Switzerland

Print
Arpitan
[frp] Valais, Fribourg (rural areas as Gruyère), and Vaud French cantons. 7,000 in Switzerland (1998). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Patois Dialects: Neuchâtelois, Savoyard, Valaisan, Vaudois. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern

More Information

French
[fra] West: Fribourg, Geneve, Jura, Neuchatel, and Vaud cantons. 1,490,000 in Switzerland (2000 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with Italian [ita] and Standard German [deu] on the federal level. Alternate Names: Français Dialects: Franche-Comtois (Fribourgois, Jurassien). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

More Information

German, Standard
[deu] 11 cantons and 6 half-cantons. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with Italian [ita] and French [fra] on the federal level. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German

More Information

German, Swiss
[gsw] Central, south central, north central, northeast, and east cantons. Also in Austria (Alemannic), France (Alsatian), Germany (Alemannic), Liechtenstein (Alemannic). 4,640,000 in Switzerland (2000 census). Population total all countries: 6,469,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alemanic, Alemannisch, Schwyzerdütsch Dialects: Appenzell, Basel, Bern (Bärndütsch), Graubuenden-Grisons (Valserisch), Lucerne, Obwald, St. Gallen, Wallis, Zurich. Most Swiss varieties are High Alemannisch and Highest Alemannisch (several in central Switzerland). Each canton has a separate variety, many mutually unintelligible. Only a few of 20–70 varieties are listed as dialects. Most similar to Schwäbian [swg] in south central Germany. Approximately 40% inherent intelligibility with Standard German [deu]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic

More Information

Italian
[ita] Ticino, Grisons, and Graubünden cantons. 471,000 in Switzerland (2000 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with French [fra] and Standard German [deu] on the federal level. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian

More Information

Lombard
[lmo] Central southeast, Ticino Canton, Mesolcina district, and Graubünden; 2 districts south of Saint Moritz. 303,000 in Switzerland (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Ticinese (Tessinian, Ticinees, Ticines, Ticino). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian

More Information

Romani, Sinte
[rmo] 21,000 in Switzerland (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Christian.

More Information

Romansch
[roh] Southeast borders, Grisons Canton, Surselva valley; Vorderrhein, Hinterrhein valley; Engadine, Val Mustair. Also in United States. 35,100 in Switzerland (2000 census). 1 canton. Population total all countries: 35,139. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory provincial language in Grisons Canton (2004, Grisons Cantonal Constitution, Article 3(1)). Alternate Names: Rhaeto-Romance, Rheto-Romance, Romanche, Romansh, Rumantsch Dialects: Puter (Upper Engadine), Surmiran (Albula), Sursilvan (Surselva, Vorderrhein), Sutsilvan (Hinterrhein), Vallader (Lower Engadine). Friulian [fur], Ladin [lld], and Romansch [roh] are separate languages (1978 R. Hall). Lexical similarity: 78% with Italian [ita] and French [fra]; 76% with Catalan [cat]; 74% with Spanish [spa], Sardinian [sdc], and Portuguese [por]; 72% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian Comments: Official written language in common use now, called Rumantsch Grischun.

More Information

Swiss-French Sign Language
[ssr] 1,000 (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Langage Gestuelle Dialects: Regional lexical variations in French area tied to specific schools. Local Swiss signs and imported French signs. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: French Sign Language [fsl] is used some in the French areas.

More Information

Swiss-German Sign Language
[sgg] 6,000 (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Natürliche Gebärde Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Some regional lexical variations in German areas tied to specific schools. Status of signing is improving. Strong oralist tradition in schools in German area.

More Information

Swiss-Italian Sign Language
[slf] 200 (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Status of signing is improving.

More Information

Walser
[wae] Ticino Canton, Bosco-Gurin; Wallis, Simplon; Graubünden, Obersaxen, Valsertal (Vals, Saint Martin), Safiental (Valendas, Versam, Tenna, Safien), Rheinwald (Medels, Nufenen, Splügen, Sufers, Hinterrhein, Avers), Schanfigg (Arosa, Langwies), Albula (Mutten, Schmitten, Wiesen), Landquart (Davos, Klosters, Furna, Says, Saint Antönien, Valzeina). 26 communities. Also in Austria, Italy, Liechtenstein. 10,000 in Switzerland (2004). Population total all countries: 22,780. Ethnic population: 21,900 (1980 C. Buchli). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Walscher Dialects: Similar to but different from Schwyzerdütsch [gsw] spoken in Wallis Canton in Switzerland. Different from Cimbrian [cim], Mocheno [mhn], or Bavarian [bar]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic

More Information