Bhutan

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Brokkat
[bro] Bumthang district: north of Byakar Dzong monastery. 300 (Van Driem 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brokskad, Jokay. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern. Comments: Different from Brokpake [sgt] (Van Driem 1993).

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Brokpake
[sgt] Trashigang district: Merak and Sakteng villages in east Sakteng valley. 5,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brokpa, Dakpa, Damilo, Dap, Drokpakay, Jobikha, Mera Sagtengpa, Meragsagstengkha, Mira Sagtengpa, Sagtengpa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Bumthangkha
[kjz] Bumthang district; southwest Lhuntse district; northwest Mongar district; north and west Trongsa district; possibly northeast border areas. 20,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhumtam, Bumtang, Bumtangkha, Bumtanp, Bumthang, Bumthapkha, Kebumtamp. Dialects: Ura, Tang, Chogor, Chunmat. Some northern varieties of Khengkha [xkf] and some southern varieties of Bumthangkha are reported by one source to likely be mutually intelligible. Tawang Monpa [twm] in India (Tawan Monba in China) is the same as, or closely related to, Bumthangkha. Lexical similarity: 92% with Khengkha [xkf], 47%–65% with Dzongkha [dzo], 40%–50% with Tshangla [tsj], 75%–77% with Nyenkha [neh], 70%–73% with Kurtokha [xkz]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang. Comments: Buddhist.

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Chalikha
[tgf] Mongar district: Gorsum, Tormazhong, and Wangmakhar villages; Chali area, east bank of Kurichhu river. 1,500 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chali, Chalipkha, Tshali, Tshalingpa. Dialects: None known. Related to Bumthangkha [kjz] and Kurtokha [xkz]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang.

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Chocangacakha
[cgk] Lhuntse district: Autsho, Budur, Gorgen, Jarey, Karmashangshang, Kupinyelsa, Kurmet, Kurmey, Lingmithang, Minje, Tamochhu, Thridangbi, and Tormazhog; Mongar district: lower areas east of Dzongkha, Tsakaling, and Tsamang. 30,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kursmadkha, Maphekha, Rtsamangpa’ikha, Tsagkaglingpa’ikha. Dialects: None known. Related to Dzongkha [dzo]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern.

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Dakpakha
[dka] Trashigang district: Chaleng, Dangpholeng, Lengkhar, Phongmey, and Yobinang near Radhi; Brokpake area. 2,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: May be dialect of Brokpake [sgt]. Has been influenced by Dzalakha [dzl], and Brokpake has not. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish.

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Dzalakha
[dzl] Lhuntse district: northeast; Trashiyangtse district: all except south. 22,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dzala, Dzalamat, Yangtsebikha. Dialects: Khomakha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang.

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Dzongkha
[dzo] Haa, Paro, Punakha, and Wangdue Phodrang districts. 226,000 in Bhutan (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 237,080. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2008, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Alternate Names: Bhotia of Bhutan, Bhotia of Dukpa, Bhutanese, Drukha, Drukke, Dukpa, Jonkha, Rdzongkha, Zongkhar. Dialects: Wang-The (Thimphu-Punakha), Ha, Northern Thimphu, Adap. As different from Central Tibetan [bod] as Nepali [npi] is from Hindi [hin]. Partially intelligible with Sikkimese [sip] (Denjoke). Dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 77% with Adap dialect, 48% with Tshangla [tsj], 47%–52% with Bumthangkha [kjz]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern. Comments: Buddhist.

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English
[eng] Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gongduk
[goe] Mongar district: Gongdu Gewog division, Bala, Dagsa, Damkhar, Pam, Pangthang, and Yangbari. 2,100 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gongdubikha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish. Comments: Retains the complex verbal agreement system of Proto-Tibeto-Burman. Said to belong to an ancient population of Bhutan.

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Khengkha
[xkf] Mongar district: southwest; eastern Sarpang and southeast Trongsa districts: smaller areas; Zhemgang district: widespread. 50,000 (2003 SIL). L2 users: 15,000. 30,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ken, Keng, Kenkha, Khen, Khenkha, Kyengkha. Dialects: Middle Kheng, Upper Kheng, Lower Kheng. Bumthangkha [kjz] reportedly most similar related language, but comprehension not sufficient for complex discourse. Comprehend Kurtokha [xkz] with difficulty. Lexical similarity: 75%–85% with Bumthangkha [kjz], 70% with Kurtokha [xkz] and Nyengkha [neh], 34% with Dzongkha [dzo], 40% with Tshangla [tsj], and 75%–100% between dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang. Comments: Middle Kheng region strongest and most developed economically; Lower Kheng least developed. Buddhist.

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Kurtokha
[xkz] Lhuntse district: bounded by Kurichhu river east and north, Tangmachhu village south and Rudong La pass west. 15,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gurtü, Kurteopkha, Kürthöpka, Kurthopkha, Kurtobikha, Kurtöp, Kurtopakha, Kurtotpikha. Dialects: The dialect around Tangmachhu is more divergent. Lexical similarity: 69% with Nyengkha [neh], 70%–73% with Bumthangkha, 66%–74% with Khengkha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang.

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Kurux
[kru] Chukha and Samtse districts: probably scattered small groups. 4,200 in Bhutan (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kurukh, Oraoan, Uraon. Classification: Dravidian, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Lakha
[lkh] Wangdue Phodrang district: central west, into Trongsa district. 8,000 (Van Driem 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tshangkha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern.

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Layakha
[lya] Gasa district; Punakha district: Laya area; Thimphu district: Lingzhi Gewog. 1,100 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dzongkha [dzo], but many divergent grammatical features significantly limit mutual intelligibility. Spoken by Layabs, alpine yakherds in northern Bhutan, and Lingzhibs in Western Bhutan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern.

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Lepcha
[lep] Samtse district: Amo river area, east and south lower valleys. 11,700 in Bhutan (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lapcha, Nünpa, Rong, Rongke, Rongpa. Dialects: Ilammu, Tamsangmu, Rengjongmu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Lepcha. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Lhokpu
[lhp] Samtse district: Damtey, Loto Kuchu, Lotu, Sanglong, Sataka, and Taba villages between Samtsi and Phuntsoling. 2,500 (Van Driem 1993). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lhobikha, Taba-Damey-Bikha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish. Comments: An ancient population of Bhutan.

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Lunanakha
[luk] Gasa district: Lunana, on Pho Chhu river north from Punakha, right fork halfway up the valley. 700 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dzongkha [dzo], but many divergent grammatical features limit intelligibility between them. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern. Comments: Take herds over to Gasa District, north from Punakha up the Mo Chhu River.

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Nepali
[npi] Chukha district: small border area; southwest Dagana district; especially west (Samtse), central (Sarpang) and east (southern Samdrup Jongkhar) districts; south Tsirang district. 85,000 in Bhutan (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). De facto language of provincial identity in entire length of foothills, especially south central region. Alternate Names: Eastern Pahari, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Lhotshammikha, Nepalese, Parbatiya. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, Eastern Pahari. Comments: May be majority language of the south. Many are Bhutanese citizens. Hindu.

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Nupbikha
[npb] Trongsa district: enclave south of Tongsa Dzong. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Trongsakha. Dialects: None known. Phonological similarities to Khengkha [xkf]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang. Comments: View their language as different from Bumthangkha [kjz].

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Nyenkha
[neh] Trongsa district: Sephu Geo and Trongsa town areas, Black river passes; Dangchhu, Phobjikha, Ridha, Taktse, Tashidingkha and Usar; Wangdue Phodrang district: southeast. 10,000 (2006 Royal Government of Bhutan). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Henkha, Lap, Mangdhika, Mangsdekha. Dialects: Phobjikha, Chutobikha. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kurtokha [xkz], 75%–77% with Bumthangkha [kjz], 65%–78% with Khengkha [xkf]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish, Bumthang.

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Olekha
[ole] Trongsa district: 3 enclaves west of Mangde river; Wangdue Phodrang district: Adha, Jangji, Rukha, Thrumzur, and Wangling villages; dialects separated by the Black mountains. 500 (Van Driem 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Black Mountain Language, Monkha, Monpa, Ole Mönpa. Dialects: None known. Retained complex verbal system of Proto-Tibeto-Burman. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish. Comments: Reportedly an ancient population of Bhutan.

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Tshangla
[tsj] Mongar district: east; Pemagatshel district: east; Samdrup Jongkhar and Trashigang districts; Trashiyangtse district: south. 80,600 in Bhutan (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 98,800. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in eastern and southeastern Bhutan. Alternate Names: Menba, Monpa, Sangla, Sarchapkkha, Shachobiikha, Shachopkha, Sharchagpakha, Sharchhokpa, Tsangla, Tshalingpa. Dialects: None known. Standard variety in Tashigang. Tshangla is nearly identical to that of eastern Bhutan, except for the loss of initial voicing and tonogenesis in Tibet. Differs from Tawan Monba [twm] in phonology, vocabulary, and grammar, and Tawan Monba and Tshangla are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40%–50% with Bumthangkha [kjz], 41%–48% with Dzongkha [dzo]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish. Comments: Not the same as Tsanglo (Angami Naga) of Assam, India. May also be classified as North Assam, Monpa. Buddhist.

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