[ayr] Antofagasta, Arica and Parinacota, and Tarapacá regions: Iquique area, extreme north mountains. L1 users: 19,000 (Fabre 2007). Ethnic population: 48,500 (2002). About half have some knowledge of the language (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, (Indigenous Peoples) Law No. 19.253). Alternate Names: Aimara. Classification: Aymaran, Aymara. Comments: Only one-third of the Aymaras still live in the rural communities of their traditional homeland; most now live in the urban areas (Fabre 2007).
Chilean Sign Language
[csg] Scattered. L1 users: 21,000 (Parks et al 2011a). 292,700 people with some level of auditory deficiency (2005 Fondo Nacional de la Discapacidad); 66,500 people with total deafness (23,900 less than 60 years old) (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2010, Article 26 of Law No. 20.422). Alternate Names: LENSE, LSCh, Lengua de Señas Chilena, Lenguaje Chileno de Signos, Lenguaje de Señas. Dialects: Variation based on region (northern, central, and southern), age, and educational background. Regional varieties are influenced by bordering countries. (Parks et al 2011a). Classification: Sign language.
[huh] Los Lagos and Los Ríos regions: Valdivia to Chiloé south of Mapuche. L1 users: 2,000 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 17,000. On the outer Island of Chiloé. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Huiliche, Veliche. Dialects: Tsesungún. Related to Mapudungun [arn], but barely intelligible with it. Classification: Mapudungu.
[kuz] Antofagasta region: El Loa province; Caspana, Peine, and Socaire (Salar de Atacama). L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 21,000 (2002 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Recognized language (1993, (Indigenous Peoples) Law No. 19.253). Alternate Names: Atacameño, Likanantaí, Lipe, Ulipe. Dialects: None known. Classified as Macro-Chibchan. Classification: Language isolate.
[arn] Araucanía, Bíobío, Los Lagos, and Los Ríos regions: Arauco, Bíobío, Valdivia, Osorno. L1 users: 250,000 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 604,000 (2002). Total users in all countries: 258,410. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, (Indigenous Peoples) Law No. 19.253). Alternate Names: Araucana, Mapuche, Mapudungu, Mapuzungun, “Araucano” (pej.). Autonym: Mapudungun. Dialects: Moluche (Manzanero, Ngoluche), Picunche, Pehuenche. Easy intelligibility among dialects. Pehuenche and Moluche are reportedly very similar. Classification: Mapudungu. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.
[alc] Magallanes y Antártica Chilena region: West Patagonia, Channel area, Isle of Wellington off south Chilean coast, 49 degrees south. Center is Puerto Edén. L1 users: 12 (2006 O. Aguilera). 10 in Puerto Edén. Ethnic population: 2,620 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (1993, (Indigenous Peoples) Law No. 19.253). Alternate Names: Alacalouf, Alacaluf, Alacalufe, Alaculoof, Alaculuf, Alakaluf, Alikaluf, Alikhoolip, Alikuluf, Alilkoolif, Alokolup, Alooculoof, Alookooloop, Alucaluf, Alukoeluf, Alukulup, Halakwulup, Kaweskar, Kawesqar. Dialects: Aksanás (Aksana). Dialects are generally divided into three groups, northern, central and southern, of which only the northern is still spoken (Viegas Barros 1990). Classification: Kaweskaran. Comments: Aksanás has been shown by Clairis to be a misinterpretation of old Qawasqar; it is a phantom (Campbell and Grondona 2012).
Quechua, South Bolivian
[rap] Valparaíso region: Easter Island, 3,800 km from Chile, 4,000 km from Tahiti. L1 users: 1,000 (2016 R. Weber). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Kieviet 2016). Approximately 3,600 on Easter Island. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, (Indigenous Peoples) Law No. 19.253). Alternate Names: Easter Island, Rapanui. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Hawaiian [haw], Mangareva [mrv], and Rarotongan [rar]; 63% with Marquesan [mrq]; 62% with Tahitian [tah] and Tuamotuan [pmt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Rapanui.
[spa] 19,030,000 in Chile, all users. L1 users: 17,400,000 (2013). L2 users: 1,630,000 (2013). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.
[yag] Magallanes y Antártica Chilena region: Patagonia area, Navarino island, Puerto Williams, Ukika hamlet. L1 users: 1 (2013 Y. Meroz). One elderly speaker in Ukika, 85 years old (2013 Y. Meroz). Ethnic population: 1,690 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (1993, (Indigenous Peoples) Law No. 19.253). Alternate Names: Tequenica, Yaghan, Yagán, Yahgan. Autonym: Háusi Kúta. Classification: Language isolate.