and southeast Alibori department; eastern Atakora department; Donga department: Djougou commune. 564,000 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 664,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Baatombu, Baatonu, Barba, Barganchi, Bargawa, Bargu, Bariba, Baruba, Berba, Bogung, Burgu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Bariba. Comments: Distinct from Biali (Berba) [beh]. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Biali
[beh] Atakora department: Materi, Tanguieta, and Cobly communes; Collines department: Ouessi commune; Donga department: small border area west of Oueme river. 97,000 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 101,080. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Berba, Bialaba, Bieri, Bjerb, Bjeri, Byali. Dialects: Dassari, Gouande, Materi, Pingou, Tihoun, Tangeta, Porga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Historical accounts claim they originated in the F’ada N’Gourma area of Burkina Faso. Different from Baatonum (Bariba) [bba]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Boko
[bqc] Borgou and Alibori departments, Segbana and Kalale communes. 100,000 in Benin (2013 R. Jones). No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 150,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bo’o. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 87% with Busa [bqp], 89% with Bokobaru [bus], 62% with Shanga [sho], 59% with Kyanga [tye], 62% with Bisa [bib] in Burkina Faso and Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Dendi
[ddn] Atakora and Alibori departments, along Niger and Medru rivers, down to Kandi: Djougou, Parakou, and other northern towns. 160,000 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 162,050. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dandawa. Dialects: Closely related to Zarma [dje] and Songhay [hmb]. They form a dialect subgroup. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Djougou and Parakou speech varieties reportedly different from that in the northeast. Different from Dendi [deq] in Central African Republic. Muslim.

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Ditammari
[tbz] Atakora department: Boukoumbé and Natitingou communes; Donga and Borgou departments, along Djougou-Parakou road. 88,300 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 122,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ditamari, “Somba” (pej.), Tamari. Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ede Cabe
[cbj] South Borgou department: Tchaourou commune; Collines department: Ouèssè and Savè communes, along Okrara river west bank; north Plateau department: Ketou commune. 2,240 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Caabe, Cabe, Tchabè. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo [yor]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ede Ica
[ica] Collines department: northwest Bante commune; Donga Department; southern border scattered areas. 63,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ica. Dialects: Ica, Ilodji (Ife). Lexical similarity: 83% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo [yor]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ede Idaca
[idd] Collines department: Dassa-Zoume and Glazoué communes. West Ouémé river. 100,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Idaaca, Idaasa, Idaasha, Ìdàáshà, Idaatcha, Idaca, Idáìtsà. Dialects: Idàáshà, Idàátchà. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ede Ije
[ijj] Plateau department: Pobè and Kétou communes; Zou department: Ouihni and Zogbodomey communes, rural districts between Kétou and Pobè towns. 92,400 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Holi, Ije. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo [yor], 91% with Ede Nago [nqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ede Nago, Kura
[nqk] Donga department: Bassila commune; on Togo border. Aledjo Koura area. 25,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kura, Nago. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Ife [ife] of Tchetti, 76% with Northern Nago [xkb], 68% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 65% with Southern Nago [nqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Muslim.

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Fon
[fon] Widespread. Atlantique, Littoral and Zou departments. 1,190,000 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,225,500. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dahomeen, Fongbe. Dialects: Agbome, Arohun, Gbekon, Kpase. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Foodo
[fod] Donga department: Ouaké commune, Semere town area. 24,500 in Benin (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 25,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Originally from Ghana; probably from the village of Salaga. Muslim.

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French
[fra] 16,700 in Benin (Johnstone 1993). L2 users: 3,280,000 in Benin (2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Constitution, Article 1). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Borgu
[fue] Borgou department: Nikki commune; Alibori department: Segbama commune; scattered communities in Atakora, Donga, Zou, and Collines departments; Bakuure dialect: Borgou, north of N’Dali; Korakuure dialect: Central and south Borgou, Parakou area; Djougoure dialect: Donga-Atacora region from Djougou north to Burkina border; Tchabankeere dialect: Zou department. 280,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Most monolinguals are in Borgou Department, Nikki Commune. Total users in all countries: 328,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Benin-Togo Fulfulde, Fulbe-Borgu, Peul, Peulh. Dialects: Bakuure, Korakuure, Djougoure (Juguure), Tchabankeere (Caabankeere). A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Fulfulde, Gorgal
[fuh] Northernmost Alibori department. 30,000 in Benin. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulfulde, Peul, Peulh, Western Niger Fulfulde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Gbe, Ayizo
[ayb] Largely in Atlantique department; Zou and Kouffo departments: Zogbodomey and Lalo communes. 472,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). 20,300 Seto, 162,000 Tori (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayizo, Ayizo-Gbe, Ayzo. Dialects: Kadagbe (Kada-Gbe), Ayizo-Seto (Sèto), Ayizo-Tori, Ayizo-Kobe. Reportedly similar to Fon [fon]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Ci
[cib] Kouffo department: Lalo commune. 25,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayizo-Ci, Ci, Cigbe, Tchi. Dialects: None known. Considered the same as Fon [fon] by many Ci Gbe speakers. Lexical similarity: 80% with Fon [fon], 77% with Ayizo Gbe [ayb], 59% with Aja [ajg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Defi
[gbh] Southeast corner, Ouémé department: Seme-Kpodji commune between Ouémé river north, Cotonou-Porto-Novo railroad west, Gulf of Guinea south, into east Nigeria. 13,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Defi is reportedly similar linguistically to Gun [guw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gbe, Eastern Xwla
[gbx] Southeast coast, Ouémé department: Seme-Kpodji commune east of Cotonou; westward into Atlantique department: south shore, Lake Nokwe; Littoral department: east Cotonou. 80,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Houla, Kpla, Offra, Ophra, Phla, Pla, Popo, Xwla. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Gun [guw], 82% with Fon [fon], 68% with Gen [gej], 68% with Aja [ajg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gbe, Gbesi
[gbs] Atlantique department: Kpomassè, Allada, and Tori-Bossito communes, individual and mixed villages. 65,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Gbokpa. Lexical similarity: 91% with Kotafon [kqk], 85% with Fon [fon], 73% with Aja [ajg], 70% with Gen [gej]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Kotafon
[kqk] Mono department: Athiémé, Houeyogbe, eastern Bopa communes, Lake Aheme area; Kouffo department: Djakotomey and Lalo communes. 100,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ko, Kogbe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Gbe Ayizo [ayb], 81% with Fon [fon], 69% with Gen [gej], 65% with Aja [ajg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gbe, Maxi
[mxl] Collines department: Dassa-Zoume, Savalou, Bantè, Glazoué Ouèssèi communes; Donga department: Bassila commune. 215,000 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 240,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahi, Maxi, Maxi-Gbe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Fon [fon], 68% with Ayizo Gbe [ayb], 51% with Aja [ajg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gbe, Saxwe
[sxw] Mono department: Houéyogbé and Bopa communes; Kouffo department: Lalo commune; Atlantique department: Kpomasse commune. 175,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sahouè, Sahouègbe, Saxwe, Saxwegbe, Saxwe-Gbe, Tsaphe, Tsaphe -Gbe. Dialects: Saxwe, Daxe, Se. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Tofin
[tfi] Atlantique department: Southeast, Sô-Ava commune; Ouémé department: Aguegue commune. 85,100 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tofi, Tofin, Tofingbe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 88% with Gun [guw], 87% with Fon [fon], 82% with Eastern Xwla Gbe [xwe], 75% with Ayizo Gbe [ayb], 66% with Gen [gej]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Gbe, Waci
[wci] Mono department: Comè commune; some in Athiémè and Grand-Popo communes. 36,600 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ouatchi, Waci, Waci-Gbe, Watyu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gbe, Weme
[wem] Ouémé department: Adjohoun, Bonou, Dangbo communes along lower Ouémé river, some in Aguégué, Akpro-Missérété communes; Atlantique department: Zè and Abomey-Calavi communes; Plateau department: Adja-Ouere commune. 169,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Weme, Weme-Gbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gbe, Western Xwla
[xwl] Mono department: Grand-Popo commune; Atlantique department: Ouidah commune; Littoral department: Cotonou. 50,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 71,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phla, Xwla, Xwla-Gbe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Gun [guw], 84% with Fon [fon], 73% with Gen [gej], 68% with Aja [ajg], 90% with Eastern Xwela Gbe [gbx], 88% with Saxwe Gbe [sxw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Xwela
[xwe] Mono department: Comé commune near Lake Aheme, southernmost Bopa commune; Atlantique department: Kpomassè and Ouidah communes. 50,500 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Houeda, Peda, Phera, Xwela, Xwela-Gba. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Western Xwla [xwl], 85% with Fon [fon], 71% with Gen [gej], 82% with Saxwe [sxw], 68% with Aja [ajg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gen
[gej] Mono and Atlantique departments. 77,900 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ge, Gegbe, Gen-Gbe, Guin, Mina, Mina-Gen, Popo. Dialects: Anexo, Agoi, Gen, Gliji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gourmanchéma
[gux] Atakora department: Tanguieta, Kérou, Materi, and Cobly communes; Alibori department: Banikouara, Karimama communes. 36,500 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goulmancema, Gourma, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gurma, Migulimancema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gun
[guw] Ouémé department: Southeast, Akpro-Missérété, Avrankou, Adjarra, Porto-Novo communes; Plateau department: Sakete commune. 423,000 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 682,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alada, Alada-Gbe, Egun, Goun, Gu, Gugbe, Gun-Alada, Gungbe, Gun-Gbe, Seto-Gbe, Toli-Gbe. Dialects: Ajra, Alada, Seto, Toli. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hausa
[hau] Widespread in north, Atakora, Alibori Donga, and Borgou departments, mainly in larger towns, market villages. Ethnic population: 800,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Ifè
[ife] Collines department: western Savalou commune, Tchetti town area. 27,300 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ana, Anago, Ana-Ife, Baate, Ede Ife. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kabiyè
[kbp] Donga department: Ouaké, Djougou, and Bassila communes. Scattered villages. 9,300 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabre, Kabure, Kabye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kyanga
[tye] Alibori department: Segbana commune, Kasati, Tungan Bage, and Tungan Noma. 1,000 in Benin (1995 R. Jones). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cenka, Kyenga, Tyenga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Kyanga.

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Lama
[las] Atakora department: Boukoumbé commune, northwest of Boukoumbé town, scattered villages; Donga department: Djougou, and Bassila communes. 60,000 in Benin (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lamba, Losso. Dialects: Kande (Kante), Kadjala (Kadjalla). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Lama is name for the people and language. Losso refers to people on the Losso Plain who can either be Lama or Nawdm. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lukpa
[dop] Donga department: Ouake, Bassila communes, Kémérida area, border areas west of Djougou town; Borgou department: Tchaouroue commune. 83,400 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 101,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dompago, Legba, Logba, Lokpa, Lugba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Different from Logba [lgq] of Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mbelime
[mql] Atakora department: Cobly commune, 4 arrondissements (Cobly, Tapoga, Datori and Kountori), 26 villages; Boukoumbé commune, 2 arrondissements (Dipoli and Korontière), 5 villages. 37,600 in Benin (Tchegnon and Guidibi 2006), increasing. Total users in all countries: 39,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bèbèdibè, Bebelibe, “M’Bermè” (pej.), Mbèlimè, Mbilme, “Niende” (pej.), “Niendé” (pej.), “Niendi” (pej.), “Nyende” (pej.), Oubièlo, Ubielo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Miyobe
[soy] Donga department: Copargo commune; Atakora department: Kounde, Boukombe communes. 1,350 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 16,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bijobe, Biyobe, Kayobe, Kuyobe, Meyobe, Sola, Solamba, Solla, Sorouba, Soruba, Uyobe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 27% with Moba [mfq], 25% with Ditammari [tbz], 47% with Ngangam [gng]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mokole
[mkl] Alibori department: Kandi commune, Kandi town, villages north and east. 21,400 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Féri, Mokollé, Mokwale, Monkole. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Nago, Northern
[xkb] Donga department: Bassila commune south and west of Bassila town, Bantè commune south of Bassila; Borgou department: Tchaourou commune. 30,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). All Nago: 459,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 70,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ana, Ede Nago, Manigri-Kambolé, Manigri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 87%–91% with Ede Nago [nqk], 77% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 78% with Ife [ife] of Tchetti. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Nago, Southern
[nqg] Plateau department: widespread, Kétou, Pobè, Adja-Ouèrè, Ifangni, and Sakété communes; Ouémé department: Akpro-Misserete and Avrankou communes; Zou department: Ouinhi commune. 200,000 (2002 SIL). All Nago: 459,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ede Nago, Nago, Nagot, Nagots. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 87%–91% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nateni
[ntm] Atakora department: Tanguiéta, Toucountouna, Cobly, Matéri, and Kouandé communes. Tayaba dialect in Tanguiéta; Kuntemba in Cobly, Matéri, and Tanguiéta communes; Natemba in Toucountouna commune; Okoma in Tanguiéta and Kouandé communes; Tayaba in Tanguiéta commune, Matéri, and Tanguiéta communes. 61,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Nateni (Natemba, Natimba), Tayari (Tayaba), Kunteni (Kuntemba), Okoni (Okoma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Tayakou is center of traditional beliefs and practices. Traditional religion.

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Ngangam
[gng] Atakora department: Cobly commune. 20,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dye, Gamgan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Notre
[bly] Atakora department: Tanguiéta commune, north, northwest, northeast of Tanguiéta town. 1,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boulba, Bulba, Burusa, Nootre. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Nootre. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tchumbuli
[bqa] Collines department: Savè, Ouèssè communes, Okounfo, Edaningbe, and Gbede villages. 2,500 (2000 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Basa, Chombulon, Tchombolo, Tshummbuli. Dialects: Cobecha, Tchumbuli. Lexical similarity: 80% with Chumburung [ncu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Tchumbuli and Cobecha are peoples of differing origins but share a common language. Christian.

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Tem
[kdh] Widespread, especially north. 13,300 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Tembe, Tim, Timu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Waama
[wwa] Atakora department: Natitingou, Toucountouna, Mouande communes; Pehonko commune, at least 20 villages; Cotonou, Parakou area. 68,600 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yoabou, Yoabu. Dialects: Waama, Tangamma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Natitingou is cultural center. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yom
[pil] Donga department: Djougou, Copargo communes, south into Bassila commune; north into Atakora department: Kouande, Natingou, and Pehonko communes; Borgou department: N’Dali commune. 300,000 (2006 SIL). L2 users: 150,000. Almost no monolinguals. Ethnic population: 300,000. 230,000 Yowa; 70,000 Tangma. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kpilakpila, Pila, Pilapila. Dialects: Tangerem (Taneka), Yom. Yom and Tangerem dialects are very similar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm. Comments: Yom dialect users are called Yowa; Tangerem users are Tangma. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Yoruba
[yor] Widespread. Porto-Novo city, towns, and major villages. 125,000 in Benin (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ede-Yoruba, Yariba, Yooba. Dialects: Egba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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