Canada

Print
Abenaki, Western
[abe] Quebec province: Odanak Reserve on Saint Francois river. 10 (Golla 2007). Total users in all countries: 14. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Odanak, Première Nation des Abénakis de Wôlinak. Alternate Names: Abenaki, Abenaqui, Alnombak, Saint Francis, Western Abnaki. Autonym: Alnôbak. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Abenaki. Comments: Used for source material for linguistic studies and language revival programs.

More Information

Algonquin
[alq] Quebec province: northwest of Ottawa, and Maniwaki; Ontario province: Golden Lake. 1,760 (2011 census), decreasing. 180 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Algonquins of Barriere Lake, Algonquins of Pikwakanagan, Anishnaabeg of Naongashiing, Atikameksheng Anishnawbek, Communauté anicinape de Kitcisakik, Conseil de la Première Nation Abitibiwinni, Dokis, Kebaowek, Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg, Long Point, Nation Anishnabe du Lac Simon, Nipissing, Timiskaming, Wahgoshig, Wolf Lake. Alternate Names: Algonkin, Anishinàbemiwin. Autonym: Anishinaabemowin. Dialects: Northern Algonquin, Southern Algonquin (Nipissing). Northern Algonquin and Southern Algonquin varieties very different. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi. Comments: Christian.

More Information

American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. English-speaking areas of Canada. 3,660 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ASL, Ameslan. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Armenian, Western
[hyw] Ontario: Ottawa and Toronto; Quebec: Montreal; British Columbia: Vancouver. 33,500 (2016 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Assiniboine
[asb] Saskatchewan province: part of Carry-the-Kettle, Mosquito-Grizzly Bear’s Head, and Whitebear. 150 (Golla 2007). This is the total of L1 speakers for Canada and the United States. Ethnic population: 3,500 in Canada and the United States (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Carry The Kettle, Mosquito-Grizzly Bear’s Head-Lean Man, Ocean Man, Pheasant Rump Nakota. Alternate Names: Assiniboin, Nakhoda, Nakhona, Nakhota, Nakhóda, Nakhóna, Nakhóta, Nakoda, Nakon, Nakona, Nakota. Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to the Assiniboine of Montana. Lexical similarity: 94% with Dakota [dak] of Manitoba, 90% with Dakota [dak] of North Dakota, 89% with Lakota [lkt] and Stoney. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

More Information

Atikamekw
[atj] Quebec province: between La Tuque and Senneterre, 200–400 km north of Montreal, along the upper reaches of Saint Maurice river, 3 isolated communities on Manuane, Obedjiwan, and Weymontachie reservations. 6,160 (2016 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Atikamekw d’Opitciwan, Conseil des Atikamekw de Wemotaci, Les Atikamekw de Manawan. Alternate Names: Atihkamekw, Atikamek, Attikamek, Attimewk, Tête de Boule. Autonym: Atikamekw. Dialects: Nonpalatalized r-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect continuum. Very different from Montagnais [moe] and Naskapi [nsk] nearby. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais. Comments: 3 subgroups: Manawan, Wemotaci, Opitciwan.

More Information

Babine
[bcr] British Columbia province: scattered. Bulkley river and Burns lake areas(Wetsuset’en dialect); Lake Babine and Takla Lake communities (Babine Proper dialect). 430 (FPCC 2014). 295 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). 100 fluent speakers and 100 passive speakers of Wetsuwet’en. 200 speakers of all degrees of fluency of Babine Proper (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,410 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Burns Lake, Hagwilget Village, Lake Babine, Nee-Tahi-Buhn, Skin Tyee, Takla Lake, Wet’suwet’en, Witset, Yekooche. Alternate Names: Babine Carrier, Lake Babine, Nadot’en, Nat’oot’en, Northern Carrier. Autonym: Nedut’en. Dialects: Wetsuset’en (Babine-Witsuwit’en, Bulkley Lakes, Witsuwit’en), Babine Proper. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

More Information

Beaver
[bea] British Columbia and Alberta provinces: Chateh (Assumption) on Hay river, and Prophet river south of Fort Nelson. 160 (FPCC 2014). 450 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,560 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Beaver, Blueberry River, Doig River, Halfway River, Horse Lake, Prophet River, Saulteau, West Moberly. Alternate Names: Dane-zaa, Dane-zaa Záágé, Danezaa, Dunne-za, Dunneza. Autonym: Danezaa ZaageɁ‎ (Danezaa Zaage). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

More Information

Bella Coola
[blc] British Columbia province: Burke channel head, North Bentinck arm, Bella Coola river mouth. 17 (FPCC 2014). 510 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,660 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Nuxalk. Alternate Names: Nuxalk. Classification: Salish.

More Information

Blackfoot
[bla] Alberta province: Blackfoot, Blood, and Piegan reserves. 2,820 (2016 census), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000. Total users in all countries: 2,920. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Blood, Piikani, Siksika. Alternate Names: Blackfeet, Niitsipowahsin, Pied Noir, Siksika(ipowahsin). Autonym: ᓱᖽᐧᖿ‎ (Siksiká). Dialects: Pikanii (Peigan, Piegan), Kainai (Blood), Siksika. Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

More Information

Carrier
[crx] British Columbia province: Stuart and Trembleur lake area. 680 (FPCC 2014). 1,380 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 9,350 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Burns Lake, Cheslatta Carrier, Lheidli T’enneh, Lhoosk’uz Dene, Lhtako Dene, Nadleh Whuten, Nak’azdli Whut’en, Nazko, Saik’uz, Stellat’en, Takla Lake, Tl’azt’en, Toosey, Ulkatcho, Yekooche. Alternate Names: Central Carrier, Dakelhne, Takelne, Takulie. Autonym: Dakelh. Dialects: Necoslie, Pinchie, Tachie, Grand Rapids, Middle River, Portage. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Carrier.

More Information

Carrier, Southern
[caf] British Columbia province: west of Quesnel and south of Cheslatta lake, Anahim Lake-Ulkatcho, toward the Fraser river and tributaries. 500 (1987 SIL). 2,060 identified in 2001. Census does not separate Babine [bcr], Central Carrier [crx], and Southern Carrier. All Athapaskan L1 speakers in Canada 17,400 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Cheslatta, Prince George, Stoney Creek, Nautley, Stellaquo. Lexical similarity: 90% with Central Carrier [crx]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Carrier.

More Information

Cayuga
[cay] Ontario province: Grand River, Six Nations Reserve. 40 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Yamamoto 2007). Total users in all countries: 46. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Lower Cayuga, Six Nations of the Grand River, Upper Cayuga. Autonym: Gayogo̱hó:nǫ’. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock.

More Information

Chilcotin
[clc] British Columbia province: west of Williams Lake. 7 reserve communities: Alexandria, Anahim, Nemiah, Redstone, Stone, Toosey, Ulkatcho. 860 (FPCC 2014). 760 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,350 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Alexis Creek, Tl’etinqox Government, Toosey, Xeni Gwet’in First Nations Government, Yunesit’in Government. Alternate Names: Nenqayni Ch’ih, Tzilkotin. Autonym: Tŝinlhqot’in. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Christian.

More Information

Chinese, Yue
[yue] Major cities. 565,000 (2016 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Guangfu. Dialects: Vancouver Cantonese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Came to Canada several decades ago from Viet Nam, Guyana, or Cuba.

More Information

Chinook Wawa
[chn] British Columbia. No known L1 speakers. The last speakers died in 1930. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chinook Jargon, Chinook Pidgin, Chinuk Wawa, Jargon. Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Comox
[coo] British Columbia, Vancouver Island, and coast north of Powell river. 36 (FPCC 2014). 710 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,900 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Homalco, K’ómoks, Klahoose, Tla’amin. Alternate Names: Comox-Sliammon. Dialects: Island Comox (Salhulhtxw), Mainland Comox (Homalco, Klahoose, Sliammon, Éy7á7juuthem). All use the mainland dialect. Island Comox dialect has no remaining L1 speakers. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

More Information

Cree
[cre] Population total all languages: 10,875 Status: Comments: Includes: Moose Cree [crm], Northern East Cree [crl], Plains Cree [crk], Southern East Cree [crj], Swampy Cree [csw], Woods Cree [cwd].

More Information

Cree, Moose
[crm] Southern tip of James Bay, Moosonee, Ontario. Moose Cree, East Cree [crl] and [crj], and Swampy Cree [csw] reside in this community and surrounding area (Moose Factory, Ontario). 3,000 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Brunswick House, Chapleau Cree, Flying Post, Matachewan, Missanabie Cree, Moose Cree, Taykwa Tagamou, Wahgoshig. Alternate Names: West Main Cree, West Shore Cree, York Cree. Dialects: Nonpalatalized l-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais.

More Information

Cree, Northern East
[crl] West central Quebec, east coast of lower Hudson Bay and James Bay; some speakers likely on Nunavut islands in James Bay; Whapmagoostui, Chisasibi, Wemindji, and most in Eastmain communities. 320 (2016 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Cree Nation of Chisasibi, Cree Nation of Wemindji, Première nation de Whapmagoostui. Alternate Names: Eastern James Bay Cree Northern Dialect, James Bay Cree Northern. Autonym: Iyiyiw-Ayimiwin, ᐄᔨᔫ ᐊᔨᒨᓐ‎ (Īyiyū Ayimūn). Dialects: Palatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Sometimes classified as Montagnais. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais.

More Information

Cree, Plains
[crk] North central Manitoba, scattered west across Saskatchewan and central Alberta to the foot of the Rocky Mountains; isolated enclave in British Columbia. 3,070 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 53,000. Total users in all countries: 3,170. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Ahtahkakoop, Alexander, Beardy’s and Okemasis, Big Island Lake Cree, Big River, Bigstone Cree, Blueberry River, Canoe Lake Cree, Chiniki, Driftpile Cree, Enoch Cree, Ermineskin Tribe, Flying Dust, Fort Nelson, Frog Lake, George Gordon, James Smith, Kahkewistahaw, Kawacatoose, Kehewin Cree, Little Pine, Little Red River Cree, Loon River Cree, Louis Bull, Lubicon Lake, Lucky Man, Makwa Sahgaiehcan, Mikisew Cree, Ministikwan Lake Cree, Mistawasis Nêhiyawak, Montana, Moosomin, Muskeg Lake Cree, Muskoday, Ochapowace, Okanese, One Arrow, Onion Lake Cree, Pasqua, Paul, Peepeekisis Cree, Pelican Lake, Pheasant Rump Nakota, Piapot, Poundmaker, Red Pheasant, Saddle Lake Cree, Samson, Sapotaweyak Cree, Saulteau, Sawridge, Stoney, Star Blanket Cree, Sturgeon Lake, Sunchild, Sweetgrass, Tallcree Tribal Government, Thunderchild, Waterhen Lake, Wesley, White Bear, Whitefish Lake, Witchekan Lake. Alternate Names: Nehiyaw, Western Cree. Autonym: Nēhiyawēwin. Dialects: Plains Cree, Western York Cree, Northern Alberta Cree. Nonpalatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais.

More Information

Cree, Southern East
[crj] Quebec, southeastward from James Bay, inland to the watershed east of Lake Mistissini. Coastal communities of Waskaganish, some in Eastmain. Inland, in Mistissini, Waswanipi, Nemaska, Ouje-Bougoumo. 45 (2016 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Cree Nation of Mistissini, Cree Nation of Nemaska, Eastmain, Oujé-Bougoumou Cree, The Crees of the Waskaganish. Alternate Names: Eastern James Bay Cree Southern Dialect, James Bay Cree Southern Dialect. Autonym: ᐄᓅ ᐊᔨᒨᓐ‎ (Īnū Ayimūn). Dialects: Palatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Sometimes classified as Montagnais. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais.

More Information

Cree, Swampy
[csw] Scattered communities, Ontario, Hudson Bay coast, James Bay northwest coast; inland into Manitoba, then Saskatchewan. 2,500 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,800 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Albany, Attawapiskat, Chemawawin Cree, Cumberland House Cree, Fisher River, Fort Severn, Fox Lake, Gambler, God’s Lake, Manto Sipi Cree, Marcel Colomb, Mathias Colomb, Misipawistik Cree, Mosakahiken Cree, Norway House Cree, Okanese, Opaskwayak Cree, Peguis, Poplar River, Red Earth, Sapotaweyak Cree, Sawridge, Shamattawa, Shoal Lake Cree, Tataskweyak Cree, War Lake, Weenusk, Wuskwi Sipihk, York Factory. Alternate Names: West Main Cree, West Shore Cree, York Cree. Dialects: Eastern Swampy Cree, Western Swampy Cree. Both nonpalatalized n-dialect and l-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais.

More Information

Cree, Woods
[cwd] Far north Manitoba into Saskatchewan, inland southwest from Churchill. 1,840 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 53,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Barren Lands, Beaver Lake Cree, Bunibonibee Cree, Chemawawin Cree, Cross Lake Band of Indians, Duncan’s, Fort McKay, Fort McMurray, Lac La Ronge, Montreal Lake, Nisichawayasihk Cree, O-Pipon-Na-Piwin Cree, Peerless Trout, Peter Ballantyne Cree, Red Earth, Shoal Lake Cree, Sturgeon Lake Cree, Sucker Creek, Swan River, Woodland Cree. Dialects: Nonpalatalized th-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. A member of macrolanguage Cree [cre]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais. Comments: Use of Roman orthography has been gaining ground at the expense of the older syllabic system, due to university language and teacher education programs (Golla 2007).

More Information

Dakota
[dak] Manitoba: south; Saskatchewan: Oak River and Oak Lake, Long Plain west of Winnipeg, Standing Buffalo, Birdtail, Stony Wahpeton, and Moose Woods. May be at Wood Mountain Reserve. 190 (2016 W. Meya), decreasing. 2,300 L1 speakers of all Sioux dialects in a total population of 175,000, of which 5,000 reside in Canada (2016 Lakota Language Consortium). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2016 Lakota Language Consortium). Includes all ethnic Sioux. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Birdtail Sioux, Canupawakpa Dakota, Dakota Plains, Dakota Tipi, Sioux Valley Dakota, Standing Buffalo, Wahpeton Dakota, White Bear, Whitecap Dakota. Alternate Names: Sioux. Dialects: Dakota (Santee), Nakota (Yankton). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Dene
[chp] Northern Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, southeastern Northwest Territories (Snowdrift and Fort Resolution), Fort Smith, Fort Chipewyan, Wolliston Post, Buffalo Narrows, Brochet, and some communities in Reindeer Lake. 10,700 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Athabasca Chipewyan, Barren Lands, Birch Narrows, Black Lake, Buffalo River Dene, Chipewyan Prairie, Clearwater River Dene, Cold Lake, Deninu K’ue, English River, Fond du Lac, Fort McKay, Fort McMurray, Hatchet Lake, K’atlodeeche, Lutsel K’e Dene, Northlands Denesuline, Salt River, Sayisi Dene, Smith’s Landing, Yellowknives Dene. Alternate Names: Dëne Súline, “Chipewyan” (pej.). Autonym: Dënesųłıné. Dialects: Yellowknife. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

More Information

Ditidaht
[dtd] British Columbia, Malachan Reserve, Nitinaht lake. Also previously used in Pacheedaht Territory in the vicinity of Port Renfrew, British Columbia. 7 (FPCC 2014). 6 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 940 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Ditidaht. Alternate Names: Diidiitidq, Diitiid’aatx, Nitinaht, Nitinat. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Makah [myh] and Nuu-chah-nulth [nuk]. Classification: Wakashan, Southern Wakashan. Comments: The name Ditidaht is commonly used for the traditional language that is shared by the present-day Ditidaht and Pacheedaht, though only the Ditidaht also use the name as an ethnonym. The Ditidaht and Pacheedaht peoples have distinct ethnic identities from each other, as well as distinct ethnolinguistic identities from their most closely related neighbors, the Nuu-chah-nulth [nuk] of Vancouver Island, and the Makah [myh] of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, United States).

More Information

Dogrib
[dgr] Northwest Territories, between Great Slave lake and Great Bear lake. 6 communities: Bechoko, Whati (formerly Lac la Martre), Gameti, Wekweti, Detah, and Ndilo (a subcommunity of Yellowknife). Rae is center. Detah and Ndilo host the Weledeh dialect. 1,650 (2016 census). 250 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,220 (2018). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted offical use. Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Dechi Laot’i, Dog Rib Rae, Gameti, Wha Ti, Yellowknives Dene. Autonym: Tlicho. Dialects: Weledeh, Central Dogrib. Detah-Ndilo dialect developed from intermarriage between Yellowknife Subdivision of the Dëne [chp] and Dogrib. Lexical similarity: 84% with Southern Slavey [xsl], 82% with Northern Slavey [scs]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

More Information

English
[eng] 26,400,000 in Canada, all users. L1 users: 19,400,000 (2016 census). L2 users: 7,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1988, Official Languages Act, Ch. 38, Articles 1, 34). Alternate Names: Anglais. Dialects: Newfoundland English. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

French
[fra] Widespread: Québécois in Quebec; Franco-Ontarien in Ontario; Acadian on the east coast of New Brunswick, pockets in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island; Franco-Terreneuvien in Newfoundland. Some Québécois in Manitoba. 10,070,000 in Canada, all users. L1 users: 7,170,000 (2016 census). 300,000 speak Acadien, 500,000 speak Franco-Ontarien, over 51,000 speak Franco-Manitoban. L2 users: 2,900,000 (2014). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1988, Official Languages Act, Ch. 38, Articles 1, 34). Alternate Names: Français. Dialects: Acadian (Acadien), Franco-Ontarien, Québécois, Shippagan, Franco-Terreneuvien, Franco-Manitoban. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous. Difficult intelligibility Québécois and Acadian speakers, for speakers not fluent in standard French. Québécois used more vigorously than Acadian. Christian.

More Information

German, Pennsylvania
[pdc] Kitchener-Waterloo area, Ontario. 15,000 (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvanisch. Dialects: Amish Pennsylvania German, Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Pennsylvanisch Deitsch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

More Information

German, Standard
[deu] Scattered. 384,000 (2016 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Allemand, Deutsch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Gitxsan
[git] West central British Columbia, Gitxsan, middle Skeena river. 350 (FPCC 2014). 490 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 7,600 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Gitanmaax, Gitanyow, Gitsegukla, Gitwangak, Glen Vowell, Kispiox, Lax Kw’alaams, Takla Lake. Alternate Names: Giklsan, Gitksan, Gitxsen, Gityskyan, Hazelton, Nass-Gitksan. Autonym: Gitsenimx. Dialects: Gitxsan (Eastern Gitxsan), Gitsken (Western Gitsken). High comprehension of Nisga’a [ncg]. Classification: Tsimshian, Nass-Gitksan. Comments: Christian.

More Information

Gwich’in
[gwi] Northwest Territories: Aklavik, Inuvik, Tsiigehtchic, Fort McPherson; Yukon Territory, Old Crow. 260 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 1,900 (Krauss 2007). Total users in all countries: 560. Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Gwichya Gwich’in, Inuvik Native, Tetlit Gwich’in, Vuntut Gwitchin. Alternate Names: Kutchin, Loucheux, Tukudh. Autonym: Dinju Zhuh K’yuu. Dialects: Fort Yukon Gwich’in, Arctic Village Gwich’in, Western Canada Gwich’in (Loucheux, Takudh, Tukudh), Arctic Red River. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

More Information

Haida
[hai] Population total all languages: 13 Status: Comments: Includes: Northern Haida [hdn], Southern Haida [hax].

More Information

Haida, Northern
[hdn] British Columbia province: Haida Gwaii islands, Masset village. 2 (FPCC 2014). 7 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 4,550 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 6. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Old Massett Village Council. Alternate Names: Masset. Autonym: Xaad Kil. Dialects: None known. Borderline inherent intelligibility with Southern Haida [hax]. A member of macrolanguage Haida [hai]. Classification: Haida. Comments: Language courses in Haida (1991).

More Information

Haida, Southern
[hax] British Columbia province: Haida Gwaii islands, Skidegate. 7 (FPCC 2014). 6 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Skidegate. Alternate Names: Skidegate, Xaaydaa Kil. Dialects: None known. Borderline intelligibility with Northern Haida [hdn]. A member of macrolanguage Haida [hai]. Classification: Haida.

More Information

Haisla
[has] British Columbia province: Douglas Channel head, near Kitimat. 240 (FPCC 2014). 21 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,680 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Haisla. Alternate Names: Haishilla, Kitlope, Northern Kwakiutl, Xenaksialakala. Dialects: Kitimat (Kitamat). Related to Heiltsuk [hei] and Kwakiutl [kwk]. Classification: Wakashan, Northern Wakashan.

More Information

Halkomelem
[hur] British Columbia province: small communities along lower Fraser river, on the east coast of Vancouver Island. 260 (FPCC 2014). 990 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 19,000 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 285. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Aitchelitz, Beecher Bay, Chawathil, Cheam, Cowichan, Halalt, Katzie, Kwantlen, Kwaw-kwaw-Apilt, Lake Cowichan, Leq’ a: mel, Lyackson, Malahat, Matsqui, Musqueam, Nanoose, New Westminster, Penelakut Tribe, Peters, Popkum, Qualicum, Seabird Island, Shxw’ow’hamel, Shxwhá:y Village, Skawahlook, Skowkale, Skwah, Snuneymuxw, Soowahlie, Sq’éwlets, Squiala, Sts’ailes, Stz’uminus, Sumas, Tsawwassen, Tsleil-Waututh, Tzeachten, Union Bar, Yakweakwioose, Yale. Alternate Names: Holkomelem. Dialects: Downriver Halkomelem (Hun’qumi’num’), Upriver Halkomelem (Halq’eméylem), Island Halkomelem (Hul’q’umín’um’). Classification: Salish, Central Salish. Comments: Language courses (1991).

More Information

Han
[haa] Yukon territory: Dawson City. 7 (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 300. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in. Alternate Names: Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Hän, Moosehide, Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Heiltsuk
[hei] British Columbia province: Bella Bella and Kitasoo villages, Rivers Inlet area. 66 (FPCC 2014). 50 semi-speakers; 6 remaining speakers of Oowekyala (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 2,530 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Heiltsuk, Wuikinuxv. Alternate Names: Hailhzaqvla. Dialects: Bella Bella (Belbellah, Northern Heiltsuk), Oowekyala (Heiltsuk-Oweek’ala, Oowekeno, Oweek’ala, ’Uikala). Related to Haisla [has] and Kwakiutl [kwk]. Classification: Wakashan, Northern Wakashan, Kwakiutlan.

More Information

Hutterisch
[geh] Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan provinces; isolated settlement in British Columbia. 333 colonies, about 95 people per colony. 29,200 (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Carinthian German, Hutterian German, Hutterite German. Autonym: Hutterisch. Dialects: About 50% intelligible to Pennsylvania German [pdc], Plautdietsch [pdt], or Standard German [deu] speakers. Although called Tirolean, it is not a pure Tirolean dialect but contains Carinthian and Russian [rus] words. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian. Comments: Christian.

More Information

Inuinnaqtun
[ikt] Northwest Territories: Beaufort sea, Mackensie river mouth east into Nunavut; Victoria Island area, Kugluktuk, Umingmatok, Bathurst Inlet, and Iquluktuuttraq communities, east to King William Island, and Boothian and Melville peninsula settlements; Hudson Bay northwest coast. 1,020 (2016 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Inuvik Native. Alternate Names: Western Canada Inuktun, Western Canadian Inuit, Western Canadian Inuktitut. Autonym: Inuinnaqtun, ᐃᓄᐃᓐᓇᖅᑐᓐ‎ (Inuvialuktun). Dialects: Natsilingmiutut (Natsilik, Netsilik, Netsilik Inuit), Siglitun (Inuvialuktun, Siglit), Inuinnaqtun. The names of the sub-dialects of Inuinnaqtun are: Kangiryuarmiutun, Coppermine, Bathurst, and Cambridge. The names of the sub-dialects of Natsilingmiutut are: Natsilik, Arviligjuaq, and Utkuhikhalik. A member of macrolanguage Inuktitut [iku]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq.

More Information

Inuit Sign Language
[iks] Nunavut territory: Scattered, especially Baker Lake areas, Rankin Inlet, and Taloyoak. 20 (Schuit 2012), decreasing. Possibly as many as 50 deaf in 2000 (MacDougall 2000). At least 20 deaf in 2012, with an unknown number of hearing with varying proficiency, but estimated to be at least twice the number of deaf (Schuit 2012). In some communities, as many as 75% of the hearing population may have known the sign language (MacDougall 2000). Ethnic population: 150 (MacDougall 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: ISL, IUR, Inuit Uukturausingit, Inuk Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Possibly developed out of an indigenous sign language reported among the Inuit in the 18th century. Use in other parts of the Arctic where Inuit people live is not yet determined (Schuit et al 2011). Contact between deaf people diminished after Inuit people abandoned nomadic life for settled communities; this, plus education in American Sign Language (ASL) [ase] since about 1970, led to decline in IUR use. The only deaf people who use it as L1 are elderly with little or no formal schooling (Schuit et al 2011). Used now by hearing people only for communication with deaf, but previously used between speakers of different dialects (Schuit 2012).

More Information

Inuktitut
[iku] Population total all languages: 36,220 Status: Autonym: Inuktitut, ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ‎ (inuktitut). Comments: Includes: Eastern Canadian Inuktitut [ike], Inuinnaqtun [ikt].

More Information

Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian
[ike] Newfoundland and Labrador, Nunavut, and Quebec provinces: Hudson Strait, east through Nunavut, southern Baffin Island; northern coastal settlements in Quebec, and along North Atlantic coast. 35,200 (2016 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Nunavut Territory (1988, Inuit Language Protection Act, Chapter 17). Statutory provincial working language in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: Canadian Inuit, Inuit, Inuit of Quebec, “Eastern Arctic Eskimo” (pej.), “Eastern Canadian Eskimo” (pej.). Autonym: ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ‎ (Inuktitut). Dialects: Quebec-Labrador Inuktitut (“Labrador Eskimo” (pej.), Labrador Inuktitut, Labrador Inuttitut, “Quebec Eskimo” (pej.), Rigolet Inuktitut, Tarramiut), Rigolet Inuktitut, Kivalliq, Baffin Inuktitut (Mittimatalik). A member of macrolanguage Inuktitut [iku]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq. Comments: In Northern Quebec and the Northwest Territories to the Central Arctic, it is spoken by over 90% of the population. Inuit is the name of the people, Inuktitut of the language.

More Information

Inuktitut, North Alaskan
[esi] Northwest Territories: Mackenzie delta region, Aklavik and Inuvik areas. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Aklavik. Alternate Names: Inupiaq, Inupiat, North Alaskan Inupiat, “Eskimo” (pej.). Dialects: West Arctic Inupiatun (Bulkley Valley, Mackenzie Delta Inupiatun, Mackenzie Inupiatun, Western Iñupiaq), North Slope Inupiaq. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Irish
[gle] Newfoundland and Labrador province. 10 (2001 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Kaska
[kkz] British Columbia province: Dease Lake, Fireside, Good Hope Lake, Lower Post, Muncho Lake; Yukon territory: Lower Post, Ross River, Watson Lake. 16 (FPCC 2014). 62 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 540 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Dease River, Kwadacha, Liard, Ross River. Alternate Names: Caska, Eastern Nahane, Kaska Dena, Nahane, Nahani. Autonym: Danezāgé’. Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Tahltan [tht] and Sekani [sek]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan.

More Information

Kutenai
[kut] British Columbia province: Columbia Lake, Lower Kootenay, Saint Mary’s, Tobacco Plains. 25 (FPCC 2014). 20 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 1,150 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 245. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Chiniki, Lower Kootenay, Stoney, Tobacco Plains, Wesley. Alternate Names: Kootenai, Kootenay. Autonym: Ktunaxa. Classification: Language isolate.

More Information

Kwakiutl
[kwk] British Columbia province: north Vancouver Island and adjacent mainland. 170 (FPCC 2014). 500 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 7,310 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 350. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Campbell River, Cape Mudge, Da’naxda’xw, Dzawada’enuxw, Gwa’Sala-Nakwaxda’xw, Gwawaenuk Tribe, Klahoose, Kwakiutl, Kwiakah, Kwikwasut’inuxw Haxwa’mis, Kwikwetlem, Mamalilikulla, Namgis, Qualicum, Quatsino, Tlatlasikwala, Tlowitsis Tribe. Alternate Names: Kwagiutl, Kwakwaka’wakw. Autonym: Kwak’wala. Dialects: Gwawaenuk. Related to Haisla [has] and Heiltsuk [hei]. Classification: Wakashan, Northern Wakashan, Kwakiutlan.

More Information

Lakota
[lkt] Saskatchewan province: Wood Mountain Reserve. 100 (2016 Lakota Language Consortium). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2016 Lakota Language Consortium). Includes all ethnic Sioux. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Wood Mountain. Alternate Names: Lakȟótiyapi, Lakhota, Teton. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

More Information

Lillooet
[lil] British Columbia province: Lillooet and middle Fraser river area. 140 (FPCC 2014). 690 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 6,670 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Bridge River, Cayoose Creek, Douglas, Lil’wat, N’Quatqua, Samahquam, Skatin, T’it’q’et, Ts’kw’aylaxw, Tsal’alh, Xaxli’p. Alternate Names: Slatlemuk, St’at’imcets, Statimc, Stl’atl’imc, Stl’atl’imx, Stlatliumh. Dialects: Upper Lillooet, Lower Lillooet. The bands associated with the 2 dialects are culturally and politically distinct. Classification: Salish, Interior.

More Information

Malecite-Passamaquoddy
[pqm] New Brunswick province: Saint John river villages. 310 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (1998 SIL). Total users in all countries: 410. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Kingsclear, Madawaska Maliseet, Oromocto, Malecite de Viger, Saint Mary’s, Tobique, Woodstock. Alternate Names: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy. Dialects: Malecite (Maliseet, Wolastoqiyik), Passamaquoddy. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian. Comments: The Passamaquoddy live primarily in the United States, the Malicite in Canada.

More Information

Maritime Sign Language
[nsr] Scattered in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nova Scotian Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Based on British Sign Language [bfi]. Distinct from American [ase] and Quebec [fcs] sign languages.

More Information

Michif
[crg] Manitoba province: scattered, a short distance from the United States border. 470 (2016 census). L2 users: 0. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: French Cree, Métis. Classification: Mixed language, French-Cree. Comments: Non-indigenous. Spoken by some descendants of the children of Indian women and French fur traders.

More Information

Mi’kmaq
[mic] New Brunswick province: Big Cove, Burnt Church, Eel Ground, Eel River Bar, Fort Folly, Indian Island, Pabino Falls, and Red Bank; Newfoundland and Labrador province: Newfoundland Island, 1 settlement south of Millertown; Nova Scotia: Afton, Bear River, Shubenagadie, Pictou, Truro, and Yarmouth, on Cape Breton Island: Chapel Island, Eskasoni, Memberto, Waikoqomaq, and Wakmatkuq; Prince Edward Island province; Quebec province: Gesgapeqiaq, Gespe’q, and Listuguj on east Gaspé peninsula. 6,690 (2016 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,200 (1998 SIL). 1,500 are in mainland Nova Scotia, 4,000 on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 800 on Prince Edward Island and Lennox Island, 4,550 on the east coast of New Brunswick, 3,150 on the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, 200 in Newfoundland. Total users in all countries: 6,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Abegweit, Acadia, Annapolis Valley, Bear River, Buctouche MicMac, Eel Ground, Eel River Bar, Elsipogtog, Esgenoopetitj, Eskasoni, Fort Folly, Glooscap, Indian Island, Micmac de Gespeg, Lennox Island, Listuguj Mi’gmaq Government, Membertou, Metepenagiag Mi’kmaq, Miawpukek, Micmacs of Gesgapegiag, Millbrook, Pabineau, Paqtnkek Mi’kmaw, Pictou Landing, Potlotek, Qalipu Mi’kmaq, Sipekne’katik, Wagmatcook, We’koqma’q. Alternate Names: Mi’gmaq, Mi’gmaw, Mi’gmawi’simg, Micmac, Miigmao, Restigouche. Autonym: L’nui’simk, Míkmawísimk. Dialects: Northern Micmac, Southern Micmac. Generally dialects are intelligible, but there are lexical, inflectional, word order, and spelling differences. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Mohawk
[moh] Ontario province: Six Nations Reserve, Tyendinaga Reserve on Bay of Quinte near Kingston, and a small settlement at Wahta Mohawk Territory east of Georgian Bay; Quebec province: Caughnawaga and Oka near Montreal. 990 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 24,000 (1999 SIL). Total users in all countries: 4,090 (as L1: 3,990; as L2: 100). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Bay of Quinte Mohawk, Lower Mohawk, Mohawks of Akwesasne, Mohawks of Kahnawá:ke, Mohawks of Kanesatake, Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte, Six Nations of the Grand River, Upper Mohawk, Wahta Mohawk, Walker Mohawk. Alternate Names: Kanien’kehaka. Autonym: Kanien’kéha. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida. Comments: Kanien’kehaka is name for Mohawk people.

More Information

Montagnais
[moe] Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec provinces; Lake Saint John east along Saguenay Valley to north shore Saint Lawrence River, Gulf of Saint Lawrence east to St. Augustin, north to height of land at Schefferville and inland Labrador, Goose Bay and Lake Melville, 11 communities. 10,200 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Bande des Innus de Pessamit, Innu Takuaikan Uashat Mak Mani-Utenam, Innue Essipit, Innu Matimekush-Lac John, Les Innus de Ekuanitshit, Montagnais de Pakua Shipi, Montagnais de Unamen Shipu, Montagnais du Lac St-Jean, Mushuau Innu, Innus de Nutashkuan, Sheshatshiu Innu. Alternate Names: Innu, Innu Aionun, Montagnais Innu. Autonym: Innu Aimun. Dialects: Western Montagnais, Eastern Montagnais. Palatalized l-dialect and palatalized n-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. There are possibly 3 dialects based on the shifting of Proto-Algonquian *l within Western Montagnais to ‘n’. 2 Western Montagnais communities (Mashteuiatsh, Betsiamites) use ‘l’, as the reflex of Proto-Algonquian *l, and the other Western Montagnais (Uashat-Maliotenam, Matimekosh) use ‘n’. Uashat-Maliotenam and Matimekosh could be classified as Central Montagnais. All Eastern Montagnais speakers use ‘n’. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais. Comments: Culture mainly based on family hunting grounds visited seasonally.

More Information

Munsee
[umu] Ontario province: Moraviantown Reserve. 7 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 400 (Kinkade 1991). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Delaware, Moravian of the Thames, Munsee-Delaware, Six Nations of the Grand River. Alternate Names: Delaware, Ontario Delaware. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Unami [unm] in the United States. A member of macrolanguage Delaware [del]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Delaware.

More Information

Naskapi
[nsk] Newfoundland and Labrador provinces: Natuashish on the mainland, an isolated community in Labrador (Eastern Naskapi dialect); Quebec province: Kawawachikamach about 10 km northeast of Schefferville at watershed (Western Naskapi dialect). 1,210 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 1,300 (2017 N. Jancewicz). 900 Western Naskapi, 400 Eastern Naskapi. Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach. Alternate Names: Innu Aimun, Iyuw Imuun, Naaskaapii iyuw iyimuuun, Naskapi Innu. Autonym: Naskapi, ᐃᔪᐤ ᐃᔨᒧᐅᓐ‎ (Iyuw Iyimuuun), ᓇᔅᑲᐱ‎ (Naskapi). Dialects: Western Naskapi (Kawawachikamach), Eastern Naskapi (Mushua Innu, Natuashish). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais. Comments: Naskapi culture was nomadic and completely dependent on the migratory habits of caribou. Caribou hunting and land use still seen as important. Innu Aimun refers to both Eastern Naskapi dialect and Montagnais [moe] but not Western Naskapi. Some linguists have referred to dialect spoken at Natuashish as Eastern Naskapi but currently refer to it as Innu Aimun or Mushuau Innu Aimun.

More Information

Nisga’a
[ncg] British Columbia province: Aiyansh (Ay’ans), Canyon City (Gitwinksihlkw), Greenville (Laxtalts’ap or Gitxat’in), Kincolith (Gingolx) villages on lower Nass river valley. 2,360, all users. L1 users: 860 (FPCC 2014). 1,380 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 1,500. Ethnic population: 5,430 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Nisga’a Village of Gingolx, Nisga’a Village of Gitwinksihlkw, Nisga’a Village of Laxgalt’sap, Nisga’a Village of New Aiyansh. Alternate Names: Nass, Nisgha, Nishga, Nishka, Nisk’a, Nisqa’a. Autonym: Nisga’a. Dialects: Variation within Nisga’a not great enough to be considered dialects. High degree of inherent intelligibility between Nisga’a and Gitxsan [git]. Classification: Tsimshian, Nass-Gitksan. Comments: Nisga’a consider Gitxsan [git] ethnically distinct. Christian.

More Information

Nuu-chah-nulth
[nuk] British Columbia province: Vancouver Island, Pacific Ocean coast. 130 (FPCC 2014). 200 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 7,680 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Ahousaht, Ehattesaht, Hesquiaht, Hupacasath, Huu-ay-aht, Ka:’yu:’k’t’h’/Che:k:tles7et’h’, Mowachaht/Muchalaht, Nuchatlaht, Pacheedaht, Tla-o-qui-aht, Toquaht, Tseshaht, Uchucklesaht, Ucluelet. Alternate Names: Aht, Nootka, Nootkans, Nutka, Nuučaan’ul, Quuquu’aca, T’aat’aaqsapa, West Coast. Dialects: Cheklesaht, Kyuquot, Ehattesaht, Nuchatlaht, Mowachaht, Muchalaht, Hesquiaht, Ahousaht, Tla-o-qui-aht, Ucluelet, Toquaht, Uchucklesaht, Tseshaht, Hupacasath, Huu-ay-aht. Reportedly similar to Ditidaht [dtd] and Makah [myh]. Classification: Wakashan, Southern Wakashan. Comments: The Nuu-chah-nulth Tribe is recognized by the Canadian government, and the Nuu-chah-nulth language is recognized as an individual language by the First Peoples’ Heritage, Language and Culture Council.

More Information

Ojibwa
[oji] Population total all languages: 89,160 Status: Comments: Includes: Central Ojibwa [ojc], Chippewa [ciw] (United States), Eastern Ojibwa [ojg], Northwestern Ojibwa [ojb], Ottawa [otw], Severn Ojibwa [ojs], Western Ojibwa [ojw].

More Information

Ojibwa, Central
[ojc] Ontario province: Lake Nipigon west to Lake Nipissing east. 8,000 (2007 SIL). All Ojibwa varieties in Canada: 17,900 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Animbiigoo Zaagi’igan Anishinaabek, Batchewana, Biigtigong Nishnaabeg, Biinjitiwaabik Zaaging Anishinaabek, Bingwi Neyaashi Anishinaabek, Brunswick House, Chapleau Ojibway, Flying Post, Garden River, Ginoogaming, Gull Bay, Long Lake, Magnetawan, Matachewan, Michipicoten, Nipissing, Pays Plat, Pic Mobert, Red Rock, Serpent River, Shawanaga, Temagami, Thessalon, Wahnapitae. Alternate Names: Central Ojibwe, Ojibway, Ojibwe. Dialects: An area of transitional dialects. A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

More Information

Ojibwa, Eastern
[ojg] Ontario province: north of Lake Ontario and east of Georgian Bay. East of north-south line through Bruce Peninsula base (Rhodes 1976). 25,900 (1998 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Alderville, Chippewas of Georgina Island, Chippewas of Rama, Curve Lake, Hiawatha, Magnetawan, Mississauga, Mississaugas of Scugog Island, Mississaugas of the Credit, Shawanaga, Wasauksing. Alternate Names: Ojibway, Ojibwe. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

More Information

Ojibwa, Northwestern
[ojb] Manitoba and Ontario provinces. 20,000 (2000 UBS). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Anishinabe of Wauzhushk Onigum, Aundeck-Omni-Kaning, Berens River, Big Grassy, Fort William, God’s Lake, Iskatewizaagegan, Lac Des Mille Lacs, Lac La Croix, Lac Seul, Little Grand Rapids, Martin Falls, Mitaanjigamiing, Naicatchewenin, Naotkamegwanning, Nigigoonsiminikaaning, Northwest Angle, Obashkaandagaang, Ochiichagwe’babigo’ining, Ojibways of Onigaming, Pauingassi, Pikangikum, Pinaymootang, Poplar Hill, Poplar River, Rainy River, Seine River, Shoal Lake, Wabaseemoong, Wabauskang, Wabigoon Lake Ojibway, Weenusk, Whitesand. Alternate Names: Northern Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe. Dialects: Berens River Ojibwa (Saulteaux), Lac Seul Ojibwa, Albany River Ojibwa, Lake of the Woods Ojibwa, Rainy River Ojibwa. A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

More Information

Ojibwa, Severn
[ojs] Manitoba and Ontario provinces. 12,900 (2016 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Albany, Animakee Wa Zhing, Aroland, Bearskin Lake, Brunswick House, Cat Lake, Constance Lake, Day Star, Deer Lake, Eabametoong, Flying Post, Garden Hill, Kasabonika Lake, Kee-Way-Win, Kingfisher, Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug, Lac Seul, Little Black Bear, Mattagami, McDowell Lake, Mishkeegogamang, Muskrat Dam Lake, Neskantaga, Nibinamik, North Caribou Lake, North Spirit Lake, Ojibway Nation of Saugeen, Red Sucker Lake, Sachigo Lake, Sandy Lake, Slate Falls, St. Theresa Point, Wapekeka, Wasagamack, Wawakapewin, Webequie, Weenusk, Wunnumin. Alternate Names: Cree, Northern Ojibwa, Oji-Cree, Ojibway, Ojibwe, Ojicree. Dialects: Winisk River Ojibwa, Severn River Ojibwa. A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

More Information

Ojibwa, Western
[ojw] Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan provinces; west from Lake Winnipeg. 10,000 (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 60,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Aamjiwnaang, Black River, Bloodvein, Brokenhead Ojibway, Buffalo Point, Cote, Couchiching, Cowessess, Dauphin River, Day Star, Eagle Lake, Ebb and Flow, Fishing Lake, Fort Alexander, George Gordon, Heart Lake, Henvey Inlet, Hollow Water, Kapawe’no, Keeseekoose, Keeseekoowenin, Kinistin Saulteaux, Kinonjeoshtegon, Lake Manitoba, Lake St. Martin, Little Saskatchewan, Long Plain, Muscowpetung, Muskoday, Muskowekwan, Nekaneet, O’Chiese, O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi, Okanese, Pasqua, Peguis, Pheasant Rump Nakota, Pine Creek, Poplar River, Rolling River, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sakimay, Sandy Bay, Sapotaweyak Cree, Saulteau, Saulteaux, Sawridge, Skownan, Sturgeon Lake, The Key, Tootinaowaziibeeng, War Lake, Waywayseecappo, White Bear, Yellow Quill. Alternate Names: Ojibway, Ojibwe, Plains Ojibway, Saulteau, Saulteaux. Autonym: Anishnaubemowin. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

More Information

Okanagan
[oka] British Columbia province: 7 reserves: Douglas Lake, Hedley, Keremeos, Oliver, Penticton, Vernon, Westbank; east of Fraser Valley and west of Kootenai. 190 (FPCC 2014), increasing. Except for 12 fluent speakers on Westbank Reserve, the other reserves each have at least 50 speakers of varying fluency, Vernon Reserve perhaps 100 (Golla 2007). 170 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 5,180 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 420. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Lower Similkameen, Okanagan, Osoyoos, Penticton, Upper Nicola, Upper Similkameen, Westbank. Alternate Names: Colville-Okanagan, Nselxcin, Okanagan-Colville, Okanagon, Okanogan, Syilx. Autonym: Nsyilxcən. Dialects: Sanpoil, Southern Okanogan. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern.

More Information

Oneida
[one] Ontario province: Six Nations Reserve. 55 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Golla 2007). On Thames River near London, Ontario. Total users in all countries: 67. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Oneida, Oneida Nation of the Thames, Six Nations of the Grand River. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida.

More Information

Onondaga
[ono] Ontario province: Six Nations Reserve. 40 (Golla 2007). Total users in all countries: 52. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Bearfoot Onondaga, Onondaga Clear Sky, Six Nations of the Grand River. Alternate Names: Onandaga, Ongwehonhwe. Autonym: Onoñda’géga’. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock.

More Information

Ottawa
[otw] Ontario province: Lake Huron area islands, Manitoulin Island; Walople Island Reserve. West of a north south line through Bruce Peninsula (Rhodes 1976). 150 (2016 census). Nishnaabemwin is an emergent language, fusion of Ottawa and Eastern Ojibwa [ojg], having a couple thousand speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 60,000. Total users in all countries: 7,360. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Atikameksheng Anishnawbek, Aundeck-Omni-Kaning, Beausoleil, Caldwell, Chippewas of Kettle and Stony Point, Chippewas of Nawash, Chippewas of the Thames, M’Chigeeng, Mattagami, Nipissing, Sagamok Anishnawbek, Saugeen, Shawanaga, Sheguiandah, Sheshegwaning, Walpole Island, Wasauksing, Whitefish River, Wikwemikong, Zhiibaahaasing. Alternate Names: Odawa, Ojibway, Ojibwe. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi. Comments: Called Eastern Ojibwa in Bloomfield’s (1957) grammar. In southern Ontario also called Chippewa.

More Information

Plains Indian Sign Language
[psd] Scattered. Great Plains and neighboring regions, particularly on reserves of Assiniboine, Blackfeet, and Kutenai First Nations. Small rapidly diminishing population. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Provincially recognized language in Ontario (2007, 38:2 Bill 213, Recognition of Sign Language as an Official Language Act). Alternate Names: First Nation Sign Language, NAISL, North American Indian Sign Language, PISL, Plains Sign Language, Plains Sign Talk. Dialects: Far Northern Plains Indian Sign Language. Classification: Sign language.

More Information

Plautdietsch
[pdt] Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan provinces. 80,000 (Salminen 2007). Total users in all countries: 447,360. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German, Mennoniten Platt. Autonym: Plautdietsch. Dialects: 50% intelligible of other Low German languages, Standard German [deu], Pennsylvania German [pdc], and Hutterite German [geh]. Plautdietsch has major differences from European Low German dialects still spoken along the North Sea and Baltic Ocean due to the various places where Mennonites lived during the past 150 years (Epp 1993). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Christian.

More Information

Potawatomi
[pot] Ontario province: Walpole Island Reserve. 50 L1 speakers in the United States and Canada, most in the United States. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Aundeck-Omni-Kaning, Beausoleil, Caldwell, M’Chigeeng, Moose Deer Point, Sagamok Anishnawbek, Saugeen, Shawanaga, Walpole Island, Wasauksing, Wikwemikong. Alternate Names: Neshnabémwen, Pottawottomi. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Quebec Sign Language
[fcs] Scattered, especially in eastern provinces that are primarily Francophone: Quebec, eastern Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. 5,000 (2015). Estimates vary widely: 5,000–6,000 (Parisot et al 2015), 50,000 (2010 E. Parks). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LSQ, Langue Signe Quebecars, Langue des signes, Langue des signes canadiens français, Langue des signes du Québec, Langue des signes québécoise, Québécoise. Classification: Sign language. Comments: No information on language used before 1831; LSQ arose in schools with influence from ASL [ase] and LSF [fsl]; the name ‘langue des signes québécois’ dates from the 1980s (Parisot et al 2015). In northern Quebec, Deaf people use American Sign Language [ase], with English as L2. Christian.

More Information

Salish, Straits
[str] British Columbia province: Vancouver Island. 107 in Canada, all users. L1 users: 7 (FPCC 2014). 100 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 100. Ethnic population: 3,060 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 112 (as L1: 12; as L2: 100). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Esquimalt, Pauquachin, Semiahmoo, Songhees, T’Sou-ke, Tsartlip, Tsawout, Tseycum. Alternate Names: Malchosen, Northern Straits Salish, Sooke, Straits, T’Sou-ke. Dialects: Saanich (Senčoten), Semiahmoo, Songish (Lekwungen, Lkwungen). Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

More Information

Sarsi
[srs] Alberta province: Calgary area. 80 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 600 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Tsuut’ina. Alternate Names: Sarcee, Tsuu T’ina, Tsúùtínà. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

More Information

Scottish Gaelic
[gla] Nova Scotia: Cape Breton; Prince Edward Island. 1,090 (2016 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gàidhlig, Gàidhlig na h-Alba. Dialects: Canadian Gaelic. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Sechelt
[sec] British Columbia province: coast north of Vancouver. 4 (FPCC 2014). 34 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 1,200 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Sechelt. Alternate Names: She Shashishalhem. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

More Information

Sekani
[sek] British Columbia province: Beaver community of Prophet River, Fort McLeod, Iskut Tahltan community, Ware. 30 (FPCC 2014). 240 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,410 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: McLeod Lake, Tsay Keh Dene. Alternate Names: Tsek’ehne, Tsek’hene. Autonym: Tse’khene. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

More Information

Seneca
[see] Ontario: Six Nations Reserve, near Brantford. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 900 (2013). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Konadaha Seneca, Niharondasa Seneca, Six Nations of the Grand River. Alternate Names: Onödowá’ga:. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock.

More Information

Shuswap
[shs] British Columbia province. 200 (FPCC 2014), increasing. 1,190 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 9,860 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Adams Lake, Bonaparte, Canim Lake, Chiniki, Esk’etemc, High Bar, Little Shuswap Lake, Neskonlith, Shuswap, Simpcw, Skeetchestn, Soda Creek, Splatsin, Stoney, Stswecem’c Xgat’tem, Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc, Ts’kw’aylaxw, Whispering Pines/Clinton, Williams Lake. Alternate Names: Secwepemc, Secwepemctsín. Dialects: Eastern Shuswap, Western Shuswap. Classification: Salish, Interior. Comments: Language courses (1991).

More Information

Slave
[den] Population total all languages: 1,720 Status: Alternate Names: Dene K’e. Comments: Includes: North Slavey [scs], South Slavey [xsl].

More Information

Slavey, North
[scs] Northwest Territories: Mackenzie district, middle Mackenzie River from Fort Norman north, around Great Bear Lake; Colville Lake, Deline, Fort Good Hope, Norman Wells, and Tulita in Mackenzie Mountains; Yellowknife. 770 (2016 census). Bearlake dialect: 580; Hare dialect: 145; Mountain dialect: 100 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,950 (Golla 2007). Bearlake dialect: 1,070. Hare dialect: 710. Mountain dialect: 170 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Behdzi Ahda’, Deline, Fort Good Hope, Nahanni Butte, Ross River, Tulita Dene, Yellowknives Dene. Alternate Names: Dene, Dené, Mackenzian, “Slave” (pej.), “Slavi” (pej.). Autonym: Satúotine Yatí. Dialects: Hare, Bearlake, Mountain Slavey. North and South Slavey [xsl] form a chain of related varieties. A member of macrolanguage Slave [den]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Slavey-Hare.

More Information

Slavey, South
[xsl] Alberta province: Hay River area and Steen River-May Creek watershed; British Columbia province: Fort Nelson- Snake river area; Northwest Territories: Mackenzie district, Great Slave Lake, upper Mackenzie River. 950 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 3,600 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Acho Dene Koe, Deh Gáh Got’ie Dene, Dene Tha’, Fort Nelson, Jean Marie River, K’atlodeeche, Ka’a’gee Tu, Liidlii Kue, Pehdzeh Ki, Ross River, Sambaa K’e, West Point, Yellowknives Dene. Alternate Names: Acha’otinne, Dene, Dene Tha’, Denetha, Dené, Mackenzian, “Slave” (pej.), “Slavi” (pej.). Autonym: Deh Gáh Ghotie Zhatie. Dialects: In North [scs] and South Slavey dialect continuum which includes Hare, Bear Lake, Mountain, South Slavey, northern Alberta Slavey and Fort Nelson Slavey. A member of macrolanguage Slave [den]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Slavey-Hare.

More Information

Squamish
[squ] British Columbia province: north of Vancouver. 7 (FPCC 2014). 34 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (2000). Ethnic population: 4,080 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Squamish. Alternate Names: Skwxwu’mesh snichim. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

More Information

Stoney
[sto] Alberta province: Alexis, Bighorn, Eden Valley, Morley, and Paul reserves west and northwest of Calgary and west of Edmonton. 3,030 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 3,200 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Alexis Nakota Sioux, Bearspaw, Chiniki, Paul, Stoney, Wesley, White Bear. Alternate Names: Dakota, Nakoda, Stony. Autonym: Ĩyãħé Nakoda. Dialects: Southern Stoney, Northern Stoney. Dialects nearly 100% mutually intelligible. Northern dialect is spoken at Duffield (Paul Band) and Lac St. Anne (Alexis Band). Lexical similarity: 89% with Assiniboine [asb], 86% with Dakota [dak] of Manitoba, 85% with Dakota [dak] of North Dakota, 83% with Lakota [lkt]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

More Information

Tagalog
[tgl] Scattered, in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan, and Yukon. 431,000 (2016 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Tagish
[tgx] Yukon territory: some at Carcross. No known L1 speakers. The last known fluent speaker, Lucy Wren, died in 2008. Ethnic population: 400 (Krauss 1997). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Carcross/Tagish, Kwanlin Dun. Alternate Names: Dene K’e. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan. Comments: Tagish label also applied to inland Tlingit.

More Information

Tahltan
[tht] British Columbia province: Telegraph Creek. 45 (FPCC 2014). 60 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 2,460 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Iskut, Tahltan. Alternate Names: Nahanni, Tāltān. Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible of Kaska [kkz]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan.

More Information

Tanana, Upper
[tau] Yukon territory: Beaver Creek. 10 (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 40 (Krauss 1997). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: White River. Alternate Names: Nabesna, Nee’aaneegn’. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

More Information

Thompson
[thp] British Columbia province: Fraser River north of Yale, lower Thompson River and tributaries. 130 (FPCC 2014). 340 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 6,140 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Ashcroft, Boothroyd, Boston Bar, Coldwater, Cook’s Ferry, Kanaka Bar, Lower Nicola, Lytton, Nicomen, Nooaitch, Oregon Jack Creek, Seabird Island, Shackan, Siska, Skuppah, Spuzzum, Yale. Alternate Names: Nklapmx, Nle’kepmxcín, Ntlakapamux, Ntlakapmuk. Classification: Salish, Interior, Northern. Comments: Nicola and Coldwater are tribal bands.

More Information

Tlingit
[tli] British Columbia province: Atlin; Yukon territory: Carcross, Teslin. 2 (FPCC 2014). 7 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 400 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Carcross/Tagish, Kwanlin Dun, Taku River Tlingit, Teslin Tlingit. Alternate Names: Inland Tlingit, Kolosch, Kolosh, Thlinget, Tlinkit, Łingít. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Tlingit. Comments: Rich documentation of Tlingit literature and oratory in publications by Nora and Richard Dauenhauer (Golla 2007).

More Information

Tsimshian
[tsi] British Columbia province: north coast, on coast at Klemtu. 160 in Canada, all users. L1 users: 110 (FPCC 2014). 1 speaker of Southern Tsimshian; the rest speak Coast Tsimshian (Golla 2007). L2 users: 50 (2000). Ethnic population: 6,880 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 200 (as L1: 150; as L2: 50). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Gitga’at, Gitxaala, Kitasoo, Kitselas, Kitsumkalum, Lax Kw’alaams, Metlakatla. Alternate Names: Chimmezyan, Maritime Tsimshianic, Tsimpshean, Zimshian. Autonym: Sm’algyax. Dialects: Southern Tsimshian (Old Klemtu, Sguxs, Skiixs), Coast Tsimshian (Sm’algyax). Classification: Tsimshian. Comments: Southern dialect very divergent.

More Information

Tuscarora
[tus] Ontario province: Six Nations Reserve. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker in Canada, Helen Salter, died in December 1995 (Skutnabb-Kangas 2000). Total users in all countries: 2. Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Six Nations of the Grand River, Tuscarora. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway.

More Information

Tutchone, Northern
[ttm] Yukon territory: Carmacks, Mayo-Stewart, Selkirk-Pelly, White River, and Whitehorse areas. 220 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 1,100 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Nacho Nyak Dun, Little Salmon/Carmacks, Selkirk, White River. Alternate Names: Selkirk. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tuchone.

More Information

Tutchone, Southern
[tce] Yukon territory: Aishihik, Burwash Landing, Champagne, Haines Junction, Kloo Lake, Klukshu, Lake Laberge, and Whitehorse settlements. 70 (2016 census). Ethnic population: 1,400 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Aishihik, Champagne, Champagne and Aishihik, Kluane, Kwanlin Dun, Ta’an Kwach’an. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tuchone.

More Information

Wyandot
[wya] Quebec province: Wendake community. No known L1 speakers (2015). The last speakers died in the early 1960s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of recognized indigenous peoples: Nation Huronne Wendat. Alternate Names: Wendat. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Huronian, Huron-Petun. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Scattered: Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec. 13,600 (2016 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Page Views Left: