Côte d’Ivoire

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Abé
[aba] Lacs district: Bongouanou subprefecture; Lagunes district: Agboville subprefecture (except Krobou canton), Tiassale subprefecture, Abbe canton, 70 villages. 170,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abbey, Abbé, Abi. Dialects: Tioffo, Morie, Abbey-Ve, Kos (Khos). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Abidji
[abi] Lagunes district: Dabou and Sikensi subprefectures, Agboville area. 12 villages. 50,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abiji. Dialects: Enyembe, Ogbru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby. Comments: Christian.

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Abron
[abr] Zanzan distict: Bondoukou and Tanda subprefectures. 133,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bron, Brong, Doma, Gyaman. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Abure
[abu] Comoé district: Bonoua subprefecture; Lagunes district: Grand Bassam subprefecture; Abidjan. 55,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abonwa, Abouré, Abule, Akaplass, Ehie, Eyive, Ossouon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any] and Baoule [bci]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western. Comments: Christian.

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Adioukrou
[adj] Lagunes district: Dabou subprefecture. 49 villages. 100,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adjukru, Adyoukrou, Adyukru, Ajukru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Aizi, Aproumu
[ahp] Lagunes district: Dabou subprefecture, Allaba village; Jacqueville subprefecture, Attoutou A, Attoutou B, Bapo (Allaba B, Taboth), Koko, and Tefredji villages on Ebrié lagoon banks. 6,500 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Apro, Aproin, Aprou, Aproumu, Aprwe, Oprou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi. Comments: Ethnonym: Chicalé for Lélémrin (Tiagbamrin); Amaboué for Mobumrin; Akabu, Opro, Saptomrin, and Tchavamrin used in different Mobu and Lélé villages to refer to Apro; Ed-eyng by Adioukrou, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all the Aizi groups. Christian.

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Aizi, Mobumrin
[ahm] Lagunes district: Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon north bank, Abraco and Abraniamiambo villages. 2,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Ed-eyng, Ezibo, Frukpu, Mouin. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi. Comments: Christian.

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Aizi, Tiagbamrin
[ahi] Lagunes district: Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon banks, Attoutou B, Nigui-Assoko, Nigui-Saff, Tiagba, and Tiémié villages. 9,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Ed-eyng, Ezibo, Kropko, Lélémrin, Prokpo, Tiagba, Tiagbamrin. Dialects: None known. No intelligibility of Mobumrin Aizi [ahm], even though both are Kru languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi. Comments: Christian.

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Alladian
[ald] Lagunes district: Jacqueville subprefecture, plain between the coast and Ebrie lagoon. 21 villages. 23,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alladyan, Allagia, Allagian. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian. Comments: Christian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LSAF, LSAF Ivoirienne, LSCI, Langue des signes d’Afrique francophone, Langue des signes de Côte d’Ivoire, Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. As of 2015, LSAF is not officially recognized as a distinct language and would be considered a dialect of ASL, with influence from spoken and written French [fra] and local signs. The relationship of signing in Côte d’Ivoire to standard ASL in the United States and to LSAF in other francophone African countries has not been assessed. Further, there is significant variation within the country, again not systematically-assessed, and a variety of names used. Some people regard these names as referring to distinct languages, others as dialects of the same language. Some Deaf know more than one variety. There is also a local variety in the village of Bouakako, Hiré in southwestern Côte d’Ivoire. (2013 A. Tano).

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Anyin
[any] Comoé and Lagunes districts; Lacs district: Bongouanou, Daoukro, and M’bahiakro subprefectures; Zanzan district: Bondoukou and Tanda subprefectures. 620,000 in Côte d’Ivoire, all users. L1 users: 610,000 (1993 SIL). L2 users: 10,000. Total users in all countries: 686,400 (as L1: 676,400; as L2: 10,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agni, Anyi. Dialects: Anyin Sannvin (Sannvin, Sanvi), Abé, Ano, Bona, Bini, Barabo, Ndenye (Anyin Ndenye, Indenie), Juablin (Anyin Juablin, Djuablin). The Northern Anyin dialect area includes the Abé, Ano, Bona, Bini and Barabo dialects. The Central Anyin dialect are includes Ndenye and Juablin. Reportedly most similar to Baoulé [bci]. Also similar to Nzema [nzi] and Sehwi [sfw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Anyin Morofo
[mtb] Lacs district: Moronou area; Lagunes district: central, southern, and eastern departments. 300,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Morofo. Dialects: Anyin Alangua (Alangua). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: ‘Morofue’ refers to a Morofo speaker.

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Attié
[ati] Lacs district: southeast; Lagunes district: Adzopé, Affery, Agou, Akoupé, Alépé, Anyama, and Yakassé-Attobrou subprefectures. 381,000 (1993 SIL). 34,000 live in Abidjan. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akie, Akye, Atche, Atie, Atshe. Dialects: Naindin, Ketin, Bodin. Bodin dialect is the most prestigious and numerous. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Attie. Comments: Christian.

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Avikam
[avi] Gôh-Djiboua district: coast west of Tagbo Lagoon; Lagunes district: Grand Lahou coastal plain area, Avikam canton. 21,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Avekom, Brignan, Brinya, Gbanda, Kwakwa, Lahu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian. Comments: Christian.

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Bakwé
[bjw] Bas-Sassandra district: San Pedro, Sassandra, and Soubre prefectures. 10,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Defa, Deple, Dafa, Nigagba, Nyinagbi. Reportedly most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe. Comments: Christian.

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Bambara
[bam] Denguélé district: center and northeast; Savanes district: Tingréla department, Ségélon subprefecture; Malian diaspora in all major cities. 5,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bamako, Bamana, Bamanakan, Bamanankan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana. Comments: Muslim.

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Baoulé
[bci] Lacs, Lagunes, Gôh-Djiboua, Sassandra-Marahoué, Vallée du Bandama, Woroba, and Yamoussoukro regions. Widespread in the south. 3,010,000 (2013). Total users in all countries: 3,014,060. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baule, Baule-Ando, Bawule. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any]. Many subgroups, but all claim to understand the standard variety. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Largest ethnic group in Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Beng
[nhb] Lacs district: M’bahiakro subprefecture, northeast corner; Prikro subprefecture. 22 villages. 17,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben, Gan, Ngain, Ngan, Ngen, Ngin, Nguin. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bété, Daloa
[bev] Sassandra-Marahoué district: Daloa subprefecture. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daloua Bété, Northern Bété. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bété, Gagnoa
[btg] Bas-Sassandra district: some in north; Gôh-Djiboua district: Gagnoa subprefecture; Sassandra-Marahoué district: Sinfra subprefecture. 150,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Bété, Gagnoua-Bété, Shyen. Dialects: Nekedi, Zadie, Niabre, Kpakolo, Zebie, Gbadi (Badie, Gbadie). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bété, Guiberoua
[bet] Bas-Sassandra district: Soubre, Buyo, Gregbeu, and Ouaragahio subprefectures; Sassandra-Marahoué district: Daloua, Guiberoua, and Issia subprefectures; Gôh-Djiboua district. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Bété, Western Bété. Dialects: Soubré, Guiberoua. Reportedly most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western. Comments: Different from Bete [byf] of Nigeria. Christian, traditional religion.

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Beti
[eot] Comoé district: Grand Bassam subprefecture, Vitre I and Vitre II villages. 200 (Blench 1999b). Ethnic population: 3,180 (1988 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Eotile. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western. Comments: Christian.

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Birifor, Southern
[biv] Zanzan district: northeast corner. 4,310 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cerma
[cme] Savanes district: Ouangolodougou area, north of Ferkessedougou. 5 villages along main road to Banfora. 1,700 (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gouin, Guin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Daho-Doo
[das] Montagnes district: Tai area and south; Bas-Sassandra district: northwest. Doo are in 5 villages south of Guiglo. 4,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Although the Daho and Doo are considered Wè, their speech is not understood by other Wè. Greatest lexical similarity: at least 30%–80% with any Wè variety, 92% with Daho and Doo dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn.

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Dan
[dnj] Montagnes district: Biankouma, Danané, and Man prefectures, Liberian border area west of Touba. 19 villages. 1,300,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). 650,000 in Eastern Dan, 650,000 in western Dan. Total users in all countries: 1,534,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Da, Gio, Gio-Dan, Ya, Yacouba, Yakuba. Autonym: Dan. Dialects: Gweetaawu (Eastern Dan), Blowo (Western Dan). At least 38 subdialects. In Liberia speakers in Garplay understood Côte d’Ivoire Yacouba dialect recordings as follows: Danane, Koulinle, Kale: very well; Blosse: quite well; Bloundo: reasonably well; dialects east of Blouno: considerable difficulty (Bolli and Frick 1971). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Deg
[mzw] Zanzan district. 1,100 (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aculo, Buro, Degha, Janela, Mmfo, Mo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dida, Lakota
[dic] Gôh-Djiboua district: Lakota town area and several small areas; Lagunes district: south of Lake Taabo. 93,800 (1993 SIL). All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brabori, Dieko, Gabo, Satro, Ziki. Dialects: Vata. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida. Comments: Distinct from Yocoboué Dida [gud]. Traditional religion.

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Dida, Yocoboué
[gud] Gôh-Djiboua district: Guitry subprefecture, Guitry town area; Lagunes district: Tagbo Lagoon. 102,000 (1993 SIL). 7,100 Guitry, 94,500 Divo. All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Lozoua (Gakpa, Goudou, Guitry, Kagoué, Yocoboue, Yokouboué), Divo. Lakota Dida [dic] marginally intelligible with Yocoboué Dida. Guitry is prestigious. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida. Comments: More survey needed in Dida area. Christian, Muslim.

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Ebrié
[ebr] Urban Abidjan and Lagunes districts: Bingerville and Dabou subprefectures. 57 villages, with 27 in Abidjan. 75,900 (1988 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cama, Caman, Kyama, Tchaman, Tsama, Tyama. Dialects: None known. Not related to surrounding languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou. Comments: Christian.

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Ega
[ega] Gôh-Djiboua district: Diés canton, Borondoukou village near Gly. 2,500 (2001 B. Connell). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diés, Egwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Ega. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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French
[fra] 6,907,500 in Côte d’Ivoire, all users. L1 users: 17,500 (1988 census). L2 users: 6,890,000 (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 29). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Maasina
[ffm] 1,200 (1991). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gban
[ggu] Gôh-Djiboua district: Oume subprefecture, also area south of Laouda. 60,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gagou, Gagu, Kago, Sodua. Dialects: Boka, N’da, Bokabo, Touka. N’da dialect is central. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Glio-Oubi
[oub] Bas-Sassandra district: east bank of Cavally north of Tabou. 2,500 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Glio, Oubi, Ubi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Glio-Oubi. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Godié
[god] Bas-Sassandra district: Fresco and Sassandra subprefectures, Kotrohou canton; some in Gôh-Djiboua district. 26,400 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dadjriwalé, Godye. Dialects: Tiglu, Glibe, Kagbo, Dagli, Nugbo, Dlogo, Jluko, Nyago (Cinyaugogo), Koyo. The Koyo dialect may be more similar to a Dida language than to Godié [god]. Kagbo is the most widely understood dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Grebo, Southern
[grj] Bas-Sassandra district: near Liberia border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Seaside Grebo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Mainly refugees in Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion.

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Guébie
[gie] Gôh-Djiboua district: Gnagbodougnoa subprefecture, Dodougnoa, Gnagbodougnoa, Gnamagnoa, and Gragbalilie villages. 7,000 (2015 H. Sande). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Lakota Dida [dic]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida.

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Guro
[goa] Mainly Sassandra-Marahoué and Gôh-Djiboua districts: Bouaflé, Gouitafla, Oumé, Sinfra, Vavoua, and Zuénoula subprefectures; smaller areas in Lacs, Vallée du Bandama, and Woroba districts. 500,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baba, Dalo, Dipa, Gouro, Ku, Kweni, Kwéndré, Lo. Autonym: Golo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Hausa
[hau] Abidjan. 121,000. Ethnic population: 1,000,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Jeri Kuo
[jek] Savanes district: Korhogo area, 3 enclaves. 1,500 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Celle, Jeli Kuo. Dialects: None known. Related to Ligbi [lig] of Ghana and Tongon, an extinct blacksmith argot of the Djimini Senoufo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri.

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Jula
[dyu] Savanes and Zanzan districts; widespread in all major cities. 8,500,000 in Côte d’Ivoire, all users. L1 users: 1,500,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). L2 users: 7,000,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Total users in all countries: 12,486,000 (as L1: 2,208,000; as L2: 10,278,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Widespread in all major cities. Alternate Names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan. Autonym: Julakan. Dialects: None known. Spoken as L1 or L2 by millions of people of diverse ethnic backgrounds in West Africa. Mutually intelligible with Bambara [bam], Kita Maninkakan [mwk], and Eastern Maninkakan [emk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana. Comments: Majority ethnic Jula. Government designated as 1 of 5 languages to be developed for literature. Muslim.

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Khisa
[kqm] Zanzan district: north. 5,000 (Vanderaa 1991). Total users in all countries: 8,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu. Dialects: Speakers say they can understand Kaansa [gna] and Senoufo, given time. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dogosé [dos], 72% with Kpatogo dialect of Kaansa, 71% with Kaansa [gna], 16% with Dogoso [dgs], 13% with Khe [kqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose. Comments: Muslim.

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Kla-Dan
[lda] Montagnes district: Biankouma department, Zouzoupleu village; Woroba district: Touba department, 25 villages. 25,000 (2001 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kla. Dialects: Santa, Zouzoupleu. Reportedly similar to Dan [dnj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kodia
[kwp] Bas-Sassandra district. 840 (1993 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kwadia, Kwadya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Kwadia. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koro
[kfo] Woroba district: Mankono department, Tiéningboué subprefecture. 40,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koro Jula. Dialects: None known. High comprehension of Koyaga [kga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori. Comments: Strong ethnic identity, although they live near the Koyaga. Muslim.

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Kouya
[kyf] Sassandra-Marahoué district: Vavoua subprefecture, Kouya canton; small area west of Bonefla. 12 villages. 10,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kowya, Kuya, Sokya. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Gbadi Bété [btg] and Dida. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koyaga
[kga] Woroba district: Mankono department, 4 subprefectures west. 60,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koya, Koyaa, Koyaga Jula, Koyagakan, Koyaka, Koyara. Dialects: Koyaga, Siaka, Sagaka, Nigbi. High comprehension of Koro [kfo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori. Comments: Strong ethnic identity, although they live near the Koro. Muslim.

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Krahn, Eastern
[kqo] Lacs, Sassandra-Marahoué, and Vallée du Bandama districts: Lake Kossou area; Montagnes district. 10,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Konobo. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Krahn, Western
[krw] Montagnes district: Toulépleu subprefecture. 12,200 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Krahn, Northern Krahn. Dialects: Pewa (Peewa), Biai. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn. Comments: Local French influences, but in Liberia from Liberian English, from which there are Orthographic differences. Traditional religion.

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Krobu
[kxb] Lagunes district: Agboville subprefecture. 4 villages. 9,920 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krobou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Krobu. Comments: Christian.

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Krumen, Plapo
[ktj] Bas-Sassandra district: between Bapo and Honpo dialects of Tepo Krumen [ted]. 100 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Plapo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian.

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Krumen, Pye
[pye] Bas-Sassandra district: Bereby, San Pedro, and Tai subprefectures. 20,000 (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Northeastern Krumen, Southeastern Krumen. Dialects: Trepo, Wluwe-Hawlo (Haoulo), Gbowe-Hran, Wlepo, Dugbo, Yrewe (Giriwe), Yapo, Pie (Pie-Pli-Mahon-Kuse-Gblapo-Henekwe, Pye). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian. Comments: Christian.

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Krumen, Tepo
[ted] Bas-Sassandra district: Grabo and Tabou subprefectures. 28,300 (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Total users in all countries: 31,450. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Kru, Krumen, Southern Krumen, Southwestern Kroumen. Dialects: Tepo, Bapo, Wlopo (Ropo), Dapo, Honpo, Yrepo (Kapo), Glawlo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian. Comments: Christian.

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Kulango, Bondoukou
[kzc] Zanzan district: Bondoukou subprefecture. 77,000 (1993 SIL). Total users in all countries: 104,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bouna
[nku] Zanzan district: Nassian subprefecture. 14,400 (1998). Total users in all countries: 29,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koulango, Kulange, Nkuraeng, Nkurange. Dialects: Nabanj. Bouna dialect speakers understand Bondoukou [kzc], but not the reverse. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ligbi
[lig] Zanzan district: Bouna department, Bineto village; Woroba district: Slil town near Boundoukou. 4,000 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo. Comments: Non-indigenous. Numu (Noumou, Numun) is the name of a caste of blacksmiths; not a separate language. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Lobi
[lob] Zanzan district: north strip. 156,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lobiri, Miwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Loma
[loi] Zanzan district: Kulango and Téén areas. 8,010 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lomakka, Lomapo, Lomasse, Malinke. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Téén [lor] and Kulango [kzc] but not inherently intelligible. More similar to Kulango than Téén is to Kulango. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen. Comments: Different from Loma [lom] of Liberia.

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Mahou
[mxx] Denguélé district: south of Bako; Montagnes district: northeast; Woroba district: Touba department. 300,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahu, Maou, Mau, Mauka, Mauke, Mawu, Mawukakan. Dialects: Mahouka, Koroka, Tenenga, Finanga, Baralaka (Barala). Some listed dialect speakers may not be able to use Mahou literature. Barala may be dialect of Wojenaka [jod]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori. Comments: Muslim.

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Mbato
[gwa] Comoé district: Comoé river east bank; Lagunes district: Petit Alépé subprefecture. 25,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goaa, Gwa, M’bato, Mbatto, Mgbato, N-Batto, Nglwa, Ogwia, Potu. Dialects: None known. Related to Ebrii [ebr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou. Comments: Christian.

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Mbre
[mka] Vallée du Bandama and Woroba districts: Marabadiassa area, Bondosso and Niantibo villages. 200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bere, Bre, Pre, Pre Pisia. Dialects: None known. Considerably different from surrounding Mande and nearby Kwa languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Unclassified.

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Mwan
[moa] Woroba district: Kongasso and south Mankono subprefectures. 20,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mona, Mouan, Muan, Muana, Mwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Nafaanra
[nfr] Few in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Nafaanra. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Neyo
[ney] Bas-Sassandra district: Sassandra subprefecture, Kébé and Neyo cantons, from Niégba west to Dagbégo east and Niabayo north. 9,200 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gwibwen, Towi. Dialects: Reportedly most similar to the Kagbo dialect of Godié [god], but they consider themselves a separate ethnic group. May be more similar to a Dida language than to a Bété language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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N’ko
[nqo] No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Mixed language. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Nyabwa
[nwb] Bas-Sassandra district: northwest; Sassandra-Marahoué district: Vavoua subprefecture, Kouya canton; Buyo, Daloua, Issia, Vavoua (Nyedebwa), and Zoukougbeu (Nyabwa) subprefectures, 12 southwest villages; all in Lake Buyo area. 42,700 (1993 SIL). 32,500 Nyabwa, 7,700 Nyedebwa, 2,500 Kouzié. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Niaboua, Nyaboa, Nyabwa-Nyédébwa, “Bété” (pej.). Dialects: Nyabwa, Nyedebwa (Niédéboua), Kouzii (Kouzié). Lexical similarity: 90% with Nyabwa and Nyedebwa dialects, 74%–80% between them and Wè Southern [gxx] and Wè Northern [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Nyabwa. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nzema
[nzi] Comoé district: Aboisso department, Tiapoum subprefecture, southeast coast; Abidjan. 66,700 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Appolo, Nzima. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Sénoufo, Cebaara
[sef] Denguélé and Woroba districts; Savanes district: Korhogo city area and west; Vallée du Bandama district: west of Bandama Blanc river. 862,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Senadi, Senari, Syenere, Tiebaara, Tyebala. Dialects: Kafire, Kasara, Kufuru, Tagbari (Mbengui-Niellé), Patara, Pogara, Tyebara, Tagara, Tenere, Takpasyeeri (Messeni), Southwest Senari, Kandere (Tengrela), Papara, Fodara, Kulere, Nafara. Korhogo dialect is central. The Kulele speak Kulere dialect scattered throughout the Senoufo area. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Djimini
[dyi] Lacs district: northwest of Kouandkro; Savanes district: Ferkessedougou department; Vallée du Bandama district: Dabakala department, northeast corner. 95,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djimini, Dyimini, Jinmini. Dialects: Diamala (Djamala, Dyamala), Djafolo, Dofana, Foolo, Singala. Dabakala prestige dialect is Singala. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Tagwana Senoufo [tgw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Sénoufo, Nyarafolo
[sev] Savanes district: northeast Ferkessédougou area; Vallée du Bandama district: some border areas north. 60,000 (2009 L. Boese). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Niarafolo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Palaka
[plr] Savanes district: east of Bandama Blanc river; Vallée du Bandama district: Sikolo area. 8,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpalagha, Palaka, Palara, Pallakha, Pilara. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with other Senufo languages and dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Kpalaga. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sénoufo, Shempire
[seb] Savanes district: north of Tingréla. 100,000 (1996). Total users in all countries: 114,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shenpire, Syempire. Dialects: 3 or 4 dialects. Relationship to Supyire Senoufo [spp] in Mali is undetermined. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara.

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Sénoufo, Tagwana
[tgw] Savanes district: east of Korhogo city; Vallée du Bandama district: north central area; Woroba district: north of Lake Kossou. 138,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tagbana, Tagouna, Tagwana. Dialects: Gbo (Zoro), Tafire, Niediekaha, Niangbo, Niakaramadougou, Fondebougou, Djidanan, Fourgoula, Katiara, Katiola. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Djimini [dyi] dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Téén
[lor] Zanzan district. 6,100 (1991). Total users in all countries: 8,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Ténhé. Dialects: None known. Different from Kulango. Reportedly most similar to Loma [loi] and Bouna Kulango [nku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tonjon
[tjn] Vallée du Bandama district. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo. Comments: Formerly spoken by blacksmiths.

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Toura
[neb] Montagnes district: east Biankouma department, mountainous region east of Man to Touba main road, north of Man to Séguéla main road, north of Bafing river; Bafing and Sassandra rivers from north and east borders. 50,000 (2005 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tura, Ween. Dialects: Naò, Boo, Yiligele, Gwéò, Wáádú, Guse. Probably most similar to Dan [dnj]. Reportedly also similar to Guro [goa], Gban [ggu], and Mano [mev] (in Liberia). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wan
[wan] Sassandra-Marahoué and Vallée du Bandama districts: Lake Bossou north shore; Woroba district: west Beoumi and Kounahiri subprefectures. 22,000 (1993 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nwa. Dialects: Miamu, Kemu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wané
[hwa] Bas-Sassandra district: Kounoukou area on southwest coast. 2,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hwane, Ngwané. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe. Comments: Intermarry frequently with the Bakwe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Northern
[wob] Montagnes district: Fakobly and Kouibly subprefectures. 156,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ouobe, Wobé, Wèè. Dialects: Tao, Péomé, Sémien (Gbéan). Kouibly dialect intelligible to about half of Wè Southern [gxx] speakers. Lexical similarity: 90%–94% among dialects, Kouibly dialect (Tao and Gbean) has 84%–89% lexical similarity with Wè Southern dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Wobe. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Southern
[gxx] Bas-Sassandra district: Lake Buyo area; Montagnes district: Bangolo, Duékoué, Guiglo, and Tai subprefectures. 293,000 (1999 SIL). 20,000 Niao (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Guéré, Gere, Guéré. Autonym: Wèè. Dialects: Zibiao, Zagne, Zagna, Beu (Zarabaon), Zaa (Zaha), Niao (Neabo, Neao, Niabo), Gboo (Gbobo), Fleo, Nyeo. Southern Wè has 7 more consonants than Northern Wè [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn. Comments: Consider Wè one language with many dialects. They are one ethnic group, together with Krahn in Liberia. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Western
[wec] Montagnes district: Toulépleu subprefecture. 25,200 (1998 SIL). 20,000 Kaoro (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gere, Guéré, Neyo. Autonym: Wèè. Dialects: Nidrou (Nidru), Kaoro (Kaawlu, Kaowlu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn. Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wèè. Neyo [wec] is distinct from Neyo [ney], another Kru language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wojenaka
[jod] Denguélé district: Odienné department; Woroba district: Boundiali department. 120,000 (1999 SIL). 15,000 Wasulu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malinké, Odiennekakan, Odienné Jula. Dialects: Odienneka, Sienkoka, Nafana, Bodougouka, Toudougouka, Vandougouka, Wasulu (Wassoulounka, Wassulunka, Wassulunke), Samogo, Juraba. Some dialects listed may be separate languages. The Barala dialect of Mahou [mxx] may be a dialect of Wojenaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori. Comments: Wasulu are ethnic Fulani who adopted a Manding language. Muslim.

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Worodougou
[jud] Denguélé, Montagnes, and Sassandra-Marahoué districts; Woroba district: Mankono and Séguéla departments, Tiéningboué subprefecture. 80,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakokan, Ouorodougou, Worodougou Jula, Worodougoukakan, Worodugu. Dialects: Worodougouka, Karanjan, Kanika. Karanjan dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Yaouré
[yre] Sassandra-Marahoué district: Bouaflé department, Bouaflé subprefecture, Yaouré canton, bounded south by Red Bandama, east by White Bandama river, north by Lake Kossou, west by Bouaflé. 40,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yaure, Yohowré, Youré. Dialects: Klan, Yaan, Taan, Yoo, Bhoo. Reportedly most similar to Guro [goa]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure. Comments: Traditional religion.

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