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Salish, Straits
[str] British Columbia province: Vancouver Island. 107 in Canada, all users. L1 users: 7 (FPCC 2014). 100 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 100. Ethnic population: 3,060 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 112 (as L1: 12; as L2: 100). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Malchosen, Northern Straits Salish, Straits, T’Sou-ke. Dialects: Saanich (Senčoten), Semiahmoo, Songish (Lekwungen, Lkwungen). Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Sarsi
[srs] Alberta province: Calgary area. L1 users: 170 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 600 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Sarcee, Tsuu T’ina. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Scottish Gaelic
[gla] Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island. L1 users: 2,320 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gàidhlig, Gàidhlig na h-Alba. Dialects: Canadian Gaelic. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Sechelt
[sec] British Columbia province: coast north of Vancouver. L1 users: 4 (FPCC 2014). 34 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 1,200 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: She Shashishalhem. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Sekani
[sek] British Columbia province: Beaver community of Prophet River, Fort McLeod, Iskut Tahltan community, Ware. L1 users: 30 (FPCC 2014). 240 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,410 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tsek’ehne, Tsek’hene. Autonym: Tse’khene. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Shuswap
[shs] British Columbia province. L1 users: 200 (FPCC 2014), increasing. 1,190 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 9,860 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Secwepemc, Secwepemctsín. Dialects: Eastern Shuswap, Western Shuswap. Classification: Salish, Interior. Comments: Language courses (1991).

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Slave
[den] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 760 Status: Alternate Names: Dene K’e. Comments: Includes: North Slavey [scs], South Slavey [xsl].

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Slavey, North
[scs] Northwest Territories: Mackenzie district, middle Mackenzie River from Fort Norman north, around Great Bear Lake; Colville Lake, Deline, Fort Good Hope, Norman Wells, and Tulita in Mackenzie Mountains; Yellowknife. L1 users: 230 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,950 (Golla 2007). Bearlake dialect: 1,070. Hare dialect: 710. Mountain dialect: 170 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4). Alternate Names: Dene, Dené, Mackenzian, “Slave” (pej.), “Slavi” (pej.). Autonym: Satúotine Yatí. Dialects: Hare, Bearlake, Mountain Slavey. North and South Slavey [xsl] form a chain of related varieties. A member of macrolanguage Slave [den]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Slavey-Hare.

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Slavey, South
[xsl] Alberta province: Hay River area and Steen River-May Creek watershed; British Columbia province: Fort Nelson- Snake river area; Northwest Territories: Mackenzie district, Great Slave Lake, upper Mackenzie River. L1 users: 530 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,600 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in NWT (1988, NWT Official Languages Act, Chapter 56 (Supplemented), Section 4), restricted official use. Alternate Names: Acha’otinne, Dene, Dene Tha’, Denetha, Dené, Mackenzian, “Slave” (pej.), “Slavi” (pej.). Autonym: Deh Gáh Ghotie Zhatie. Dialects: In North [scs] and South Slavey dialect continuum which includes Hare, Bear Lake, Mountain, South Slavey, northern Alberta Slavey and Fort Nelson Slavey. A member of macrolanguage Slave [den]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Slavey-Hare.

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Squamish
[squ] British Columbia province: north of Vancouver. L1 users: 7 (FPCC 2014). 34 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). L2 users: 0 (2000). Ethnic population: 4,080 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Skwxwu’mesh snichim. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Stoney
[sto] Alberta province: Alexis, Bighorn, Eden Valley, Morley, and Paul reserves west and northwest of Calgary and west of Edmonton. L1 users: 3,160 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,200 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nakoda, Stony. Dialects: Southern Stoney, Northern Stoney. Dialects nearly 100% mutually intelligible. Northern dialect is spoken at Duffield (Paul Band) and Lac St. Anne (Alexis Band). Lexical similarity: 89% with Assiniboine [asb], 86% with Dakota [dak] of Manitoba, 85% with Dakota [dak] of North Dakota, 83% with Lakota [lkt]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

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Tagalog
[tgl] L1 users: 384,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tagish
[tgx] Yukon territory: some at Carcross. L1 users: 2 (1997). Ethnic population: 400 (Krauss 1997). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dene K’e. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan. Comments: Tagish label also applied to inland Tlingit.

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Tahltan
[tht] British Columbia province: Telegraph Creek. L1 users: 45 (FPCC 2014). 60 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 2,460 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nahanni, Tāltān. Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible of Kaska [kkz]. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tahltan.

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Tanana, Upper
[tau] Yukon territory: Beaver Creek. L1 users: 10 (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 40 (Krauss 1997). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nabesna. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Thompson
[thp] British Columbia province: Fraser River north of Yale, lower Thompson River and tributaries. L1 users: 130 (FPCC 2014). 340 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 6,140 (FPCC 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nklapmx, Nle’kepmxcín, Ntlakapamux, Ntlakapmuk. Classification: Salish, Interior, Northern. Comments: Language courses (1991). Nicola and Coldwater are tribal bands.

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Tlingit
[tli] British Columbia province: Atlin; Yukon territory: Carcross, Teslin. L1 users: 2 (FPCC 2014). 7 semi-speakers (FPCC 2014). Ethnic population: 400 (FPCC 2014). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Inland Tlingit, Kolosch, Kolosh, Thlinget, Tlinkit, Łingít. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Tlingit. Comments: Rich documentation of Tlingit literature and oratory in publications by Nora and Richard Dauenhauer (Golla 2007).

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Tsimshian
[tsi] British Columbia province: north coast, on coast at Klemtu. 160 in Canada, all users. L1 users: 110 (FPCC 2014). 1 speaker of Southern Tsimshian; the rest speak Coast Tsimshian (Golla 2007). L2 users: 50 (2000). Ethnic population: 6,880 (FPCC 2014). Total users in all countries: 228 (as L1: 178; as L2: 50). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chimmezyan, Maritime Tsimshianic, Tsimpshean, Zimshian. Autonym: Sm’algyax. Dialects: Southern Tsimshian (Old Klemtu, Sguxs, Skiixs), Coast Tsimshian (Sm’algyax). Classification: Tsimshian. Comments: Southern dialect very divergent.

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Tuscarora
[tus] Ontario province: Six Nations Reserve. L1 users: 7 (Kinkade 1991). Total users in all countries: 9. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway.

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Tutchone, Northern
[ttm] Yukon territory: Carmacks, Mayo-Stewart, Selkirk-Pelly, White River, and Whitehorse areas. L1 users: 210 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,100 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Selkirk. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tuchone.

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Tutchone, Southern
[tce] Yukon territory: Aishihik, Burwash Landing, Champagne, Haines Junction, Kloo Lake, Klukshu, Lake Laberge, and Whitehorse settlements. L1 users: 140 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,400 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan, Tuchone.

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Wyandot
[wya] Quebec province: Wendake community. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wendat. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Huronian, Huron-Petun. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] L1 users: 16,300 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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