Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Alur
[alz] Ituri province: Mahagi territory, northwest to Djalasiga area. 750,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Total users in all countries: 1,735,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aloro, Alua, Alulu, Dho Alur, Jo Alur, Lur, Luri. Autonym: DhuAlur. Dialects: Jonam, Ngora. Lexical similarity: 96% between the Jonam and Ngora dialects. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur. Comments: Christian.

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Amba
[rwm] Nord-Kivu province: Uganda border area south of Lake Albert, northern Ruwenzori foothills. 4,500 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hambo, Humu, KiHumu, Kuamba, Kwamba, Ruwenzori Kibira, Rwamba. Dialects: Kigumu (Hamba, Kuamba, Lubulebule), Kihyanzi, Kusuwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.22).

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Asoa
[asv] Haut-Uele province: Rungu territory, Ituri forest. 25,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asua, Asuae, Asuati, “Aka” (pej.). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu. Comments: A pygmy group.

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Aushi
[auh] Haut-Katanga province: east of Lubumbashi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Avaushi, Ushi, Usi, Uzhili, Vouaousi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.402).

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Avokaya
[avu] Haut-Uele province: Faradje territory, near Sudan border. 25,000 (1989 SIL). 2,000 Ojila, 10,000 Northern Ogambi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abukeia, Avukaya. Dialects: Ojila, Ajigu (Ajugu), Northern Ogambi, Avokaya Pur. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Babango
[bbm] Tshopo province: Basoko territory; some in Mongala province. 2,550 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bango, Mobango, Southwest Bwa. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Budza [bja], which is immediately downriver. Lexical similarity: 89% with Budza. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.441).

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Baka
[bdh] Haut-Uele province: Garamba National Park to Sudan border. 1,300 (1993 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tara Baaka. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka. Comments: Different from Baka [bkc] of Cameroon. Refugees in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Bali
[bcp] Tshopo province: Bafwasende territory; Tshopo river south to Ituri river north, and Ituri river north bank. 42,000 (1987 UBS). 2,100 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baali, Dhibali, Kibaali, Kibala, Kibali, Libaali, Southeast Bwa. Dialects: Bemili, Bakundumu, Bafwandaka, Bekeni. The Bemili dialect is central linguistically and geographically. Lexical similarity: 52% with Lika [lik]; 40%–45% with Bwa [bww] and Pagibete [pae]; 46% with Komo [kmw]; 40% with Bhele [bhy], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf]; 30% with Budu [buu] and Ndaka [ndk]; 25% with Lega languages and Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.21). Comments: ‘Kibali’ is the official name.

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Baloi
[biz] Equateur province: south, west, and east of Bomongo. 20,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baato Baloi, Boloi, Loi, Rebu. Dialects: Loi, Dzamba (Jamba), Makutu, Mampoko. Reportedly similar to Likila [lie] and Ndobo [ndw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.31).

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Bamwe
[bmg] Sud-Ubangi province: Kungu territory, Mwanda collectivité, Ngiri river upper reaches Bomole, Botunia, Libobi, Lifunga, Likata, Lokutu, Mondongo, and Moniongo villages between Limpoko and Sombe villages. 20,000 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lifonga, Likata, Libobi. All village dialects are mutually intelligible. Reportedly similar to Dzando [dzn] and Ndolo [ndl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.412).

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Banda, Mid-Southern
[bjo] Nord-Ubangi province: Bosobolo territory, north of Dubulu; Mobaye-Mbongo territory. 2,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Yakpa (Bayaka, Yacoua, Yakpwa, Yakwa), Bendi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Banda, South Central
[lnl] Nord-Ubangi province. 3,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ngbugu (Ngbougou, Ngubu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Banda, Togbo-Vara
[tor] Nord-Ubangi province: Bosobolo territory, Badja and Baya towns, Bandema and Vongba II village areas to Gwara II. 12,000 (1984 census). Total users in all countries: 24,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Togbo (Tagbo, Tohgboh). Not intelligible of other Banda languages or dialects in South Sudan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara. Comments: Different from Tagbu [tbm] of Democratic Republic of the Congo in Sere group.

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Bangala
[bxg] Bas-Uele, Haut-Uele, Ituri, and Tshopo provinces. 3,500,000, all users. L1 users: Few L1 speakers. L2 users: 3,500,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as an LWC in Aru, Dungu, Faradje, and Watsa territories by all ethnic groups as a preferred market language. Alternate Names: Ngala. Autonym: Bangala. Dialects: None known. Reportedly becoming more like Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.30).

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Bangba
[bbe] Haut-Uele province: Niangara territory, Kopa collectivité; Watsa territory, Tora area. 11,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abangba. Dialects: Kopa, Tora. Lexical similarity: 70% with Mayogo [mdm], 72% with Mündü [muh], 90% with dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mayogo-Bangba.

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Bangi
[bni] Equateur province: from Bolobo to Mbandaka. 50,900 (2000). Total users in all countries: 148,340. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bobangi, Bubangi, Dzamba, Lobobangi, Rebu, Zamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.32).

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Bangubangu
[bnx] Maniema province: Kabambare territory; Sud-Kivu and Tanganyika provinces. 171,000 (1995 SIL). 85,000 Bangubangu, 30,000 Mikebwe, 20,000 Kasenga, 32,000 Nonda, 4,000 Hombo. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bangobango, Kibangobango, Kibangubangu. Dialects: Bangubangu, Mikebwe, Kasenga, Nonda, Hombo, Sanzi. Dialects listed probably separate languages. Lexical similarity: 67% with Hemba [hem], 58% with Songe [sop], 81% with the Mikebwe dialect, 80% with the Kasenga dialect, 80% with the Nonda dialect, 71% with the Hombo dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.27). Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Barambu
[brm] Bas-Uele province: Poko territory, between Bomokandi and Uélé rivers. 25,600 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abarambo, Amiangba, Amiangbwa, Balambu, Barambo, Duga. Dialects: Unconfirmed reports of a, Pamiaangba dialect, near Dungu in Niangara Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Barambo-Pambia.

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Beeke
[bkf] Ituri province: Mambasa territory, Bandaka and Bombo collectivités, 1 village in each. 1,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Beke, Ibeeke. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Bali [bcp], 46% with Lika [lik] and Bila [bip], 40% with Bera [brf], 38% with Ndaka [ndk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.335). Comments: Possibly ethnic Bali who moved away from Bali territory to 2 villages south of Ituri River, and in 1960s to Ndaka and Mbo [zmw] territory along the main road from Mambasa to Kisangani.

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Bemba
[bem] Haut-Katanga province: east. 300,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chibemba, Chiwemba, Ichibemba, Icibemba, Wemba. Dialects: Lembue, Lomotua (Lomotwa), Ngoma, Nwesi, Shila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.42). Comments: Distinct from Bembe [bmb] of Sud-Kivu Province as well as Beembe [beq] (Bembe) of Congo (Brazzaville). Possibly in Zimbabwe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bembe
[bmb] Maniema province; Sud-Kivu province: Fizi territory, west of Lake Tanganyika. 252,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Beembe, Ebembe, Ibembe. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 76%–84% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm] dialects, 68% with Buyu [byi], 60% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 55% with Zimba [zmb], 50% with Enya [gey], 45% with Nyanga [nyj], 40% with Tembo [tbt], 30% with Lengola [lej]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe-Buyi (D.54). Comments: Classified with the Lega group (Bryan 1959). Distinct from Beembe [beq] (Bembe) of Congo Brazzaville and Bemba [bem] (Chibemba) in southeast Katanga Province, Zambia, and Tanzania. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bendi
[bct] Ituri province: Djugu territory, between Bunia and Djalasiga. 32,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mabendi, Mabeni. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Different from Ngiti [niy] (Bindi), and Bendi which is a dialect of Banda [bjo] of Equateur Province.

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Bera
[brf] Ituri province: Irumu territory. 120,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bira, Plains Bira, Sese, Sumbura, WaBira. Autonym: Kibira. Dialects: One dialect, but some variation around Solenyama. Lexical similarity: 70% with Amba [rwm]; 56%–59% with Bila [bip], Kaiku [kkq], Bhele [bhy], and Komo [kmw]; 47% with Bwa [bww], Lika [lik], and Bali [bcp]; 22% with Nyali [nlj] and Budu [buu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.32).

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Bhele
[bhy] Ituri province: several enclaves; Nord-Kivu province: Lubero territory, west of Butembo. Munjoa (Southern Bhele dialect). 15,000 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bili, Ebhele, Ipere, Kipere, Kipili, Pere, Peri, Pili, Piri. Dialects: Bugombe (Ebugombe). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kaiku [kkq] and Komo [kmw], 70% with Bila [bip], less than 60% with Bera [brf] and Amba [rwm], 40% with Bali [bcp] and Lika [lik]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.31). Comments: Different from Peri, a dialect of Kalanga [kck] of Zimbabwe. Names of ethnic groups: Babeka, Baleje, Batike, Babhogombe (Bapakombe, Bugombe, Ebugombe), Babhaidhomba, and Babhogala (Bapokara). Bapakombe may be separate language.

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Bila
[bip] Ituri province: Irumu territory; Nord-Kivu province: northwest of Beni. 40,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ebila, Forest Bira, KiBila, Western Bila. Dialects: Bombi-Ngbanja, Nyaku. Lexical similarity: 94% between dialects, closely related to other Bira languages: 80% with Kaiku [kkq], 72% with Bhele [bhy], 70% with Komo [kmw], nearly 60% with Bera [brf] and Amba [rwm], 46% with Beeke [bkf], 45% with Bwa [bww], 40% with Lika [lik] and Bali [bcp], 26% with Mbo [zmw], 22% with Budu [buu] and Ndaka [ndk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.311). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Binji
[bpj] Kasai-Central province: Kazumba territory; Sankuru province. 165,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bindji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songe (L.231).

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Boguru
[bqu] Haut-Uele province: Dungu territory, west of Garamba National Park. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Buguru, Guru, Kinsong, Kogoro, Koguru. Dialects: Boguru, Bukur (Bukum, Bukuru), Koguru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.302). Comments: Speakers in Democratic Republic of the Congo are refugees of South Sudanese origin.

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Boko
[bkp] Equateur province: Congo river upstream from Mbandaka. 21,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iboko. Dialects: Busa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.16). Comments: Different from Longto [wok] of Cameroon and Boko [bqc] of Benin and Nigeria.

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Bolia
[bli] Equateur province: southeast of Lake Tumba; Mai-Ndombe province: north of Lake Mai-Ndombe. 100,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bokoki, Bulia. Dialects: Reportedly similar to, or possibly a dialect of, Ntomba [nto]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.35).

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Boloki
[bkt] Equateur province: Congo river, upstream from Mbandaka. 4,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baloki, Boleki, Buluki, River Ruki. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.36).

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Bolondo
[bzm] Sud-Ubangi province: Budjala territory on Saw river south of Budjala, Bamba village area. 3,000 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Tembo [tmv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.302).

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Boma
[boh] Kwilu province: Bagata territory. 20,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boma Kasai, Buma, Kiboma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.82).

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Bomboli
[bml] Sud-Ubangi province: Kungu territory, Dongo collectivité, north of Bomongo on a canal flowing into Ngiri river, between Bokondo and Bodjinga villages. 2,500 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bombongo. Dialects: 3 dialects. Reportedly most similar to Bozaba [bzo] and Lobala [loq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.161). Comments: Consider themselves ethnically distinct from the Lobala [loq].

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Bomboma
[bws] Sud-Ubangi province: Kungu territory, Bomboma collectivité between Bomboma and Bokonzi villages: Lingonda, Ebuku, Makengo, Ndzubele, Motuba villages. 7 villages. 23,000 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boba. Dialects: Likaw, Lingonda, Ebuku, Bokonzi. The Likaw in Budjala Territory, southwest of Budjala, are reportedly ethnically identical with Bomboma and have good intercomprehension. Lexical similarity: 93% with the Ebuku and Lingonda dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.411).

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Bozaba
[bzo] Sud-Ubangi province: Kungu territory, Mwanda collectivité, northwest of Ngiri and Mwanda rivers confluence. 5,500 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Budzaba, Buzaba. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Bomboli [bml], then Bomboma [bws] and Lobala [loq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.162).

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Budu
[buu] Haut-Uele province: Wamba territory, 8 collectivités. 180,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bodo, Ebudu, Kibudu. Dialects: Ineta (Timoniko), Wadimbisa (Isombi), Makoda, West Bafwangada (Bafanio), East Bafwangada, Bafwakoyi, Malamba, Mahaa. Bafwakoyi dialect, around Wamba, is best understood by East Bafwangada, Mahaa, and Malamba users; Ineta dialect, near Ibambi, is best understood by Makoda, Wadimbisa, and West Bafwangada users. However, Ibambi and Wamba groups consider themselves one people and language. Lexical similarity: 92% within dialects; 85% with Ndaka [ndk]; 78% with Mbo [zmw]; 74% with Nyali [nlj] and Vanuma [vau]; 30% with Bali [bcp]; Lika [lik], and Komo [kmw]; 20%–25% with Bhele [bhy], Kaiku [kkq], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf]; 14% with Congo Swahili [swc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.332). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Budza
[bja] Mongala province: Bumba territory and parts of Bongandanga territory; northwest Tshopo province. 226,000 (1985 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Budja, Buja, Ebuja, Embudja, Limbudza, Mbudja. Dialects: Mbila, Monzamboli, Bosambi, Yaliambi. Lexical similarity: 89% with Babango [bbm], 59% with Ngombe [ngc], 48% with Lingala [lin], 35%–40% with Pagibete [pae] and Bwa [bww]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.37).

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Buraka
[bkg] Nord-Ubangi province: Ubangi river area; north and northeast of Bosobolo. 1,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boraka, Bouraka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili.

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Bushoong
[buf] Kasai province: north Ilebo and Mweka territories. 155,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamongo, Bukuba, Bushona, Bushong, Bushonga, Bushongo, Busoong, Ganga, Kuba, Mbale, Mongo, Shongo. Dialects: Djembe, Ngende (Ngeende, Ngendi), Ngombe (Ngombia), Ngongo, Pianga (Panga, Piong, Pyaang, Tsobwa), Shuwa (Loshoobo, Shoba, Shobwa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushoong (C.83). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Buyu
[byi] Maniema, Sud-Kivu, and Tanganyika provinces: Lake Tanganyika area. 10,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bujwe, Buyi, Kibuyu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Bembe [bmb], 60% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], 55% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 50% with Zimba [zmb] and Enya [gey], 40% with Bangubangu [bnx]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe-Buyi (D.55).

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Bwa
[bww] Bas-Uele province: Aketi, Bambesa, Bondo, and Buta territories; Tshopo province: Banalia territory; Nord-Ubangi province: northeastern, on Ubangi river, Buta is center; Bas-Uele province: Aketi and Bondo territories (Benge and Bati dialects), Tshopo province: Banalia territory (Kiba dialect). 200,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boa, Boua, Bua, Kibua, Kibwa, Libenge, Libua, Libwali. Dialects: Leboa-Le, Yewu, Kiba, Benge, Bati (Baati). Lexical similarity: 90% with Benge and Bati dialects, 80%–85% with Pagibete [pae], 60%–80% with Kango [kty], 60%–65% with Ngelima [agh], 55%–60% with Lika [lik], 48% with Komo [kmw], 43% with Bali [bcp], 37% with Ngombe [ngc], 35% with Budza [bja], 30% with Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.44). Comments: Buta and Bambesa territories have similar dialects. Clan names: Bangingita, Bagunzulu, Bokipa. Different from Bua [bub] of Chad.

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Bwela
[bwl] Tshopo province. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buela, Lingi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.42).

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Bwile
[bwc] Haut-Katanga province: Pweto area north end of Lake Mweru. 12,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.401).

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Chokwe
[cjk] East Kwango, south Kasai, and Lualaba provinces: near Angola border. 504,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ciokwe, Cokwe, Djok, Imo, Shioko, Tschiokwe, Tshokwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.11).

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Dengese
[dez] Kasai province: Dekese territory. 8,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ileo, Lengese, Ndengese, Nkutu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushoong (C.81).

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Ding
[diz] Kwilu province: Idiofa territory, on Kasaï river. 155,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Di, Din, Dinga, Dzing. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yansi [yns]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.86).

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Dongo
[doo] Haut-Uele province: east of Watsa. 12,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Donga, Dongo Ko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba. Comments: Different from Dongo, a dialect of Gbaya [krs] of Sudan, Dong [doh] (Donga) of Nigeria, which is in the Chamba group of Adamawa, and Ndo [ndp], which is Nilo-Saharan.

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Dzando
[dzn] Sud-Ubangi province: Kungu territory, Mwanda collectivité, Lokay, Maboko, Moliba, and Molunga villages between Ngiri and Mwanda rivers. 6,000 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lokay, Molunga, Maboko, Moliba. Comprehension of Lifunga dialect of Bamwe [bmg] very high. Lexical similarity: 6% with Lifunga dialect of Bamwe [bmg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.413).

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Efe
[efe] Haut-Uele province: Watsa territory; Ituri province: Djugu, Irumu, and Mambasa territories; Nord-Kivu province: enclave north of Beni. 20,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Live among the Balese and trade with them. Pygmies. Traditional religion.

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Enya
[gey] Tshopo province: Ubundu territory, Lualaba river from Kisangani upriver to Kongolo. 15,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ena, Genya, Tsheenya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Mituku [zmq], 54% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 50% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], Bembe [bmb], Buyu [byi], and Zimba [zmb], 47% with Nyanga [nyj], 40% with Lengola [lej], 30% with Komo [kmw] and Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Mbole-Enya (D.14).

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Foma
[fom] Tshopo province: Congo river north side, upstream from Basoko. 13,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fuma, Lifoma, Pseudo-Bambole. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.56).

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French
[fra] 6,080,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (OIF 2007), L2 users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2006, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fuliiru
[flr] Sud-Kivu province: Uvira territory, north and northwest of Uvira. 400,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulero, Fuliiro, Fuliru, Kifulero, Kifuliiru. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Mashi [shr], 90% with Nyindu [nyg] and Joba [job]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.63).

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Furu
[fuu] Nord-Ubangi province: Bosobolo and Mobaye territories, east of Bosobolo. 12,000 (1984 census). Total users in all countries: 16,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagero, Bagiro, Baguero, Baguiro. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara.

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Gbanziri
[gbg] Nord-Ubangi province: Bosobolo territory, along Ubangi river. 3,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banziri, Gbandere, Gbanzili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili.

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Gilima
[gix] Sud-Ubangi province: north Libenge territory in 3 groups: Bandi southwest, Bogon north, and Mbanza-Balakpa southeast. 12,000 (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ngbaka Ma’bo [nbm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka. Comments: May be in Central African Republic.

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Gobu
[gox] Nord-Ubangi province: Bosobolo territory: between Borunu and Duguru on Sidi road, and Pandu area between Bele II and Denbili villages. 12,000 (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gabou, Gabu, Gubu, Ngobo, Ngobu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Togbo-Vara Banda [tor] and Mono [mnh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Hamba
[hba] Maniema province; Sankuru province: Lodja territory. 13,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.71). Comments: Different from the Hamba dialect of Haya [hay] of Tanzania.

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Havu
[hav] Nord-Kivu province; Sud-Kivu province: Idjwi and Kalehe territories. 506,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Haavu, Kihavu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Shi [shr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.52).

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Hema
[nix] Ituri province: Djugu and Irumu territories. 125,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Congo Nyoro, Hema-Sud, Kihema, Nyoro, Oruhuma, Runyoro, Southern Hema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.121). Comments: Hema is spoken by the Southern Hema people, of the same ethnic stock as the Northern Hema (who speak Lendu [led]) and the speakers of the Hima dialect of Nyankore [nyn] in Uganda.

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Hemba
[hem] Maniema province: extreme south; Tanganyika province: east Kongolo territory. 181,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Luba, Emba, Kiemba, Kihemba, Luba-Hemba. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Bangubangu [bnx], 64% with Songe [sop], higher than 67% with the Mikebwe and Hombo dialects of Bangubangu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.34).

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Holoholo
[hoo] Tanganyika province: northwest Kalemie area. 15,500 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guha, Horohoro, Kalanga, Kiholoholo, Kikalanga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.28). Comments: Different from Holu [hol] (Kiholo, Holo).

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Holu
[hol] Kwango province: extreme southwest corner. 5,100. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Holo, Hongu, Kiholo, Kiholu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Pende (L.12).

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Hunde
[hke] Nord-Kivu province: Masisi and Rutshuru territories. 200,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kihunde, Kobi, Rukobi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Tembo [tbt], 65% with Nande [nnb], 57% with Nyanga [nyj] and Shi [shr], 50% with Lega-Shabunda [lea]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.51). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hungana
[hum] Kwilu province: Bulungu-Kikwit territory. 400. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Huana, Hungaan, Hunganna, Kihungana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Mbala-Hunganna (H.42).

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Joba
[job] Sud-Kivu province: Uvira territory, north and northwest of Uvira. 10,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kijoba, Kivira, Loba, Vira. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.631).

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Kabwari
[kcw] Sud-Kivu province: Fizi territory. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bwari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.56).

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Kaiku
[kkq] Ituri province: Mambasa territory, Babombi collectivité; Nord-Kivu province: northern border. 13,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikaiku, Kaiko. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Bhele and Bila, 70% with Komo [kmw], 56% with Bera [brf], 20%–25% with Mbo [zmw], Ndaka [ndk], and Budu [buu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.312). Comments: The people are considered Bila.

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Kakwa
[keo] Haut-Uele province: Faradje territory; Ituri province: Aru territory, north of Aru. 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bari Kakwa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari. Comments: Christian.

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Kaliko
[kbo] Ituri province: north Aru territory, along South Sudan border. 7,500 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaliko-Ma’di, Keliko, Ma’di, Maditi. Dialects: Didi, Dogo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central. Comments: Dogo dialect is more like Sudanese Kaliko [kbo].

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Kango
[kty] Bas-Uélé province: Uélé river banks and tributaries. 5,900 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Likango. Dialects: Bomokandi, Uélé. Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Pagibete [pae], 66% with Ngelima [agh], 75%–80% with Bwa [bww], 60% with Lika [lik]. The Bomokandi dialect has 60%–65% with Bwa [bww] and Pagibete [pae], 68% with Lika [lik], 58% with Ngelima [agh]. Both dialects have 50% with Bali [bcp] and Komo [kmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.403). Comments: A pidginized language. Possibly a cover term for a variety of dialects spoken by fishermen, called Bakango. Different from Kango [kzy], a pygmy language spoken among the Bali.

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Kango
[kzy] Tshopo province: Bafwasende territory, Bakundumu and Bemili collectivités. 2,000 (1998 T. Harvey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dikango, Kango Pygmy, Kikango, Likango, “Dibatchua” (pej.), “Kibatchua” (pej.). Dialects: 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 78% with Komo [kmw], 72% with Bila [bip], 60% with Bali [bcp], 50% with Lika [lik]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.211). Comments: The language is evidently a combination of Komo and Bali, with some borrowings from the Bila-based pygmy language. Different from the riverine Kango [kty] to the north, who are fishermen. Those who attend school complete standard 1 or 2 classes. Traditional religion.

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Kanu
[khx] Nord-Kivu province: Walikale territory, Kabunga area; some in Sud-Kivu province. 3,500 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaanu, Kano, Likanu. Dialects: Probably a dialect of Lega-Shabunda [lea]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.251).

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Kanyok
[kny] Lomami province: Mwene-Ditu territory, between Bushimaie and Luembe rivers. 200,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kanioka, Kanyoka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.32).

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Kaonde
[kqn] Haut-Katanga province: west; Lualaba province: east Kolwezi territory. 36,000 (1995). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chikahonde, Chikaonde, Kahonde, Kawonde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Kaonde (L.41).

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Kari
[kbj] North Bas-Uele province: scattered north of Uele river. 1,000. May be nearly extinct (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kare, Li-Kari-Li. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.301).

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Kela
[kel] Sankuru province: Lomela territory. 180,000 (1972 D. Barrett et al.). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikela, Lemba, Okela. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.75). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kele
[khy] Tshopo province: Isangi territory, on Lomami and Congo rivers. 160,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ekele, Kili, Likelo, Lokele, Yakusu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.55). Comments: Distinct from Kele [keb] (Dikele) of Gabon. Ethnic groups: Lileko, Mbooso, Yalikoka, Yaokandja, Yawemba. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kete
[kcv] Kasai-Central province: northeast of Mweka; Lomami province: south. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ciket, Kikete, Lukete, Tshikete. Dialects: Kete (East Kete), Kete-Kuba (North Kete), Kete-Lulua (Southwest Kete). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songe (L.21).

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Kinyarwanda
[kin] Nord-Kivu province: Rwanda border lakes area; Sud-Kivu province: west of Bujumbura. 250,000 (UBS). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ruanda, Rwanda. Dialects: Bwisha (Kinyabwisha), Mulenge (Kinyamulenge), Twa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.61). Comments: Dialects may need separate literature. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kituba
[ktu] Kinshasa and Kwango provinces. 5,000,000, all users. L1 users: 4,200,000 (1990 UBS). L2 users: 800,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Bas-Congo, Bandundu regions (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Alternate Names: Kibulamatadi, Kikongo, Kikongo Commercial, Kikongo Simplifié, Kikongo-Kituba, Kikongo-Kutuba, Kileta. Autonym: Kikongo ya leta, Kituba. Dialects: Ikeleve, Western Kituba, Eastern Kituba. A creole based on the Kikongo dialect spoken in Manianga area (Bas-Congo), but unintelligible to Kikongo speakers of any of the other Kikongo dialects. Influenced by Lingala [lin], French [fra], restructured Swahili [swh], Portuguese [por], and other local dialects. Similar to Kituba [mkw] (Munukutuba) of Congo. Classification: Creole, Kongo based.

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Komo
[kmw] Maniema province: Lubutu and Punia territories; Nord-Kivu province: Walikale; Tshopo province: Bafwasende territory, Opienge. Lubutu is center. 400,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kikomo, Kikumo, Kikumu, Kikuumu, Kumo, Kumu, Kuumu. Dialects: No identified dialects, but speech varieties have the following differences: up to 10% lexical differences, in comparison with the reference lexicon as found in Lubutu. Most noticeable phonological variation: lambdacism. Most noticeable relational word variation: shape of the alienable possession marker. Lexical similarity: 80% with Bhele [bhy], 70% with Bila [bip], 58% with Bera [brf], 48% with Bwa [bww], 46% with Bali [bcp], Lika [lik], and Pagibete [pae], 30% with Lingala [lin], Lega-Shabunda [lea], and Budu [buu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.23). Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kongo
[kon] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 5,688,500 Status: Comments: Includes: Koongo [kng], Laari [ldi] (Congo), San Salvador Kongo [kwy].

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Kongo, San Salvador
[kwy] Kongo Central province: Congo river area below Kinshasa. 537,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Congo, Iwoyo, Kikongo, Kikoongo, Kisikongo. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Kongo [kon]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16).

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Konzo
[koo] Nord-Kivu province: west slope Ruwenzori Mountains. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Konjo. Dialects: Sanza (Ekisanza). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo-Ndandi (D.41). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koongo
[kng] Kinshasa province; Kongo Central province: Mbanza Manteke area; Fioti north of Boma, and scattered along Congo River from Brazzaville to its mouth. 8,000,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo, all users. L1 users: 3,000,000 (1982 UBS). L2 users: 5,000,000. Total users in all countries: 10,016,500 (as L1: 5,016,500; as L2: 5,000,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Alternate Names: Congo, Kikongo, Kongo. Autonym: Kikoongo, Koongo. Dialects: South Kongo, Cataract, Central Kongo (Manyanga, Mazinga), West Kongo (Fiote, Fioti), Bwende (Buende, Sonde), East Kongo (Ntandu, Santu), South East Kongo (Nkanu, Pende, Zoombo), Nzamba (Dzamba). Part of Kongo subgroup. Other languages of the Kongo group are sometimes regarded as dialects of Koongo (see entries for Beembe [beq], Doondo [dde], Kunyi [njx], Vili [vif], Munukutuba [mkw], and Kituba [ktu]). In Angola, Ndingi and Mboka dialects may be separate languages. A member of macrolanguage Kongo [kon]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16). Comments: Fioti also spoken by Buende and Vili peoples. Christian.

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Kpala
[kpl] Nord-Ubangi province: Bosobolo territory; Sud-Ubangi territory: Libenge territory, scattered. 3,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbakpwa, Kpwaala, Kwala. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Monzombo [moj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo. Comments: Different from Kpala which is a dialect of Gbaya [krs] of Sudan.

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Kusu
[ksv] Lomami province: west; Maniema province: southwest corner, Kibombo territory. 26,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fuluka, Kikusu, Kongola, Kutsu, Lokutsu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.72).

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Kwami
[ktf] Maniema and Nord-Kivu provinces: between Kasese and Walikale. 400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kikwame, Kikwami, Kwame. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Nyanga [nyj], 68% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 66% with Kanu [khx] and Enya [gey], 61% with Mituku [zmq], 57% with Zimba [zmb], 55% with Bembe [bmb], 52% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], 49% with Hunde [hke] and Shi [shr], 48% with Buyu [byi], 47% with Tembo [tmv], 46% with Nande [nnb], 41% with Lengola [lej], 34% with Komo [kmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.251). Comments: More influence from Lega than from Komo.

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Kwese
[kws] Kwilu province: west of Kikwit. 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kikwese, Kwezo, Pindi, Ukwese. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Pende (L.13).

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Lala-Bisa
[leb] Haut-Katanga province: extreme southeast corner. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ambo (Bambo, Kambonsenga), Luano, Swaka, Wulima, Lala (Ichilala), Bisa (Ichibisa, Wiza). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lala-Bisa-Lamba (M.51).

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Lalia
[lal] Tshuapa province: Ikela territory, Loile, Lofume, Lokina, Tshwapa, and Tumbenga collectivités, Yalosaka is center. Some in Tshopo province. 55,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo-Nkundo (C.62). Comments: Distinct from Mongo.

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Lamba
[lam] Haut-Katanga province: southeast corner, Lubumbashi area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chilamba, Ichilamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lala-Bisa-Lamba (M.54).

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Langbashe
[lna] Nord-Ubangi province: Bosobolo territory, along Ubangi river, Bada, Banga, Boduna, Sidi, and Zimango villages, scattered. 3,000 (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langbase, Langbashi, Langbasi, Langbwasse, Langwasi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central.

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Lega-Mwenga
[lgm] Sud-Kivu province: Mwenga territory. 44,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ileka Ishile, Ishile, Isile, Kilega, Kirega, Lega-Ntara, Leka-Shile, Leka-Sile, Rega, Shile. Dialects: Iyoko, Ibanda, Isopo, Lusenge, Bilembo-Mango, Mizulo. Speakers say Lega-Shabunda [lea] and Bembe [bmb] are difficult to understand. Lexical similarity: 96%–88% among dialects; 76%–84% with Bembe [bmb]; 67%–81% with Lega-Shabunda [lea]; 60% with Buyu [byi]; 50% with Zimba [zmb], Enya [gey], and Mituku [zmq]; 45% with Nyanga [nyj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.25).

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Lega-Shabunda
[lea] Maniema and Sud-Kivu provinces: Pangi and Shabunda territories; Nord-Kivu province: southwest. 400,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Igonzabale, Ileka-Igonzabale, Kilega, Kirega, Lega, Lega-Malinga, Leka-Igonzabale, Rega. Dialects: Kigala, Kigyoma, Liliga, Kisede, Kinyabanga, Kinyamunsange (Pangi). Kanu [khx] is probably a dialect with 92% reported similarity. Lexical similarity: 67%–81% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm]; 65% with Kwami [ktf]; 60% with Bembe [bmb]; 55% with Budu [buu], Mituku [zmq], and Enya [gey]; 50% with Zimba [zmb], Nyanga [nyj], and Hunde [hke]; 45% with Nande [nnb]; 30% with Komo [kmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.251). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lele
[lel] Kasai province: west edge Ilebo and Tshikapa territories; extreme east Kwilu province. 26,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bashilele, Usilele. Dialects: None known. Comprehension of Wongo [won]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushoong (C.84). Comments: Different from Lele [lln] of Chad.

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Lendu
[led] Ituri province: Djugu territory, west and northwest of Lake Albert. 750,000 (1996 SIL). Total users in all countries: 768,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bale, Baledha, Balendru, Baletha, Batha, Bbadha, Bbaledha, Hema-Nord, Kihema-Nord, Kilendu. Autonym: Ndrulo. Dialects: Djadha (Jidha), Tadha, Pidha, Ddralo (Ddradha), Njawlo (Njawdha). Tadha is standard dialect. Djadha is largest and is used for literature. Jidha is the variety of the Bagegere (Northern Hema) who have adopted Lendu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu. Comments: Distinct from the Bale dialect of Ngombe [ngc]. Christian.

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Lengola
[lej] Maniema province: Lubutu and Punia territories; Tshopo province: Ubundu territory. Lualaba river area between Opienge, Lowa, and a point called ‘Km 100’ on Kisangani-Lubutu road. 100,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kilengola, Lengora. Dialects: 2 dialects which differ in pronunciation. Lexical similarity: 40% with Enya [gey] and Mituku [zmq]; 35%–40% with Budu [buu] and Komo [kmw]; 30%–35% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], Lega-Mwenga [lgm], and Zimba [zmb]; 25%–30% with Bembe [bmb], Buyu [byi], and Bali [bcp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Mbole-Enya (D.12). Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Lese
[les] Haut-Uele province: Watsa territory; Ituri province: Djugu, Irumu, and Mambasa territories; Nord-Kivu province: border enclave north of Beni. 50,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balese, Lesa, Lesse, Lissi, Mbuti, Walese, Walisi. Dialects: Lese Karo, Arumbi (Upstream Lese), Ndese (Lese Dese), Vukutu (Obi, Vonkutu), Fare. Reportedly similar to Mamvu [mdi], Bendi [bct], Mangbutu [mdk], and Efe [efe]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Libinza
[liz] Equateur province: north Bomongo territory, Boniange and Monia villages on Mwanda and Ngiri rivers; on islands as far as Bomongo; Sud-Ubangi province: Kungu territory. 10,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Binza, Libindja, Libinja. Dialects: Monia, Boniange, Kutu. Dialects or closely related languages: Balobo (Likila) [lie] and Ndobo [ndw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.321). Comments: Distinct from the Binza (Libinja) dialect of Ligenza [lgz].

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Ligenza
[lgz] Bas-Uele province: Aketi territory (Benza dialect); Mongala province: small areas in Bumba territory. 43,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Digenja, Gendja, Gendza-Bali, Ligendza. Dialects: Bokoy, Elowa, Benza (Binja, Binza, Libenza, Libindja, Libinja), Bolupi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.414).

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Lika
[lik] Haut-Uele province: Rungu territory, Mongomasi collectivité; Wamba territory, Balika-Toriko collectivité. 60,000 (1989 SIL). 57,000 in Wamba Territory, 3,000 in Rungu Territory. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kilika, Kpongo, Liko, Mabiti, Maliko, Toriko. Dialects: Likó (Ikó), Lilikó, Liliká (Liká). Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with Bomokandi Kango [kty]; 55%–60% with Pagibete [pae], Bwa [bww], and Uélé Kango [kty]; 52% with Bali [bcp]; 51% with Ngelima [agh]; 46% with Komo [kmw]; 40% with Bhele [bhy], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf]; 30% with Budu [buu]; 25% with Lega languages and Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.201). Comments: 2 secondary schools, 15 primary schools, but Lika is not used in the schools. Christian, Muslim.

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Likila
[lie] Equateur province: Makanza town area, Congo river north bank. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balobo, Bangela. Dialects: Dialect or closely related language to Libinza [liz] or Baloi [biz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.31).

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Lingala
[lin] Widespread in Bas-Uele, Equateur, Haut-Uele, Kinshasa, Mai-Ndombe, Mongala, Nord-Ubangi, Orientale, Sud-Ubangi, and Tshopo provinces. 2,040,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 2,256,710. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in northwestern regions (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Developed as a trade language around 1900 about halfway between Kinshasa and Kisangani. It then spread along the river, ultimately becoming entrenched in Kinshasa, where it has become the L1 of most people. Alternate Names: Ngala. Autonym: Lingala. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lusengo [lse] and Bangala [bxg]. Lexical similarity: 33% with Bobangi [bni]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.30).

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Lobala
[loq] Equateur province: Bomongo territory, Dongo northeast road to Mokusi village; Dongo road south following Ubangi river, and forest south and west; Sud-Ubangi province: Kungu territory. 60,000 (2000 D. Morgan). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Poko (Iboko), South Lobala, Tanda, Likoka. Reportedly most similar to Bomboma [bws]. Lexical similarity: 65% with Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.16).

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Logo
[log] Haut-Uele province: Faradje territory, and Watsa town. 210,000 (1989 SIL). 100,000 Ogambi. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Logoti. Dialects: Ogambi (Northern Logo, Ogamaru), Doka, Lolya, Obilebha (Obelebha, Obileba), Bhagira (Bagela), Bari (Bari-Logo, Bariti). A dialect subgroup, with Lolya as central. Reportedly similar to Avokaya [avu] and Omi [omi]. Avokaya in the northern Ogambi Area, may be more similar to Logo [log] than to Avokaya in Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lombi
[lmi] Nord-Kivu province: northwest; Tshopo province: Bafwasende territory, Barumi and Bekeni collectivités, Bangolu, Banguruye, and Opienge areas. 12,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lumbi, Odyalombito, Rombi, Rumli. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mangbetu [mdj], but not as close as Mangbetu dialects are to each other. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu. Comments: Different than the Lombi dialect of Basa [bzw] in Cameroon.

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Lombo
[loo] Tshopo province: Isangi area, both sides of Congo river. 10,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Olombo, Turumbu, Ulumbu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.54). Comments: Reportedly readily understand Kele [khy].

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Lonzo
[lnz] Kwango province: Kenge territory. 300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.31).

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Luba-Kasai
[lua] Kasai-Oriental; Kasai province: southeastern third; Sankuru province. 7,000,000, all users. L1 users: 6,300,000 (1991 UBS). L2 users: 700,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Kasai Region (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Alternate Names: Bena-Lulua, Ciluba, Luba-Lulua, Luva, Western Luba. Autonym: Tshiluba. Dialects: Lulua, Luluwa, West Luba. Significant dialect differences between East Kasai region (Baluba people) and West Kasai region (Bena Lulua people). Reportedly similar to Hemba [hem]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.31). Comments: Christian.

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Luba-Katanga
[lub] Haut-Lomami province; Sankuru province: southeast. 1,510,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kiluba, Luba-Shaba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.33).

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Lugbara
[lgg] Ituri province: Aru territory, 6 collectivités. 840,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: High Lugbara, Lugbarati. Dialects: Zaki, Abedju-Azaki, Lu, Aluru, Nio, Otsho. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central. Comments: Aluru reportedly influenced by Ndo [ndp]; Nio and Otsho dialects are similar to Uganda Lugbara. Christian.

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Luna
[luj] Sankuru province: Lusambo territory. 50,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inkongo, Kuba, Luna-Inkongo, Northern Luba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songe (L.24).

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Lunda
[lun] Kwango province: southeast, Kahemba territory; Lualaba province. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chilunda. Dialects: Lunda Ndembu, Lunda Kalunda, Lunda Kambove. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.52).

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Lusengo
[lse] Equateur province: Makanza territory; Mongala province: Bumba and Lisala territories, Congo river area. 42,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Losengo. Dialects: Kangana, Iliku (Eleko, Eleku, Leko, Leku, Loleko), Limpesa (Mpesa), Lipoto (Ingundji, Kele, Pfoto, Poto, Upoto), Bumwangi, Busu Djanga, Empesa Poko, Esumbu, Kunda, Kumba, Lusengo Poto, Mongala Poto, Ngundi, Mongo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.36).

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Lwalu
[lwa] Kasai-Central province: Luiza territory. 21,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lwalwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songe (L.221).

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Ma
[msj] Haut-Uele province: north of Niangara, near Kapili river. 4,700 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amadi, Madi, Madyo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba.

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Mabaale
[mmz] Equateur province: Ngiri river area. 42,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lomabaale, Mabale, Mbali. Dialects: Bembe, Lipanja, Banza, Mbinga, Lobo (Balobo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.311).

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Mamvu
[mdi] Haut-Uele province: Watsa territory, west and southwest of Watsa. 60,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Autonym: Tengo. Dialects: Amengi, Mamvu (Momfu, Momvu). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Different from Efe [efe]. Possibly some in Uganda.

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Mangbetu
[mdj] Bas-Uele province: Poko territory; Haut-Uele province: Niangara, Rungu, Wamba, and Watsa territories; Tshopo province: northeast corner of Banalia territory. Haut-Uele province: Wamba territory (Aberu dialect); Tshopo province: Banalia territory (Popoi dialect). 620,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Amangbetu, Kingbetu, Mambetto, Mangbettu, Nemangbetu. Dialects: Aberu, Meje (Medje, Meegye), Mangbetu, Makere, Malele, Popoi. Medje dialect has most speakers, and is most widely understood. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu.

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Mangbutu
[mdk] Haut-Uele province: Watsa territory, south of Kibali river and east of Moto river. 15,000 (1991 SIL). 1,200 Andinai. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mangu-Ngutu, Mombuttu, Wambutu. Dialects: Andinai, Makutana, Angwe (Andali). Users of the Andinai dialect are separated from other users of Mangbutu by users of Lese [les]. The Andali are a clan speaking the Angwe dialect. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Christian.

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Mayeka
[myc] Nord-Ubangi province: border area with Central African Republic, Congo river vicinity. 21,000 (2004). Ethnic population: 25,500 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Part of subgroup with Nyanga-li [nyc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.307).

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Mayogo
[mdm] Haut-Uele province: Isiro area, mostly Rungu and Wamba territories. 100,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kiyogo, Maigo, Maiko, Majugu, Mayko, Mayugo. Dialects: Madimadoko, Madipia (Mabodese, Mabozo, Madjedje, Magbai). Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Bangba [bbe], 62% with Mündü [muh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mayogo-Bangba. Comments: Ethnic groups: Bakango, Dai (Day, Angai), Maambi, Mangbele. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mba
[mfc] Tshopo province: Banalia territory, Banjwade area. 36,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimanga, Kimbanga, Manga, Mbane. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba. Comments: Perhaps 45% of children are in school.

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Mbala
[mdp] Kwilu province: Bagata and Bulungu territories, between Kwango and Kwilu rivers. 200,000 (Nida 1972). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gimbala, Rumbala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Mbala-Hunganna (H.41).

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Mbandja
[zmz] Sud-Ubangi, Nord-Ubangi, and west Mongala provinces. 352,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 365,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbandza, Mbanja, Mbanza. Dialects: Kala, Gbado. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Southern.

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Mbesa
[zms] Tshopo province: north Yahuma territory, south of Congo river. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mobesa, Mombesa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.51).

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Mbo
[zmw] Ituri province: Mambasa territory, Bombo collectivité; some in Nord-Kivu province. 11,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Imbo, Kimbo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 87% with Ndaka, 78% with Budu, 77% with Vanuma, 76% with Nyali, 30% with Komo [kmw], 25% with Bhele [bhy], Kaiku [kkq], Bila [bip], Bera [brf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.334). Comments: Different from Mbo [mbo] of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Mbole
[mdq] Tshopo province: southwest of Kisangani; Tshuapa province: east. 100,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lombole. Dialects: Keembo, Nkimbe (Nkembe), Yangonda, Yaisu, Inja, Botunga, Yaamba, Yaikole. Reportedly similar to Mituku [zmq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Mbole-Enya (D.11). Comments: Apparently different from the Mbole dialect of Ombo [oml].

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Mfinu
[zmf] Kinshasa province. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Emfinu, Funika, Mfununga. Dialects: Ntsiam, Ntswar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.83).

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Mituku
[zmq] Tshopo province: Ubundu territory, west of Lualaba river. 50,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinya-Mituku, Metoko. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mbole [mdq]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Enya [gey]; 55% with Lega-Shabunda [lea]; 50% with Nyanga [nyj], Lega-Mwengac [lgm], Bembe [bmb], Buyu [byi], and Zimba [zmb]; 40% with Lengola [lej]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Mbole-Enya (D.13).

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Moingi
[mwz] Tshopo province: Yahuma territory, south of Congo river, opposite Basoko town. 4,200 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified.

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Mongo-Nkundu
[lol] Equateur province: south half; Mai-Ndombe province: northeast; Tshuapa province: west half. 400,000 (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lomongo, Mongo. Dialects: Mpama, Wangata, Panga (Acitu, Buli, Ipanga, South Nkundo, Titu), Bukala (Kala), Yalima (Yailima, Yajima), Kutu (Bakutu), Ekonda Mongo (Lomongo), Longo (Belo, Bolongo), Nkundo (Lolo, Lonkundo, Lonkundu, Nkundu), Ntomba-Inongo, Ntomba-Bikoro, Konda (Bosanga-Ekonda, Ekonda, Lokonda, Lokwala), Longombe (Ngombe-Lomela, Ngome à Múná), Bokote, Booli, Bosaka, Ekota, Emoma, Ikongo (Lokalo-Lomela), Iyembe, Lionje (Nsongo, Ntomba), Yamongo, Mbole (Bosanga-Mbole, Lwankamba, Mangilongo, Nkengo, Yenge, Yongo), Nkole. Dialect or language subgroup: Lalia [lal], Mongo-Nkundu, Ngando, and Ombo [oml]. Longombe dialect, spoken along Boende-to-Wema road, is reportedly most similar to the Bakutu dialect. Ntomba-Inongo, Ntomba-Bikoro, and Konda dialects may be separate languages. Konda is in southern Equateur province and in Mai-Ndombe province, Kiri territory. In Mbandaka, they call their dialect, Lonkundo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo-Nkundo (C.61).

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Mono
[mnh] Nord-Ubangi province: Bosobolo territory; Sud-Ubangi province: some in Libenge territory. Bili is center. 65,000 (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amono. Dialects: Bili, Bubanda, Galaba, Kaga, Mpaka. Reportedly most similar to Togbo-Vara Banda [tor] and Gobu [gox], but quite different ethnically from Togbo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Monzombo
[moj] Sud-Ubangi province: Ubangi river east bank, south of Libenge. 5,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Monjombo, Mono-Jembo, Monzumbo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo.

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Mpuono
[zmp] Kwilu province: Idiofa territory. 165,000 (Nida 1972). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Mpuono, Mpuun (Ambuun, Gimbunda, Kibunda, Kimbuun, Mbunda, Mbuun). Reportedly similar to Yansi [yns]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.84). Comments: Different from Mbunda [mck] of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola in Chokwe-Luchazi group.

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Mündü
[muh] Haut-Uele province: north and northeast of Faradje. 2,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mondo, Mountou, Mundo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mundu.

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Mvuba
[mxh] Nord-Kivu province: Beni territory, Oicha area. 5,100 (2000). Total users in all countries: 7,980. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bambuba, Bamvuba, Mbuba, Mvuba-A, Obiye. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lese [les]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe.

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Nande
[nnb] Ituri province: southeast; Nord-Kivu province: mainly Beni and Lubero territories. 903,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banande, Bayira, Kinande, Kinandi, Nandi, Ndande, Ndandi, Northern Nande, Orundande. Dialects: Nande, Kumbule (Ekikumbule), Mate (Ekimate), Tangi (Ekitangi), Sanza (Ekisanza), Shu (Ekishu), Ekisongoora (Nyangala, Songola), Swaga (Ekikira, Ekiswaga), Yira (Ekiyira). Lexical similarity: 75% with Konzo [koo]; 65% with Hunde [hke]; 55% with Tembo [tmv] and Shi [shr]; 45% with Nyoro [nyo], Nyanga [nyj], and Lega-Shabunda [lea]; 40% with Talinga-Bwisi [tlj]; 30% with Bhele [bhy]; 25% with Amba [rwm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo-Ndandi (D.42). Comments: The Konzo (Bakonzo) in Uganda and Nande (Banande) in Democratic Republic of the Congo feel very much one people, the Bayira. They believe they originate from the Ruwenzori Mountains; the mountains belong to them and they to the mountains. This plays a very important role in their traditions and self-image. Christian.

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Ndaka
[ndk] Ituri province: Mambasa territory, Bandaka collectivité, along Bunia to NiaNia road. 25,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Indaaka, Ndaaka. Dialects: Only 1 dialect. Lexical similarity: 87% with Mbo [zmw]; 85% with Budu [buu]; 76% with Vanuma [vau]; 73% with Nyali [nlj]; 30% with Komo [kmw]; 22% with Bhele [bhy], Kaiku [kkq], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.333). Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ndo
[ndp] Ituri province: Aru and Mahagi territories, south of Lowa river, west and northwest of Djalasiga. Oke’bu dialect on Uganda border. 100,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ke’bu, Kebutu, Ndu, Oke’bu. Dialects: Avari (Avare, Avere, Aviritu), Oke’bu, Membi (Meembi, Membitu, Mombi, Ndo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe. Comments: Christian.

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Ndobo
[ndw] Equateur province: between Bomongo and Congo rivers. 10,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ndoobo. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Baloi [biz] or Libinza [liz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.312).

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Ndolo
[ndl] Sud-Ubangi province: Budjala territory, Ndolo-Liboko collectivité; Moeko river, south of Budjala between Ndama and Bokala villages, and Lisombo and Tando villages. 8,000 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mosange, Ndoolo, Tando. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.36).

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Ndunga
[ndt] Mongala province: Lisala territory, 8 villages. 2,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bondonga, Modunga, Mondugu, Mondunga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mba [mfc] (Kimanga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba.

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Ngando
[nxd] Tshopo province; Tshuapa province: Maringa river area, north of Ikela. 220,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bongando, Longandu, Ngandu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo-Nkundo (C.63). Comments: Not related to Ngando [ngd] of Central African Republic.

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Ngbaka
[nga] Sud-Ubangi province: Gemena territory area, 850 villages. 1,010,000 (2000). 600,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 1,016,650. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ngbaka Gbaya, Ngbaka Minagende. Dialects: Dialect differences are minor. Related to Gbaya languages of Central African Republic and Cameroon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East. Comments: Ngbaka is a different language from Ngbaka Ma’bo [nbm]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ngbaka Ma’bo
[nbm] Sud-Ubangi province: Libenge territory, on the road north and south of Zongo town, and a belt north of Libenge. 11,000 (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bouaka, Bwaka, Gbaka, Gwaka, Ma’bo, Mbacca, Mbaka, Mbwaka, Nbwaka, Ngbaka Limba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka.

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Ngbandi, Northern
[ngb] Bas-Uele province: Bondo territory; Nord-Ubangi province: Businga, Mobayi-Mbongo, and Yakoma territories. 250,000 (2000 SIL). 75,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 250,290. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baza, Mongwandi, Ngwandi. Dialects: 2 dialects, about equal in size. Sango [sag] is derived from Ngbandi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi. Comments: Ethnic groups: Abasango, Bwato, Mbaati, and Nzomboy (Monjomboli). Christian.

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Ngbandi, Southern
[nbw] Sud-Ubangi province: Budjala, Kungu, and Libenge territories. 105,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mbati, Mongbandi, Mongwandi, Ngbandi-Ngiri, Ngbandi-Sud, Ngwandi. Dialects: None known. Different enough from Northern Ngbandi [ngb] that separate literature is needed. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi. Comments: Villages interspersed with Mbandja villages. Christian.

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Ngbee
[jgb] Haut-Uele province: scattered in Rungu, Niangara, Wamba, and Watsa territories. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Lingbe, Lingbee, Majuu, Mangbele. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.336).

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Ngbinda
[nbd] Nord-Ubangi province. 4,200 (2002). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bangbinda, Bungbinda, Ngminda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.303).

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Ngbundu
[nuu] Sud-Ubangi province: Libenge territory, north of Libenge, from Boyabo crossroads east to Budu and north to Oro; south of Libenge, mixed with Mbandja [zmz] and other language groups. 16,000 (1984 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Southwestern.

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Ngelima
[agh] Tshopo province: Banalia and Basoko territories. 13,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angba, Bangalema, Bangelima, Leangba. Dialects: Beo (Lebeo), Buru (Boro, Leboro), Tungu, Hanga. May be more than one language. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Bwa [bww], Kango [kty], and Pagibete [pae]; 50% with Lika [lik] and Komo [kmw]; 40% with Ngombe [ngc], the Benza dialect of Ligenza [lgz], and Budza [bja]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.45).

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Ngiti
[niy] Ituri province: Irumu territory, south of Bunia. 100,000 (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bindi, Dru, Druna, Kingeti, Kingiti, Lendu-Sud, Ngeti. Autonym: Ndruna. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu. Comments: Different from Bendi [bct].

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Ngombe
[ngc] Mongala province and adjacent parts of Sud-Ubangi and Equateur provinces. Widespread along both sides of the Congo River, possibly some in Tshopo province. 150,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lingombe. Dialects: Libale (Bale, Wiindza-Baali), Doko. Reportedly similar to Bwela [bwl] (Lingi). Lexical similarity: 78% with the Benza (Binja) dialect of Ligenza [lgz]; 40% with Lingala [lin], Pagibete [pae], and Ngelima [agh]; 37% with Bwa [bww]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.41). Comments: Different from Ngombe [nmj] in Central African Republic.

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Ngongo
[noq] Kasai province: Dekese territory. 4,080 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.31).

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Ngul
[nlo] Kwilu province: Kasaï river area north of Idiofa. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingul, Ngoli, Nguli, Ngulu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.861).

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Ngundu
[nue] Nord-Ubangi province. 5,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kpagua [kuw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Nkutu
[nkw] Sankuru province. 40,000 (Nida 1972). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bankutu, Nkuchu, Nkucu, Nkutshu. Dialects: Elembe, Hamba, Lokalo (Kalo), Kongola-Meno, Ngongo, Saka (Losaka). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.73). Comments: Descendants of the ancient Mongo empire. Traditional religion.

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Ntomba
[nto] Equateur province: near Lake Tumba; Mai-Ndombe province: Lake Mai-Ndombe area. 100,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lontomba, Luntumba, Ntomba-Bolia, Ntumba. Dialects: Imona, Mpongo, Nkole, Ntomba, Sakanyi (Lotsakani), Soko, Saw. Reportedly similar to Bolia [bli] (Bokoki). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.35).

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Nyali
[nlj] Ituri province: Djugu territory, Kilo collectivité. 43,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Huku, Linyali, North Nyali, Nyali-Kilo, Nyari. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Vanuma [vau], 76% with Mbo [zmw], 73% with Ndaka [ndk] and Budu [buu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.33). Comments: ‘Huku’ is reportedly a Hema term used for anyone who is not a Hema.

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Nyanga
[nyj] Nord-Kivu province: Walikale territory, Wanyanga collectivité. 150,000 (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inyanga, Kinyanga. Dialects: Inyanga, Ifuna, Ikumbure, Itiri. Dialects do not differ much. Itiri appears most divergent. The dialect around Bana-Bangi is reportedly best understood. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kwami [ktf]; 57% with Hunde [hke]; 54% with Kanu [khx]; 50% with Lega-Shabunda [lea] and Tembo [tbt]; 45% with Nande [nnb], Lega-Mwenga [lgm], and Bembe [bmb]; 42% with Shi [shr]; 40% with Buyu [byi] and Zimba [zmb]; 30% with Komo [kmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Nyanga (D.43). Comments: Different from Nyanga-li [nyc]. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nyanga-li
[nyc] Haut-Uele province: Watsa territory, southwest of Watsa. Between Isiro and Watsa, north of Mungbere (Gbati-ri dialect). 69,000 (2002). 21,000 Gbati-ri (2002). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Linyanga-le. Dialects: Gbati-ri (Gbote). Part of subgroup with Mayeka [myc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.305). Comments: Different from Nyanga [nyj].

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Nyindu
[nyg] Sud-Kivu province: west of Lake Kivu. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Many Nyindu consider themselves Lega-Mwenga [lgm], but Lega and Shi [shr] speakers consider them Shi. Their speech is reportedly a mixture of Lega-Mwenga [lgm] and Shi [shr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.501).

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Nzakara
[nzk] Bas-Uele province: northwest Bondo territory, on Central African Republic border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ansakara, N’sakara, Sakara, Zakara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara.

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Ombo
[oml] Maniema province: northwest of Kindu; some in Tshopo province. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hombo, Loombo, Songola. Dialects: Mbuli (Mbole). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.76). Comments: Mbole is apparently distinct from Mbole [mdq] in the Enya group.

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Omi
[omi] Ituri province: Aru territory, between Nzoro and Lowa rivers along Aru to Aba road. 91,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaliko-Omi. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Kaliko [kbo]. Previously considered a Kaliko dialect. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Pagibete
[pae] Mongala province: Bumba territory; Nord-Ubangi province: Businga and Yakoma territories. Nord-Ubangi province: along road south of Businga (Mongbapele dialect); Nord-Ubangi province: Yakoma territory, Butu, around Ngakpo on Dua river north side, across from Gumba (Momveda dialect); Mongala province: north Bumba territory, south of Butu and at Ndundu-Sana (Ndundusana dialect). 28,000 (2000 SIL). 6,000 Momveda, 4,500 Mongbapele. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Apagibete, Apagibeti, Apakabeti, Apakibeti, Pagabete. Dialects: Momveda, Mongbapele, Ndundusana (Egejo, Egezo, Egezon, Gezon). Lexical similarity: Ndundusana dialect 90% with Momveda and Mongbapele dialects; Momveda and Mongbapele has 80%, and Ndundusana dialect has 85% with Bwa [bww]. Dialects have 60%–75% with Kango [kzy], 60%–65% with Ngelima [agh], 55%–60% with Lika [lik], 46% with Komo [kmw], 40%–45% with Bali [bcp], 35%–40% with Ngombe [ngc] and Budza [bja], 30% with Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.401). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Pambia
[pmb] Bas-Uele province. 21,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Apambia. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Barambo-Pambia.

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Pelende
[ppp] Kwango province: Kenge territory. 8,400 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lonzo [lnz] and Ngongo [noq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.31).

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Phende
[pem] Kwilu province: Idiofa and Gungu territories, south of Kasai river; possibly in Kasai province. 420,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gipende, Giphende, Kipende, Pende, Pheende, Pindi, Pinji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Pende (L.11). Comments: Traditional religion.

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Poke
[pof] Tshopo province: Isangi territory, south of Congo river downstream from Kisangani. 46,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pfoke, Puki, Tofoke, Topoke, Tovoke. Dialects: Baluombila, Likolo, Liutwa, Lombooki. May be able to use Lokele [khy] literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.53). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ruund
[rnd] Lomami province: small border area south; Lualaba province: west. 153,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 251,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiluwunda, Lunda Kambove, Lunda-Kamboro, Luunda, Luwunda, Muatiamvua, Northern Lunda, Uruund. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.53).

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Sakata
[skt] Mai-Ndombe province: Inongo, Kutu, and Mushie territories, Lukenie river, and Semendua area. 75,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisakata, Lesa, Odual, Saka. Dialects: Sakata, Djia (Dia, Dja, Kidjia, Wadia), Bai (Kibai, Kibay), Tuku (Batow, Ketu). Descendants of the ancient Mongo empire. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.34).

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Salampasu
[slx] Kasai-Central province: southest, east of Luiza. 60,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chisalampasu. Dialects: Luntu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.51).

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Samba
[smx] Kwango province: north Kasongo Lunda territory. 4,200 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shankadi, Tsaam, Tsamba, Usamba. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Holu [hol]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Pende (L.12).

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Sanga
[sng] Haut-Katanga province: north of Likasi, dispersed in Mitwaba and Pweto territories; Lualaba province: Lubudi territory. 431,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Garengaze, Kisanga, Luba-Garenganze, Luba-Sanga, Southern Luba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.35).

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Sango
[sag] Nord-Ubangi province: extreme north border on Oubangui river. Few in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Sangho. Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based. Comments: Non-indigenous. A rapidly spreading language derived from Ngbandi [ngb] with loans from Bantu languages and French [fra].

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Seba
[kdg] Haut-Katanga province: Kasenga territory. 167,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kunda, Sewa, Shishi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lala-Bisa-Lamba (M.55). Comments: Distinct from Kunda dialect of Lusengo [lse], the Kunda [kdn] of Zimbabwe and Mozambique in Senga-Sena group, the Kunda dialect of Chichewa [nya], and Konda [lol] dialect or language in Mongo group.

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Sengele
[szg] Mai-Ndombe province: west of Lake Mai-Ndombe. 17,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kesengele, Sengere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.33).

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Sere
[swf] Bas-Uele province: northeast of Ango, among the Zande [zne]. 2,500. Total users in all countries: 2,528. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Basili, Basiri, Chere, Serre, Shaire, Shere, Sheri, Sili, Siri. Dialects: Reportedly most similar to Ndogo [ndz] and Tagbu [tbm]. Slight dialect differences in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Central African Republic. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere.

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Shi
[shr] Sud-Kivu province: north, west, and south of Bukavu. 654,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mashi, Nyabungu. Dialects: Lindja, Hwindja (Lwindja), Ziba, Longe-Longe. Lexical similarity: 70% with Havu [hav] and Tembo [tbt], 57% with Hunde [hke], 55% with Nande [nnb], 44% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 42% with Nyanga [nyj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.53). Comments: Different from Mashi [mho] of Zambia.

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So
[soc] Tshopo province: north of Basoko. 6,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eso, Gesogo, Heso, Soa, Soko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Soko-Kele (C.52).

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Sonde
[shc] Kwango province: Feshi territory. 96,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kilua, Kisonde, Kisoonde, Soonde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.321). Comments: ‘Kilua’ may also be a name of the language.

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Songe
[sop] Lomami province: mainly Kabinda territory; Sankuru province: between Lualaba and Sankuru rivers; Tanganyika province: Kabolo and Kongolo territories; Kasai and Maniema provinces. 1,000,000 (Hoffman 1991). 150,000 in Western Kalebwe (1982 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalebwe, Kisonge, Kisongi, Kisongye, Luba-Songi, Lusonge, Northeast Luba, Songye, Yembe. Dialects: Western Kalebwe (Esambi Kipya, Songe), Eastern Kalebwe (Ikalebwe, Kilombeno Kibya), Mbagani. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songe (L.23). Comments: Ethnic subgroups are Bena Tshofwe, Bekalebwe, Beneki, Belande, Babembe, Balaa, Bambo, Befundu.

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Songo
[soo] Kwilu province: Bulungu-Kikwit territory. 13,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Itsong, Kisongo, Nsong, Ntsuo, Tsong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.85). Comments: Possibly the same as Songo [nsx] of Angola.

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Songomeno
[soe] Kasai province: Dekese territory. 50,000 (Barrett 1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hendo, Lohendo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushoong (C.82). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Songoora
[sod] Maniema province: Kindu, Punia, and Shabunda territories, small area in Sud-Kivu province. Maniema province: Kindu territory (Gengele dialect). 1,300 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Binja, Kesongola, Songola. Dialects: Gengele (Kegengele), North Binja. North and South Binja dialects may be separate languages. Gengele dialect is reportedly a creole based on Lega-Shabunda [lea], Kusu [ksv], and other languages (1991 W. Mwangati). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.24). Comments: Different from the Songoora (Edi Songoora) dialect of Nande [nnb].

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Suku
[sub] Kwango province: Moanza and Mwela areas west of Feshi. 50,000 (1980 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisuku. Dialects: None known. Classification uncertain. One report says not in the Yaka (H.30) subgroup, but in Kongo subgroup (H.10). Another says it is in Holu (K.10). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.32).

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Swahili, Congo
[swc] Widespread in Haut-Katanga, Haut-Lomami, Ituri, Lualaba, Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Sud-Kivu, and Tanganyika provinces. 9,101,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo, all users. L1 users: 1,000. L2 users: 9,100,000 (1991 UBS). Total users in all countries: 9,101,000 (as L1: 1,000; as L2: 9,100,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in eastern regions (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Alternate Names: Zaïre Swahili. Autonym: Kiswahili. Dialects: Ituri Kingwana, Lualaba Kingwana, Katanga Swahili, Kivu Swahili. Kingwana is a pidgin Swahili which functions sociolinguistically as a dialect. There are several regional dialects, with that of the formerly Arabized areas reportedly being most similar to Swahili of Kenya and Tanzania. Lexical similarity: 30% with Lingala [lin] and with the Lega group; 15%–20% with Bira-Huku group, Bali [bcp], and Lika [lik]. A member of macrolanguage Swahili [swa]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40).

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Taabwa
[tap] Tanganyika province: on Lake Tanganyika, south of Moba. 250,000 (Barrett 1982). Total users in all countries: 281,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ichitaabwa, Rungu, Taabua, Tabwa. Dialects: Shila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.41). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tagbu
[tbm] Scattered. 17,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tagba, Tagbo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Sere [swf] and Ndogo [ndz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere. Comments: Different from Togbo-Vara Banda [tor] (Tagbo) in Banda group.

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Talinga-Bwisi
[tlj] Nord-Kivu province: Beni territory, Butalinga county, Virunga National Park boundary, up to Uganda border. 30,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bwisi, Kitalinga, Lubwisi, Lubwissi, Mawissi, Olubwisi, Talinga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.102). Comments: Different from Bwisi [bwz] of Congo-Brazzaville and Gabon.

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Teke, Eboo
[ebo] Mai-Ndombe province: Mushie territory. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aboo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.74). Comments: Traditional religion.

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Teke, Ibali
[tek] Kinshasa and Mai-Ndombe provinces. 167,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 203,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bali, Eastern Teke, Ibali, Kiteke, Teke-Ibali. Dialects: Mosieno, Ngee (Esingee), Bali (Ambali, Teo, Tio, Tyo). Ngee dialect may be a distinct language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.75).

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Tembo
[tbt] Nord-Kivu and Sud-Kivu provinces: Kalehe territory. 150,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chitembo, Kitembo. Dialects: Tembo (Kitembo), Rhinyihinyi. No major dialect differences. Lexical similarity: 75% with Hunde [hke], 70% with Shi [shr], 55% with Nande [nnb], 50% with Nyanga [nyj], 45% with Lega Shabunda [lea]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Hunde (D.531). Comments: Different from Tembo [tmv] in Ngombe group and Tembo [mwn] (Tambo) in Nyika-Safwa group.

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Tembo
[tmv] Equateur province: Bomongo territory, 1 or 2 villages on Mongala river southwest of Akula; Sud-Ubangi province: Budjala territory, Bokele, Bosanga, and Libanza villages on Banga-Melo river; Sumba island. 5,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Litembo, Motembo. Dialects: Wide dialect variation may exist. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.371).

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Tetela
[tll] Maniema and Sankuru provinces; border areas of Haut-Lomami, Tshopo, and Tshuapa provinces. 750,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Otetela, Sungu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.71). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tiene
[tii] Mai-Ndombe province: Bolobo area on Congo river, inland savannah and forest. 24,500 (1977 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kitiene, Kitiini, Tende. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.81).

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Vanuma
[vau] Ituri province: Irumu territory, Tchabi collectivité; Nord-Kivu province. 6,700 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bambutuku, Bvanuma, Livanuma, Nyali-Tchabi, South Nyali. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Nyali [nlj]; 75% with Budu [buu], Ndaka [ndk] and Mbo [zmw]; 76% with Bila [bip]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.331).

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Wongo
[won] Kasai province: Ilebo and Tshikapa territories. 12,700 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakong, Gongo, Ndjembe, Tukkongo, Tukongo, Tukungo. Dialects: None known. Intelligible of Lele [lel]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushoong (C.85).

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Yaka
[yaf] Kwango province: Kasongo, Lunda, and Popokabaka territories. 700,000 (2000 SIL). Total users in all countries: 900,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iaka, Iyaka, Kiyaka. Dialects: Ngoongo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.31).

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Yakoma
[yky] Nord-Ubangi province. 10,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yamongeri
[ymg] Equateur province: south of Congo river. 13,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yamongiri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.36).

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Yango
[yng] Sud-Ubangi province: Kungu and Libenge territories, Gbendere village, Esobe river area. 3,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbendere. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Monzombo [moj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo.

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Yansi
[yns] Kwilu province: Bulungu-Kikwit territory, Loange river area. 100,000 (1997 S. Mufwene). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eyansi, Eyanzi, Kiyanzi, Yans, Yanzi. Dialects: Yeei (Yey), Mbiem (West Yansi), East Yansi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Tiene-Yanzi (B.85).

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Yela
[yel] Sankuru province; Tshuapa province: mainly Bokungu territory. 33,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boyela, Kutu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.74).

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Yombe
[yom] Kongo Central province: west in Mayombe forest. 669,000 (2002). Total users in all countries: 734,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bayombe, Ciyoombe, Kiombi, Kiyombe, Yoombe. Dialects: Mbala (Mumbala), Vungunya (Kivungunya, Yombe Classique). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16). Comments: Distinct enough from Koongo-Fioti [kng] to need separate literature. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yulu
[yul] Haut-Lomami province: near Kamina. 3,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Youlou. Dialects: Binga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Zande
[zne] Bas-Uele and northern Haut-Uele provinces. 730,000. Total users in all countries: 1,242,000 (as L1: 1,142,000; as L2: 100,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asande, Azande, Badjande, Bazenda, Pazande, Sande, Zandi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zimba
[zmb] Maniema province: Kasongo territory, Maringa and Mulu collectivités; small area in Sud-Kivu province. 120,000 (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyangwe. Dialects: South Binja, Binja (Soe, Sole), Semulu (Kisembombo, Nyembombo, Semolo), Semalinga, Kwange, Mamba (Kyenyemamba). Kwange and Mamba dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 55% with Bembe [bmb]; 50% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], Lega-Shabunda [lea], Buyu [byi], Mituku [zmq], and Enya [gey]; 40% with Nyanga [nyj]; 34% with Bangubangu [bnx]; 32% with Komo [kmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.26). Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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