Brunei

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Belait
[beg] Belait district: scattered; Tutong district: Kampung Kiudang. 1,240 in Brunei (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balait Jati, Lemeting, Meting. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 54% with Tutong [ttg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A. Comments: Recognized indigenous group. Muslim Belait are Malay in orientation. Non-Muslims retain their Belait identity more. Heavy intermarriage with Bisaya and Chinese. Muslim.

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Bisaya, Brunei
[bsb] Belait and Tutong districts: central and interior areas south of Tutong [ttg] language area; Seria town and villages near Sarawak border (Brunei dialect). 37,600 in Brunei (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 57,600. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Basaya, Bekiau, Besaya, Bisaia, Bisaya Bukit, Bisayah, Dusun, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai, Lorang Bukit, Southern Bisaya, Tutong 1, Visayak. Dialects: Brunei Bisaya, Sarawak Bisaya, Tutong 1. Lexical similarity: 78% with dialects spoken in Brunei and Sarawak, lower with other Dusunic languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya, Southern. Comments: Recognized indigenous group.

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Brunei
[kxd] Widespread. 295,000 in Brunei (2004 J. Leclerc), increasing. Total users in all countries: 346,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Brunei-Kadaian, Orang Bukit. Dialects: Brunei Malay, Kedayan (Kadaian, Kadayan, Kadian, Kadien, Kadyan, Karayan, Kedien, Kedyan, Kerayan), Kampong Ayer. Lexical similarity: 94%–95% between Brunei and the Kampong Ayer dialects, 80%–82% with Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Brunei and Kadayan are recognized indigenous groups. Muslim.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] 3,000 in Brunei (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Hakka. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 13,200 in Brunei (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] 6,000 in Brunei (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Dialects: Foochow. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist, Christian, Daoist.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] 13,300 in Brunei (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Hainan, Teochew (Chaochow, Tiuchiu), Hokkien (Fujian). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] 6,300 in Brunei (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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English
[eng] 10,000 in Brunei (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 134,000 in Brunei (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1984, Constitution, Article 82(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Iban
[iba] Belait and Tutong districts: rural areas; Temburong district. 17,300 in Brunei (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Sea Dayak. Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic.

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Lun Bawang
[lnd] Temburong district: Brunei Bay to Padas, then to Baram river headwaters. 7 villages. 500 in Brunei (2006 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayoh, Lundaya, Southern Murut. Dialects: Trusan, Long Iluk, Lun Ba. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut. Murut is a recognized indigenous group. Christian, traditional religion.

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Malay, Standard
[zsm] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1984, Constitution, Article 82(1)). Alternate Names: Bahasa Malaysia, Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Non-indigenous. L2 only.

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Melanau, Central
[mel] Kuala Belait town area. 280 in Brunei (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Belana’u, Melanau, Milanau, Milano. Dialects: Mukah-Oya (Muka, Mukah, Oga, Oya, Oya’). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau. Comments: Non-indigenous. Mukah dialect is spoken in Brunei. Muslim.

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Penan, Eastern
[pez] Belait district: west of Baram river. 55 in Brunei (2003 P. Sercombe). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Nibong (Nibon, Penan Nibong), Bok Penan (Bok), Penan Silat, Penan Gang (Gang), Penan Lusong (Lusong), Sipeng (Speng), Penan Lanying, Jelalong Penan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan.

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Tutong
[ttg] Belait district; Tutong district: Tutong town coastal area. 16,600 (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tutong 2, Tutung. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 54% with Belait [beg] in Malaysia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B. Comments: Different from Brunei Bisaya [bsb] in Dusunic, Bisaya Group. Recognized indigenous group. Muslim.

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