Switzerland

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Arpitan
[frp] Vaud, Neuchâtel, and Geneva cantons; also in Valais canton: de Monthey, Saint-Maurice, d’Entremont, d’Herens and de Sierre districts; Fribourg canton: de la Broye, de la Glane, de la Veveyse,de la Sarine and la Gruyere; Bern canton: Bernese Jura. 7,000 in Switzerland (1998). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Patois. Dialects: Savoyard, Neuchâtelois, Valaisan, Vaudois. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern.

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French
[fra] Fribourg, Geneva, Jura, Neuchâtel, and Vaud cantons. 1,820,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). L2 users: 3,450,000 in Switzerland (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with Italian [ita] and Standard German [deu] on the federal level. Alternate Names: Français. Dialects: Franc-Comtois (Fribourgois, Jurassien). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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German, Standard
[deu] 292,000 in Switzerland (2013 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with Italian [ita] and French [fra] on the federal level. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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German, Swiss
[gsw] Widespread. 4,490,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). Total users in all countries: 6,324,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alemanic, Alemannisch, Schwyzerdütsch. Dialects: Bern (Bärndütsch), Zurich, Lucerne, Basel, Obwald, Appenzell, Saint Gallen, Graubuenden-Grisons (Valserisch), Wallis. Most Swiss varieties are High Alemannisch and Highest Alemannisch (several in central Switzerland). Each canton has a separate variety. Only a few of 20–70 varieties are listed as dialects. Reportedly most similar to Schwäbian [swg] in south central Germany. Approximately 40% inherent intelligibility with Standard German [deu]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic.

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Italian
[ita] Ticino and Graubünden cantons. 666,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with French [fra] and Standard German [deu] on the federal level. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian.

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Lombard
[lmo] Ticino canton; Graubünden canton: Moesa, Maloggia, and Bernina districts, south of Saint Moritz. 303,000 in Switzerland (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ticinese (Tessinian, Ticinees, Ticines, Ticino). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] 21,000 in Switzerland (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Romanes. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Romansch
[roh] Graubünden canton: Surselva, Hinterrhein, Inn, and Maloja districts. 40,000 in Switzerland (2012 census). 1 canton. Total users in all countries: 40,039. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory provincial language in Grisons Canton (2004, Grisons Cantonal Constitution, Article 3(1)). Alternate Names: Rhaeto-Romance, Rheto-Romance, Romanche, Romansh, Rumantsch. Dialects: Vallader (Lower Engadine), Puter (Upper Engadine), Sursilvan (Surselva, Vorderrhein), Sutsilvan (Hinterrhein), Surmiran (Albula). Friulian [fur], Ladin [lld], and Romansch [roh] are separate languages (1978 R. Hall). Lexical similarity: 78% with Italian [ita] and French [fra]; 76% with Catalan [cat]; 74% with Spanish [spa], Sardinian [sdc], and Portuguese [por]; 72% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian. Comments: Official written language in common use now, called Rumantsch Grischun.

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Swiss-French Sign Language
[ssr] Scattered. Geneva and Vaud cantons; Neuchâtel canton: La Chaux-de-Fonds; Fribourg canton: Zion, Delémont, Morges, and Oron. 1,700 (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2002, Federal Parliament, Law on Equality for Disabled People). Alternate Names: Langage Gestuelle, Langue des signes française, Langue des signes suisse romande, LSF, LSF-SR. Dialects: Regional lexical variation tied to specific schools: Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel, Fribourg and Sion (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Similar to French Sign Language [fsl] (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Local Swiss signs and imported French signs. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: French Sign Language [fsl] is used some in the French areas. Taught as L2. 13,000 hearing signers (all three sign languages) in Switzerland, estimate based on participants in sign language classes (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 30 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Christian.

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Swiss-German Sign Language
[sgg] Scattered. 5,500 in Switzerland (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2002, Federal Parliament, Law on Equality for Disabled People). Alternate Names: Deutschschweizer Gebärdensprache, Deutschschweizerische Gebärdensprache, DGS, DSGS, Natürliche Gebärde. Dialects: Regional variation tied to specific schools: Basel, Bern, Lucerne, St. Gallen, Zurich (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Similar to sign language used in the southern parts of Germany. Borrowing from Swiss-French Sign Language [ssr]. (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Deaf children from the German cantons and the Rhaeto-Romansh areas are taught to read standard German [deu]; not the unwritten Swiss-German [gsw] or Rhaeto-Romansh [roh] that their parents speak. Some regional lexical variations in German areas tied to specific schools. Status of signing is improving. Strong oralist tradition in schools in German area. Taught as L2. 13,000 hearing signers (all three sign languages) in Switzerland, estimate based on participants in sign language classes. (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Christian.

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Swiss-Italian Sign Language
[slf] Scattered. Ticino and Graubünden cantons. 300 (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2002, Federal Parliament, Law on Equality for Disabled People). Alternate Names: Lingua dei segni della Svizzera italiana, Lingua dei Segni Italiana, LIS, LIS-SI. Dialects: None known. Two main varieties: Lugano, Bellinzona (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Similar to Italian Sign Language [ise]. Variety used around Bellinzona influenced by sign languages of immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, Lithuania and Poland. (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010) Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Taught as L2. 13,000 hearing signers (all three sign languages) in Switzerland, estimate based on participants in sign language classes (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 7 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Christian.

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Walser
[wae] Ticino canton: Bosco-Gurin; Valais canton: Simplon; Graubünden canton, Surselva, Hinterrhein, Prattigau-Davos, Plessur, and Albula districts; 26 communities. 10,000 in Switzerland (2004). Ethnic population: 21,900 (1980 C. Buchli). Total users in all countries: 22,780. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Walscher. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to but different from Schwyzerdütsch [gsw] spoken in Wallis Canton in Switzerland. Different from Cimbrian [cim], Mocheno [mhn], or Bavarian [bar]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic.

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