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Abenaki, Western
[abe] Quebec, Odanak Reserve on the Saint Francois River. Also in United States. 10 in Canada (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Abenaki, Abenaqui, St. Francis, Western Abnaki Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Abenaki Comments: Used for source material for linguistic studies and language revival programs.

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Algonquin
[alq] Southwest Quebec, northwest of Ottawa and adjacent areas of Maniwaki and Golden Lake, Ontario. 1,760 (2011 census), decreasing. Less than 10% monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Algonkin, Anishinaabemowin Dialects: Northern Algonquin, Southern Algonquin (Nipissing). Northern Algonquin and Southern Algonquin varieties very different. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi Comments: Christian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] English-speaking areas of Canada. 3,660 in Canada (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ameslan, ASL Classification: Deaf sign language

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Assiniboine
[asb] West central and southeast Saskatchewan (Mosquito-Grizzly Bear’s Head), south Saskatchewan (part of Carry-the-Kettle and Whitebear). Also in United States. 150 L1 speakers for Canada and the United States; 3,500 ethnic population for Canada and the United States (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Assiniboin Dialects: Very similar to the Assiniboine of Montana. Similar to Stoney [sto]. Lexical similarity: 94% with Dakota [dak] of Manitoba, 90% with Dakota [dak] of North Dakota, 89% with Lakota [lkt] and Stoney. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota

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Atikamekw
[atj] South central Quebec, between La Tuque, Quebec, and Senneterre, Quebec, 200–400 km north of Montreal, along the upper reaches of Saint Maurice river, 3 isolated communities on reservations of Manuane, Obedjiwan, and Weymontachie. 5,920 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3000 (Golla 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atihkamekw, Atikamek, Attikamek, Attimewk, Tête de Boule Dialects: Nonpalatalized r-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect continuum. Very different from Montagnais [moe] and Naskapi [nsk] nearby. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais Comments: 3 subgroups: Manawan, Wemotaci, Opitciwan.

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Babine
[bcr] Wetsuset’en dialect: Bulkley River communities and bands at Burns lake. Babine Proper dialect: Lake Babine and Takla Lake communities. Some at Burns lake. 300 (Golla 2007). 100 fluent speakers and 100 passive speakers of Wetsuwet’en. 200 speakers of all degrees of fluency of Babine Proper (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 250 (Babine Proper). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Babine Carrier, Northern Carrier, Witsuwit’en Dialects: Babine Proper, Wetsuset’en. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Beaver
[bea] Northeast British Columbia and northwest Alberta, Chateh (Assumption) on Hay river, and Prophet river south of Fort Nelson. 370 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 600 (1987 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Bella Coola
[blc] Inlet on central British Columbia coast, head of Burke channel, North Bentinck arm, mouth of Bella Coola river. 20 (Golla 2007), increasing. Ethnic population: 700 (Kinkade 1991). Status: 8b (Reintroduced). Classification: Salish

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Blackfoot
[bla] South Alberta, Blackfoot, Piegan, and Blood reserves. Also in United States. 3,250 in Canada (2011 census), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 3,350. Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Blackfeet, Pied Noir, Pikanii Dialects: Blood (Kainaa), Piegan (Peigan), Siksika. Classification: Algic, Algonquian Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Carrier
[crx] Central British Columbia, Stuart and Trembleur Lake area. 1,530 (2011 census). Census does not separate Babine [bcr], Central Carrier[crx], and Southern Carrier [caf]. All Athapaskan L1 speakers in Canada 20,100 (1998 census). Ethnic population: 4,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Central Carrier Dialects: Grand Rapids, Middle River, Necoslie, Pinchie, Portage, Tachie. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Carrier

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Carrier, Southern
[caf] Central British Columbia, west of Quesnel and south of Cheslatta lake, toward the Fraser river and its tributaries, and Anahim Lake-Ulkatcho. 500 (1987 SIL). 2,060 identified in 2001. Census does not separate Babine [bcr], Central Carrier [crx], and Southern Carrier. All Athapaskan L1 speakers in Canada 20,100 (1998 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Cheslatta, Nautley, Prince George, Stellaquo, Stoney Creek. Lexical similarity: 90% with Central Carrier [crx]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Carrier

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Cayuga
[cay] Grand River, Six Nations Reserve, Ontario. Also in United States. 240 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 250. Ethnic population: 3,000 (Yamamoto 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock

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Chilcotin
[clc] South central British Columbia, west of Williams Lake. 7 reserve communities: Alexandria, Toosey, Anahim, Stone, Nemiah, Redstone, Ulkatcho. 930 (2011 census). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,500. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Tzilkotin Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan Comments: Christian.

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Chinook Wawa
[chn] British Columbia. Also in United States. 83 in Canada (1962), increasing. Population total all countries: 723. Status: 8b (Reintroduced). Alternate Names: Chinook Jargon, Chinook Pidgin Dialects: Many words from Chinook, large admixture of words from Nuu-chah-nulth [nuk], Canadian French [fra], and English [eng]. Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian

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Comox
[coo] British Columbia, Vancouver Island, and coast north of Powell river. 40 (Watanabe and Sasama 2007). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Comox-Sliammon Dialects: Island Comox, Mainland Comox (Homalco, Klahoose, Sliammon). All use the mainland dialect. Classification: Salish, Central Salish Comments: Island Comox dialect has no remaining L1 speakers.

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Cree
[cre] Population total all countries: 16,040. Comments: Member languages are: Moose Cree [crm], Northern East Cree [crl], Plains Cree [crk], Southern East Cree [crj], Swampy Cree [csw], Woods Cree [cwd]

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Cree, Moose
[crm] Southern tip of James Bay, Moosonee, Ontario. Moose Cree, East Cree [crl] and [crj], and Swampy Cree [csw] reside in this community and surrounding area (Moose Factory, Ontario). 3000 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: West Main Cree, West Shore Cree, York Cree Dialects: Nonpalatalized l-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais

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Cree, Northern East
[crl] West central Quebec, east coast of lower Hudson Bay and James Bay. Whapmagoostui, Chisasibi, Wemindji, and most in Eastmain communities. 5,310 (1997 MSSS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern James Bay Cree Northern Dialect, James Bay Cree Northern Dialects: Palatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Sometimes classified as Montagnais. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais

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Cree, Plains
[crk] North central Manitoba west across Saskatchewan and central Alberta to the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Also in United States. 160 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 260. Ethnic population: 53,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56(Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: Western Cree Dialects: Northern Alberta Cree, Plains Cree, Western York Cree. Nonpalatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais

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Cree, Southern East
[crj] Quebec, southeastward from James Bay, inland to the watershed east of Lake Mistissini. Coastal communities of Waskaganish, some in Eastmain. Inland, in Mistissini, Waswanipi, Nemaska, Ouje-Bougoumo. 7,310 (1997 MSSS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern James Bay Cree Southern Dialect, James Bay Cree Southern Dialect Dialects: Palatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Sometimes classified as Montagnais. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais

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Cree, Swampy
[csw] Ontario, Hudson Bay coast, James Bay northwest coast, inland into Saskatchewan. 85 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 2,800 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: West Main Cree, West Shore Cree, York Cree Dialects: Eastern Swampy Cree, Western Swampy Cree. Both nonpalatalized n-dialect and l-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais

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Cree, Woods
[cwd] Far north Manitoba into Saskatchewan, inland southwest from Churchill. 75 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 53,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Nonpalatalized th-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais Comments: Use of Roman orthography has been gaining ground at the expense of the older syllabic system, due to university language and teacher education programs (Golla 2007).

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Dakota
[dak] Southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Oak River and Oak Lake, Long Plain west of Winnipeg, Standing Buffalo, Birdtail, Stony Wahpeton, and Moose Woods. May be at Wood Mountain Reserve. 1,660 in Canada (2011 census). 25,000 L1 speakers of all Sioux dialects in a total population of 103,000. Of these, 4,760 reside in Canada (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sioux Dialects: Dakota (Santee), Nakota (Yankton). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota

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Dene
[chp] Northern Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, southeastern Northwest Territories (Snowdrift and Fort Resolution), Fort Smith, Fort Chipewyan, Wolliston Post, Buffalo Narrows, Brochet, and some communities in Reindeer Lake. 11,900 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: “Chipewyan” (pej.), Dëne Súline Dialects: Yellowknife. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan Comments: Ethnonym: Chipewyan was an enemy’s term for them; Dëne, the people, in several Athapaskan languages.

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Ditidaht
[dtd] British Columbia, Malachan Reserve, Nitinaht lake. Also previously used in Pacheedaht Territory in the vicinity of Port Renfrew, British Columbia. 11 (2010 A. Werle). Ethnic population: 920. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nitinaht, Nitinat Dialects: Similar to Makah [myh] and Nuu-chah-nulth [nuk]. Classification: Wakashan, Southern Wakashan Comments: The name Ditidaht is commonly used for the traditional language that is shared by the present-day Ditidaht and Pacheedaht, though only the Ditidaht also use the name as an ethnonym. The Ditidaht and Pacheedaht peoples have distinct ethnic identities from each other, as well as distinct ethnolinguistic identities from their most closely related neighbors, the Nuu-chah-nulth [nuk] of Vancouver Island, and the Makah [myh] of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, United States).

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Dogrib
[dgr] Northwest Territories, between Great Slave lake and Great Bear lake. 6 communities: Bechoko, Whati (formerly Lac la Martre), Gameti, Wekweti, Detah, and Ndilo (a subcommunity of Yellowknife). Rae is center. Detah and Ndilo host the Weledeh dialect. 2,080 (2011 census). 12% monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,220. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56(Supplemented), Section 4), restricted offical use. Dialects: Central Dogrib, Weledeh. Detah-Ndilo dialect developed from intermarriage between Yellowknife Subdivision of the Dëne [chp] and Dogrib. Lexical similarity: 84% with Southern Slavey [xsl], 82% with Northern Slavey [scs]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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English
[eng] 19,400,000 in Canada (2011 census). 820,000 L1 speakers in Quebec (1995 census); plus 1,500,000 in Quebec whose L1 or L2 is English (1995 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1988, Official Languages Act, Ch. 38, Articles 1, 34). Dialects: Newfoundland English. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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French
[fra] Québécois in Quebec; Franco-Ontarien in Ontario; Acadian in Caraquet; Shippagan on the east coast of New Brunswick, pockets in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island; Franco-terreneuvien in Newfoundland. Some Québécois in Manitoba. 7,300,000 in Canada (2011 census). 300,000 speak Acadien, 500,000 speak Franco-Ontarien. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1988, Official Languages Act, Ch. 38, Articles 1, 34). Alternate Names: Français Dialects: Acadian (Acadien), Franco-Ontarien, Franco-Terreneuvien, Québécois, Shippagan. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Difficult intelligibility Québécois and Acadian speakers, for speakers not fluent in standard French. Québécois used more vigorously than Acadian. Christian.

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German, Pennsylvania
[pdc] Kitchener-Waterloo area, Ontario. 15,000 in Canada (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvanisch Dialects: Amish Pennsylvania German, Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Pennsylvanisch Deitsch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German Comments: Christian.

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Gitxsan
[git] West central British Columbia, Gitxsan, middle Skeena river. 930 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Giklsan, Gitksan, Gityskyan Dialects: Gitsken (Western Gitsken), Gitxsan (Eastern Gitxsan). High comprehension of Nisga’a [ncg]. Classification: Tsimshian, Nass-Gitksan Comments: No fluent L2 speakers but many are familiar with the writing system and a few have achieved considerable literacy. Christian.

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Gwich’in
[gwi] Northwest Territories: Aklavik, Inuvik, Tsiigehtchic, Fort McPherson; Yukon Territory, Old Crow. Also in United States. 370 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 670. Ethnic population: 1,900 (Krauss 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56(Supplemented), Section 4). Alternate Names: Kutchin, Loucheux, Tukudh Dialects: Arctic Red River, Arctic Village Gwich’in, Fort Yukon Gwich’in, Western Canada Gwich’in (Loucheux, Takudh, Tukudh). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Haida
[hai] Population total all countries: 55. Comments: Member languages are: Northern Haida [hdn], Southern Haida [hax]

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Haida, Northern
[hdn] British Columbia, Queen Charlotte Islands, Masset village. Also in United States. 30 in Canada (1995 M. Krauss). Population of 270 reported in 2001 census may include Northern [hdn] and Southern [hax] Haida. Population total all countries: 45. Ethnic population: 750 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Masset Dialects: Borderline inherent intelligibility with Southern Haida [hax]. Classification: Haida Comments: Language courses in Haida (1991).

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Haida, Southern
[hax] British Columbia, Queen Charlotte Islands, Skidegate. 10 (Krauss 1997). Population of 270 reported in 2001 census may include Northern [hdn] and Southern [hax] Haida. Ethnic population: 500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Skidegate Dialects: Borderline intelligibility with Northern Haida [hdn]. Classification: Haida

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Haisla
[has] Central British Columbia coast inlet, Douglas Channel head, near Kitimat. 170 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 600 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Kitimat (Kitamat). Related to Heiltsuk [hei] and Kwakiutl [kwk]. Classification: Wakashan, Northern Wakashan

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Halkomelem
[hur] Southwest British Columbia, in many small communities along the lower Fraser river, the east coast of Vancouver Island. Also in United States. 570 in Canada (2011 census). 100 additional passive speakers. Population total all countries: 595. Ethnic population: 6,700 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Holkomelem Dialects: Downriver, Island, Upriver. Classification: Salish, Central Salish Comments: Language courses (1991).

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Han
[haa] Yukon Territory, Dawson City. 7 in Canada (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 300. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Moosehide Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Heiltsuk
[hei] Central British Columbia coast, Bella Bella and Kitasoo villages, Rivers Inlet area. 90 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,570 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Bella Bella (Northern Heiltsuk), Oowekyala. Related to Haisla [has] and Kwakiutl [kwk]. Classification: Wakashan, Northern Wakashan, Kwakuitlan

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Hutterisch
[geh] 333 colonies in Canada. About 95 people per colony. Also in United States (Hutterite German). 29,200 in Canada (2007 SIL). Population total all countries: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Carinthian German, Hutterian German, Hutterite German Dialects: About 50% intelligible to Pennsylvania German [pdc], Plautdietsch [pdt], or Standard German [deu] speakers. Although called Tirolean, it is not a pure Tirolean dialect but contains Carinthian and Russian [rus] words. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian Comments: Christian.

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Inuinnaqtun
[ikt] Central Canadian Arctic, west to Mackenzie delta and coastal area, including Tuktoyaktuk on the Arctic coast north of Inuvik (but not Inuvik and Aklavik, and coastal area). 410 (2011 census). All Inuktitut languages 32,800 (2001 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56(Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: Western Canadian Inuit, Western Canadian Inuktitut Dialects: Caribou Eskimo (Keewatin), Copper Inuktitut (“Copper Eskimo” (pej.), Copper Inuit), Netsilik, Siglit (Siglitun). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq

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Inuktitut
[iku] Population total all countries: 34,510. Comments: Member languages are: Eastern Canadian Inuktitut [ike], Inuinnaqtun [ikt]

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Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian
[ike] West of Hudson Bay, east through Baffin Island, Quebec, and Labrador. 34,100 (2011 census). All Inuktitut varieties 32,800 (2001 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Nunavut Territory (1988, Inuit Language Protection Act, Chapter 17). Statutory provincial working language in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56(Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: “Eastern Arctic Eskimo” (pej.), “Eastern Canadian Eskimo” (pej.), Inuit Dialects: Labrador Inuttut (“Labrador Eskimo” (pej.), Labrador Inuttitut), Mittimatalik (“Baffinland Eskimo” (pej.)), Rigolet Inuttut, Tarramiut (“Quebec Eskimo” (pej.)). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq Comments: In Northern Quebec and the Northwest Territories to the Central Arctic, it is spoken by over 90% of the population. Inuit is the name of the people, Inuktitut of the language.

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Inuktitut, North Alaskan
[esi] Mackenzie delta region including Aklavik and Inuvik, into Alaska, United States. All Inuktitut varieties 32,800 (2001 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Eskimo” (pej.), Inupiaq, Inupiat, North Alaskan Inupiat Dialects: North Slope Inupiatun, West Arctic Inupiatun (Mackenzie Delta Inupiatun, Mackenzie Inupiatun, Western Iñupiaq). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq

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Irish
[gle] Newfoundland. 10 in Canada (2001 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic

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Kaska
[kkz] Southeast Yukon Territory, Watson Lake, Ross River, and Lower Post; northern British Columbia border area, Lower Post, Fireside, Good Hope Lake, Dease Lake, Muncho Lake. 300 (2011 census). 150 additional passive speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 900 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Caska, Eastern Nahane, Nahane, Nahani Dialects: High intelligibility of Tahltan [tht] and Sekani [sek]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan

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Kutenai
[kut] Southeast British Columbia, Columbia Lake, Lower Kootenay, Saint Mary’s, Tobacco Plains. Also in United States. 100 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 106. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kootenai, Kootenay, Ktunaxa Classification: Language isolate

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Kwakiutl
[kwk] British Columbia, North Vancouver Island and adjacent mainland. Also in United States. 500 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 585. Ethnic population: 3,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kwagiutl, Kwak’wala Dialects: Related to Haisla [has] and Heiltsuk [hei]. Classification: Wakashan, Northern Wakashan, Kwakuitlan

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Lakota
[lkt] Saskatchewan, Wood Mountain Reserve. 190 in Canada (2000). 25,000 L1 speakers of all Sioux dialects in a total population of 103,000. Of these 4,760 reside in Canada (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lakhota, Teton Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota

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Lillooet
[lil] South British Columbia, Lillooet and middle Fraser river area. 310 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: St’at’imcets Dialects: Lower Lillooet, Upper Lillooet. The bands associated with the 2 dialects are culturally and politically distinct. Classification: Salish, Interior

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Malecite-Passamaquoddy
[pqm] New Brunswick, villages along Saint John River. Malecite mainly in Canada, Passamaquoddy in Maine, United States. Also in United States. 490 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 590. Ethnic population: 3,000 to 4,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy Dialects: Malecite (Maliseet), Passamaquoddy. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian

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Maritime Sign Language
[nsr] Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nova Scotian Sign Language Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Based on British Sign Language [bfi]. Distinct from American [ase] and Quebec [fcs] sign languages.

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Michif
[crg] Scattered locations. 650 in Canada (2011 census). 2001 Canada census includes Michif among 1,000 Algonquin speakers not counted elsewhere. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: French Cree, Métis Classification: Mixed language, French-Cree Comments: Spoken by some descendants of the children of Indian women and French fur traders.

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Micmac
[mic] Central and north Nova Scotia. 6 major villages and 1 small village on mainland: Afton, Pictou, Truro, Shubenagadie, Bear River, and Yarmouth, some small communities; 5 major villages on Cape Breton Island: Memberto, Eskasoni, Chapel Island, Wakmatkug, Waikoqomaq. Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick east coast: Fort Folly, Big Cove, Indian Island, Burnt Church, Eel Ground, Red Bank, Pabino Falls, and Eel River Bar; Quebec, east Gaspe Peninsula, 3 villages: Gespe’q, Gesgapeqiaq, Listuguj; Newfoundland, at Conn River. Also in United States. 8,040 in Canada (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. 8,150 L1 speakers in Canada and the United States (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 8,270. Ethnic population: 14,200 in Canada (1998 SIL). In Canada, 1,500 are in mainland Nova Scotia, 4,000 on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 800 on Prince Edward Island and Lennox Island, 4,550 on the east coast of New Brunswick, 3,150 on the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, 200 in Newfoundland. 20,000 in both Canada and the United States (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mi’gmaq, Miigmao, Mi’kmaq, Restigouche Dialects: Northern Micmac, Southern Micmac. Generally dialects are intelligible, but there are lexical, inflectional, word order, and spelling differences. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mohawk
[moh] Caughnawaga and Oka in the vicinity of Montreal, the Six Nations Reserve in southern Ontario, the Tyendinaga Reserve on the Bay of Quinte near Kingston, a small settlement at Gibson east of Georgian Bay. Also in United States. 540 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 3,540. Ethnic population: 24,000 in Canada, 30,000 including the United States (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kanien’kéha Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida Comments: Kanien’kehaka is name for Mohawk people.

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Montagnais
[moe] Quebec and Labrador, Lake Saint John east along Saguenay Valley to north shore Saint Lawrence River and Gulf of Saint Lawrence east to St. Augustin, north to height of land at Schefferville and inland Labrador (Goose Bay, Lake Melville). 11 communities. Western Montagnais in 4 communities: Mashteuiatsh (near Roberval, Quebec), Betsiamites, Uashat-Maliotenam (near Sept-Iles, Quebec), Matimekosh (near Schefferville, Quebec). Eastern Montagnais in Mingan, Natashquan, La Romaine, Pakuashipi (Saint Augustine, Quebec, sometimes called Pakuashipu), Sheshatshiu (North-West River, Labrador). 11,000 (2011 census). Includes 5,870 Western Montagnais, and 2,620 Eastern Montagnais. 10,500 L1 speakers of Montagnais and Naskapi [nsk] (2001 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1996 D. Myers). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Innu, Innu Aimun Dialects: Eastern Montagnais, Western Montagnais. Palatalized l-dialect and palatalized n-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. There are possibly 3 dialects based on the shifting of Proto-Algonquian *l within Western Montagnais to ‘n’. 2 Western Montagnais communities (Mashteuiatsh, Betsiamites) use ‘l’, as the reflex of Proto-Algonquian *l, and the other Western Montagnais (Uashat-Maliotenam, Matimekosh) use ‘n’. Uashat-Maliotenam and Matimekosh could be classified as Central Montagnais. All Eastern Montagnais speakers use ‘n’. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais Comments: Ethnonym: Innu used in northeast Quebec and Labrador. Culture mainly based on family hunting grounds visited seasonally.

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Munsee
[umu] South Ontario, Moraviantown Reserve. 7 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 400 (Kinkade 1991). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Delaware, Ontario Delaware Dialects: Similar to Unami [unm] in USA. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Delaware

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Naskapi
[nsk] Quebec and Labrador. 2 communities. Kawawachikamach about 10 km northeast of Schefferville in northeastern Quebec at watershed. On December 15, 2002 most of the Mushuau Innu moved from Utshimassits (Davis Inlet) to Natuashish on the mainland, an isolated community in Labrador. 620 (2011 census). 800 Western Naskapi, 500 Eastern Naskapi (Golla 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Innu Aimun, Iyuw Iyimuuun Dialects: Eastern Naskapi (Natuashish), Western Naskapi (Kawawachikamach). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais Comments: Naskapi culture was nomadic and completely dependent on the migratory habits of caribou. Caribou hunting and land use still seen as important. Innu Aimun refers to both Eastern Naskapi dialect and Montagnais [moe] but not Western Naskapi. Some linguists have referred to dialect spoken at Natuashish as Eastern Naskapi but currently refer to it as Innu Aimun or Mushuau Innu Aimun.

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Nisga’a
[ncg] British Columbia, Lower Nass River Valley, Aiyansh (Ay’ans), Canyon City (Gitwinksihlkw), Greenville (Laxtalts’ap or Gitxat’in), Kincolith (Gingolx) villages. 610 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 5,400 (Krauss 1997). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nass, Nisgha, Nishga, Nishka, Nisk’a, Nisqa’a Dialects: Variation within Nisga’a not great enough to be considered dialects. High degree of inherent intelligibility between Nisga’a and Gitxsan [git]. Classification: Tsimshian, Nass-Gitksan Comments: Nisga’a consider Gitxsan [git] ethnically distinct. Christian.

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Nuu-chah-nulth
[nuk] Southwest British Columbia, Pacific Ocean coast of Vancouver Island. 320 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 7,760. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aht, Nootka, Nutka, Quuquu’aca, T’aat’aaqsapa, Westcoast Dialects: Ahousaht, Cheklesaht, Ehattesaht, Hesquiaht, Hupacasath, Huu-ay-aht, Kyuquot, Mowachaht, Muchalaht, Nuchatlaht, Tla-o-qui-aht, Toquaht, Tseshaht, Uchucklesaht, Ucluelet. Similar to Ditidaht [dtd] and Makah [myh]. Classification: Wakashan, Southern Wakashan Comments: The Nuu-chah-nulth Tribe is recognized by the Canadian government, and the Nuu-chah-nulth language is recognized as an individual language by the First Peoples’ Heritage, Language and Culture Council.

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Ojibwa
[oji] Population total all countries: 86,500. Comments: Member languages are: Central Ojibwa [ojc], Chippewa [ciw] (United States), Eastern Ojibwa [ojg], Northwestern Ojibwa [ojb], Ottawa [otw], Severn Ojibwa [ojs], Western Ojibwa [ojw]

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Ojibwa, Central
[ojc] Central Ontario, Lake Nipigon in west to Lake Nipissing in east. 8,000 (2007 SIL). 2001 census lists all Ojibwa varieties together as 30,500 population. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Ojibwe, Ojibway, Ojibwe Dialects: An area of transitional dialects. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi

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Ojibwa, Eastern
[ojg] Southern Ontario, north of Lake Ontario and east of Georgian Bay. East of north-south line through Bruce Peninsula base (Rhodes 1976). 25,900 (1998 census). 2001 census lists all Ojibwa varieties together as 30,500 population. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ojibway, Ojibwe Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi

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Ojibwa, Northwestern
[ojb] Southern northwest Ontario into Manitoba. 20,000 (2000 UBS). 2001 census lists all Ojibwa varieties together as 30,500 population. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northern Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe Dialects: Albany River Ojibwa, Berens River Ojibwa (Saulteaux), Lac Seul Ojibwa, Lake of the Woods Ojibwa, Rainy River Ojibwa. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi

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Ojibwa, Severn
[ojs] Northern northwest Ontario into Manitoba. 10,500 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cree, Northern Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe, Ojicree, Oji-Cree Dialects: Severn River Ojibwa, Winisk River Ojibwa. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi

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Ojibwa, Western
[ojw] West from Lake Winnipeg into Saskatchewan with groups as far west as British Colombia. 10,000 (2002 W. Poser). 2001 census lists all Ojibwa varieties together as 30,500 population. Ethnic population: 60,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ojibway, Ojibwe, Plains Ojibway, Saulteaux Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi

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Okanagan
[oka] South central British Columbia, east of Fraser Valley and west of Kootenai, on 7 reserves: Vernon, Douglas Lake, Westbank, Penticton, Keremeos, Hedley, Oliver. Also in United States. 370 in Canada (2011 census), increasing. Except for 12 fluent speakers on Westbank Reserve, the other reserves each have at least 50 speakers of varying fluency, Vernon Reserve perhaps 100 (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 770. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Okanagan-Colville, Okanagon, Okanogan Dialects: Sanpoil, Southern Okanogan. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern

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Oneida
[one] Southern Ontario, Six Nations Reserve. Also in United States. 180 in Canada (2011 census). Population total all countries: 192. Ethnic population: 3,000 on Thames River near London, Ontario (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida

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Onondaga
[ono] Southern Ontario, Six Nations Reserve. Also in United States. 40 in Canada (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 52. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Onandaga Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock

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Ottawa
[otw] Islands, areas surrounding Lake Huron, from Manitoulin Island to southern Ontario north of Lake Erie. Walople Island Reserve. West of a north south line through base of Bruce Peninsula (Rhodes 1976). Also in United States. 7,100 in Canada (1996 First Nations Language of Origin Map). Nishnaabemwin is an emergent language, fusion of Ottawa and Eastern Ojibwa [ojg], having a couple thousand speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 60,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Odawa, Ojibway, Ojibwe Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi Comments: Called Eastern Ojibwa in Bloomfield’s (1957) grammar. In southern Ontario also called Chippewa.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Ontario, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Alberta, British Columbia. Also in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Germany, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Paraguay, Russian Federation, United States, Uruguay. 80,000 in Canada (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 394,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German, Mennoniten Platt Dialects: 50% intelligible of other Low German languages, Standard German [deu], Pennsylvania German [pdc], and Hutterite German [geh]. Plautdietsch has major differences from European Low German dialects still spoken along the North Sea and Baltic Ocean due to the various places where Mennonites lived during the past 150 years (Epp 1993). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon Comments: Christian.

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Potawatomi
[pot] Southern Ontario, Walpole Island Reserve. 50 L1 speakers in the United States and Canada, most in the United States. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Pottawottomi Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi

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Quebec Sign Language
[fcs] Quebec; Ontario, nothern Ontario, Ottawa; New Brunswick, Bathurst; British Columbia, Vancouver; Alberta, Edmonton. 50,000 (2010 E. Parks). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langue des Signes, Langue des Signes du Québec, Langue Signe Quebecars, LSQ, Québécoise Dialects: Related to French Sign Language (LSF) [fsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Christian.

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Salish, Straits
[str] British Columbia, Southeast tip of Vancouver Island (Saanich dialect). Also in United States. 20 in Canada (Golla 2007). Population total all countries: 25. Ethnic population: 3,020 (2001 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Northern Straits Salish, Straits Dialects: Saanich, Semiahmoo, Songish, Ts’ooke. Classification: Salish, Central Salish

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Sarsi
[srs] Alberta, near Calgary. 170 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 600 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Sarcee, Tsuu T’ina Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Sechelt
[sec] British Columbia coast north of Vancouver. 15 (Golla 2007). Up to 45 speakers of varying degrees of fluency: 15 fully fluent with an additional 10 to 15 who can carry on conversations (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 700 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Salish, Central Salish

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Sekani
[sek] North central British Columbia, Ware and Fort McLeod, some residents of the Beaver community of Prophet River and the Tahltan community of Iskut. 60 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 600 (1997 S. Hargus). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Shuswap
[shs] British Columbia, east central. 680 (2011 census), increasing. 1,260 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 6,500 (1990 D. Kinkade). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Secwepemc, Secwepemctsín Dialects: Eastern Shuswap, Western Shuswap. Classification: Salish, Interior Comments: Language courses (1991).

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Slave
[den] Population total all countries: 760. Comments: Member languages are: North Slavey [scs], South Slavey [xsl]

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Slavey, North
[scs] Northwest Territories, Mackenzie District, middle Mackenzie River from Fort Norman north, around Great Bear Lake; Mackenzie Mountains in Deline, Fort Good Hope, Tulita, Colville Lake, Norman Wells; Yellowknife. 230 (2011 census). Bearlake dialect: L1 population: 580, ethnic population: 1,070. Hare dialect: L1 population: 145, ethnic population: 710. Mountain dialect: L1 population: 100, ethnic population: 170 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,940 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56(Supplemented), Section 4). Alternate Names: Dene, Dené, Mackenzian, “Slave” (pej.), “Slavi” (pej.) Dialects: Bearlake, Hare, Mountain Slavey. North and South Slavey [xsl] form a chain of related varieties. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Slavey-Hare

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Slavey, South
[xsl] Northwest Alberta, Great Slave Lake, upper Mackenzie River and drainage in Mackenzie District; northeast British Columbia in Fort Liard, Fort Providence, Fort Simpson, Fort Smith, Hay River, Hay River Dene (reserve), Jean Marie River, Nahanni Butte, Trout Lake, Wrigley and Yellowknife. 530 (2011 census). 1,260 in Northwest Territories, 500 in northern British Columbia, 1,500 in Alberta (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,600 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56(Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: Dene, Dené, Denetha, Mackenzian, “Slave” (pej.), “Slavi” (pej.) Dialects: In North [scs] and South Slavey dialect continuum which includes Hare, Bear Lake, Mountain, South Slavey, northern Alberta Slavey and Fort Nelson Slavey. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Slavey-Hare

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Squamish
[squ] Southwest British Columbia, north of Vancouver. 70 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Skwxwu’mesh snichim Classification: Salish, Central Salish

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Stoney
[sto] Southern Alberta, west and northwest of Calgary, central Alberta, west of Edmonton, on Alexis, Paul, Bighorn, Morley, Eden Valley Reserves. 3,160 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,200 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nakoda, Stony Dialects: Northern Stoney, Southern Stoney. Dialects nearly 100% mutually intelligible. Northern dialect is spoken at Duffield (Paul Band) and Lac St. Anne (Alexis Band). Lexical similarity: 89% with Assiniboine [asb], 86% with Dakota [dak] of Manitoba, 85% with Dakota [dak] of North Dakota, 83% with Lakota [lkt]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota

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Tagish
[tgx] South Yukon, west or west-northwest of the Tlingit; some at Carcross. 2 (Krauss 1997). One semi-fluent speaker and one elderly deaf speaker in 2001 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 400 possibly (Krauss 1997). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan Comments: Tagish label also applied to inland Tlingit.

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Tahltan
[tht] Northwest British Columbia, Telegraph Creek. 130 (2011 census). 5 fluent speakers, 15 passive speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 100 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Mutually intelligible of Kaska [kkz]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan

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Tanana, Upper
[tau] Southwest Yukon Territory, Beaver Creek. 10 in Canada (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 40 (1997 M. Krauss). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nabesna Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan

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Thompson
[thp] British Columbia, south central, Fraser River north of Yale, lower Thompson River and tributaries. 440 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nklapmx, Ntlakapamux, Ntlakapmuk Classification: Salish, Interior, Northern Comments: Language courses (1991). Nicola and Coldwater are tribal bands.

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Tlingit
[tli] Northwest British Columbia, Atlin; southern Yukon, Carcross, Teslin. 130 in Canada (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,000 in Canada (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kolosch, Kolosh, Thlinget, Tlinkit Classification: Language isolate Comments: Rich documentation of Tlingit literature and oratory in publications by Nora and Richard Dauenhauer (Golla 2007).

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Tsimshian
[tsi] North coast British Columbia. Southern Tsimshian at southern end on coast at Klemtu. Also in United States. 280 in Canada (2011 census). 1 speaker of Southern Tsimshian; the rest speak Coast Tsimshian (Golla 2007). 2001 Canada census lists 505 in Canada. Population total all countries: 350. Ethnic population: 6,780 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chimmezyan, Maritime Tsimshianic, Tsimpshean, Zimshian Dialects: Coast Tsimshian (Sm’algyax), Southern Tsimshian (Old Klemtu, Sguxs). Classification: Tsimshian Comments: Southern dialect very divergent.

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Tuscarora
[tus] Ontario, Six Nations Reserve. Also in United States. 7 in Canada (Kinkade 1991). Population total all countries: 9. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway

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Tutchone, Northern
[ttm] Central Yukon, Mayo-Stewart, Selkirk-Pelly, Carmacks, Whitehorse, and White River areas. 210 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,100 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Selkirk Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tuchone

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Tutchone, Southern
[tce] Southwest Yukon Territory, Whitehorse, Aishihik, Burwash Landing, Champagne, Haines Junction, Kloo Lake, Klukshu, Lake Laberge settlements. 140 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,400 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tuchone

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Wyandot
[wya] Quebec, Wendake community. No known L1 speakers in Canada. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wendat Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Huronian, Huron-Petun

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