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Acroá
[acs] Bahia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by the 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coroá. Classification: Jean, Central.

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Agavotaguerra
[avo] Mato Grosso state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the first decades of the 2000s (2016 SIL). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Agavotocueng, Agavotokueng, Agavotoqueng. Dialects: None known. Related to Waurá [wau] and Yawalapiti [yaw]. Classification: Unclassified.

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Aikanã
[tba] Rondônia, west of Vilhena, near Cuiabá-Porto Velho highway. Population: 150 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aikaná, Corumbiara, Huari, Kasupá, Kolumbiara, Mondé, Tubarão, Uari, Wari. Dialects: Masaká (Massaca), Tubanao. Classification: Language isolate.

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Akuntsu
[aqz] Rondônia State, Columbiara municipality. Population: 5 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 5 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Akunsu, Akunt’su, Akuntsun, Akuntsú. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tupari [tpr]. Classification: Tupian, Tuparí.

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Amahuaca
[amc] Acre state: Peru border area. Population: 220 in Brazil (1995). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amawaca, Amawáka, Amenguaca, Sayacu, Yora. Dialects: Inuvaken, Viwivakeu. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State, Amawaka.

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Amanayé
[ama] Pará state: Domingos do Capim municipality; Capim river. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the first decade of the 2000s (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 190 (2001 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Amanage, Amanaié, Amanajé, Amanajó, Amanyé, Ararandeuara, Manajó, Mananyé, Manaxó, Manayé, Manaze, Manazewá, Manazo, Turiwa. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Amundava
[adw] Rondônia, Acre, near Jiparaná river. Population: 83 (2003 ISA). Crevels 2007 groups the Amundava together with the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau [urz] for a total population of 170 (2003). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amondawa, Amundawa. Dialects: None known. The Amundava, Kayabi [kyz], Tenharim [pah], Júma [jua], and Karipuna [kuq] all call themselves Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] are all reportedly linguistically very similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Anambé
[aan] Pará state; Cairari river (Moju river tributary). Population: 6 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 130 (2000 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Apalaí
[apy] Pará state: Paru Leste river; some on Jarí and Citare rivers, 20 villages; a few in Amapá state. Population: 450 (1993 SIL). 100 monolinguals. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Apalay, Aparaí, Arakwayu. Classification: Cariban, Central.

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Apiaká
[api] Mato Grosso state: upper Rio Tapajos, Slo Manoel confluence; a few in Pará state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker, Pedrinho Kamassuri, died in 2011. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Tempesta 2009). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Apiacá, Apiake. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib.

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Apinayé
[apn] Tocantins and Maranhão states, near Tocantinopolis; 6 villages. Population: 1,500 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,530 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Afotigé, Aogé, Apinagé, Apinaié, Apinajé, Otogé, Oupinagee, Pinagé, Pinaré, Timbira Ocidentais, Uhitische, Utinsche, Western Timbira. Autonym: Apinayé. Classification: Jean, Northern.

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Apurinã
[apu] Amazonas state: Purus river, from Rio Branco to Manaus; Mato Grosso state. Population: 2,000 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 6,990 (2010 FUNASA). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ipurinã, Ipurinãn, Kangite, Popengare. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro.

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Arapaso
[arj] Amazonas state: São Gabriel, Iauarete. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died by the 1960s; ethnic Arapaso had shifted to Tucano (Loukotka 1968). Ethnic population: 570 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arapaço, Araspaso, Koneá. Dialects: Reportedly a dialect of Tucano [tuo]. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

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Arára, Mato Grosso
[axg] Mato Grosso State. Population: No known L1 speakers. 7 speakers remained in 1986 (Rodrigues 1986). Ethnic population: 210 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arara, Arara do Aripuanã, Arara do Beiradão, Arara do Rio Branco, Koaia, Koaiá, Koayá. Classification: Unclassified.

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Arára, Pará
[aap] Pará: Laranjal and Cachoeira Seca. Population: 340 (2010 I. Souza). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arára Bravos. Autonym: Ukarãngmã. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar extant languages are Ikpeng [txi] and Bakairí [bkq]. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Arara.

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Ararandewára
[xaj] Pará state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably became extinct in the latter half of the 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ararandeuras, Ararandeuára, Manajé. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Araweté
[awt] Pará state: near Altamira; near Xingu river. Population: 340 (Crevels 2012). Nearly all are monolingual (1986). Ethnic population: 340 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Araueté, Arawine, Bïde. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu], Parakanã [pak], and Tapirapé [taf]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní.

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Arikapú
[ark] Rondônia state; Rio Branco headwaters, Guaporé tributary. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker likely survived into the 2010s. Ethnic population: 30 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aricapú, Mashubi, Maxubí. Classification: Jabutian.

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Arikem
[ait] Rondônia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 1930s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ahopovo, Ahôpovo, Ariken, Arikém, Ariqueme, Ariquemes, Ariquême, Uitáte. Classification: Tupian, Arikem.

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Aruá
[arx] Rondônia state: Rio Branco post; Branco and Guaporé rivers. Population: 12 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 36 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arouá, Arouén. Dialects: Aruashí (Aruachi). Classification: Tupian, Mondé, Aruá.

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Arutani
[atx] Roraima. Population: No known L1 speakers in Brazil. Last known speaker probably survived into the 2010s. Total users in all countries: none known. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Anake, Aoaqui, Auakê, Auaqué, Awaikê, Awake, Oewaku, Orotani, Uruak, Urutaní. Classification: Language isolate.

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Ashéninka, Ucayali-Yurúa
[cpb] Acre state: border area with Peru, Juruá river between Amônia, Arara, and Breu tributaries; Tarauacá river, Envira tributary. Population: 810 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 870 (2004 CPIAC). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Campa, Kampa. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga.

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Asurini of Xingú
[asn] Pará state: Xingu River, Kwatinemu village. Population: 120 (Pereira 2009), increasing. Any monolingual speakers are above 40 years of age (Pereira 2009). Ethnic population: 120 (Pereira 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Assurinikin, Assuriní, Asurini do Xingú, Asuriní de Koatinema, Awaeté, Awaté, Kuben-Kamrektí. Dialects: None known. Different from Tocantins Asurini (Akwaya) [asu], and Arawete [awt]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kayabí.

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Asurini, Tocantins
[asu] Pará state: Trocará near Tucurui; Tocantins river. Population: 380 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 380 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Akwawa, Akwawa-Asuriní, Akwaya, Assuriní, Asuriní do Tocantins, Asuriní do Trocará, “Akuáwa” (pej.). Autonym: Asuriní. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Akwawa.

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Atorada
[aox] Roraima. Population: Few in Brazil (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ator’ti, Atorad, Atorai, Dauri. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana.

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Aurá
[aux] Pará state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the first decade of the 2000s (2004 SIL). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Auré. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí.

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Avá-Canoeiro
[avv] Goiás state: Terra Indigena Ava-Canoeiro; Tocantins state: Bananal island, upper Tocantins river valley. Population: 14 (Moore 2006). 14 monolinguals. All speakers are monolingual. Ethnic population: 46 (2009 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Abá, Avá, Awana, Canoa, Canoe, Canoeiro, Canoeiros, Cara Preta, Carijó, Indios Negros. Dialects: The groups in Tocantins and Goias speak different dialects, and have lived apart for over 100 years. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara.

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Awetí
[awe] Mato Grosso state: Xingú park, Rio Culiseu, Aweti, and Sauva villages; upper Xingú river. Population: 170 (2011 S. Drude). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arauine, Arauite, Auetí, Auetó, Auití, Autl, Awetö. Classification: Tupian.

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Bakairí
[bkq] Mato Grosso state: about 9 villages. Population: 950 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 950 (1999 ISA). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bacairí. Autonym: Kurâ. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Bakairí.

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Baniwa
[bwi] Amazonas state: Middle Içana river. Population: 5,810 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baniba, Baniua do Içana, Baniva, Dakenei, Issana, Kohoroxitari, Maniba, Wakuenai, Walimanai. Dialects: Carutana. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu.

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Baré
[bae] Amazonas state: Xié river area. Population: 2 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 2,790 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Balé. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Baré.

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Borôro
[bor] Mato Grosso state: Meruri, Sangradouro, Perigera. Population: 1,390 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,390 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 1,392. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boe, Eastern Bororo. Autonym: Boe Wadáru. Classification: Bororoan.

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Brazilian Sign Language
[bzs] Scattered. Population: 200,000 (2010). Estimated 200,000–1,000,000 Deaf sign language users, based on 0.1-0.5% of the general population reported in the 2010 census. Ethnic population: 9,700,000 (2010). Ethnic population represents people with significant hearing loss (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of national identity (2005, Parliamentary decree No. 5626). Alternate Names: LIBRAS, LSB, Língua Brasileira de Sinais, Língua de Sinais Brasileira, Língua de Sinais dos Centros Urbanos Brasileiros, SPSL, São Paulo Sign Language. Classification: Sign language.

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Cafundo Creole
[ccd] Rio de Janeiro state: Cafundo, 240 km from São Paulo. Population: 40 (1978 M. Gnerre). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.

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Caló
[rmq] Widespread, primarily northeast and north central Brazil. Population: 400,000 in Brazil (2014 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 800,000 (2011 R7 Noticias). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chibi, Gitano, Iberian Romani. Dialects: Brazilian Calão. Classification: Mixed language, Iberian-Romani.

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Canela
[ram] Maranhão state. Population: 2,500 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kanela. Autonym: Canela. Dialects: Apâniekra (Apânhecra, Apânjekra, Apânyekra, Canela Apanyekrá, Kanela Apanyekra), Ramkokamekra (Canela Ramkokamekrá, Kanela-Ramkokamekrá). Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira.

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Cashinahua
[cbs] Acre and Amazonas states. Population: 400 in Brazil (2003). Ethnic population: 1,400 (2000 ISA). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cashinahuá, Caxinauá, Caxinawá, Hantxa Kuin, Huni Kui, Huni Kuin, Juni Kuin, Kaxinauá, Kaxinawá, Kaxynawa. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State.

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Chiquitano
[cax] Mato Grosso, border area with Bolivia, municipalities of Vila Bela, Cáceres and Porto Espiridião. Population: 50 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 740 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Anenho, Linguará. Classification: Language isolate.

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Chiripá
[nhd] Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and São Paulo states; scattered. Population: 4,900 in Brazil (1995 AMTB). Ethnic population: 8,000 (2003 ISA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Apytare, Ava Guaraní, Guaraní, Nandeva, Nhandeva, Tsiripá, Txiripá, Ñandeva. Dialects: Apapocuva. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Cinta Larga
[cin] Mato Grosso state: Terra Indigena Aripuanã; Rondônia state: Terra Indigena Roosevelt, Parque Indigena Aripuanã. Population: 650 (Crevels 2012). Nearly all are monolingual. Ethnic population: 650 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Tupian, Mondé, Aruá.

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Cocama-Cocamilla
[cod] Amazonas state: Rio Solimões region, Terra Indígena Acapuri de Cima, Terra Indígena Espírito Santo, Terra Indígena Evaré I, Terra Indígena Kokama. Population: Ethnic population: 620 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cocama, Kocama, Kokama. Dialects: Cocama, Cocamilla (Kokamilla, Pambadeque), Xibitaona. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama.

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Cubeo
[cub] Amazonas state: near São Gabriel. Population: 150 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 380 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cobewa, Cubeu, Cuveo, Hehenawa, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kobéwa, Kubeo, Kubewa, Kubwa, Pamiwa, Pamié. Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan.

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Curripaco
[kpc] Amazonas state: Içana. Population: 1,330 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coripaco, Cumata, Curipaco, Ipeca, Ipeka-Tapuia, Koripako, Korispaso, Kuripako, Pacu, Paku-Tapuya, Palioariene, Pato Tapuia, Pato-Tapuya, Payualiene, Payuliene. Dialects: Ipeka-Tapuia, Korripako (Karupaka), Unhun (Cadauapuritana, Enhen), Waliperi (Veliperi). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu.

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Dâw
[kwa] Amazonas state: across the river from São Gabriel de Cochoeira, below confluence of Vaupés and Negro rivers. Population: 120 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 120 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dow, “Kamu Maku” (pej.), “Kamán” (pej.), “Kamã” (pej.), “Kamã Makú” (pej.). Classification: Puinavean.

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Dení
[dny] Amazonas state: Terra Indigena Camadeni and Terra Indigena Deni, between Purus and Juruá rivers, Upper Cunhua and Xiruã rivers. Population: 740 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 880 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Dani. Autonym: Madiha. Dialects: Inauini. Reportedly similar to Kulina [cul]. Classification: Arauan.

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Desano
[des] Amazonas state: Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro, sixty communities on Tiquié river and tributaries; border with Colombia. Population: 700 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 2,200 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 3,160. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boleka, Desana-Siriana, Dessano, Desâna, Kusibi, Oregu, Uina, Umúkomasá, Wina, Wirã. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Siriano [sri]. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano.

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Enawené-Nawé
[unk] Mato Grosso state. Population: 450 (Crevels 2012). Most are still monolingual (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 450 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eneuene-Mare, Salumã. Dialects: None known. Related to Parecís [pab]. Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified.

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Galibi
[car] Amapá state: Terra Indigena Galibi, São José dos Galibi village on Oiapoque river right bank, south of Saint Georges, between Morcego and Taparabu streams. Population: 28 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 66 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Carib, Caribe, Cariña, Kalihna, Kalinya, Kari’na auran, Kari’ña, Maraworno, Marworno. Dialects: Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib). Classification: Cariban.

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Gavião do Jiparaná
[gvo] Rondônia state: Terra Indigena Igarape Lourdes. Population: 1,120 (Crevels 2012). 520 Gavião and 600 Zoró speakers (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,120 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Digüt, Gavião do Rondônia, Ikolen, Ikõleey, Ikõlej, Ikõro. Dialects: Gavião, Zoró (Cabeça Seca, Pageyn, Panginey). Partially intelligible with Suruí [sru]. Classification: Tupian, Mondé, Aruá.

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Gavião, Pará
[gvp] Pará state: Kaikoture near Maraba; possibly in original locations in Maranhão state. Population: 970 (Crevels 2012). 480 Gavião Perkatêjê and 490 Pukobjê (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 970 (2006 ISA). 480 Parakatêjê and 470 Pukobjê (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gavião Perkatêjê, Gavião do Mãe Maria, Gavião do Pará, Parakatêjê, Perkatêjê, Pukobjê. Dialects: None known. Related to Krinkati-Timbira [xri], Canela [ram], and Krahô [xra]. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira.

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German, Standard
[deu] Scattered, in Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo. Population: 1,500,000 in Brazil. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Alemão, Deutsch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Guajá
[gvj] Maranhão state: Terra Indígena Alto Turiaçu and Terra Indígena Caru, four settlements; Pará state. Population: 280 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 280 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Avá, Awá, Awá Guajá, Ayaya, Guaxare, Wazaizara. Dialects: None known. Related to Guajajára [gub]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Guajajára
[gub] Maranhão state: Pindaré, Grajaú, Mearim, and Zutiua rivers. 81 villages. Population: 14,000 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 19,500 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Guazazzara, Tenetehar, Tenetehára. Autonym: Zeʼegete. Dialects: Pindare, Zutiua, Mearim. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Tenetehara.

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Guana
[gqn] Mato Grosso do Sul state: near the Terêna. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 2000s. Ethnic population: 250 (2005 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chana, Chuala, East Paraná, Equinao, Equiniquinao, Guaná, Kinihinao, Kinikinao, Kinikinau. Dialects: None known. Related to Terêna [ter] and Irantxe [irn]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Terena.

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Guanano
[gvc] Amazonas state: Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro; on Colombia border. Population: 650 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 740 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 950. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anana, Kotiria, Kótedia, Kótirya, Uanana, Uanano, Wanana-Pirá, Wanano, Wanâna. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Piratapuyo [pir], but the two groups do not intermarry. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

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Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo, Pará, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina states; possibly also Minas Gerais state. 35 villages. Population: 6,000 in Brazil (2008 CTI). Most children, women and elders are monolingual (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 19,960. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bugre, Mbiá, Mbua, Mbyá. Autonym: Mbya. Dialects: Tambéopé, Baticola. Lexical similarity: 75% with Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Guarequena
[gae] Amazonas state: Rio Chié (Xié) and Içana; near Venezuelan border. Population: 20 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 810 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arequena, Uarequena, Uerequema, Urequema, Warekéna, Werekena, Werikena. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena.

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Guató
[gta] Mato Grosso do Sul state: Paraguai river banks and up São Lourenço river, along Bolivian border. Population: 5 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 370 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Language isolate.

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Himarimã
[hir] Amazonas state: Tapauá valley, near the Jamamadi and Jarawara. Population: 40 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Unclassified.

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Hixkaryána
[hix] Pará and Amazonas states: upper Nhamunda river to Mapuera and Jatapu rivers. Population: 600 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 630 (Crevels 2012). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chawiyana, Faruaru, Hichkaryana, Hishkariana, Hishkaryana, Hixkariana, Hyxkaryana, Kumiyana, Parucutu, Parukoto-Charuma, Sherewyana, Sokaka, Wabui, Xereu, Xerewyana. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Waiwai [waw]. No dialectal variation. Some Hixkaryana who live among the Waiwai are called Sherewyana. Classification: Cariban, Waiwai.

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Hunsrik
[hrx] Widespread. Many in Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina states. Population: 3,000,000 in Brazil. Ethnic population: 5,000,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hunsriker, Hunsrück, Katharinensisch, Rio Grand Hunsriker. Dialects: Originally derived from Hunsrücker (Westpfälzisch) German speech variety; influenced by Portuguese [por]. Several dialects, probably due to being language of intercommunication for many other Germanic language speakers such as Swabian [swg], Bavarian [bar] and others as well as immigrants from Switzerland and Austria. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German.

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Hupdë
[jup] Amazonas state: Rio Auari. Population: 1,500 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 1,740. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Hup, Hupda, Hupdé, Jupde, Ubdé, “Hupdá Makú” (pej.), “Jupdá Macú” (pej.), “Macú de Tucano” (pej.), “Makú-Hupdá” (pej.). Autonym: Hupdah. Dialects: Hupdë, Tuhup, Nëhup. Ruhlen and others classify it as Puinave, Macro-Tucanoan. Intelligible with Yahup [yab]. Classification: Puinavean, Hupda.

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Iatê
[fun] Alagoas state; Pernambuco State: Sertão, Águas Belas municipality, 2 villages. Population: 1,000 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 2,930 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Carnijó, Fornió, Fulniô, Furniô, Yatê. Dialects: Fulniô, Yatê. Lexical similarity: 98% between Fulniô and Yatê dialects. Classification: Language isolate.

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Ikpeng
[txi] Mato Grosso state: Xingú park. Population: 340 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 340 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chicao, Tonore, Tunuli, Txicão, Txikân, Txikão. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Pará Arara [aap]. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Arara.

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Ingarikó
[ake] Roraima state: Terra Indígena Raposa or Serra do Sol, near Cotingo river. Population: 1,170 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,170 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acahuayo, Acewaio, Akawai, Akawaio, Akawayo, Akwaio, Kapon, Kapóng, Patamona. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong.

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Irántxe
[irn] Mato Grosso state: Rio Cravari headwaters, Rio Sangue tributary, a tributary of Rio Juruena. Population: 90 (Crevels 2012). 10 Irántxe and 80 Münkü (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 360 (2006 ISA). 280 Irántxe and 80 Münkü (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Iranche, Iranshe, Iranxe, Manoki, Münkü. Dialects: Münkü (Kenkü, Menku, Menky, Myky, Mynky, Myy), Irántxe. Classification: Language isolate.

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Italian
[ita] Scattered, in Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo. Population: 50,000 in Brazil. Ethnic population: 20,000,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Italiano. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian.

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Itene
[ite] Rondônia state: Guajará-Mirim, Porto Velho. Population: 12 in Brazil (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 30 (2002). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: More. Classification: Chapacuran, Itene.

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Jabutí
[jbt] Rondônia state: Rio Branco Post. Population: 40 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 170 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djeoromitxí, Jabotí, Jeoromitxí, Quipiu, Yabutí. Classification: Jabutian.

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Jamamadí
[jaa] Amazonas state: Jaruara; Lábrea municipality, 7 villages; Banawá river area; others scattered. Population: 1,080 (Crevels 2012). 100 Banawá Yafí, 800 Jamamadí, 180 Jaruára (Crevels 2012). Banawa Yafi (Kitiya) mostly monolingual; 160 ethnic Jarawara, also mostly monolingual (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,160 (Crevels 2012). 100 Banawá Yafí, 880 Jamamadí, 180 Jaruára (Crevels 2012). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Canamanti, Kanamanti, Kapaná, Madi, Yamadi, Yamamadí, Yamamandi. Dialects: Bom Futuro, Jurua, Pauini, Mamoria (Mamori), Cuchudua (Maima), Tukurina, Jarawara (Jaruára, Yarawara), Banawá Yafí (Banauá, Banavá, Banawá, Jafí, Kitiya). Other groups called, Jamamadí, are reportedly more similar to Kulina [cul] or Dení [dny]. Tukurina dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Arauan, Jamamadi.

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Júma
[jua] Amazonas state: Upper Jamary village; Mucuim river, Rio Açuã tributary. Population: 5 (Crevels 2012). 5 speakers belong to one family, all married to Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau [urz] (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arara, Kagwahibm, Kagwahiph, Kagwahiv, Kavahiva, Kawahip, Kawaib, Yumá. Autonym: Kagwahiva. Dialects: None known. The Júma, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Tenharim [pah], and Karipuna [kuq] all call themselves Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] and Morerebi [xmo] are all reportedly linguistically similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Jurúna
[jur] Mato Grosso state: Xingu park, 2 villages; Maritsauu-Mitau river mouth; possibly also Pará state. Population: 280 (Moore 2006). 1 speaker left in the Terra Indígena Paquiçamba in 1989 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 360 (2006 FUNASA). 35 ethnic group members in the Tierra Indígena Paquiçamba (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iuruna, Jaruna, Jurûna, Yudjá, Yudya, Yurúna. Classification: Tupian, Juruna.

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Kaapor
[urb] Maranhão and Pará states: 8–10 villages scattered over 7,250 square km; Gurupi river. Population: 800 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 990 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Caapor, Ka’apor, Kaaporté, Urubú-Kaapor, “Urubú” (pej.). Autonym: Kaapor, awa je’ẽha. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Kaapor Sign Language
[uks] Maranhão and Pará states: several villages, near the Gurupi river. Population: No known L1 users. Ferreira Brito 1984 reported 5 deaf and less than 500 hearing, but unconfirmed reports in 1987 say no users remain. Deaf users were monolingual. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ka’apor Sign Language, “UKSL” (pej.), “Urubu-Kaapor Sign Language” (pej.), “Urubú Sign Language” (pej.). Classification: Sign language.

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Kadiwéu
[kbc] Mato Grosso do Sul state: Serra da Bodoquena area; 3 villages. Population: 1,590 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,630 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cadiuéu, Caduvéo, Ediu-Adig, Ejiwajigi, Kadiweo, Mbaya-Guaikuru. Classification: Guaykuruan, Guaykurú.

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Kaimbé
[xai] Bahia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Became extinct early in the 20th century. Ethnic population: 1,100 (1986 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Caimbé, Cambe, Kariri de Massacará. Classification: Unclassified.

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Kaingang
[kgp] Paraná State: 9 reservations between Paranapena and Iguaçu rivers; Rio Grande do Sul state: 5 reservations of southeast dialect south of Uruguay river east of Passo Fundo river; southwest dialect on 7 reservations; east of Passo Fundo river; outskirts of cities in Rio Grande do Sul; Santa Catarina state: 8 reservations between Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers; São Paulo state: 3 reservations north of Paranapena river; Scattered. Population: 18,500 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 28,000 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bugre, Caingang, Caingangue, Coroado, Coroados, Kanhgág. Dialects: Paraná Kaingang, Central Kaingang, Southwest Kaingang, Southeast Kaingang. Classification: Jean, Southern, Kaingang.

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Kaingáng, São Paulo
[zkp] São Paulo. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1990s (1989 SIL). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Jean, Southern, Kaingang.

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Kaiwá
[kgk] Mato Grosso do Sul state: Apa, Dourados, and Ivinhema rivers north to Mbarakaju mountains and Jejui river tributaries south. Population: 18,000 (2003 ISA). Ethnic population: 20,000 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caingua, Caiua, Caiwa, Cayua, Kaingwá, Kaiova, Kaiowá, Kayova, Paï-Tavyterã. Dialects: Teüi, Tembekuá, Kaiwá. Some comprehension of Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Pai Tavytera [pta] of Paraguay. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Kamakan
[vkm] Bahia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died by the 1960s (Loukotka 1968). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ezeshio, Kamakán. Classification: Kamakanan, Kamakán.

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Kamayurá
[kay] Mato Grosso state: Xingú park. Population: 400 (2011 S. Drude). Ethnic population: 520 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camaiura, Kamaiurá, Kamayirá. Classification: Tupian.

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Kambiwá
[xbw] Pernambuco state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Became extinct early in the 20th century. Ethnic population: 2,820 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cambioá, Cambiuá. Classification: Unclassified.

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Kanamarí
[knm] Amazonas state: Itaquai, Jurua, Jutai rivers’ upper regions. Population: 1,330 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,650 (Crevels 2012). 100 Tshom-Djapa in 1985 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Canamarí, Djapá, Kanamaré, Tâkâna, Tüküná. Dialects: Tshom-Djapa (Txunhuã Dyapá, Txunhuã-Djapá), Tsohon-Djapa. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro.

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Kanoé
[kxo] Rondônia state: Guaporé river. Population: 3 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 95 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amniapé, Canoé, Canoê, Guarategaja, Guaratira, Guaratégaya, Kanoê, Kapishanã, Kapixana, Kapixaná, Koaratira. Classification: Language isolate.

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Kapinawá
[xpn] Pernambuco state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 420 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Capinauá. Classification: Unclassified.

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Karajá
[kpj] Mato Grosso, Pará, and Tocantins states: Bananal island, Araguaia river; possibly also Goias state. Population: 3,060 (Crevels 2012). Javaé 800, Karajá 2,250, Xambioá 10 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 4,010 (Crevels 2012). Javaé 1,210, Karajá 2,530, Xambioá 270 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caraiauna, Carajá, Chambioa, Iny, Ynã. Dialects: Javaé (Javahe), Karajá (Carajá, Iny), Xambioá (Iraru Mahãdu, Ixybiowa, Karajá do Norte). Men and women speak different dialects. Classification: Karajá.

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Karapanã
[cbc] Amazonas state: Pari-Cachoeira and São Gabriel. Population: 63 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 63 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Carapana, Carapanã, Mextã, Muteamasa, Ukopinõpõna. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano.

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Karipúna
[kgm] Amapá state: on French Guiana border. Population: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karipuna do Amapá, Karipuna do Uaçá. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib.

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Karipuna
[kuq] Rondônia state: Jaru, Jamery, Urupa, Cabecciras, Candeias, and Jaciparana rivers’ banks. Population: 10 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 14 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ah’e, Caripuna, Jau-Navo, Juanauo, Kagwahiva, Karipuna de Rondônia, Karipuna do Guaporé. Dialects: Jacaria, Pama (Pamana). The Karipuna, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Júma [jua], and Tenharim [pah] all call themselves, Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] and Morerebi [xmo] are reportedly all linguistically very similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Karipuna Creole French
[kmv] Amapá state: on French Guiana border. Population: 2,400 (2008 SIL). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Crioulo. Dialects: None known. Conflicting reports about difference from Guianese Creole French [gcr]. Different from Haitian Creole [hat]. Classification: Creole, French based.

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Karirí-Xocó
[kzw] Alagoas state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Spoken into last half of 20th century. Ethnic population: 1,470 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cariri, Dzubukuá, Kariri Xucó, Karirí, Kipeá, Kiriri, Tumbulalá, Xocó, Xokó, Xokó-Karirí, Xukuru Kariri, Xukurú. Dialects: Kipeá (Quipea), Kamurú (Camuru), Sabujá (Pedra Branca). Other dialects or languages are even less well attested. Classified as Equatorial, Macro-Carib (Swadesh), Macro-Ge (1975 A. Rodrigues), Isolate (Larsen 1984). Classification: Language isolate.

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Karitiâna
[ktn] Rondônia state: Candeias river, a tributary of upper Madeira river. Population: 210 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 320 (2005 ISA). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Caritiana. Classification: Tupian, Arikem.

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Karo
[arr] Mato Grosso and Rondônia states: south Terra Indígena Igarapé de Lourdes; Iterap and Paygap villages. Population: 200 (Crevels 2012). Spoken by almost everyone in the two villages (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 210 (2006 Associação de Defensa Etnoambiental). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arara Tupi, Arara-Karo, Arára, Arára de Rondonia, Arára do Jiparaná, Itogapuc, Itogapúk, Ntogapid, Ntogapig, Ramarama, Uruku, Urukú, Urumi, Ytangá. Dialects: Arara, Uruku. Classification: Tupian, Ramarama.

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Katawixi
[xat] Amazonas state: Canutama municipality; Jacareúba river. Population: 10 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 250 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Catauichi, Catauixi, Catawishi, Catawixi, Jacareúba. Classification: Katukinan.

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Katukína
[kav] Acre. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the late 1970s (1976 SIL). Ethnic population: 450 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Catuquina, Katukina do Jutaí, Katukina do Rio Biá, Pedá Djapá, Pidá-Djapá, Tüküná. Dialects: Cutiadapa (Kutia-Dyapa). Classification: Katukinan.

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Katukína, Panoan
[knt] Amazonas state: Acre. Population: 700 (2010 S. Kennell). Ethnic population: 700 (S. Kennell). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Catuquina, Kamanawa, Kamannaua, Kanamarí, Katukina Pano, Katukina do Acre, Katukina do Juruá, Katukina-Kanamari, Waninnawa. Dialects: Arara-Shawanawa (Shawanawa-Arara), Ararapina, Ararawa, Sanainawa (Saninawacana). Possibly intelligible with Marúbo [mzr]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo.

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Kaxararí
[ktx] Acre, Amazonas, and Rondônia states: Alto Rio Marmelo, tributary of Rio Abuna. Population: 300 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 320 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Caxarari, Kaxariri. Classification: Panoan.

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Kaxuiâna
[kbb] Pará state: Cachorro river, Chapéu, Maharuwanï, and Santidade villages; Paru D’Oeste river, 4 villages north of Missão Tiriyó; Trombetes river near junction with Mapuwera, Aldeia Kasipakuru and Araçá villages. Most among the Trió [tri]; a few among Hixkaryána [hix]. Population: 150 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 230 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Caxuiana, Kachuana, Kashujana, Kashuyana, Katxuyana, Katxuyana-Xikuyana, Kaxuyana-Xikuyana, Kaxúyana, Warikiana, Warikyana. Dialects: Pawiyana (Pawixi). Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana.

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Kayabí
[kyz] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park, south Pará; Teles Pires river and Tatui. Population: 1,000 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,620 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Caiabí, Kaiabí, Kajabí, Maquiri, Parua. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kayabí.

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Kayapó
[txu] Mato Grosso and Pará states: Xingú Park, both sides of Xingú river, west up to the Iriri and tributaries; west bank to Fresco and Zinho rivers; 14 villages. Population: 7,270 (Crevels 2012). 19 communities in regular contact with outsiders; also 3–4 isolated Kayapó groups of 30–100 people (Crevels 2007). 3,950 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,270 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cayapo, Kokraimoro, Mebêngokrê, Put Karot. Dialects: Xikrin (Diore, Xukru), Kararaó, Kayapó-Kradaú. Dialects only slightly different from village names. Classification: Jean, Northern.

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Kepkiriwát
[kpn] Rondônia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably survived into 1950s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kepkiriwat, Kepkiriwate, Quepi-quiri-uate, Quepiquiriquat, Quepiquiriuate. Classification: Tupian, Tuparí.

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Koropó
[xxr] Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais states. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the late 19th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coropó. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Puri [prr]. Classification: Purian.

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Korubo
[xor] Amazonas state: Terra Indígena Vale do Javari; Javari river basin near Itaquai, Ituí, and Quixiti rivers. Population: 26 (2007 FPEVJ). Ethnic population: 250 (2000 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Caceteiros. Classification: Unclassified.

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Krahô
[xra] Maranhão and Tocantins states; 5 villages. Population: 2,180 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 2,180 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Craho, Craô, Kraô, Mehim. Dialects: None known. Different from Canela [ram], but may be able to use literature adapted from Canela. Lexical similarity: high with Apinaye [apn]. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira.

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Krenak
[kqq] Minas Gerais state: between Conselheiro Pena and Resplendor towns; São Paulo state: small enclave; Doce river east bank. Population: 10 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aimorés, Borun, Botocudo, Botocudos, Crenac, Crenaque, Krenac, Krenak-Nakrehé, Nakrehé. Classification: Botocudoan.

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Kreye
[xre] Maranhão and Pará states. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the first decade of the 2000s. Ethnic population: 30 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Crange, Crenge, Crenye, Creye, Krem-Ye, Kren-Yê, Tage, Taze. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira.

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Krikati-Timbira
[xri] Maranhão state: Amarante municipality, Governador village. Population: 680 (2005 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 680 (2005 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krikati-Gaviao, Krinkati-Gaviao, Krinkati-Timbira. Dialects: Krinkati (Karakati), Timbira. Krikati and Timbira are separate ethnic groups speaking related dialects. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira.

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Kuikúro-Kalapálo
[kui] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park; 3 villages along Culuene river. Population: 1,110 (Crevels 2012). 600 Kuikúro and 500 Kalapálo. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apalakiri, Apalaquiri, Calapalu, Cuicuro, Cuicutl, Guicurú, Kalapalo, Kuikuru, Kurkuro. Dialects: Mogareb, Matipú, Nahukwá, Kuikúro. Kuikúro and Kalapálo speak the same language, but are separate ethnically. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Bakairí, Amonap.

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Kulina
[cul] Acre and Amazonas states: Juruá and Purus rivers. Population: 3,000 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 3,500 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 3,420. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Corina, Culina, Kulyna, Kulína, Madihá, Madija. Autonym: Madiha. Dialects: Minor changes from Peruvian dialect. Classification: Arauan.

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Kulina Pano
[xpk] Amazonas state: Vale do Javari Indigenous Territory; Aldeia Pedro Lopes village, Curuca river. Migrating to Tabatinga town near the confluence of the Amazon and Javari Amazon rivers. Population: 32 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 130 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Culina Pano, Kulina do Acre. Dialects: None known. Reportedly different from Kulina [cul] in the Arauan family. Similar to Matis [mpq] and Matses [mcf]. Classification: Panoan.

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Kuruáya
[kyr] Pará state: Altamira municipality; Terra Indígena Curuá, Cajueiro village, Curuá river right bank; Terra Indígena Xipaia, Altamira town. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speakers died in 2010 (Picanço 2010). Ethnic population: 130 (2006 FUNASA). 115 (2002) in Cajueiro village (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Caravare, Curuaia, Kuruaia. Classification: Tupian, Mundurukú.

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Kwaza
[xwa] Rondônia state: west of Vilhena, near Cuiabá-Porto Velho highway. Same reserve as Aikanãs [tba] and Latundês [ltn]. Population: 25 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 40 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Coaiá, Koaiá, Koaya, Quaiá. Classification: Language isolate.

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Lakondê
[lkd] Rondônia state: Vilhena village. Population: 1 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 7 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Similar to Latundê [ltn], Mamaindé [wmd], and Tawandê [xtw]. Classification: Nambikwara, Nambikwara Complex, Northern, Roosevelt Cluster.

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Latundê
[ltn] Rondônia state: Aikaná-Latundê Indigenous Reserve. Population: 10 (2010 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 20 (2010 S. Anonby). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Leitodu. Dialects: None known. Similar to Lakondé [lkd], Mamaindé [wmd], and Tawandê [xtw]. Classification: Nambikwara, Nambikwara Complex, Northern, Roosevelt Cluster.

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Machinere
[mpd] Acre state: Assis and Sena Madureira municipalities, Terra Indígena Mamoadate. Population: 940 in Brazil (2004 CPIAC). Total users in all countries: 953. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Machineri, Manchinere, Manchineri, Manitenerí, Manitenére, Maxinéri. Dialects: Distinct from Yine [pib] (Piro) in Peru. The Manitenére dialect may be different from Machinere. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro, Piro.

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Macuna
[myy] Amazonas state: Rio Chié. Population: 32 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 32 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baigana, Buhagana, Jepa-Matsi, Makuna, Paneroa, Wuhána, Yeba-Masã, Yebamasã, Yehpá Majsá, Yepá Maxsã, Yepá-Mahsá. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

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Macushi
[mbc] Roraima state; Contingo, Mau, Pium, Quino rivers. Population: 15,000 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 23,400 (2006 FUNASA). Total users in all countries: 15,930. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Macusi, Macuxi, Makuchi, Makushi, Makusi, Makuxi, Teueia, Teweya. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Pemon [aoc] or Patamona [pbc]. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Máku
[xak] Roraima territory, Uraricuera river. Population: No known L1 speakers in Brazil. The last speaker died in 2001. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maco, Macu, Maku, Makó, Makú, Máko. Classification: Language isolate.

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Makuráp
[mpu] Rondônia state: Branco, Guaporé, Mequéns and Pororoca post rivers. Population: 50 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 380 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kurateg, Macurapi, Macuráp, Makurápi, Massaka. Classification: Tupian, Tuparí.

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Mamaindê
[wmd] Mato Grosso state: between Cabixi and Pardo rivers. Population: 300 (2017 D. Eberhard). Losing speakers among the youth in one of the 4 villages. Ethnic population: 330 (Crevels 2012). 250 Mamaindê, 80 Negarotê. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mamaindé. Autonym: Mamainsahai’gidu. Dialects: Negaroté, Tawende. Similar to Lakondê [lkd], Latundê [ltn], and Tawandê [xtw]. Classification: Nambikwara, Nambikwara Complex, Northern.

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Mapidian
[mpw] Roraima state: with the Waiwai [waw]. Population: 10 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mahuayana, Maiopitian, Maopityan, Mawayana. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 10% with Wapishana [wap] and 20% with Atorada [aox]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana.

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Maquiritari
[mch] Roraima state: near Venezuela border, Terra Indígena Yanomami. Population: 430 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 430 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maiongong, Makiritare, Maquiritai, Maquiritare, Mayongong, Pawana, So’to, Ye’kuana, Yecuana, Yekuána, Yekwana. Dialects: Cunuana, De’cuana (Wainungomo), Ihuruana, Maitsi, Mayongong (Ye’cuana, Yekuana). Classification: Cariban, Central, Makiritare.

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Maritsauá
[msp] Mato Grosso state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the first half of the twentieth century (Rodrigues 1986). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Manitsauá, Manitsawa, Manitsawá, Mantizula. Dialects: Arupai (Arupati, Urupaya). Classification: Tupian, Juruna.

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Marúbo
[mzr] Amazonas state: headwaters of Curuçá, Ipixuna, and Javarí tributaries, near the Peru border; large groups in Atalaia do Norte city; smaller groups in Cruzeiro do Sul city. Population: 1,250 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,250 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaniuá, Marova, Maruba. Dialects: None known. No comprehension of Matsés (Mayoruna) [mcf] reported. Possibly intelligible of Panoan Katukína [knt]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo.

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Matipuhy
[mzo] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park south, 2 villages. Population: 130 (Crevels 2012). 10 Matipuhy and 120 Nahukuá (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 230 (Crevels 2012). 100 Matipuhy and 130 Nahukuá (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mariape-Nahuqua, Matipu. Dialects: Matipuhy, Nahukuá (Nafukwá, Nahukwa, Nahuqua, Nakukwa). Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Bakairí, Amonap.

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Matís
[mpq] Amazonas state: Atalaia do Norte municipality; on Peru border; Javari valley. Population: 320 (2008 ISA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Different from Matsés [mcf]. Classification: Panoan, Mayoruna-Matsés.

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Matsés
[mcf] Amazonas state: Terra Indígena Lameiãro, Terra Indígena Vale do Javari, Javari river basin; Terra Indígena Mayoruna, Solimões river area. Population: 1,500 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,590 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Matse, Mayoruna. Classification: Panoan, Mayoruna-Matsés.

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Maxakalí
[mbl] Minas Gerais and Bahia states: 160 km inland from coast. 14 villages. Population: 1,270 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,270 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caposho, Cumanasho, Kumanuxú, Macuni, Mashakalí, Maxacalí, Monacó, Monaxo, Monocho, Tikmuún. Autonym: Tikmũ’ũn Yĩy’ax. Classification: Maxakalian.

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Mehináku
[mmh] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park. Population: 200 (Crevels 2012). All Mehinaku still speak their mother tongue (Crevels 2007). Combined Waura [wau] and Mehinaku speakers: 600 (2012). Ethnic population: 230 (2006 ISA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahinaku, Mehinaco, Mehinako, Meinaku, Minaco. Dialects: Waurá-kumá. Somewhat intelligible of Waurá [wau]. There is a dialect of Mehinaku called Waurá-kumá which is influenced by Waurá [wau]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Waurá.

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Miranha
[boa] Amazonas state: Solimões, between Tefé and Caiçara river areas; along Brazilian Rio Iça. Population: No known L1 speakers in Brazil. Ethnic population: 840 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bora, Boro, Meamuyna, Miamunaa, Miraña, Mirãnha, Mirãnia. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane.

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Miriti
[mmv] Amazonas state: Pari-Cachoeira, Taracua. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 1980s. Ethnic population: 75 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Baniva de rio Içana, Baníwa do Içana, Buia-Tapuya, Búia-tapúya, Dyuremáwa, Dzúreme, Dzúremene, Miriti Tapuyo, Miriti-Tapuia, Mirity-Tapuya, Neenoá, Neenöa, Yiboia-tapuya, Yibóya-tapúya. Classification: Tucanoan.

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Mondé
[mnd] Rondônia state: Apidia river, tributary of Igarape Tanaru, near Pimenta Bueno. Population: No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007). Survived into late 20th century. 2 semi-speakers left (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Salamaikã, Salamãi, Sanamaica, Sanamaiká, Sanamaykã. Dialects: None known. Related to Arua [arx] and Gavião do Jiparaná [gvo]. Classification: Tupian, Mondé.

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Morerebi
[xmo] Amazonas state: Marmelos and Rio Preto; Mato Grosso state. Population: 100 (2000). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar linguistically to Amundava [adw], Tenharim [pah], and Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz]. A family group that has not lived with the Tenharim for many years, and does not want contact with outside culture. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Mundurukú
[myu] Amazonas, Mato Grosso, and Pará states; middle Madeira, and middle and upper Tapajós rivers; 22 villages. Population: 8,000 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 10,100 (2002 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Caras-Pretas, Monjoroku, Mundurucu, Paiquize, Pari, Weidyenye. Classification: Tupian, Mundurukú.

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Nadëb
[mbj] Amazonas state: 3 locations on Uneiuxi river: a tributary of Negro river, Japurá and Negro rivers. Population: 370 (Crevels 2012). 350 Nadëb, 20 Kuyabi (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 850 (2010 S. Anonby). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Anodöb, Guariba, Guariba-Tapuyo, Kabari, Kabori, Makunadöbö, Makú Nadëb, Nadeb Macu, Nadöb, Nadöbö, Xiriwai, Xuriwai. Autonym: Nadëb. Dialects: Kuyabi (Kuyawi). Classification: Puinavean, Kaburi.

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Nambikuára, Southern
[nab] Mato Grosso state: along Porto Velho-Cuiabá highway. 10 villages. Population: 720 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 720 (Moore 2006). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Nambicuara, Nambikwara, Nambikwara do Sul, Nambiquara, Southern Nambikwara. Dialects: Manduka, Khithaulhu (Kitãulhu, ki³thãu³lhu²), Halotesu, Saxwentesu, Wakalitesu, Serra Azul, Hahaintesu, Wasusu, Alatesu, Waikisu, Galera, Sarare, Alaketesu, Anunsu. Classification: Nambikwara, Nambikwara Complex.

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Nhengatu
[yrl] Amazonas state: Içana, Lower Vaupés, and Negro river areas. Population: 10,300 in Brazil (2005 FOIRN). Total users in all countries: 18,300. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coastal Tupian, Geral, Língua Geral, Modern Tupí, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Nyengatú, Waengatu, Yeral, Ñeegatú. Dialects: None known. Based on Tupinambá, developed by Portuguese during 17th and 18th centuries as lingua franca. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí.

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Ninam
[shb] Roraima state: Mucajaí, Paragua, Roraima, and upper Uraricaá rivers. Population: 470 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). About evenly divided between northern and southern dialects. 15,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil (2006 FUNASA). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 470 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 1,030. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shiriana, Xirianá, Xirixana, Yanam. Dialects: Southern Ninam (Mukajai, Shirishana), Northern Ninam (Shiriana, Uraricaa-Paragua). Classification: Yanomaman.

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Nukuini
[nuc] Acre state: Juruá, from upper Mõa to Rio Sungarú. Population: No known L1 speakers. Spoken into last half of 20th century. Although not used anymore, a few people were reported to still remember the Nukuini language in 2013. Ethnic population: 600 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Inukuini, Nucuini, Nukini, Nuquini, Remo, Rheno. Dialects: Cuyanawa. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Unclassified.

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Ofayé
[opy] Mato Grosso do Sul state: Ivinhema, Vacaris, and Verde rivers; Brasilándia area. Population: 12 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 61 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ofaié, Ofaié-Xavante, Ofayé-Xavante, Opaié-Shavante, Opayé. Classification: Language isolate.

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Omagua
[omg] Amazonas state: Alvaráes municipality, Terra Indígena Igarapé Grande; Maraã municipality, Terra Indígena Jaquiri; Tefé municipality, Santa Cruz on right bank of Solimões river, and Terra Indígena Kokama. Population: No known L1 speakers in Brazil. Ethnic population: 350 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Agua, Anapia, Ariana, Cambeba, Cambela, Campeba, Campeua, Canga-Peba, Carari, Compeva, Janbeba, Kambeba, Kambewa, Kambéba, Macanipa, Omagua-Yete, Pariana, Umaua, Yhuata. Dialects: Aizuare (Aissuari), Curacirari (Curazicari), Curucicuri (Curuzicari), Paguana (Paguara). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama.

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Oro Win
[orw] Rondônia state: Pacaás-Novos river headwaters, a tributary of Mamoré river. Population: 5 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 56 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Oto Towati. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of Tora [trz], Itene (More) [ite], and Pakaasnovos (Wari) [pav]. Classification: Chapacuran, Wari.

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Oti
[oti] São Paulo. Population: No known L1 speakers. Became extinct early in the 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Chavante, Eochavante, Euchavante, Otí. Classification: Language isolate.

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Otuke
[otu] Mato Grosso state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 1920s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Loushiru, Louxiru, Louxiur, Otuké, Otuque, Otuqui, Otuqué. Dialects: Related dialects or languages: Covareca, Curuminaca, Coraveca (Curave), Curucaneca, and Tapii; all extinct. Classification: Bororoan.

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Pakaásnovos
[pav] Rondônia state: 7 villages. Population: 2,720 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 2,720 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jaru, Oro Wari, Orowari, Pacaas-Novos, Pacahanovo, Pacaás Novos, Pakaa Nova, Pakaanova, Pakaanovas, Uomo, Wari’. Classification: Chapacuran, Wari.

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Palikúr
[plu] Amapá state: Oiapoque municipality, Terra Indígena Uaçá I and II, in 10 villages; Urucauá river banks, right-bank tributary of the Uaçá between Uaçá and Curipi rivers. Population: 1,290 in Brazil (2010 IEPE). Ethnic population: 1,330 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 1,540. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Aukuyene, Aukwayene, Paikwene, Palicur, Palijur, Palikour, Paliku’ene, Palincur, Paricores, Paricuria, Parikurene, Parinkur-lene. Autonym: Pa’ikwaki. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Eastern, Palikur.

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Panará
[kre] Mato Grosso state: Parque Indígena do Xingú; Pará state: Terra Indígena Panará, on Iriri river. Population: 375 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 380. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Indios Gigantes, Kreen Akarore, Kren Akarore, Krenakarore, Krenakore, Krenhakarore. Dialects: Not a dialect of Kayapó [txu]; possibly more similar to Canela [ram]. Classification: Jean, Northern.

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Pankararé
[pax] Bahia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pankaré. Classification: Unclassified.

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Pankararú
[paz] Pernambuco and Alagoas states. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died in the 1960s. Ethnic population: 6,520 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pancaru, Pancaré, Pankarará, Pankaravu, Pankaroru, Pankarú. Dialects: None known. Possibly related to Xukuru [xoo]. Classification: Language isolate.

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Parakanã
[pak] Pará state: lower Xingú river, near São Felix and Altamira towns. Population: 900 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 900 (2004 ISA). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Apiterewa, Awaeté, Parakanân, Parocana. Dialects: None known. Part of Akwáwa subgroup. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Akwawa.

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Paranawát
[paf] Rondônia state: Jiparaná (Machado) and Sono rivers’ tributaries. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by the 1970s. Ethnic population: 50 (1986 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cabahyba, Cauaiua, Cauhib, Cawahib, Jauareta-Tapiia, Kawahib, Kawaib, Majubim, Paranauat, Pawate, Pawaté, Pawaté-Wirafed, Tupi do Machado, Tupí-Kawahíb, Wiraféd. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Parecís
[pab] Mato Grosso state: Jubá, Guaporé, Verde, Papagaio, Burití, and Juruena rivers. 15–20 villages. Population: 1,800 (Brandão 2014). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Brandão 2014). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Arití, Paressí, Paresí, Pareás, Porçoes. Autonym: Haliti. Dialects: None known. Very similar to Saraveca [sar] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Paresí.

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Patamona
[pbc] Roraima state: Terra Indígena Raposa or Serra do Sol. Population: Ethnic population: 87 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong.

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Pataxó Hã-Ha-Hãe
[pth] Minas Gerais and Bahia states; Pôsto Paraguassu in Itabuna municipality. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died by the late 1930s (Loukotka 1968). Ethnic population: 2,220 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Hã Hã Hãe, Patashó, Pataxi, Pataxó, Pataxó-Hãhaãi, Patoxó. Classification: Maxakalian.

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Paumarí
[pad] Amazonas state: Purus river. 3 villages. Population: 290 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 890 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Palmari, Purupurú. Dialects: Paumarm (Pammari), Kurukuru (Curucuru), Uaiai. 3 inherently intelligible dialects. Classification: Arauan.

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Pemon
[aoc] Roraima state: Rio Branco, near Guyana border. Population: 500 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 580 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kamarakotos, Pemong, Taulipáng, Taurepáng. Dialects: Taulipang (Taurepa, Taurepan, Taurepang), Camaracota (Ipuricoto), Arecuna (Arekuna, Aricuna, Jaricuna), Ingarikó (Ingaricó). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Pirahã
[myp] Amazonas state: Maici and Autaces rivers. Population: 390 (Crevels 2012). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 9,690 (Crevels 2012). 9,300 Múra, 390 Pirahã (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mura, Múra-Pirahã, Pirahán. Autonym: Xapaitíiso. Dialects: Múra. No remaining L1 speakers of Múra dialect (Crevels 2012). Classification: Muran.

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Piratapuyo
[pir] Amazonas state: Terra Indígena Médio Rio Negro I, Terra Indígena Médio Rio Negro II, Terra Indígena Rio Negro, Terra Indígena Rio Téa. Population: 700 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,430 (2005 FOIRN). Total users in all countries: 1,330. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pira-Tapuia, Pira-Tapuya, Piratapuia, Piratapuya, Uaiana, Uaicana, Uaikena, Uainana, Waikhara, Waikino, Waina, Wanana-Pirá, Waíkana. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Guanano [gvc] but ethnically distinct. The two groups do not intermarry. 75% intelligibility of Guanano (1992 N. Waltz). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Paraná state: Curitiaba, other scattered communities. Population: 8,000 in Brazil (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon.

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Pokangá
[pok] Amazonas state: Upper Tiquie, tributary of Vaupés. Population: 34 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 34 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bara Sona, Barasana, Barasano, Bará, Bará-Tukano, Hanera, Pakang, Panenoá, Pokangá-Tapuya, Pãnerã. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka.

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Pomeranian
[nds] Espírito Santo: Domingos Martins, Laranja da Terra, Pancas, Santa Maria de Jetibá, and Vila Pavão; Rio Grande do Sul: Canguçu. Population: 300,000 in Brazil (2016 M. Braga). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in State of Espirito Santo (2011, State Amendment), co-official in a number of municipalities within the state. Alternate Names: Pomerano, Pommersch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon.

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Portuguese
[por] Widespread. Population: 194,000,000 in Brazil (2015). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1988, Constitution, Article 13). Alternate Names: Português. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician.

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Potiguára
[pog] Paraíba state: Mamanguape municipality, Pôsto Nísia Brasileira on Baía da Traição. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker either died or had shifted entirely to Portuguese [por] by the early 1970s. Ethnic population: 11,400 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Petigaré, Pitonara, Potiguara, Potyguara. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí.

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Poyanáwa
[pyn] Acre state: upper Rio Môa, Jumá tributary. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers likely survived into the first decade of the 2000s. Ethnic population: 400 (1999 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Poianáua, Puinahua. Classification: Panoan, Mainline.

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Puri
[prr] Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais states. Population: No known L1 speakers. Became extinct late in the 19th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Colorado, Coroado, Paquí, Telikóng. Classification: Purian.

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Puruborá
[pur] Rondônia state: headwaters of the Rio São Miguel, tributary of Guaporé right bank. Population: 2 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 50 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aurã, Burubora, Cujubi, Kuyubi, Miguelenho, Migueleno, Pumbora, Puroborá, Puruba. Classification: Tupian.

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Rikbaktsa
[rkb] Mato Grosso and Amazonas states: confluence of Sangue and Juruena rivers, Japuira on the east bank of the Juruena between Arinos and Sangue rivers; Posto Escondido on Juruena west bank 700 km north. 9 villages, 14 settlements. Population: 40 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,120 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aripaktsá, Canoeiro, Erigbaagtsá, Erigpactsá, Erigpaktsá, Erikbaktsá, Erikbatsá, Erikpatsá, Orelhas de Pau, Rikpakcá, Rikpaktsá. Classification: Language isolate.

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Sabanê
[sae] Mato Grosso state. Population: 3 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 140 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Sabanês, Sabones, Sowainte. Classification: Nambikwara.

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Sakirabiá
[skf] Rondônia state: Cerejeira and Colorado do Oeste municipalities, Mequens river. Population: 22 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 84 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mekens, Mekém, Sakirabiák, Sakirabiáp, Sakirabiát, Sakirap, Sakiriabar, Sakurabiat. Classification: Tupian, Tuparí.

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Salumá
[slj] Pará state: upper Anamu, Trombetas river source, along Suriname border. Population: 240 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó.

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Sánuma
[xsu] Roraima state: Auaris river. Population: 460 in Brazil (Moore 2006). All Yanomam groups in Brazil: 11,700 (2000 ISA). Ethnic population: 460 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sanema, Sanïma, Sanöma, Sánïma, Tsanuma. Dialects: Caura, Ervato-Ventuari, Auaris, Yanoma (Samatali, Samatari). Classification: Yanomaman.

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Sateré-Mawé
[mav] Pará and Amazonas states: Andirá, and Maués rivers, between lower Tapajós and lower Madeira rivers. More than 14 villages. Population: 6,220 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 9,160 (2008 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Andira, Arapium, Mabue, Maragua, Maué, Mawé, Sataré, Sataré-Maué, Sateré. Autonym: Satere Mawe. Dialects: None known. Recent data show that Aweti [awe] and Sateré-Mawé probably form a separate sub-branch within the Tupian linguistic family (Crevels 2007). Classification: Tupian.

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Shanenawa
[swo] Amazonas state: near Feijó city. Population: 9 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 360 (2002 FUNAI). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Katukina Shanenawá. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yawanawa [ywn] and Sharanawa [mcd]. Classification: Unclassified.

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Sharanahua
[mcd] Acre state: Cruzeiro do Sul municipality, on Rio Humaitá off Juará river; Marináwa, along the upper Envira, tributary of the Tarauacá. Population: 9 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 330 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Acre Arara, Arara Shawãdawa, Arara do Acre, Shawanauá. Dialects: Marinahua (Marináwa), Chandinahua. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State.

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Sikiana
[sik] Pará state: between Rio Cafuini and headwaters of the Turuna and Itapi, near the Suriname border. Population: 33 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Total users in all countries: 45. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chikena, Chiquena, Chiquiana, Shikiana, Sikiâna, Sikïiyana, Xikiyana, Xikujana. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Salumá [slj]. Classification: Cariban, Kashuyana.

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Siriano
[sri] Amazonas state: São Gabriel. Population: 17 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 52 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sarirá, Siria-Masã, Siriana, Siriane, Surianá, Surirá, Suryana. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano.

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Suruahá
[swx] Amazonas state: Juruá, Jutaí and Purus rivers area. Population: 140 (Moore 2006). 140 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 140 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Indios do Coxodoá, Sorowaha, Suruwahá, Zuruahã. Classification: Arauan.

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Suruí
[sru] Rondônia and Mato Grosso states: border area, 10 villages and scattered. Population: 1,010 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,010 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Suruí de Rondônia, Suruí do Jiparaná, Suruí-Paiter. Autonym: Paiter. Classification: Tupian, Mondé.

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Suruí do Pará
[mdz] Pará state: São João municipality, Araguaia. Population: 260 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 260 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aikewara, Akewara, Akewere, Sororos, Suruí, Suruí do Tocantins, “Mudjetíre” (pej.), “Mudjetíre-Suruí” (pej.), “Mudjétira” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Different from Suruí do Jiparaná [sru]. Member of Akwáwa subgroup. Closely related to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu] and Parakanã [pak]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Akwawa.

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Suyá
[suy] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park, headwaters of Rio Culuene; Pará state: Terra Indígena Capoto or Jarina reservation, Kayapó villages (2002 ISA). Population: 410 (Crevels 2012). 350 Suya (main dialect); 58 Tapayúna (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 410 (Crevels 2012). 350 Suya (main dialect); 58 Tapayúna (Crevels 2012). All Tapayuna speak their native language (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisêdjê, Mẽkisêdjê, Suiá. Dialects: Tapayúna (Beiço de Pau), Yaruma (Jarumá, Waiku). Classification: Jean, Northern.

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Talian
[vec] Northern Rio Grande do Sul: Caxias do Sul area. Population: 4,000,000 in Brazil (2006 L. Palmerini). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Taliano, Venetian, Veneto, Vèneto. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian.

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Tapeba
[tbb] Ceara state: Caucaia municipality, Ceará river. Population: Status: Unattested. Alternate Names: Perna-de-Pau, Tabeba, Tapebano. Classification: Unclassified.

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Tapirapé
[taf] Tocantins and Mato Grosso states: mouth of Tapirapé and Araguaia rivers. Population: 560 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 560 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tapi’irape. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara.

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Tariana
[tae] Amazonas state: Santa Rosa (Juquira), Iauarete, Periquitos, and Ji-Ponta on Middle Vaupés river. Population: 100 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,910 (2002 ISA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Taliáseri, Tariano, Tariáno, Tarîna. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki.

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Tawandê
[xtw] Rondônia state: Pyrineus de Souza village, near Vilhena town. Population: 1 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Da’wan’du, Tawaindê. Dialects: None known. Similar to Lakondê [lkd], Latundê [ltn], and Mamaindê [wmd]. Classification: Nambikwara, Nambikwara Complex, Northern, Roosevelt Cluster.

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Tembé
[tqb] Pará state: Terra Indígena Alto Turiaçu, banks of Gurupi river. Population: 60 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,430 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Tenetehara, Timbé, Turiwara. Dialects: None known. Intelligible with Guajajára [gub]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Tenetehara.

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Tenharim
[pah] Amazonas and Mato Grosso states. 2 villages. Population: 360 (Crevels 2012). 1 Diahói, 10 Parintintin, and 350 Tenharim (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,070 (Crevels 2012). 90 Diahói, 280 Parintintin, and 700 Tenharim (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kagwahiv, Kagwahiwa, Kawaib, Tenharem, Tenharin. Autonym: Kagwahiva. Dialects: Tenharim (Tenharem, Tenharin), Parintintín, Kagwahiv (Kawaib), Karipuna Jaci Paraná, Mialát, Diahói (Diahkoi, Diarroi, Djahui, Giahoi, Jahui, Jahói, Jiahui). Tenharim, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Júma [jua], Karipuna [kuq], Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz], and Morerebi [xmo] are all reportedly linguistically very similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Terêna
[ter] Mato Grosso do Sul state: east of Paraguay river in Miranda and Aguidauana rivers area, 20 villages and 2 cities; some in São Paulo state. Population: 15,800 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 20,000 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Etelena, Tereno. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Terena.

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Ticuna
[tca] Amazonas state: upper Solimões river area, more than 20 indigenous islands, more than 90 villages. Population: 35,000 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 35,000 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 48,580. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Du-ûgü, Duüxügu, Magüa, Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukuna. Autonym: ticunagaxũ. Classification: Language isolate.

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Tingui-Boto
[tgv] Alagoas state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Extinct by the 1970s. Ethnic population: 300 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Carapató, Carapoto, Dzboku’a, Dzubukuá, Karapató, Shocó, Tingui, Tingui Botó, Xocó. Classification: Unclassified.

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Torá
[trz] Amazonas state: lower Rio Marmelos tributary of Rio Madeira. Population: No known L1 speakers. Extinct by 2000s. Ethnic population: 310 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tora, Toraz, Torerizes, Toré, Tura, Turá. Classification: Chapacuran, Itene.

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Tremembé
[tme] Ceará state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,050 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Taramembé, Teremembé. Classification: Unclassified.

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Trió
[tri] Pará state: mostly on west Paru river; also Terra Indígena Parque Tumucumaque, on Marapi and East Paru rivers. Population: 1,160 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,160 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Tarona, Tarëno, Tiriyó, Tirió, Yawi. Dialects: Pianokotó. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó.

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Truká
[tka] Bahia and Pernambuco states. Population: No known L1 speakers. Extinct in latter half of 20th century. Ethnic population: 4,170 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified.

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Trumai
[tpy] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park, source of Xingú river, villages along banks. Population: 51 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 120 (Moore 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Ruhlen (1987) and others classify it as Equatorial. Classification: Language isolate.

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Tucano
[tuo] Amazonas state. Wasona users primarily in Yacayacá village. Population: 4,600 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 6,240 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 11,620. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Dahseyé, Dasea, Daxsea, Takuna, Tukano, Tukána, Ye’pãmasa. Autonym: Dasea ye. Dialects: Yohoraa (Curaua), Wasona (Uasona), Pisamira, Papiwa, Papihua, Pisatapuyo, Pisa-tapuyo. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano.

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Tukumanféd
[tkf] Rondônia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Became extinct in late 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tekumanfed, Tukumaféd. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Tuparí
[tpr] Rondônia state: Pororoca Post, Branco river, tributary of the Guaporé. Population: 150 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 430 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Tupian, Tuparí.

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Tupinikin
[tpk] Espírito Santo state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Extinct by 1960s. Ethnic population: 1,390. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Margaya, Tupinaki, Tupinikim, Tupiniquim, Tupiniquin, Tupiniquín. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí.

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Turiwára
[twt] Pará state: with the Tembé [tqb] language group on Acará-miri river. Population: No known L1 speakers. The Tembé [tqb] seem to have assimilated the closely related Turiwara group (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 30 (1995 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Turiguara, Turiuara, Turiwara. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Tuxá
[tud] Bahia and Pernambuco states. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the 1960s (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 3,930 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Payacú, Rodela, Todela, Tusha, Tushá. Classification: Language isolate.

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Tuxináwa
[tux] Acre state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Extinct by 1970s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tuchinaua, Tushinawa, Tutxinawa, Tuxinaua, Tuxinawa. Classification: Panoan, Mainline.

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Tuyuca
[tue] Amazonas state: Vaupés region, Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro and Terra Indígena Apaporis. Population: 800 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 830 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Borá-Tuyuka, Dochkafuara, Doka-Poara, Dokapuara, Doxká-Poárá, Tuiuca, Tuyuka, Utapinõmakãphõná. Dialects: Tsola. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka.

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Uamué
[uam] Pernambuco state: Floresta area. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the 1960s (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 2,740 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aticum, Atikum, Huamuê, Wamoé. Classification: Language isolate.

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Ukrainian
[ukr] Paraná state. Population: Ethnic population: 500,000 (2015). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East.

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Umotína
[umo] Mato Grosso state: along the Paraguay River. Population: No known L1 speakers (Crevels 2012). The last speaker, Julá Paré, died in 2004 (2011 E. Vital). Ethnic population: 450 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Barbados, Omotina, Umutina. Classification: Bororoan.

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Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau
[urz] Rondônia state: upper Cautário, Jaciparaná, and Jamari rivers. Population: 87 (Moore 2006). Crevels (2007) groups the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau together with Amundava [adw] for a total population of 170 (2003). Ethnic population: 87 (Moore 2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eru-Eu-Wau-Wau, Jupaú, Kagwahiva, Kawahíb, Uru-Eu-Uau-Uau, Uruewawau. Dialects: Mutually intelligible dialect of Amundava [adw]. Reportedly similar to Tenharim [pah]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib.

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Uru-Pa-In
[urp] Rondônia state: Ariquemes municipality. Population: 200 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib.

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Urumi
[uru] Rondônia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Became extinct in latter half of 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Itanga, Ramarama, Ramarama-Urumí, Urumí. Classification: Tupian, Ramarama.

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Waimaha
[bao] Amazonas state: Terra Indigena Pari Cachoeira, Bittencourt and Iauareté municipalities; Terra Indigena Pari Cachoeira II, Iauareté municipality; Terra Indigena Pari Cachoeira III, Bittencourt municipality, all on upper Tiquié river. Population: 21 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 21 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Barazana, Northern Barasano, Waimajã, Waípinõmakã, “Bará” (pej.). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka.

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Waimiri-Atroarí
[atr] Amazonas state: border area with Roraima state on Alalau and Camanau, Jatapu, and Jauaperi rivers. 24 villages. Population: 2,010 (2018 ISA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Atroahy, Atroahí, Atroarí, Atroaí, Atrowari, Atruahí, Ki’nya, Kinja, Kinja Iara, Kinã. Dialects: Atruahi, Waimirí (Uaimirí, Wahmirí), Jawaperi (Yauaperi). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Yawaperí.

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Waiwai
[waw] Pará and Roraima states. Population: 2,020 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 2,900 (2005 ISA). Total users in all countries: 2,230. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ouayeone, Tunayana-Waiwai, Uaieue, Wai Wai. Autonym: UaiUai. Dialects: Katawian (Cachuena, Catauian, Catawian, Karahawyana, Katawina, Katuena, Katwena, Parucutu, Parukutu, Tonayana, Tunayana). Voegelin and Voegelin (1977) treat Katawian as a separate language. Classification: Cariban, Waiwai.

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Wajiara
[yui] Amazonas state: Iauarete. Population: No known L1 speakers in Brazil. Last known speakers likely survived into the 2000s (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Jurití, Juruti, Juruti-Tapuia, Luruty-Tapuya, Wajiaraye, Yuriti-Tapuia, Yurutí. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano.

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Wakoná
[waf] Alagoas state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers died in the mid-1970s. Ethnic population: 500 (1995 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified.

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Wapishana
[wap] Roraima state: 23 indigenous lands. Population: 6,500 in Brazil (2000 ISA). Ethnic population: 7,000 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aruma, Uapixana, Vapidiana, Wapishiana, Wapisiana, Wapixiana, Wapixiána, Wapixána. Dialects: Amariba, Atorai. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana.

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Wasu
[wsu] Alagoas state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,560 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wassu, Wassú, Waçu. Classification: Unclassified.

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Waurá
[wau] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park. Population: 320 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 320 (Moore 2006). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Aura, Uará, Uaura, Waujá, Waurá-Meinaku. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible of Mehináku [mmh]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Waurá, Waurá-Meinaku.

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Wayampi
[oym] Amapá and Pará states: tributaries of upper Amapari river. 8 villages. Population: 910 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 910 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 1,660. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Guaiapi, Guayapi, Oiampí, Oyampí, Oyampík, Oyanpík, Waiampi, Waiãpi, Wajapae, Wajapuku, Wayapae, Wayapi, Wayãpi, Wayãpy, “Oiampipucu” (pej.), “Oyampipuku” (pej.). Autonym: Wajãpi. Dialects: Oiyapoque Wayampi, Amapari Wayampi, Jari. Monolinguals include children under 6, more than half the women, most men over 45, and all of those recently from Brazil. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Wayampí.

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Wayana
[way] Pará state: Parque Indígena do Tumucumaque, and Terra Indígena Rio Paru D’Este, mainly on Paru de Leste river. Population: 290 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 450 (Moore 2006). Wayana and Aparai are registered as a single group of 420 members (1998). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Alukuyana, Aparaí, Oayana, Oiana, Oyana, Uaiana, Upurui, Waiana, Wayâna. Dialects: Rucuyen (Roucouyenne), Urucuiana (Urucena). Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana.

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Wayoró
[wyr] Rondônia state: Pororoca post, Guapore river. Population: 8 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 94 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ajurú, Ayurú, Uaiora, Wajaru, Wayurú. Classification: Tupian, Tuparí.

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Wiraféd
[wir] Rondônia state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Extinct by 1980s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bocas Pretas, Cabahyba, Cauaiua, Cauhib, Cawahib, Jauareta-Tapiia, Kawahib, Kawaib, Paranawat, Pawaté-Wirafed, Tupi do rio Machado, Uirafed, Wirafed, Wiroféd. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Xakriabá
[xkr] Minas Gerais state. Population: No known L1 speakers. Became extinct in latter 19th century. Ethnic population: 7,670 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chakriaba, Chicriaba, Chicriabá, Chikriaba, Shacriaba, Shakriabá, Shicriaba, Shicriabá, Xacriabá, Xikriabá. Classification: Jean, Central.

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Xavánte
[xav] Mato Grosso state: 6 noncontiguous reservations. 80 villages. Population: 19,000 (2010 census). 7,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: A’uwe Uptabi, A’we, Akuên, Akwen, Awen, Chavante, Crisca, Pusciti, Shavante, Tapacua. Autonym: A’uwẽ. Classification: Jean, Central.

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Xerénte
[xer] Tocantins state: between Rio do Sono and Rio Tocantins. Population: 2,570 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 2,570 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acuen, Akwen, Akwẽ-Xerente, Sherenté. Autonym: Akwẽ. Classification: Jean, Central.

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Xetá
[xet] Paraná state: among Kaingang [kgp]. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1990s (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 86 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aré, Cheta, Curutón, Hetá, Seta, Sheta. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Xipaya
[xiy] Pará state: lower Xingú river. Population: 1 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 600 (2002 ISA). The ethnic population probably includes Kuruaya [kyr] as they are sometimes considered a single ethnic group. There were 8 elders of Kuruaya and Xipaya descendance in Altamira reported to speak the native language in 2007 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Shipaja, Shipaya, Xipaia. Classification: Tupian, Juruna.

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Xiriâna
[xir] Amazonas state: Demeni and Rio Negro tributaries, near Venezuela border. Population: No known L1 speakers. There were 200 monolingual speakers in 1960 (Migliazza and Grimes 1961), but the language became dormant by the 2000s. Ethnic population: 900 (2000). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bahuana, Bahwana, Barauána, Chiriana, Chiriána, Shiriana, Shriana, Xiriana. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Unclassified.

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Xokleng
[xok] Santa Catarina state: Itajaí river tributary. Population: 100 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 890 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aweikoma, Aweikoma-Kaingang, Botocudos, Bugres, Bugré, Kaingang de Santa Catarina, Laklanô, Shokléng, Xakléng, Xogléng, Xokré, Xokrén, Xokréng. Classification: Jean, Southern.

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Xukurú
[xoo] Bahía state; Pernambuco state: Serra de Urubá (Arobá) near Cimbres city. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died in the 1960s (Meader 1978). Ethnic population: 2,650 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ichikile, Kirirí, Kirirí-Xokó, Shukuru, Shukurú, Xucuru, Xukuru-Kariri. Classification: Language isolate.

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Yabaâna
[ybn] Amazonas state: Marauia and Cauaboris rivers’ headwaters, tributaries of the left bank of Rio Negro. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker either died or shifted entirely to Portuguese by 1986 (Rodrigues 1986). Ethnic population: 90 (1986 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Hobacana, Jabaana, Jabâ-ana, Yabarana, Yabaána. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Unclassified.

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Yaminahua
[yaa] Acre state. Population: 600 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 860 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Iauminawa, Jaminawá, Yamanawa, Yamináwa. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State.

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Yanomámi
[wca] Amazonas state: Toototobi post; Roraima state: Waicá post, Catrimani and Uraricuera rivers. Population: 6,000 (Moore 2006). 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil (2000 ISA). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 6,000 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Waica, Parahuri, Surara, Waicá, Waiká, Xurima, Yanoam, Yanoama, Yanomam, Yanomama, Yanomamé, Yanomamï, Yanomamõ. Dialects: Yanamam (Patimitheri, Waika), Yanomam (Guadema, Naomam, Wadema, Warema), Yanomay (Toototobi), Nanomam (Karime), Jauari (Aica, Joari, Yoari), Xamatari, Kohoroxitari. Classification: Yanomaman.

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Yanomamö
[guu] Amazonas and Roraima states: upper tributaries of Rio Negro, along Venezuela border. Population: 4,000 in Brazil (Moore 2006). 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil (2000 ISA). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 4,000 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Guaharibo, Guaica, Shaathari, Shamatri, Yanomae, Yanomam, Yanomami. Dialects: Eastern Yanomami (Parima), Western Yanomami (Padamo-Orinoco). Classification: Yanomaman.

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Yaroamë
[yro] Roraima. Population: 430 (Ferreira 2011). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jawari, Yawari. Dialects: None known. Most similar to Ninam [shb]. Classification: Yanomaman.

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Yawalapití
[yaw] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park. Population: 8 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 220 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Iaualapití, Jaulapiti, Yaulapiti. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Waurá, Waurá-Meinaku.

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Yawanawa
[ywn] Acre state: Gregório river. Population: 520 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 520 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iauanauá, Jawanaua, Yahuanahua, Yauanauá. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State.

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Yuhup
[yab] Amazonas state: on the Apapóris, Castanha, Cunuri, Igarapé Samaúma, Ira, and Tiquié rivers. 11 villages. Population: 620 in Brazil (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 620 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 720. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Makú-Yahup, Yahup, Yahup Makú, Yuhupdeh, Yëhup, “Maku” (pej.). Autonym: Yuhup. Dialects: None known. Limited intelligibility of Hupdë [jup]. Ruhlen and others classify it as related to Puinave [pui]. Classification: Puinavean, Hupda.

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Zo’é
[pto] Pará state: Obidos municipality on Cuminapanema river. Population: 180 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 180 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buré, Jo’é, Poturu, Poturujara, Puturú, Tupí of Cuminapanema. Classification: Tupian.

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