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Achang
[acn] Western Yunnan Province, Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture and Baoshan district, along the Myanmar border, Longchuan, Liangge, Yingjiang, and Luxi counties; Baoshan prefecture, Tengchong and Longling counties; Dali Bai autonomous prefecture, Yunlong county. 27,700 in China (1990 census). Population total all countries: 62,700. Ethnic population: 34,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Achang. Alternate Names: Acang, Ach’ang, Achung, Ahchan, Atsang, Maingtha, Mönghsa, Ngacang, Ngac’ang, Ngachang, Ngatsang, Ngo Chang, Ngochang, Xiandao Dialects: Husa (Chintaw, Xiandao), Lianghe, Longchuan, Luxi. Each of the 3 main counties has a distinctive dialect (Statistical Bureau of Yunnan Province 2004). No reported intelligibility between dialects. Longchuan differs more from the others, with more Dai loanwords. Lianghe and Luxi use many Chinese loanwords. There are also Burmese [mya] loanwords. Related to Hpon [hpo], Maru [mhx], Lashi [lsi], Zaiwa [atb]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern Comments: Mingled with Lashi [lsi]. Buddhist (Hinayana).

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Ache
[yif] Yunnan Province, Shuangbai, Yimen, Eshan, and Lufeng counties. 35,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ai-Cham
[aih] Southern Guizhou Province, Qiannan Buyi-Miao autonomous prefecture, Libo county, Di’e and Boyao townships. 13 villages. 2,700 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Bouyei. Alternate Names: Atsam, Jiamuhua, Jin, Jinhua Dialects: Boyao, Di’e. Dialects have phonological differences, but are largely intelligible. Reportedly similar to Mak [mkg]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ainu
[aib] Southwest Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Hetian, Luopu, Moyu, Shache, Yingjisha, and Shulekuche counties; Kashgar area, Yengixar (Shule) town, Hanalik and Paynap villages, and Gewoz village near Hoban. 6,570 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Uygur. Alternate Names: Abdal, Aini, Aynu Dialects: Has the same grammar as Uyghur [uig] but much Persian [pes] vocabulary. Some consider it a dialect of Uyghur, others an Iranian language heavily influenced by Uyghur. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern Comments: Do not intermarry with ethnic Uyghur. Muslim (Sunni).

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Akeu
[aeu] South Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna prefecture, most villages in Jinhong county, some in Mengla county. 10,000 in China (2007). Population total all countries: 12,400. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Aki, Akui Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Akha [ahk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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Akha
[ahk] Southwest Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna and Simao prefectures. 240,000 in China (Bradley 2007), increasing. Ethnic population: 240,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Aka, Ak’a, Ekaw, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Alugu
[aub] Yunnan Province, Yuanyang county, Fengchunling township across Honghe river; Gejiu county, Manhao township. 3,500 (Pelkey 2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Muji, Phula, Phupha Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to, but not intelligible with, Phupha [yph]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Aluo
[yna] Yunnan Province, north Wuding, Luquan, and Yuanmou counties; Sichuan Province, Huili and Miyi counties. 25,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 40,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Gan Yi, Laka, Lila, Niluo, Yala Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern

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Anong
[nun] Thanlwin (Salween) (Nu) river area: northwest Yunnan Province, Nujian Lisu autonomous prefecture, central Fugong county, Shangpa town, Mugujia village cluster. 50 in China (Bradley 2007). One-third are speakers and another one-third have passive knowledge (Bradley 2007). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,300 (Bradley 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Nu. Alternate Names: Anoong, Anu, Anung, Fuch’ye, Khanung, Khupang, Kwingsang, Kwinp’ang, Lu, Lutze, Lutzu, Nu, Nung Dialects: Cholo, Gwaza, Miko. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish Comments: Different from Nung [nut] (Tai family) of Viet Nam, Laos, and China, Nong Zhuang (Tai family) of China, and from Chinese Nung (Yue [yue]) of Viet Nam. Due to intense linguistic contact with the Lisu, Anong is being radically restructured (Sun Hong Kai and Liu Guangkun 2009). Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian.

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A’ou
[aou] West central Guizhou Province, Qianxi county, Xintian, Shawo, and Lannigou villages; Zhijin county, Longjia village; Dafang county, Jindi village. 50 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: |Auo, Ayo Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra

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Awa
[vwa] Southwest Yunnan Province, Simao prefecture: Ximeng Va, Menglian Dai, Lahu and Va, and Lancang Lahu autonomous counties. 98,000 (Zhou Zhizhi, Qixiang Yan, and Guoqing Chen 2004). Masan Dialect: 33,000 in Ximeng County; Xiyun Dialect: 2,200 in Lancang and Menglian counties; Dawangnuo Dialect: 30,000 in Menglian and Ximeng counties; Awalei Dialect: 2,200 in Ximeng County; Awa proper: 30,600 In Lancan County. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Wa. Alternate Names: Ava, Awa Wa, Va Dialects: Awalei (’A vo’ loi, Awalai), Dawangnuo (Damangnuo, Mangnuo, Vo’, Wangnuo), Masan (’A Vo’, La via’, Ro via’, Vo’), Xiyun (Shixi, Va’). Closely related languages: Vo [wbm], Parauk [prk], and Blang [blr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa Comments: Possibly also spoken in Myanmar.

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Awu
[yiu] Yunnan Province, primarily north Honghe prefecture, Mile and Luxi counties; south Qujing prefecture, Shizong and Luoping counties. 20,000 (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Luowu, Luwu Dialects: Northern Awu, Southern Awu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Axi
[yix] Southeast Yunnan Province, Mile and Luxi counties. Shilin county, 1 village. 100,000 (Bradley 2007), decreasing. Elderly and women over 35 are monolingual. L2 users: L2 users are only those who have married into Axi families. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Ahi, Axibo, Axipo Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ayizi
[yyz] Yunnan Province, Shilin county, Beidacun district, mainly in Aimalong village; also other villages of Beidacun and Banqiao districts. 50 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern

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Azha
[aza] Yunnan Province, primarily along the border between Wenshan and Yanshan counties. 53,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Aji, Ajiwa, A’ndze, A’ntsaozo, Azan, Black Phula, Cowtail Phula, Golden Phula, Han Phula, Hei Phula, Hua Phula, Hua Yi, Jin Phula, Nimitso, Niuweiba Phula, Phula, Phuphje, Shaoji Phula, Sifter Basket Phula Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Azhe
[yiz] Yunnan Province, Mile county: Xun Jian, Wushan, and Jiangbian districts; Huaning county, Panxi district; north Kaiyuan county, Xiaolongtan district, Xiaolongtan community; Lebaidao district, Jiedian community; Mazheshao district, Chongzi community; northeast Jianshui county, 1 village. 54,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bai, Central
[bca] Northwest Yunnan Province, Jianchuan, Heqing, Lanping, Eryuan, and Yunlong; small enclave in Guizhou Province. 800,000 (2003 census). Ethnic population: 800,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bai. Alternate Names: Labbu, Minchia, Minjia, Minkia, Nama, Pai Dialects: Eryuan, Heqing, Jianchuan, Lanping, Yunlong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Bai Comments: Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese. Considered genetically related to Chinese, or a mixed language with Chinese, or an independent branch of Tibeto-Burman. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Bai, Lama
[lay] Yunnan Province, Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture, Lanping Bai Pumi autonomous county, Hexi district, Lajing township, in the mountains on both banks of the Lancang river. Also in Diqing Tibetan autonomous prefecture. 60,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bai. Alternate Names: Lama, Lan-Bi Bai, Nama, Northern Bai Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Bai Comments: Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese. Northern Bai comprises two separate languages, Panyi [bfc] and Lama. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Bai, Panyi
[bfc] Yunnan Province, Nujiang prefecture, Lushui county, Luobenzhuo Bai autonomous district, Gudeng, Chenggan, and Shangjiang districts, Liuku and Pianma townships; Baoshan Municipality, Mangkuan township; Pu’er Municipality. 12,000 (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bai. Alternate Names: Bijiang Bai, Lan-Bi Bai, Leme, Lemo, Northern Bai, Panyi Dialects: Da-E, Yu-Teu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Bai Comments: Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese and influence from Lisu [lis]. Northern Bai comprises two separate languages, Panyi and Lama [lay]. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Daoist.

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Bai, Southern
[bfs] Northwest Yunnan Province, Dali Bai autonomous prefecture, Xiangyun. 400,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bai. Dialects: Dali, Xiangyun. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Bai Comments: Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese. Considered genetically related to Chinese, or a mixed language with Chinese, or related to Yi, or an independent branch of Tibeto-Burman. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Baima
[bqh] North central Sichuan Province, Pingwu, Jiuzhaigou, and Songpan counties; Gansu Province, Wenxian county. 10,000 (Bradley 2007). Older adults and a few middle aged are monolingual. Ethnic population: 14,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bai Ma, Pe Dialects: Northern Baima (Wenxian Baima), Southern Baima (Pingwu Baima), Western Baima (Jiuzhaigou Baima, Songpan Baima). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Baima Comments: The Baima clan has a distinct ethnic identity from other Tibetans. Classified Tibetan, though some scholars consider it in the Tibeto-Burman language family, Qiangic subgroup. Traditional religion.

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Biao
[byk] Guangdong Province, southwest corner of Huaiji county, Shidong, Yonggu, Dagang, Liangcun, and Qiaotou districts; Fengkai county, Chang’an, Jinzhuang, and Qixing districts, several villages. 80,000 (Liang Min and Zhang Junru 2002). 10,000 monolinguals. Women and small children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 120,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Gang Bau, Kang Bau, Kang Beu, Kang Pau Dialects: Minor dialect differences, but all mutually intelligible. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Consider themselves a distinct ethnic group from Chinese-speaking Han people around them. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Biao Mon
[bmt] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Mengshan, Zhaoping, Pingle, Lipu, and Gongcheng counties. 20,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Biao Mien, Biaoman, Biao-Mian, Changping, Min Yao, Sida Min Yao Dialects: Biao Mon (Min Yao), Shi Mun (Sida Min Yao). May be intelligible with some dialects of Iu Mien [ium]. Quite different from and unintelligible with Biao Jiao Mien [bje] or its dialect Biaomin, also called Biao Mien. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin Comments: Daoist.

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Biao-Jiao Mien
[bje] Northeast Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Quanzhou, Guanyang, and Gongcheng Yao autonomous counties; south Hunan Province, Shuangpai, and Daoxian counties. 43,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Biaomin (Dongshan) has a much larger speaker population (approximately 35,700) than Jiaogong (Shikou; approximately 10,900). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Biao Chao, Byau Min, Dongshan Biao Min Dialects: Biao Min (Ao Yao, Biao Mien, Biaomin, Byaumin, Dongshan Yao), Jiaogong Mian (Chao Kong Meng, Shikou, Tsaukongmeng). Dialects Biaomin (Dongshan) and Jiaogong (Shikou) reportedly mutually unintelligible. Quite different from and unintelligible with Biao Mon [bmt] (Biaoman). Lexical similarity: 70% with Iu Mien [ium], 67% with Kim Mun [mji], 58% with Dzao Min [bpn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Biao-Jiao Comments: Daoist.

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Bisu
[bzi] Southwest Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Menghai county, Mengzhe township, Manghong village cluster, one village: Laopinzhai. 240 in China (Xu Shixuan 2005). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 240. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Lawa, Lua, Mbi, Mibisu, Misu, Pin Dialects: Dakao, Huaipa, Lanmeng. Reportedly similar to Mpi [mpz] and Pyen [pyy]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Hani [hni], 32% with Lahu [lhu], 31% with Lisu [lis]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid Comments: Others officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Some view Bisu as an important link to their culture and hope to preserve it. Traditional religion.

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Biyo
[byo] Yunnan Province, southeast Simao prefecture, Mojiang, Jiangcheng, Zhenyuan, and Jingdong counties. 120,000 (Bradley 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Bio, Biyue, Piyo Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: A distinct language from Akha [ahk] and Kaduo [ktp]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Blang
[blr] Southwest Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Menghai county, Bulangshan, Bada, Xiding, and Daluo districts; Jinghong county, Damengnong district. 42,000 in China (2000 census). Population total all countries: 55,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Alternate Names: Bulang, K’ala, Kawa, Kontoi, Plang, Pula, Pulang Dialects: Kem Degne, Phang. In Thailand, the group from Mae Sai came from Sipsongpanna, Yunnan, China, stayed in Myanmar for a while, and have been in Thailand since 1974. 6 to 10 dialects represented in one refugee village in Thailand. Samtao [stu] of Myanmar and China is not intelligible with Plang, but is closely related to Plang and Wa [wbm]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang Comments: Buddhist (Hinayana), Christian.

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Bokha
[ybk] Yunnan Province, central Pingbian county, Dishuiceng township; east Jinping county, Mengqiao and Ma’andi townships; west Hekou county, Lianhuatan township. 10,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 12,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Akapa, Aphu, Black Muji, Bokho, Flowery Phula, Hei Muji, Hua Phula, Lao Phula, Pao Tle Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Phuma [ypm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Bolyu
[ply] Far west Guangxi on the Guizhou and Yunnan borders, Xilin and Longlin counties, in 2 groups. Possibly in Yunnan. 500 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 1,770 (Bradley 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: Baliu, Lai, Lailai, Paliu, Palju, Palyu, Polyu Dialects: None known. May be similar to Bugan [bbh], which is the nearest Mon-Khmer language geographically. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Palyu Comments: Ethnonym: Lai in Chinese. Traditional religion.

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Bonan
[peh] Southwest Gansu Province, Linxia Hui autonomous prefecture, Jishishan Bao’an-Dongxiang-Sala Autonomous county; east Qinghai Province, Tongren county. 6,000. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 24,500. Includes 16,500 Jishishan and 8000 Tongren. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Speakers of the Jishishan dialect moved from Qinghai Province to Gansu, 1858–1863; officially classified within Bonan nationality. Alternate Names: Bao’an, Baonan, Boan, Paoan, Paongan Dialects: Jishishan (Dahejia, Dajiahe, Dakheczjha), Tongren (Tungyen). Jishishan subdialects are Ganhetan and Dadun; Tongren subdialects are Nianduhu, Guomari, Gajiuri, and Lower Bao’an. Jishishan dialect has been influenced by Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Tongren by Tibetan [bod]. There are phonological and grammatical differences between them, and inherent intelligibility may be low. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Mongour Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Bouyei
[pcc] South and southwest Guizhou Province, Guizhou-Yunnan plateau, mainly Buyi-Miao and Miao-Dong autonomous prefectures, Zhenning and Guanling counties; Yunnan Province, Luoping county; Sichuan Province, Ningnan and Huidong counties. 2,600,000 in China (2000 census). Population total all countries: 2,649,200. Ethnic population: 2,950,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bouyei. Alternate Names: Bo-I, Bui, Buyei, Buyi, Buyui, Chung-Chia, Dioi, Giay, Pui, Pu-I, Pujai, Pu-Jui, Puyi, Puyoi, Shuihu, Tujia, Zhongjia Dialects: Qiannan (Bouyei 1, Southern Guizhou), Qianxi (Bouyei 3, Western Guizhou), Qianzhong (Bouyei 2, Central Guizhou). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: Ethnonym: Giay in Viet Nam. Quinnan hua (Quinnan speech) also refers to a dialect of southwestern Mandarin spoken in Guizhou, and should not be confused with the Qiannan Bouyei dialect. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Bugan
[bbh] Southeast Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefecture, Guangnan and Xichou counties, South Guangnan Nasa township, 4 Bugan villages: Laowalong, Xinwalong, Xinpingzhai, and Nala; Guangnan county, Zhuanjiao district, 2 Bugan villages: Jiuping, Shibeipo; Northern Yanshan county, Jijie district, Manlong and 6 other villages. 2,700 (Yunbin 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bengan, Bogan, Bugeng, Hualo, Huazu, Pukan, Puqeng Dialects: None known. Very minor accent differences between villages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Palyu Comments: Language and culture are very different from the surrounding Yi nationality groups. They maintain their own festivals and are endogamous. Ethnonyms: Hualuo and Huazu, multi-colored tribe, are used by surrounding Han, Zhuang and other groups and are due to traditional costumes worn by women. Traditional religion.

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Bumang
[bvp] Yunnan Province, Honghe and Yi autonomous prefectures, Jinping Miao-Yao-Dai autonomous county, Mengla district, Manzhang-Shangzhai and Mangzhang-Xiazhai villages. 200 (Jie 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Manzhang Dai Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang Comments: Language is unlike the other 3 Dai language groups in their home county. Traditional religion.

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Bunu, Bu-Nao
[bwx] Western Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 22 counties: Du’an, Bama, Dahua, Lingyun, Nandan, Tiandong, Tianyang, Pingguo, Fengshan, Donglan, Hechi, Mashan, Bose, Tianlin, Leye, Tiandeng, Xincheng, Shanglin, Long’an, Debao, Laibin, and Luocheng; Guizhou Province, Libo county; Yunnan Province, Funing county. Southwest Hunan Province, near Guangxi border. 258,000 (McConnell 1995). 97,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 439,000 (1982 census). 100,000 ethnic Bunu speak Central Hongshuihe Zhuang [zch] as L1. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Bunao, Po-Nau, Punu Dialects: Bunuo (Pu No), Cingsui Longlin, Dongnu (Bunu, Punu, Tung Nu), Hontou Longlin, Naogelao (Baonuo, Nao Khalo, Nao Klao, Nau Klau, Pounou), Numao (Hong Yao, Nu Mhou), Nunu. The dialects listed may be at least 5 languages (Strecker 1987), communication is difficult (McConnell 1995). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu Comments: Daoist, traditional religion.

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Bunu, Jiongnai
[pnu] East Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Jinxiu Yao autonomous county. 1,080 (1999 Mao Zongwu). 270 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Hualan Yao, Jiongnai, Jiongnaihua, Kiong Nai, Punu, Qiungnai Dialects: None known. Very different from and unintelligible to surrounding Yao and other Bunu speakers. Lexical similarity: 52% with Bu-Nao Bunu [bwx]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu Comments: Ethnonym: Hualan Yao by Han Chinese, Patterned Blue Yao (from womens’ traditional dress). Bunu is a cover term for separate languages. Daoist, traditional religion.

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Bunu, Wunai
[bwn] West Hunan Province, Longhui, Xupu, Tongdao, Chenxi, Dongkou, Chengbu, and Xinning counties; small area, northern Guangxi Province. 5,800 (Shearer and Sun Hong Kai 2002), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Hm Nai, Ngnai, Punu, Wunai Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu Comments: Bunu is a cover term for separate languages. Daoist.

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Bunu, Younuo
[buh] Northeast Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Xing’an and Longsheng counties. 9,720 (McConnell 1995). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Pu No, Punu, Younuo, Yuno, Yunuo Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu Comments: Bunu is a cover term for several separate languages (Strecker 1989). Daoist.

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Buriat, China
[bxu] Nei Mongol Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hulun-Buyr district, near Russia (Siberia) and Mongolia borders. 65,000 (1982 census). 47,000 New Bargu, 14,000 Old Bargu, 4,500 Buriat. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Alternate Names: Ba’erhu-Buliyate, Bargu Buriat, Buriat-Mongolian, Buryat, Northeastern Mongolian, Northern Mongolian Dialects: Aga, Buriat (Buliyate, Buryat), Khori, New Bargu (Xin Ba’erhu), Old Bargu (Chen Ba’erhu). Differs from Buriat of Mongolia [bxm] and the Russian Federation [bxr] due to influences of other languages. A member of macrolanguage Buriat [bua]. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Buxinhua
[bgk] Southwest Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Mengla county. 200 in China (1994). Ethnic population: 500 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boxing, Buxing, Buxing Khmu, Khabit, Pasing, Phsin, Phsing Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao Comments: Traditional religion.

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Buyang, Baha
[yha] Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao autonomous prefecture, northern Guangnan county, Dixu district, Yanglian village; Bada district, Anshe village. 600 (Li Jinfang 1997), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Buyang, Buyang Zhuang, Guangnan Buyang, Western Buyang Dialects: Ecun, Langjia, Yalang. Lexical similarity: 50% with Langnian Buyang [yln], 48% with E’ma Buyang [yzg], 46% with Yerong (Yalang Buyang) [yrn], 45% with Pubiao [laq], 41% with Laji (Lachi) [lbt], 40% with Lao [lao], 35% with Mulao [mlm], 32% with Lingao [onb], 28% with Northern Zhuang, 27% with Dong, 22% with Cun [cuq]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Central Kra Comments: Traditional religion.

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Buyang, E’ma
[yzg] Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao autonomous prefecture, Funing county, Gula township, 6 villages: E’cun, Maguan, Dugan, Zhelong, Nada, and Longna. 600 (Li Jinfang 1997). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Buozaang, Buyang Zhuang, Eastern Buyang, Funing Buyang, Langjia Buyang Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Langnian Buyang [yln], yet not intelligible despite frequent contact, 63% with Yerong (Yalang Buyang) [yrn], 48% with Baha Buyang [yha]. Also reportedly quite similar to En [enc] (200 speakers) of Northern Vietnam. (Li Jinfang 2006). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra Comments: Traditional religion.

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Buyang, Langnian
[yln] Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang-Miao autonomous prefecture, Funing county, Gula district, Longse community, Langjia village; Gutao community, Nianlang village. 300 (Li Jinfang 1997), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Buozaang, Buyang Zhuang, Eastern Buyang, E’cun Buyang Dialects: None known. 78% with E’ma Buyang [yzg], yet not intelligible despite frequent contact, 67% with Yerong (Yalang Buyang) [yrn], 50% with Baha Buyang [yha], 45% with Pubiao [laq], 42% with Laji (Lachi) [lbt]. Also reportedly quite similar to En [enc] (200 speakers) of Northern Vietnam. (Li Jinfang 2006). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra Comments: Traditional religion.

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Cao Miao
[cov] Southeast Guizhou Province, Liping county; southwest Hunan Province, Tongdao Dong autonomous county; northeast Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Sanjiang Dong autonomous county, near South Dong, small villages. 63,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Grass Miao, Mjiuniang, Sanjiang Miao Dialects: Lexical similarity: with Northern Dong [doc] and sometimes referred to as a special dialect of Dong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chadong
[cdy] Northeast Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Lingui county, Guilin muncipality; Chadong district (most villages), Liangjiang township; Yongfu county, Longjiang district. 20,000 (Li Jinfang 2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Cha Dong, Chadonghua, Chadongyu Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Traditional religion, Daoist.

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Chesu
[ych] Yunnan Province, northwest Xinping, southeast Shuangbai, and southwest Eshan counties. 3,300 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 6,600 (Bradley 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Dialects: None known. Related to Samtao [stu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern

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Chinese
[zho] Population total all languages: 1,197,294,060. Comments: Includes: Gan Chinese [gan], Hakka Chinese [hak], Huizhou Chinese [czh], Jinyu Chinese [cjy], Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Min Bei Chinese [mnp], Min Dong Chinese [cdo], Min Nan Chinese [nan], Min Zhong Chinese [czo], Pu-Xian Chinese [cpx], Wu Chinese [wuu], Xiang Chinese [hsn], Yue Chinese [yue].

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Chinese Sign Language
[csl] Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: China Coast Pidgin, Zhongguo Shouyu Dialects: Southern Chinese Sign Language (Shanghai Sign Language). Survey needed. Few signs of foreign origin. Negative clauses reportedly share similarity with British Sign Language. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Developed late 1980s. There are also Chinese character signs. Others use home sign languages. 550 schools for the deaf, 77 schools for the deaf and the blind. In addition to signs, Chinese Sign Language also uses an alphabetic spelling system (analogous to pinyin in Mandarin [cmn]) and can signify tones with facial gestures. Shanghai Sign Language is the prestige dialect.

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Chinese, Gan
[gan] Jiangxi Province and southeast corner of Hubei Province, including Dachi, Xianning, Jiayu, Chongyang, and parts of Anhui; east Hunan and Fujian provinces. Chang-Jing in Nanchang city, Xiuhui, and Jing’an; Yi-Liu in Yichun (Ichun) in Jiangxi, Liuyang in Hunan. 20,600,000 (1984). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Gan, Jiangxi hua, Jiangxinese, Kan Dialects: Chang-Jing, Datong, Dongsui, Fu-Guang, Hauiyue, Ji-Cha, Leizi, Nanchang, Yilu (Yi-Liu), Ying-Yi. Marginally intelligible with Mandarin [cmn] and Wu [wuu] Chinese. Lexical similarity: with Hakka Chinese [hak]. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Nanchang is representative dialect.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Widespread with other dialects. Greatest concentration in east and northeast Guangdong Province; also in west and southwest Fujian, south Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, Sichuan, and Hainan provinces. 25,700,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 30,082,810. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Hakka, Hokka, Ke, Kechia, Kejia, Majiahua, Tu Guangdonghua, Xinminhua Dialects: Changting, Hailu, Huayang, Huizhou, Ning-Long (Longnan), Pingdong, Tingzhou (Min-Ke), Tonggu, Yuebei, Yue-Tai (Meixian, Raoping, Taiwan Kejia), Yuezhong, Yugui. Yue-Tai (Meixian) is standard dialect. Lexical similarity: with Gan Chinese [gan]. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Huizhou
[czh] South or southeast Anhui Province, Huizhou region, Jixi, She (Xi), Ningguo, Jingde, Tunxi, Xiuning, Yi, Qimen, and Dongzhi counties; north and west Zhejiang Province, Chun’an county, Jiande municipality; northeast Jiangxi Province, Wuyuan, Dexing, and Fuliang counties. 4,600,000 (2000 census). Jixi dialect: 988,000; Xiuyi dialect: 861,000; Qide dialect: 798,000; Yanzhou dialect: 638,000; Jingzhan dialect: 134,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Hui, Huizhou Dialects: Jingzhan, Jixi, Qide, Tunxi, Xiuyi, Yanzhou. Formerly considered part of Jianghuai dialect of Mandarin Chinese [cmn], but now considered by many a major dialect of Chinese. Dialects reportedly differ greatly from each other. Different from Huizhou dialect of Hakka Chinese [hak]. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Jinyu
[cjy] Mainly Shanxi, Nei Mongol, and Shaanxi provinces; some in west Hebei, Henan, Beijing and Gansu provinces. 45,000,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Jin, Jinyu Dialects: Changzhi, Pingyao. Formerly considered part of Xibei Guanhua dialect of Mandarin Chinese [cmn], but now considered by many a separate major dialect of Chinese. Unlike Mandarin, it has contrastive glottal-checked syllables and other distinctive features. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Widespread north of Changjiang river, a belt south of the Changjiang from Qiujiang (Jiangxi) to Zhenjiang (Jiangsu), Hubei Province, except southeast corner, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou provinces, northwest Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and northwest corner of Hunan Province. 840,000,000 in China (2000 census), increasing. 70% of Chinese language users speak a Mandarin dialect as L1. Population total all countries: 847,808,270. L2 users: 178,000,000 in China. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Beifang Fangyan, Guanhua, Guoyu, Hanyu, Huayu, Mandarin, Northern Chinese, Putonghua, Standard Chinese, Zhongguohua, Zhongwen Dialects: Huabei Guanhua (Northern Mandarin), Jinghuai Guanhua (Eastern Mandarin, Jiangxia Guanhua, Lower Yangze Mandarin), Xibei Guanhua (Northwestern Mandarin), Xinan Guanhua (Southwestern Mandarin). Speakers of Kokang variety in Myanmar are reportedly most similar to the dialect spoken in Yunnan Province, China. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: There are Mandarin speakers in all 56 official nationalities of China, but the majority in China are classified under Han, Manchu and Hui nationalities. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Confucianist, Daoist, Jewish, Muslim (Hui).

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Chinese, Min Bei
[mnp] North Fujian Province, 7 counties around Jian’ou. Some in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces. 10,300,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 10,304,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Min Pei, Northern Min Dialects: None known. The Chinese now divide Chinese Min into 5 major varieties: Min Nan [nan], Min Bei [mnp], Min Dong [cdo], Min Zhong [czo], and Pu-Xian [cpx]. Others say there are at least 9 varieties which are inherently mutually unintelligible. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Buddhist, Christian, Daoist.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Fujian Province, Fu’an in northeast to Fuzhou in east central; southern border, Zhejiang Province, near Luoyang. 8,820,000 in China (2000). Population total all countries: 9,115,930. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Eastern Min Dialects: Fuzhou (Foochow, Fuchow, Guxhou). The prestige dialect is spoken in Fujian. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] South Fujian, Guangdong, south Hainan, south Zhejiang, and south Jiangxi provinces. Xiamen in south Fujian and Jiangxi provinces; Hainan in Hainan; Leizhou on Leizhou peninsula of southwest Guangdong Province; Chao-Shan in far east corner of Guangdong Province in Chaozhou-Shantou area; Longdu is a dialect island around Zhongshan city and Shaxi in Guangdong Province, south of Guangzhou; Zhenan Min in southeast Zhejiang Province around Pingyang and Cangnan and on Zhoushan archipelago of northeast Zhejiang Province. 25,700,000 in China (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 46,619,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Minnan, Southern Min Dialects: Chao-Shan (Chaozhou, Choushan, Teochew), Hainan (Hainanese, Qiongwen Hua, Wenchang), Leizhou (Lei Hua, Li Hua), Longdu, Quanzhou (Chinchew), Xiamen (Amoy), Zhangzhou (Changchew), Zhenan Min. Amoy is the prestige dialect. Amoy and Taiwanese are easily mutually intelligible. Chao-Shan has difficult intelligibility with Amoy; Hainan quite different from other dialects. Most speakers in Thailand use Chaoshou dialect. Min Nan most widely distributed and influential Min variety. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Daoist.

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Chinese, Min Zhong
[czo] Central Fujian Province, Sha county, Yong’an and Sanming municipalities. 3,100,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Central Min Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Pu-Xian
[cpx] East central Fujian Province, Putian and Xianyou counties. 2,520,000 in China (2000). Population total all countries: 2,558,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Henghua, Hinghua, Hsienyu, Hsinghua, Putian, Putten, Xianyou, Xinghua Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Wu
[wuu] Jiangsu Province south of Changjiang river, east of Zhenjiang, on Chongming Island, mouth of and north of the Changjiang in Nantong area, Haimen, Qidong, and Qingjiang; Zhejiang Province south to Quzhou, Jinhua, and Wenzhou; southeast Anhui Province; Shanghai municipality; northeast Jiangxi Province; northern Fujian Province, Shangrao area. 77,200,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 77,202,480. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Jiangnan hua, Jiangsu-Zhujiang hua, Jiangzhe hua, Wu, Wuyue Dialects: Chongming, Chuqu, Danyang, Hangzhou, Jinhua, Jinhua (Kinhwa), Oujiang, Quzhou, Shanghai, Shaoxing, Suzhou, Taihu, Taizhou, Tangxi, Wenling, Wenzhou, Wuzhou, Xuanzhou, Youngkang, Zhenhai. Varieties of Taihu dialect are Piling, Su-Hu-Jia, Tiaoxi, Hangzhou, Lin-Shao, and Yongjiang; Chuqu subdialects are Chuzhou and Longqu; Xuanzhou varieties are Tongjing, Taigao, and Shiling. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Xiang
[hsn] Hunan Province, over 20 counties; parts of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guizhou and Hubei provinces. 36,000,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 36,000,290. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Hsiang, Hunan, Hunanese, Xiang Dialects: Changsha, Changyi, Jishou, Jishu, Jixu, Loudi, Luoshao, Shaoyang, Xupu, Yiyang. Linguistically between Mandarin [cmn] and Wu [wuu] Chinese and marginally intelligible with them. Reportedly becoming more similar to (southwestern) Mandarin [cmn] and is losing non-northern features. 3 main dialect groups: Changyi (includes Changsha and Yiyang), Luoshao (includes Loudi and Shaoyang), and Jixu (Jishu) (includes Xupu and Jishou). A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Mainly Guangdong, except Hakka-speaking areas northeast, and Min Nan-speaking areas east. and in east Guangxi provinces. Other areas: Hainan and Hunan provinces. 52,000,000 in China (1984). Population total all countries: 62,221,560. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Guangdong Province. Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Cantonese, Gwong Dung Waa, Yue, Yueh, Yuet Yue, Yueyu Dialects: Bobai, Cangwu, Gaolei (Gaoyang), Guangzhou, Guinan, Ping, Qinlian, Siyi (Hoisan, Schleiyip, Seiyap, Taishan, Toisan), Tengxian, Yangjiang, Zhongshan. The Guangzhou variety considered the standard. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese Comments: Many members of other nationalities in Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan also speak Yue dialects.

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Choni
[cda] South Gansu Province, east Gannan prefecture, Lintan, Zhuoni, Diebu, and Zhouqu counties; northern Sichuan Province. 154,000 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Chona, Chone, Cone, Jone, Zhuoni Dialects: Hbrugchu (Zhouqu), Thewo (Diebu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish

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Cun
[cuq] Hainan Province, north Dongfang county, south bank of Changhua river, north bank in Changjiang county. 80,000 (1999 O. Jueya). 47,200 monolinguals. Mainly children, elders, and some women. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Cunhua, Cun-Hua, Ngao Fon Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Hlai [lic]. Many loanwords from Chinese. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra Comments: Traditional religion.

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Darang Deng
[mhu] Southeast Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region, Chayu (Zayü) county along Dulai river valley, Xiazayu, Qu’antong, and Gayao townships, Nyingchi prefecture. 850 in China (1999 Sun Hong Kai). 750 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Darang, Darang Dengyu, Digaro, Digaro-Mishmi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Digarish Comments: Some Chinese scholars believe them to be in the Jingpo branch. Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Traditional religion.

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Daur
[dta] Nei Mongol Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hulun Buir league, Hailar prefecture, Morin Dawa (Molidawa) Daur autonomous banner, Oroqen autonomous banner and Ewenki autonomous banner; Heilongjiang Province, Nenjiang prefecture, Fuyu and Nehe counties; Qiqihar prefecture, Qiqihar city; northwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Tacheng prefecture (Ili dialect). 96,100 in China (1999 D. Ying), decreasing. 35,000 Buteha dialect, 35,000 Qiqiha’er dialect, 15,500 Haila’er dialect, 4500 Ili dialect. 24,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 132,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hulun Buir League (1984, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Act, Articles 10 and 21). Language of recognized nationality: Daur. Alternate Names: Daguor, Dagur, Dawar, Dawo’er, Tahuerh, Tahur Dialects: Buteha (Aihui, Bataxan, Butah, Darbin, Mergen, Nawen, Nemor), Haila’er (Hailar, Mokertu, Nantun), Ili, Qiqiha’er (Fularji, Jiangdong, Jingxi, Qiqihar, Tsitsikhar). Definitely distinct from other Mongolian languages (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Some identify Haila’er dialect as a dialect of Evenki [evn]. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Dagur Comments: Traditional religion.

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Dong, Northern
[doc] Area where west Hunan Province and north Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region meet, southeast Guizhou (Yuping autonomous county); Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 20 contiguous counties. 463,000 in China (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Dong. Alternate Names: Gam, Kam, Tong, Tung, Tung-Chia Dialects: None known. Zhanglu speech in Rongjiang County, Guizhou Province is standard variety. Reportedly similar to Mulam [mlm]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Northern Dong varieties, 71% with Southern Dong [kmc], 46% with Lakkia [lbc], 29% with Qabiao [laq], 26% with Hlai [lic], 24% with Gelao, 22% with Lachi [lbt], 6% with Hmong Njua [hnj], 4% with Iu Mien [ium]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kam; Dong is the Chinese name. Traditional way of life relatively undisturbed. Traditional religion.

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Dong, Southern
[kmc] Area where west Hunan Province and north Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region meet, southeast Guizhou (Yuping autonomous county); Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 20 contiguous counties. 1000000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dong. Alternate Names: Gam, Kam, Tong, Tung, Tung-Chia Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mulam [mlm]. Lexical similarity: 93% with Southern Dong dialects, 71% with Northern Dong [doc], 46% with Lakkia [lbc], 29% with Qabiao [laq], 26% with Hlai [lic], 24% with Gelao, 22% with Lachi [lbt], 6% with Hmong Njua [hnj], 4% with Iu Mien [ium]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Ethnic autonym: Kam; Dong is Chinese name. Traditional way of life relatively undisturbed. Traditional religion.

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Dongxiang
[sce] Southwest Gansu Province, Linxia Hui autonomous prefecture, 7 counties and a city; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Ili Kazak autonomous prefecture, Yining and Huocheng counties. 200,000 (Bradley 2007). Half in Suonanba dialect. 80,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 514,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Dongxiang. Alternate Names: Santa, Tung, Tunghsiang Dialects: Sijiaji, Suonanba (Xiaonan), Wangjiaji. Some intelligibility with Bonan [peh]. Minor dialect differences in pronunciation and borrowed words. Suonanba considered the standard. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Mongour Comments: 30% of vocabulary borrowed from Chinese. Muslim (Sunni).

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Drung
[duu] Dulong River dialect (5,500): Far northwest Yunnan Province, Gongshan Dulong-Nu autonomous county, both sides of Dulong river. Nu River dialect (8,500): From Gongshan Dulong-Nu autonomous county west to Chayu (Zayü) county in Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region; Bingzhongluo of Gongshang county and the Chawalong district of Chayu county in Tibet. 14,000 in China (2000 census). 8,500 in Nu River dialect, 5,500 in Dulong River dialect. Total population all countries: 14,000. Population total all countries: 14,225. 13,300 monolinguals. L2 users: Other speakers living among them use Drung as L2. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dulong. Dialects: Dulong River (Central Dulongjiang, Derung River, Northern Dulongjiang, Southern Dulongjiang), Nu River (Nujiang Dulong). Dialects reportedly inherently intelligible (Thurgood and LaPolla 2003). Nu River Drung is not the same as Tibeto-Burman Anong [nun], which is also in Myanmar. Different from Rawang [raw] in Myanmar. Other possible dialect names are Melam, Metu, Tamalu, and Tukiumu. Lexical similarity: 74% with Matwang dialect of Rawang [raw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish Comments: Ethnonym: Qiuzu is an old term for the people. Traditional religion.

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Duoluo
[giw] North central Guizhou Province, Zunyi county, Jianshan village; Zhijin county, Agong village; Langdai county, Zhuijiao and Ruojiao villages; Guanling county, Dingyinxiao village. Also in Guangxi Province, Longlin county, Muji village. Tu’lu is spoken in Yunnan Province, Malipo. 1,200 in China (1987 Z. Guo-qiao). Population total all countries: 1,220. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: Bai Gelo, White Gelao Dialects: Tu’lu. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra

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Dzao Min
[bpn] Northern Guangdong Province, Liannan and Yangshan counties; south Hunan Province, Yizhang county. 60,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Ba Pai Yao, Yao Min, Yau Min, Zaomin Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Mienic languages. Lexical similarity: 61% with Iu Mien [ium], 59% with Kim Mun [mji], 58% with Biao-Jiao Mien [bje]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Zaomin Comments: Daoist.

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E
[eee] North Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Rongshui Hmong autonomous county, Yongle district, Xiatan, Simo, Xinglong (Xingyou) and other villages; Luocheng Mulam autonomous county border areas. 30,000 (Edmondson 1992). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Eahua, Kjang E, “Wuse Hua” (pej.), “Wusehua” (pej.) Dialects: A mixed language, with large amounts of Tuguai Hua (also called Pinghua, a Yue Chinese [yue] dialect) and Guiliu Hua (a southwest Mandarin [cmn] dialect) vocabulary, tone category, voice quality, and some word structure. The grammar has been more resistant to Chinese influence. Chinese scholars consider E a mixture of Northern Zhuang languages, Mulam [mlm], Dong [doc] and Chinese. Classification: Mixed language Comments: Ethnic autonym: E. Northern Zhuang languages are not used. Traditional religion.

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Enu
[enu] South Yunnan Province, Simao municipality, Mojiang county, Yayi, Baliu, and Sinanjiang townships; Jiangcheng county, Jiahe and Qushui townships; Honghe prefecture, Luchun county. 30,000 (Dai Qingxia and Duan Kuangle 1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Ximoluo Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Biyo [byo] (17 % of similarities are Han loanwords that both have borrowed), 74% with Kaduo [ktp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Ximoluo is an exonym given to Enu by other Hani peoples. Not known if it is pejorative.

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Ersu
[ers] South central Sichuan Province, lower reaches of the Dadu river; Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Ganluo, Yuexi, Mianning, and Muli counties; Ya’an prefecture, Shimian and Hanyuan counties; Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Jiulong county; dispersed among Yi, Chinese, and Tibetan peoples. 20,000 (Shearer and Sun Hong Kai 2002), decreasing. Eastern Ersu (Ersu) 13,000, Central Ersu (Duoxu) 10 or less, Western Ersu (Lizu) 4,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bu’erci, Bu’erzi, Bu’erzi Ersu, Doxu, Duoxu, Erhsu, Lizu, Lusu, T’osu Dialects: Duoxu (Central Ersu), Ersu (Eastern Ersu), Lisu (Liru, Lüzü, Western Ersu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Ersuish Comments: Traditional religion.

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Evenki
[evn] Nei Mongol Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hulunbuir banners; Ewenki, Moriadawa, Oronchon, Chen Bargu, Arong, Ergune East, and Huisuomu; Heilongjiang Province, Nale prefecture; a few in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. 11,000 in China (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 17,130. Ethnic population: 30,500 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Ewenki. Alternate Names: Ewenk, Ewenke, Ewenki, Khamnigan, Owenke, Solon, Solong, Sulong, Suolun Dialects: Aoluguya (Olguya), Chenba’erhu (Old Bargu), Haila’er, Huihe (Hoy), Morigele (Mergel). Standard dialect is Huihe. Dialectal differences within Evenki are small and the case for regarding Evenki and Orochen as separate languages is weak (Salminen 2007). Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Northern, Evenki Comments: Ethnic autonym: Solon in China, but also now use the official name Ewenke. Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Ge
[hmj] East central Guizhou Province, Huangping county, Chong’an township; Kaili municipality, Longchang township. 60,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Chonganjiang Miao, Ge Jia, Gedang, Gedong, Gedou, Gedou Miao, Gedoudiu, Gedu, Gejia, Ge-Mong, Gho-mhon, Keh Deo Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Given special status as Gejia in Guizhou Province. Traditional religion.

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Gelao, Red
[gir] Yunnan Province, Wenshan prefecture, Malipo county. A few speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra

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Geman Deng
[mxj] Xizang Province, southeast corner of Tibet Autonomous Region, Chayu (Zayü) county, Nyingchi prefecture, several townships, on tablelands either side of lower reaches of Chayu (Zayü) river in their own small villages. 200 in China (1999 Sun Hong Kai), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaman, Keman, Miji, Miju, Mishmi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Mijish Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined nationality. Some Chinese linguists believe the language to be similar to Jingpo [kac]. Traditional religion.

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Gepo
[ygp] Northeast Yunnan Province, Luquan, Fumin, Xundian, Luxi, Shizong, Luoping, Malong, Songming, Huize, Mile, Shilin, and Dongchuan counties. 100,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Baiyi, Gepu, Guo, Gupu, Guzu, Jiantouyi, Köpu, Nasu, Pingtouyi Dialects: Luquan Naso, Wuding Naisu. Related to Nasu [ywq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern

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Groma
[gro] Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region, Chambi Valley, between Sikkim and Bhutan. 12,800 in China (1993). Population total all countries: 26,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Tromowa Dialects: Lower Groma, Upper Groma. Possible dialects or related languages: Spiti, Tomo (Chumbi). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Guiqiong
[gqi] West central Sichuan Province, Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, 4 townships: Shiji, Maibeng, Qianqi, Shelian West; also Guza town; plateaus on both sides of north Dadu river. 6,000 (2000 Sun Hong Kai). 1,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,000 (2000 D. Bradley). About 1,000 ethnic Guiqiong reportedly understand Guiqiong, but do not speak it. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Guichong, Guiqiang, Yutong Dialects: Phonological dialect differences, but communication is possible. 2 or 3 varieties have difficult mutual intelligibility. Loanwords from Tibetan and Chinese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Hagei
[giq] North central Guizhou Province, Renhuai county, Anliang and Taiyang villages; Zunyi county, Qinglong village; Qingzhen county, Maixiang village; Zhenning county, Huajiangzhen and Ma’ao villages; Qinglong county, Liangshuiyang; Guanling county, Dingying village. Also in Guangxi Province, Longlin county, Sanchong village. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: Hakei Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra

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Hani
[hni] South Yunnan Province, Jingdong and Jinggu counties, Yuanjiang and Lancang (Mekong) river basins, Ailao mountains. 740,000 in China (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 758,620. 444,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Hanhi, Hani Proper, Haw Dialects: Hani has numerous dialects and is reportedly fairly similar to Akha [ahk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Includes Hani, Akha, Biyo, Kaduo, Honi, and other groups, all speaking Southern Ngwi languages. The Hanhi ethnic group in Viet Nam and Laos speak Hani. Traditional religion.

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Hlai
[lic] Central and southern Hainan Province, Wanning, Tunchang, Danxiang, Chengmai, Baisha. 667,000 (1999 O. Jueya). 160,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,248,000 (2000 census). Includes about 52,300 Jiamao [jio] speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Li. Alternate Names: Bli, Dai, Day, Dli, Klai, La, Lai, Le, Li, Loi, Slai Dialects: Bendi (Baisha-Yuanmen, Local Li, Zwn), Ha (Luohua-Hayan-Baoxian), Meifu (Moifau), Qi (Gei, Tongshi-Qiandui-Baocheng). Some dialects may be separate languages. Matisoff (1988) lists 8 varieties: Baoding, Xifang, Tongshi, Baisha, Qiandiu, Heitu, Yuanmen, and Baocheng. Luowo subdialect of Ha dialect is considered the standard. Lexical similarity: 27% with Gelao, 26% with Dong [doc] and Qabiao [laq], 25% with Lachi [lbt]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Hlai Comments: Together with speakers of Jiamao [jio]. Traditional culture. Traditional religion.

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Hlersu
[hle] Central Yunnan Province, Zhenyuan and Shuangbai counties, scattered mountaintop locations; Yuanjiang county, 38 villages; Xinping county, 40 villages; Eshan county, 6 villages; Shiping county, 5 villages. 15,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Lesu, Sansu, Shansu Dialects: None known. Related to Lolopo [ycl]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central

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Hmong
[hmn] Population total all languages: 7,708,420. Comments: Includes: Central Huishui Miao [hmc], Central Mashan Miao [hmm], Chuanqiandian Cluster Miao [cqd], Eastern Huishui Miao [hme], Eastern Qiandong Miao [hmq], Eastern Xiangxi Miao [muq], Ge [hmj], Hmong Daw [mww], Hmong Njua [hnj] (Laos), Horned Miao [hrm], Large Flowery Miao [hmd], Luopohe Miao [hml], Northern Guiyang Miao [huj], Northern Huishui Miao [hmi], Northern Mashan Miao [hmp], Northern Qiandong Miao [hea], Sinicized Miao [hmz], Small Flowery Miao [sfm], Southern Guiyang Miao [hmy], Southern Mashan Miao [hma], Southern Qiandong Miao [hms], Southwestern Guiyang Miao [hmg], Southwestern Huishui Miao [hmh], Western Mashan Miao [hmw], Western Xiangxi Miao [mmr].

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Hmong Daw
[mww] South and southwest Guizhou Province, northwest Guangxi, southeast and southwest Yunnan provinces. 233,000 in China (2004). Population total all countries: 1,698,400. Ethnic population: All Hmong in China: 8,950,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Banded Arm Hmong, Hmong Dleu, Hmong Qua Mpa, Meo Do, Meo Kao, Mong Do, Mong Trang, Pe Miao, Peh Miao, Striped Arm Hmong, Striped Hmong, White Hmong, White Lum, White Meo, White Miao Dialects: None known. Largely intelligible with Hmong Njua [hnj], but sociolinguistic factors require separate literature for Hmong Daw. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] Southeast Yunnan Province, Maguan and Malipo counties, scattered areas to west; far west Guangxi, southwest Guizhou and south Sichuan provinces. 40,000 in China (Hattaway 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Miao, Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Mong Leng, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Unique in culture and language from other Miao groups.

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Honi
[how] South Yunnan Province, east Simao prefecture, Mojiang Hani, Pu’er Hani, Yi, and Dai autonomous counties; Yuxi municipal prefecture, Yuanjiang Hani, Yi, and Dai autonomous counties. 140,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Baihong, Hao-Bai, Haoni, Ho, Ouni, Uni, Woni Dialects: Baihong, Haoni. Dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Language is distinct from Hani proper. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Horpa
[ero] Sichuan Province, Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Daofu (rTau, sTau, Dawu), Luhuo, Xinlong (Brag-’go), Danba (Rong-brag), and Xinlong (Nyagrong) counties. 45,000 (Shearer and Sun Hong Kai 2002). sTau: 23,000, Geshitsa: 21,000, Nyagrong-Minyak: 1,000. 15,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bawang, Bopa, Danba, Daofu, Daofuhua, Dawu, Ergong, Geshitsa, Geshiza, Geshizahua, Hor, Hórsók, Huo’er, Nyagrong-Minyag, Pawang, Rgu, rTau, sTau, Western Gyarong, Western Jiarong, Xinlong-Muya Dialects: Geshitsa (Geshiza), Nyagrong-Minyag (Xinlong-Muya), sTau (Daofu, Dawu, rTau). The dialects of Horpa reportedly are not mutually intelligible. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, rGyalrongic Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Hu
[huo] Southwest Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Mengla and Jinghong counties, 5 villages, including Nahuopa village in Jinghong, Mengyang township. 1,000 (Li Jinfang 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Possibly a dialect of U [uuu]. 76% similar lexically with U of Shuangjiang County. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Traditional religion.

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Ili Turki
[ili] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Ili Kazak autonomous prefecture, Tekes, Nilka, Xinyuan, Gongliu, Zhaosu, and other counties, Ili valley near Kuldja. 120 in China (1980 R. Hahn), decreasing. The language of about 30 families (Salminen 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Uzbek. Alternate Names: Ili Turk, Tuerke, Tu’erke, T’urk Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern Comments: Ethnically and linguistically distinct, discovered in 1956. Their oral history says they came from the Ferghana Valley (Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan) about 200 years ago. Muslim (Sunni).

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Iu Mien
[ium] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Dayao mountains; Guangdong Province, Ruyuan county, Yunnan and Hunan provinces; Guizhou Province, Rongjiang, Congjiang, and Libo counties. some in Jiangxi Province. 383,000 in China (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Population total all countries: 819,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Ban Yao, Highland Yao, Mian, Mien, Myen, Pan Yao, Yao, Yiu Mien, Youmian Dialects: Guoshan Yao. Dialects may not be intelligible. Biao Mon [bmt] may be a dialect of Iu Mien. Differences from other Mienic languages are in the tone system, consonants, vowel quality, vowel length. Chinese linguists consider the Iu Mien spoken in Changdong, Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi to be the standard. May be most similar to Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kim Mun [mji], 70% with Biao-Jiao Mien [bje], 61% with Dzao Min [bpn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin Comments: Ethnic groups: Hua Lan, Hua, Hung, Cao Long, Coc, Khoc, Quan Coc, Quan Trang, Son Trang, Sung, Tien (Tiao Tchaine), Yaya. The Lakkia, Mun, Bunu languages, plus speakers of other Mienic and Hmongic languages, and ethnic Yao who speak Chinese, are officially classified within Yao nationality in China. Pingdi Yao (Piongtuojo, Piongtoajeu) is a variety of Chinese with 1,000,000 speakers, half of whom are members of Yao nationality, Guangdong Province, Hunan-Guangxi border. Daoist, traditional religion.

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Jiamao
[jio] South Hainan Province, Baoting, Lingshui, and Qiongzhong counties, near Wuzhi mountain. 52,300 (Wurm et al. 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Li. Alternate Names: Gevou, Kamau, Ku vou, Tai Dialects: Considered by Chinese linguists a dialect of Hlai [lic], but very different from Hlai dialects in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Hlai Comments: Together with Hlai [lic] speakers. Traditional religion.

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Jiarong
[jya] North central Sichuan Province. Situ is in the traditional territory of 4 chieftaincies: Zhuokeji, Suomo, Songgang, Dangba. Chabao is in northeast corner of Maerkang county, Chabao district, Longerjia, Dazang, and Shaerzong townships. Sidaba is in Maerkang county, Sidaba district, Caodeng, Kangshan, and Ribu townships; north in southwest corner of Aba county, Kehe and Rongan townships; west along middle Duke river, Rangtang county, between Wuyi and Shili townships; and Seda county at the confluence of Seda and Duke rivers, a small town. 83,000 (1999 Sun Hong Kai). 25,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 151,000 (Lin Xiangrong 1993). Includes 139,000 in Situ Jiarong, 12,200 in Chabao and Sidaba. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Chiarong, Gyarong, Gyarung, Jarong, Jyarung, Keru, Rgyarong Dialects: Chabao (Central Jiarong, Dazang, Northeastern Jiarong, Northern Jiarong), Sidaba (Caodeng, Northwestern Jiarong, Western Jiarong), Situ (Eastern Jiarong). Varieties of Situ are: Ma’erkang, Lixian, Jinchuan (Dajin), and Xiaojin. Varieties of Sidaba are Caodeng and Ribu. Western and Northern phonology are fairly similar but differ greatly from Eastern. Dialects are likely three separate mutually unintelligible languages. Lexical similarity: 75% between Eastern and Northern Jiarong (with significant phonological differences), 60% between Western and Northern, 13% between the Situ dialect and Horpa [ero]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, rGyalrongic Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Jingpho
[kac] West Yunnan Province, Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Yingjiang, Longchuan, and Ruili counties; Baoshan prefecture,Tengchong county. 40,000 in China (1999 X. Xijian). 20,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 132,000 (2000 census). Includes Atsi [atb], Maru [mhx] and Lashi [lsi] speakers (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Jingpo. Alternate Names: Chingpaw, Chingp’o, Dashanhua, Jinghpaw, Jingpo, Kachin, Marip Dialects: Dulong, Dzili (Jili), Enkun (Nkhum, Nkhumka), Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Gauri, Hkauri, Kauri, Kauzhika, Khauri), Mengzhi, Shidan (Satanka, Xidan). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho Comments: Also includes Zaiwa [atb], Maru [mhx], and Lashi [lsi] speakers. Kachin refers to the cultural rather than the linguistic group. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Jinuo, Buyuan
[jiy] South Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, near Laos and Myanmar borders, east of Jinghong. Youle mountains. 40 villages. 1,000 (1994). Most monolingual. Ethnic population: All Jinuo: 20,900 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Jinuo. Alternate Names: Buyuan, Jino Dialects: Buyuan and Youle dialects not inherently intelligible. Chinese used for communication. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion.

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Jinuo, Youle
[jiu] South Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, near Laos and Myanmar borders, east of Jinghong. Youle mountains. 40 villages. 10,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: All Jinuo: 20,900 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Jinuo. Alternate Names: Jino, Youle Dialects: Youle and Buyuan dialects not mutually inherently intelligible. Chinese used to communicate. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kaduo
[ktp] Yunnan Province, primarily southeast Simao prefecture, Pu’er, Mojiang, and Jiangcheng counties. 180,000 in China (Bradley 2007), increasing. Population total all countries: 185,000. Many monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Khatu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Different from Kadu [zkd] in Myanmar.

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Kalmyk-Oirat
[xal] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Jungaria region; Qinghai Province, Kukunor region, Lake Qinghai northwest; Nei Mongol, western Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Alashan league; Gansu Province northern border area. 130,000 in China (Salminen 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (1984, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Act, Articles 10 and 21). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Alternate Names: Oirat, Weilate, Western Mongol, Xinjiang Mongolian Dialects: Bayit, Dorbot, Jakhachin, Khoshut (Khoshuud), Kök Nur (Qinghai), Mingat, Olot (Eleuth, Elyut, Ööld), Torgut (Torghut, Tu’erhute). Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat

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Kang
[kyp] Southwest Yunnan Province. 34,100 in China (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Tai Khang Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Related ethnic groups, dialects, or languages in the area: Chang Teo Fah, Kentse, Mengka (Mengkah).

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Kangjia
[kxs] Qinghai Province, Tongren county. 1,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Hui. Alternate Names: Kangyang Hui Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Mongour Comments: Muslim (Jahaliyah).

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Kathu
[ykt] Yunnan Province, Guangnan county, Balong district. Possibly in Guangxi Province. 5,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Gasu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Katso
[kaf] Yunnan Province, Yuxi prefecture, Tonghai county, Xingmeng Mongolian autonomous township. 4,000 (Bradley 1997), decreasing. Most young people are semi-speakers, speaking Chinese instead (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 6,340 (Bradley 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Alternate Names: Gazhuo, Gezhuo, Kazhuo Dialects: None known. All are proficient in Southwest Mandarin [cmn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern Comments: Remnants of an outpost dating back to the Yuan Dynasty.

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Kazakh
[kaz] Northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Yili Kazakh autonomous prefecture; eastern Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Mulei Kazakh autonomous county, Balikun Kazakh autonomous county; northwest Gansu Province, Akesai Kazakh autonomous county; northwest Qinghai Province. 1,250,000 in China (2000 census). 830,000 Northeastern Kazakh, 70,000 Southwestern Kazakh (1982). 1,060,000 monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Language of recognized nationality: Kazakh. Alternate Names: Hazake, Kazak, Kazax Dialects: Northeastern Kazakh, Southwestern Kazakh. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian Comments: Muslim (Sunni), traditional religion.

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Kemiehua
[kfj] Southwest Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Jinghong county. 1,000 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Traditional religion.

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Khakas
[kjh] Heilongjiang Province, Fuyu county, north of Qiqihar. 10 in China (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 880. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Kyrghyz. Alternate Names: Abakan Tatar, Fuyü Gïrgïs, Fuyu Ka’erkezi, Hakasi, Khakhas, Khakhass, Manchurian Kirghiz, Yenisei Tatar Dialects: Beltir, Kacha, Kamassian, Kyzyl, Sagai, Shor. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Khlula
[ykl] Yunnan Province, southeast Wenshan county, Liujin township; north and central Maguan county, Renhe, Dalishu, Muchang, and Miechang townships. 21,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 34,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Alapha, Black Phula, Black Zokhuo, Hei Phula, Mo, Namupha, Pao, Phulapha, Shaoji Phula, Sifter Basket Phula, Tula, Zokhuo Na Dialects: Dalishu, Liujing, Muchang. Closely related to Zokhuo [yzk]; some marriage networks maintained with Hlepho Phula [yhl], but not mutually intelligible with either language. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Khmu
[kjg] Southwest Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Jinghong county, 9 villages, some in Mengla county. 1,600 in China (1990). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chaman, Damai, Damailao, Damaile, Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Kemu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Khomu, Lao Terng, Mou, Pouteng, Theng Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality.

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Khuen
[khf] 1,000 in China (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khouen, Khween, Kween Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’

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Kim Mun
[mji] Guizhou Province, Quiandongnan Miao and Dong autonomous prefecture, Congjiang county. 200,000 in China (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). 61,000 in Hainan Province (2000 census). Population total all countries: 374,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. The majority officially classified within Yao nationality. Alternate Names: Chasan Yao, Gem Mun, Hainan Miao, Jim Mun, Jinmen, Kem Mun, Kimmun, Lan Tin, Lanten, Lowland Yao, Man Lantien, Men, Mun, Shanzi Yao Dialects: Dao Ho, Dao Quan Trang. Not intelligible with Iu Mien [ium]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Iu Mien [ium], 67% with Biao-Jiao Mien [bje], 59% with Dzao Min [bpn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin Comments: The largest Yao group after Iu Mien. Daoist.

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Kon Keu
[kkn] Southwest Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna autonomous prefecture; Dai Lincang, Baoshan or Simao prefectures. Possibly also in Myanmar or Laos. 6,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Alternate Names: Kongge Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: Traditional religion.

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Korean
[kor] 60% of Korean speakers live in Jilin (Kirin) Province, in Yanbian (Hyanbian) Korean autonomous prefecture; 20% live in Heilongjiang Province; 13% in Liaoning Province; some in Beijing Municipality, Hebei and Shandong provinces, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. 2,710,000 in China (2012 census). 1,200,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality: Chaoxian (Korean). Alternate Names: Chaoxian, Hanguohua Classification: Language isolate Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Kua-nsi
[ykn] Yunnan Province, Heqing county, Liuhe township. 5,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Baiyi ren, Kua’ensi, Kua’eshi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kuamasi [yku] and Sonaga [ysg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Kuamasi
[yku] Yunnan Province, Heqing county, Liuhe township. 1,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sonaga [ysg] and Kua-nsi [ykn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Kuanhua
[xnh] Southwest Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Jinghong county. 1,000 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Damai Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality, but are locally considered part of Khmu peoples. Traditional religion.

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Kucong
[lkc] Central Yunnan Province, Jinping, Luchun, Jiangcheng, Mengla, Yuanjiang, Xinping, Jinggu, and other counties. 40,000 in China (Bradley 2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Alternate Names: Cosung, Lahlu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central

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Kyerung
[kgy] Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region, Western Central Tibet, Shigatse prefecture, Kyirong district, lower Kyirong (26 villages) and Lende valley (16 villages). 100 in China (2002). Population total all countries: 600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Kyerong, Kyirong Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar with Kagate [syw]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 83% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Kyrgyz
[kir] West and southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Wuqia, Akqi, Akto, Tekes, Zhaosu, Baicheng, and Wushi counties. 160,000 in China (2000 census). 60,000 Northern Kirghiz, 40,000 Southern Kirghiz (Shearer and Sun Hong Kai 2002). Older adults monolingual. Ethnic population: 161,000 (2000 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (1984, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Act, Articles 10 and 21). Language of recognized nationality: Kyrgyz. Alternate Names: Kara, Ke’erkez, Kirgiz Dialects: Northern Kyrgyz, Southern Kyrgyz. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian Comments: Muslim (Sunni), traditional religion.

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Lachi
[lbt] Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefectures, southern Maguan county, several villages. 200 in China (Bradley 2007), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,600. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: I To, Ku Te, La Chi, Laji, Lati, Lipuljo, Tai Lati, Y Mia, Y Poong, Y To Dialects: Lipuke (Red Lachi), Lipuliongtco (Flowery Lachi), Lipupi (Long-Haired Lachi), Liputcio (Han Lachi), Lipute (Bag Lachi), Liputiõ (Black Lachi). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra Comments: Ethnic Lachi in Nanlao (Bag Lachi), Renhe (Han or Sinocized Lachi), Jiahanqing (Han or Sinocized Lachi) and Xiaobazi (Red Lachi) no longer speak Lachi fluently, but understand some.

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Ladakhi
[lbj] Western Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region. 12,000 in China (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Ladak, Ladaphi, Ladhakhi, Ladwags Dialects: Leh (Central Ladakhi), Nubra Ladakhi, Shamma (Lower Ladakhi, Sham, Shamskat). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Lahu
[lhu] Southwest Yunnan Province, Simao prefecture, Lancang Lahu, Menglian Dai, Lahu, and Va autonomous counties; Lincang prefecture, Gengma Dai, and Va autonomous counties. 280,000 in China (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 530,350. L2 users: Some speakers of other languages use Lahu as L2 for commerce. Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Alternate Names: Kaixien, Kucong, Kutsong, Lahuna, Laku, Lohei, Moso, Muhso, Mussar, Musso, Mussuh, Namen Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Lohei, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Musse Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Standard dialect: Na. Black Lahu dialect and Lahu Shi [lhi] have difficult intelligibility. Lahu Shi and Kucong Lahupu (White Lahu dialect, in Zhenyuan County, China) are distinct. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Lahu Shi
[lhi] South Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Menghai district, Menghai county, Menghai township; Simao prefecture, Lancang Lahu autonomous county, Nuofu district, other areas. 117,000 in China (Bradley 2007), increasing. Population total all countries: 196,200. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 120,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Alternate Names: Kur, Kwi, Lahu Xi, Shi, Yellow Lahu Dialects: Bakeo, Banlan. Reportedly most similar to Lahu [lhu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central

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Lakkia
[lbc] Eastern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Jinxiu Yao autonomous county. 9,000 (Bradley 2007). 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Chashan Yao, Lajia, Laka, Lakia, Lakja, Lakkja, Tai Laka, Tea Mountain Yao Dialects: Phonetically similar to Iu Mien [ium], word order to Bunu [bwx]. Not intelligible with Hmong Djua [hnj] or Bunu. Minimal variation within Lakkia. Lexical similarity: 45% with Dong [doc], 23% with Lachi [lbt] and Qabiao [laq], 22% with Gelao. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Lakkja Comments: The language is nonetheless Tai-Kadai (1990 J-O. Svantesson). Daoist, traditional religion.

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Lalo, Central
[ywt] West Yunnan Province, Weishan, Fengqing, Midu, Changning, Jingdong, Nanjian, Yangbi, and Yunlong counties. 213,000 (2010 SIL). Over 500,000 in subgroup; many living further west, south or east do not speak the language; less than half are speakers, not all fluent and not many children (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Lalo, Lalopa, Laluo, Misapa, Xishanba Lalo Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Lalo languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Western Yi dialect. Traditional religion.

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Lalo, Dongshanba
[yik] West Yunnan Province, Weishan, Yangbi, Midu, Xiaguan, Yongping, Baoshan, and Lancang counties. 30,000 (2002). Over 500,000 in the ethnic group. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Lalu, Lalupa, Lalupu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Daoist, traditional religion.

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Lalu, Eastern
[yit] Yunnan Province, Xinping, Zhenyuan, Mojiang, and Yuanjiang counties. 38,000 (2002). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central

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Lalu, Western
[ywl] West Yunnan Province, in Baoshan, Shidian, Zhenkang, Longling, and Luxi counties. 38,000 (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lamu
[llh] Yunnan Province, Dali prefecture, northeast Binchuan county. 120 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 300. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central

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Lang’e
[yne] Yunnan Province, southwest Yongsheng county. 2,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: La’u Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central

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Laomian
[lwm] Yunnan Province, Lancang, Menglian, and Ximeng counties. Laopin dialect: Menghai county, Mengzhe township, Van Phin (Laopinzhai) village. 1,600 (2007), decreasing. 240 Laopin (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population does not include Laopin. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Alternate Names: Bisu, Guba, Lawmeh Dialects: Laopin. Reportedly similar to Pyen [pyy] and Bisu [bzi]. Lexical similarity: 93%–95% between Laopin and Laomian, 88% with Bisu [bzi] in Thailand. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid Comments: The name ‘Laomian’ is the Chinese derivation of the Lahu name ‘Lawmeh’.

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Lashi
[lsi] Yunnan Province, Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Luxi, Longchuan, Yingjiang, and Ruili counties. 1,800 in China (1997). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Jingpo. Alternate Names: Acye, Chashanhua, Lachikwaw, Laji, Laqi, Lasi, Leqi, Leshi, Letsi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern Comments: Intermixed with others of Jingpo nationality who use other languages, but call themselves Le Chi (Tshi).

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Lavrung
[jiq] North central Sichuan Province, southwest tip of Maerkang county, Jinchuan river tributaries; northwest Jinchuan county; southeast Rangtang county. 50,000 (1993 Lin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Guanyingqiao, Western Jiarong, Zhongzhai Dialects: Ere, Ergali, Guanyingqiao, Muerzong, Siyaowu, Taiyanghe, Xiaoyili, Yelong. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. Lexical similarity: 60% between Western and Northern Jiarong dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, rGyalrongic Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Lawu
[lwu] Yunnan Province, Yuxi prefecture, Xinping county, Shuitang district, Jiuha village. Possibly some speakers in Yunnan Province, Pu’er prefecture, Zhenyuan county, Jijujia district. 50 (2012 C. Yang). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Dialects: None known. Related to Central Lalo [ywt], Kucong [lkc], Lahu [lhu], and Lisu [lis]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central

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Lhaovo
[mhx] West Yunnan Province, Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Luxi, Longchuan, Yingjiang, Ruili, and Lianghe counties. 3,500 in China (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Jingpo. Alternate Names: Diso, Lang’e, Langwa, Laungaw, Laungwaw, Lawng, Liangsu, Malu, Maru, Matu, Nyky, Zi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern Comments: Different from the Matu variety of Khumi Chin [cnk]. Ethnic autonym: Lovo. Ethnonym: Langsu for Chinese; Maru for Jingpho. Maru speakers reportedly preserve ancient cultural characteristics more than other ethnic groups.

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Lhomi
[lhm] Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region. 1,000 in China. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Lhoket, Shing Saapa Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Limi
[ylm] Yunnan Province, Yongde, Fengqing, and Yunxian counties. 29,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Liumi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lingao
[onb] Hainan Province, north central coast, Lingao county, parts of Danxian, Chengmai, and Qiongshan counties, Haikou city suburbs. 600,000 (2000 Liang Min). 350,000 Lincheng, 170,000 Qiongshan. 100,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Bê, Limkow, Linkow, Ongbe, Ong-Be, Vo Limkou Dialects: Lincheng (Lingao Proper-Dengmai), Qiongshan. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Lakkja Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Lipo
[lpo] North central Yunnan Province, Luquan, Wuding, Lufeng, Yuanmo, Yongsheng, Dayao, Binchuan, Yuanmo, Yongren, and Yao’an counties; south Sichuan Province, Renhe county. 250,000 (Bradley 2007). Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Lisu. Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Only those in Dayao and Yongren counties of Western Chuxing Prefecture. Alternate Names: Central Lisu, Dayao, Eastern Lisu, Lolongo Dialects: Eastern Lipo, Western Lipo. Both dialects are reportedly similar to Lisu [lis], but neither is intelligible with Lisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Ethnonym: Lolopo or Lolongo prefered, especially in Yongren County. Christian, traditional religion.

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Lisu
[lis] West Yunnan Province, 11 prefectures, 63 counties, upper reaches of Salween and Mekong rivers; Sichuan Province, southwest Liangshan prefecture. 600,000 in China (2000 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 942,700. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Language of recognized nationality: Lisu.Some 7,000 members of the Nu nationality in China, and more in Myanmar, speak only Lisu. Alternate Names: Chedi, Cheli, Chung, Khae, Leisu, Leshuoopa, Lesuo, Li, Li-Hsaw, Lip’a, Lisaw, Li-Shaw, Lishu, Liso, Lissu, Loisu, Lusu, Lu-Tzu, Yao Yen, Yaw Yin, Yaw-Yen, Yeh-Jen Dialects: Bai Lisu (White Lisu), Dechang Lisu, Hei Lisu (Black Lisu), Hua Lisu (Flowery Lisu), Lu Shi Lisu, Ninglang Lisu, Northern Lisu, Nujiang Lisu, Shibacha Lisu, Western Lisu. Much dialectal variation; some do not understand each other. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lolopo
[ycl] Central Yunnan Province, Nanhua, Chuxiong, Yao’an, Jingdong, Shuangbai, Mouding, and Lufeng counties primarily. 380,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bai Yi, Central Yi, Gaoshanzu, Hei Yi, Lolopho, Lulupu, Luolu Dialects: Nanhua Lolopo, Shuangbai Lolopo, Yao’an Lolopo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lolopo, Southern
[ysp] Yunnan Province, Jingdong, Jinggu, Lancang, Zhenyuan, Simao, and Pu’er counties. 190,000 (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lopi
[lov] Yunnan Province, Yuanyang, Yuanjiang, and Mojiang counties. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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[khb] Southern Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, 3 counties: Jinghong (Chiang Hung, Chien Rung), Menghai, and Mengla; also a few in Simao municipal prefecture, Jiangcheng Hani and Yi Autonomous counties. 280,000 in China (2000 census). Population total all countries: 550,960. 140,000 monolinguals. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in South Yunnan and other places (1984, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Act, Articles 10 and 21). Language of recognized nationality: Dai.Some speakers of other languages use Lü as L2 for trade. Alternate Names: Dai, Dai Le, Lu, Lue, Ly, Pai’i’, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I, Sipsongpanna Dai, Tai Lu, Xishuangbanna Dai Dialects: Jinghong. Muang Yong and dialects in northern Thailand may converge phonologically with Northern Thai [nod] (Diller and Juntanamalaga 1990). Low intelligibility with Shan [shn] and Tai Nüa [tdd]. Different from Tai Nüa [tdd], each having their own literary tradition. Lexical similarity: 95% with Northern Thai [nod], 86% with Central Thai [tha], 92%–93% with Shan [shn], 92%–95% with Khün [kkh]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional Lü script is used in monastaries and reformed version used in some government functions. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Luoba, Boga’er
[adi] Southeast Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhunze and Mainling counties, south of Yaluzangjiang river, Luoyu area. 1,090 in China (1999 O. Jueya). 400 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Lhoba (Luoba). Alternate Names: Abor, Adi, Adi-Bokar, Bengni-Boga’er, Boga’er, Bokar, Lhoba, Lho-Pa Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani Comments: Different from Loke [loy] (Loba) in Nepal. Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Luoba, Yidu
[clk] Southeast Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region, Nyingchi prefecture, Chayu county, Xia Chayu (Zayu) zone, Xia Chayu (Zayu) and Ba’antong townships, in Danba river valley and adjoining mountain slopes, near Bhutan border. 80 in China (1999 Sun Hong Kai). 50 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Lhoba (Luoba). Alternate Names: Chulikata, Idu Lhoba, Idu Mishmi, Lhoba, Lho-Pa, Yidu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Digarish Comments: Different from Loke (Loba) [loy] in Nepal. 27% attended primary school, 31% have some degree of literacy. Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Mak
[mkg] Guizhou Province, northwest Libo county, Yangfeng, Fangcun, Jialiang, and Di’e villages; some in neighboring Dushan county. 5,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Bouyei. Alternate Names: Ching, Mo, Mochiahua, Mohua, Mo-Hua, Mojiahua Dialects: Chi, Ching (Cham), Hwa, Lyo, Mak. Dialect differences are minor. Reportedly similar to Ai-Cham [aih]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Traditional religion.

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Man Met
[mml] Southwest Yunnan Province, 5 communities in Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture near the Hu. 900 (1990 J-O. Svantesson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manmi, Manmit Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: Reportedly similar to Hu [huo]. Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Manchu
[mnc] Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, and Beijing provinces; Heilongjiang Province, a few Manchu-speaking villages in Aihui and Fuyu counties; small enclave in northeast Nei Mongol Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. 20 (Bradley 2007). Some additional semi-speakers in 3 remote villages (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 10,700,000 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Manchu (Man). Alternate Names: Man Dialects: Alechuxa, Bala, Jing, Lalin. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southwest Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Mang
[zng] Southeastern Yunnan Province, Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Jinping county, Mengla district; 4 villages: Nanguo Xin Zhai, Heping Zhong Zhai, Heping Xia Zhai, Dadui Leigongdaniu Zhai. 500 in China. Ethnic population: 1,220 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ba’e, Chaman, Manbu, Mang U, Nieng Ó, Xá Lá Vàng, Xá Mang, Xá Ó, Xamang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Mang Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Traditional religion.

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Maonan
[mmd] North central Guangxi, Huanjiang Maonan autonomous county, Xianan area: Yishan, Nandan, Yizhou; a few in Hechi and Du’an counties; small border area, south central Guizhou Province. 30,000 (GXLOUS 2005), decreasing. A few thousand women and children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 107,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Maonan. Alternate Names: Ai Nan Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Daoist, Christian.

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Miao, Central Huishui
[hmc] Central Guizhou Province, Huishui and Changshun counties, suburbs of south Guiyang municipality. 40,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Central Huishui Hmong Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. 30 to 40 different Hmong (Miao) languages in China. Great linguistic differences. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Central Mashan
[hmm] South central Guizhou Province, Ziyun, Wangmo, and Luodian counties. 70,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Central Mashan Hmong Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of other varieties of Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Chuanqiandian Cluster
[cqd] West Guizhou Province, west Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, south Sichuan and southeast and northeast Yunnan provinces. 1,400,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Chuanchientien Miao, Chuanqiandian Miao, Core Farwestern Hmongic, Hua Miao, Sichuan-Guizhou-Yunnan Miao, Western Miao Dialects: Bai Miao, Black Hmong, Black Meo, Black Mong, Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Ching Miao, Chuan Miao, Clear Water Hmong, Dananshan Miao, Dianxi Miao, Downhill Hmong, Flowery Meo, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Hei Miao, Hmong Be, Hmong Bua, Hmong Den, Hmong Dle Ncha, Hmong Dlo, Hmong Dou, Hmong Drout Raol, Hmong La, Hmong Len, Hmong Shi, Hmong Shua Bua, Hmong Sou, Hongxian Miao, Hua Miao, Hwa Miao, Light Hmong, Liuzhai Miao, Lu Miao, Luzhai Miao, Magpie Miao, Meo Dam, Meo Den, Meo Lai, Mong Hoa, Mong La Hou, Mong Leng, Mong Lenh, Mong Shi, Mong Si, Mountain Hmong, Paddyfield Miao, Qing Miao, Qingshui Miao, Red Mong, Red Thread Miao, Red-headed Hmong, River Miao, Sa Pa Hmong, Sichuan Miao, Six Village Miao, Striped Hmong, Tak Miao, Variegated Mong, Western Yunnan Miao, White Miao, Yaque Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Consider themselves Miao nationality.

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Miao, Eastern Huishui
[hme] Central and south Guizhou Province, Huishui, Pingba, and Luodian counties. 14,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Eastern Huishui Hmong Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Eastern Qiandong
[hmq] East Guizhou Province, Jianhe, Jinping, and Liping counties; west Hunan Province, Huitong, Jingzhou, and Tongdao counties. 350,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Black Miao, Central Miao, Chientung Miao, Eastern East-Guizhou Miao, Eastern Hmu, Hei Miao, Hmu Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of other Miao varieties. Corresponds more or less to Ma’s Central Miao and Purnell’s Eastern Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Eastern Xiangxi
[muq] West Hunan Province, Luxi, Guzhang, Jishou, and Longshan counties; some in Guizhou, Hubei, and Chongqing provinces, and in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. 80,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Eastern Ghao-Xong, Eastern Miao, Eastern West-Hunan Miao, Ghao-Xong, Hsianghsi Miao, Meo Do, Northern Miao, Red Meo, Red Miao Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of other varieties of Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Xiangxi Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Horned
[hrm] Northeast Yunnan Province, Zhenxiong county; northwest and central Guizhou Province, Dafang, Nayong, and Zhijin counties, Anshun, Guiyang, Bijie, and Qingzhen municipalities. 50,000 (Hattaway 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: A-Hmo, Bai Miao, Changjiao Miao, Forest Miao, Hmong Khua Shua Ndrang, Hmong Ndong, Hmong Ndou, Hmong Sou, Jiao Miao, Jiaojiao Miao, Kha-Nzi, Longhorn Miao, Qing Miao, White Miao Dialects: None known. May have inherent intelligibility of Small Flowery Miao [sfm] (1998 M. Johnson); not inherently intelligible with other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Consider themselves Miao nationality but unique in culture and language from other Miao groups.

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Miao, Large Flowery
[hmd] Northwest Guizhou Province, Weining, Hezhang, Shuicheng, Pu’an, Zhenning, and Ziyun counties, Liupanshui municipality; northeast and central Yunnan Province, Zhaotong area, Yongshan, Yiliang, Daguan, Suijiang, Qiaojia, Xundian, Fumin, Luquan, Lufeng, and Wuding counties, Xuanwei, Qujing, Kunming, Anning, and Chuxiong municipalities; south Sichuan Province, Panzhihua municipality. 300,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: A-Hmao, Big Flowery Miao, Da Hua Bei Miao, Da Hua Miao, Diandongbei Miao, Flowery Miao, Great Flowery Tribe, Hua Miao, Hwa Miao, Northeastern Dian Miao, Northeastern Yunnan Miao, Ta Hwa Miao Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Miao, Luopohe
[hml] Central Guizhou Province east of Guiyang, Weng’an, Guiding, Longli, and Kaiyang counties, Fuquan and Kaili municipalities. 61,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Most officially classified within Miao nationality, except for Xijia group. Alternate Names: Lobohe Miao, Luobo River Miao, Luobohe Hmong, Luopohe Hmong, Xi, Xijia Miao, Ximahe Miao Dialects: 2 dialects. Not inherently intelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Northern Guiyang
[huj] Central Guizhou Province, Jinsha, Qianxi, Xifeng, Kaiyang, Xiuwen, and Pingba Guiding counties, west Guiyang municipality suburbs. 84,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Northern Guiyang Hmong Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Northern Huishui
[hmi] Central Guizhou Province, Guiyang municipality, Gaopo district; Huishui, Longli and Guiding counties. 70,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Northern Huishui Hmong Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Northern Mashan
[hmp] South central Guizhou Province, Changshun, Luodian, and Huishui counties. 35,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Northern Mashan Hmong Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Northern Qiandong
[hea] East and south Guizhou Province, Majiang, Danzhai, Leishan, Taijiang, Huangping, Shibing, Jianhe, Zhenyuan, Sansui, Fuquan, Pingba, Zhenning, Xingren, Anlong, Guanling, Zhenfeng, and Ziyun counties, Kaili and Qingzhen municipalities; northwest Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Longlin county. 1,250,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Black Miao, Central Miao, Chientung Miao, East Guizhou Miao, Gha Ne, Gha Ne Dlai, Heh Miao, Hei Miao, Hmu, Northern East Guizhou Miao, Northern Hmu Dialects: Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. Corresponds more or less to Ma’s Central Miao and Purnell’s Eastern Miao. At least 4 dialects (vernaculars). The official standard variety of Qiandong Miao is based on Yanghao, but with some similarities to other varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Small Flowery
[sfm] West Guizhou Province, Hezhang, Guanling, Nayong, Shuicheng, and Zhenning counties. 84,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Atse, Ghab-Mvb Ghab-Svd, Ghuab-Hmongb Ghuab-Soud, Hsiao Hwa Miao, Xiao Hua Miao Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties (Hattaway 2000). A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Miao, Southern Guiyang
[hmy] South central Guizhou Province, Changshun, Ziyun, and Zhenning counties, Anshun municipality. 28,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Southern Guiyang Hmong Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Southern Mashan
[hma] South Guizhou Province, Wangmo county. 10,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Southern Mashan Hmong Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Southern Qiandong
[hms] Southeast Guizhou Province, Sandu, Danzhai, Libo, and Rongjiang Congjiang counties; north Guangxi Province, Rongshui and Sanjiang counties. 500,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). All Miao in China: 8,950,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Black Miao, Central Miao, Chientung Miao, Hei Miao, Hmu, Southern East-Guizhou Miao, Southern Hmu Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. Corresponds more or less to Ma’s Central Miao and Purnell’s Eastern Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Miao, Southwestern Guiyang
[hmg] Central Guizhou Province, Pingba and Changshun counties, suburbs of Guiyang, Qingzhen and Anshun municipalities. 70,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Southwestern Guiyang Hmong Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Southwestern Huishui
[hmh] Central Guizhou Province, Huishui, Sandu, and Changshun counties. 56,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Miao, Southwestern Huishui Hmong Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Western Mashan
[hmw] South Guizhou Province, Wangmo and Ziyun counties. 14,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Western Mashan Hmong Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Western Xiangxi
[mmr] Northwest Hunan Province, Huadan, Fenghuang, Baojing, Jishou, Guzhang, Longshan, and Xinhuang Mayang counties; northeast Guizhou Province, Songtao county, Tongren and southeast Chongqing municipalities; Xiushan and Youyang counties; southwest Hubei Province, Xuan’en county; north Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Hechi municipality; Nandan county. 820,000 (Wang Fushi and Mao Zhongwu 1995), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Eastern Miao, Ghao-Xong, Hsianghsi Miao, Huayuan Miao, Meo Do, Northern Miao, Red Meo, Red Miao, West Hunan Miao, Western Ghao-Xong, Western West-Hunan Miao Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Xiangxi Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mili
[ymh] Yunnan Province, Jingdong, Yunxian, Zhenyuan, and Xinping counties. 23,000 (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miqie
[yiq] Yunnan Province, Wuding (Jincheng, Jiuchang, and Chadian districts), north Fumin, north Lufeng, south Luquan counties, parts of Yongren, Dayao, Yao’an, Nanhua, Jingdong, Zhenyuan, Jinggu, and Yimen counties. 30,000 (Bradley 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Micha, Mielang, Minqi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central

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Moji
[ymi] Yunnan Province, south and southwest Wenshan county; west Xichou county, Luchaichong village; possibly east Fumin county. 2,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Flathead Phulai, Muji, Phula, Phulawa, Pingtou Phula Dialects: Luchaichong. Moji patterns with the Proto-Muji subgroup phylogenetically, but Luchaichong dialect (the most vital dialect) heavily influenced by contact with Khlula [ykl] and Zokhuo [yzk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Monba, Cuona
[twm] Southeast Xizang Tibetan Autonomous Region; Southern Cuona, Shannan prefecture, Cuona county, Lebu district, Northern Cuona, Linzhi prefecture, Motuo county, Dexing district, Wenlang village. 1,300 in China (2000 census). 600 Southern Cuona, 700 Northern Cuona. Less than half monolingual: Young children, older people, some young adults. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Menba. Alternate Names: Buruomiba, Cona Monba, Cuona Menba, Cuona Monpa, Dakpa, Dwags, Menba, Menpa, Moinba, Momba, Mompa, Monba, Monpa, Pramipa, Takpa, Tawan Monba Dialects: Northern Cuona, Southern Cuona. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish Comments: Cuona Monba [twm] differs from Tshangla in phonology, vocabulary, and grammar, and is not mutually intelligible. Shares many Tibetan language characteristics. Is the same as, or closely related to, Bumthangkha of Bhutan. May also be classified as North Assam, Monpa. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Mongolian, Peripheral
[mvf] Nei Mongol Province,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, Gansu, Ningxia, and Heilongjiang provinces, Urumchi to Hailar. 3,380,000 in China (1982). Population includes 299,000 Chakhar, 317,000 Bairin, 1,347,000 Khorain, 593,00 Karachin, 123,000 Ordos, 34,000 Ejine. 2,500,000 monolinguals. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and other places (1984, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Act, Articles 10 and 21). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Alternate Names: Inner Mongolian, Menggu, Monggol, Mongol, Southern-Eastern Mongolian Dialects: Chahar (Chaha’er, Chakhar, Qahar), Ejine, Jirim (Gorlos, Jalait, Kalaqin, Khorchin), Jostu (Eastern Tumut, Ke’erqin, Kharachin, Kharchin, Kharchin-Tumut), Jo-Uda (Bairin, Balin, Keshikten, Naiman), Ordos (E’erduosite), Shilingol (Ujumchin), Tumut (Tumet), Ulanchab (Mingan, Urat). Largely intelligible of Halh Mongolian [khk], but there are phonological and important loanword differences. A member of macrolanguage Mongolian [mon]. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper Comments: Includes China Buriat [bxu], Tuva [tyv], Kalmyk-Oirat [xal], and speakers of other varieties. In Xinjiang, Torgut, Oold, Korbet, and Hoshut peoples are known as the Four tribes of Oirat. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Muda
[ymd] Yunnan Province, Jinghong county, Nanpianshan district. 2,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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Muji, Northern
[ymx] Yunnan Province, south Mengzi county, Shuitian, Lengquan, and Qilubai townships; west Pingbian county, Xinxian township. 9,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bokha, Hlaka Mujima, Phula Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Southern Muji [ymc]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Muji, Qila
[ymq] Yunnan Province, south Jinping county. 2 isolated villages. 1,500 (2008), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Doka, Mujitsu, Phutsu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Muji, Southern
[ymc] Yunnan Province, north Jinping county; some in southwest and east Jinping county, south Mengzi county, southeast Gejiu county. 26,000 (Pelkey 2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 28,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Aga, Khlaka, Lahi, Muzi, Phula, Tjeki, Tshebu, Tshibu Dialects: Dazhai, Gamadi, Jinhe, Ma’andi, Tongchang, Yingpan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mulam
[mlm] North central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Hechi prefecture, Luocheng Mulao autonomous county (90% in Dongmen and Siba communes), also Yizhou county. 86,000 (2005 GXLOUS). Fewer than 10,000 monolinguals (including women and preschool children). Ethnic population: 210,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Mulam. Alternate Names: Abo, Kyam, Molao, Mulao, Mulao Miao, Muliao, Mulou Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Dong (probably Southern Dong [kmc]). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: They live near the Han, Dong [doc], Hmong Njua [hnj], and Iu Mien [ium]. They call themselves Mulam. Some around Luocheng call themselves Kyam. Different from the nearly extinct Western Kra Tai-Kadai language also called Mulao [giu], previously spoken by Gelao nationality people in Guizhou. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Mulao
[giu] Guizhou Province, Majiang county, Longli. A few elderly speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: Ayo Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra Comments: Mulao do not understand other Gelao languages. Not to be confused with Mulam [mlm].

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Muya
[mvm] West central Sichuan Province, Kangbo (Kangding) and Jiulong (Gyaisi), Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Simian (Shimian) county, Ya’an district. 10,000 (Bradley 2007), decreasing. 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Boba, Manyak, Menya, Minyag, Minyak, Miyao, Munya Dialects: Eastern Muya, Western Muya. Dialects reportedly not mutually inherently intelligible. Loanwords from Tibetan and Chinese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic Comments: Consider themselves Tibetan. Proper Tibetan Wylie spelling: Minyag. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Muzi
[ymz] Yunnan Province, south and east Gejiu county; west Mengzi county, scattered villages. 10,000 (2008). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Mogeha, Muji Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Notthern Muji [ymx]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Naluo
[ylo] Yunnan Province, southern Huaping and eastern Yongsheng counties; Sichuan, western Panzhihua city. 15,000 (Bradley 2007). Mostly in Yunnan, with about 2,000 in Pingjiang and Futian townships of Panzhihua (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Gan Yi, Laluo, Naruo, Shui Yi, Shuitian Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Namuyi
[nmy] Sichuan Province, Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Mianning, Muli, Xichang, and Yanyuan counties; southwest Sichuan, Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Jiulong (Gyaisi) county. 5,000 (Bradley 2007). 200 monolinguals. Mainly older adults. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Naimuci, Naimuzi Dialects: Eastern Namuyi, Western Namuyi. Low intelligibility between dialects, with lexical and phonological differences. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Naic Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Nanai
[gld] Northeast corner of Heilongjiang Province, near merge of Heilong, Songhua, and Wusuli rivers, Tongjiang county, Bacha and Jiejinkou villages; Raohe county, Sipai village. 40 in China (Salminen 2007). About half speak Sungari dialect, half speak Nanai proper (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,640 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Hezhe. Alternate Names: Gold, Goldi, Hezhe, Hezhen, Juchen, Nanay, Sushen Dialects: Qileng (Kilen, Kili, Kirin, Qile’en), Sungari. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj Comments: Formerly called Sushen. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Narua
[nru] Sichuan and Yunnan provinces border area near Lugu lake, Ninglang Yi autonomous county, Muli Tibetan autonomous county and Yanuyuan county. 47,000 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 47,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Sichuan Province speakers assigned to the Mongolian nationality. Language of recognized nationality: Naxi. Yunnan Province speakers officially classified within Naxi nationality. Alternate Names: Eastern Naxi, Moso, Mosso, Mosuo, Na, Naru, Nazu Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–60% with Naxi [nxq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Naic Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Nasu, Wumeng
[ywu] West Guizhou and east Yunnan provinces, Weining, Shuicheng, Hezhang, Nayong, Xuanwei, Huize, and Yiliang counties; Northwest Yunnan Province, Zhaotong, Yongshan, Daguan, and Ludian counties. 150,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Wumeng Yi, Wusa Yi, Yuan-Mo Yi Dialects: Hen-Ke Yi, Hezhang Yi, Weining Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nasu, Wusa
[yig] Yunnan Province, Chuxiong autonomous prefecture and Kumming city, and scattered areas to east; Guizhou Province, Weining Yi-Hui-Miao and Dafang autonomous counties, Hezhang and Pan counties; west Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. 500,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 700,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Eastern Yi Dialects: Bijie, Dafang, Qian Xi. Reported low intelligibility between dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern

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Naxi
[nxq] Northwest Yunnan Province, a majority (over 200,000) in Yulong (formerly Lijiang) Naxi autonomous county. Some scattered through Weixi, Zhongdian, Ninglang, Deqing, Yongsheng, Heqing, Jianchuan, and Lanping counties. Some in Sichuan Province, Yanyuan, Yanbian, and Muli counties. A few in Tibet Autonomous Region, Mangkang county. 300,000 (2000 census). 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 300,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Naxi.Official ethnic language of the Narua nationality. Alternate Names: Lomi, “Moso” (pej.), “Mosso” (pej.), “Mo-Su” (pej.), Mu, Nahsi, Nakhi, Naqxi, Nasi Dialects: Lapao, Lijiang, Ludian. Reportedly similar to Narua [nru]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Naic Comments: Official ethnic language of the Narua nationality. Buddhist (Lamaist), Buddhist, Confucianist, Daoist.

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Nisi
[yso] Southeast Yunnan Province, Wenshan, Yanshan, Maguan, Funing, Xichou, Malipo, and Honghe counties. 36,000 (2002), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Probably similar to the language spoken by Lolo nationality in Viet Nam.

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Nisu, Eastern
[nos] Yunnan Province, Jianshui, Tonghai, Gejiu, Kaiyuan, Mengzi, Pingbian, and Hekou counties. 75,000 (2004), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Nisu, Shiping-Jianshui Nisu, Shiping-Jianshui Yi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nisu, Northern
[yiv] Yunnan Province, Eshan, Xinping, Shiping (North), Yimen, Yuxi, Jiangchuan, Shuangbai, Jinning, Chengjiang, and northern Yuanjiang counties. 160,000, decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: E-Xin Yi Dialects: Nasu, Nisu. Nasu dialect is distinct from the Nasu language continuum located further north. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Nisu, Northwestern
[nsf] Northwest Yunnan Province, Dali Bai autonomous prefecture, Yangbi county, Fuheng district; Yunlong county, Tuanjie Yi district; Yongping county, Beidou Yi district. 24,000 (2004 SIL). 7,000 in Yunlong, 7,000 in Yangbi, 8,000 in Yongping districts (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Nisu, Southern
[nsd] Yunnan Province, Honghe, Yuanyang, Lüchun (Eastern), Jinping, Shiping (Southern), and Yuanjiang (Southeastern) counties. 210,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Yuan-Mo Yi Dialects: Mojiang Nisu, Yuanyang Nisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nisu, Southwestern
[nsv] Yunnan Province, Jiangcheng, Simao, Mojiang, Lüchun (western), Pu’er counties. 15,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Dialects: Mojiang Nisu, Yuanyang Nisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Nuosu
[iii] North Yunnan and south Sichuan provinces, mainly in Greater and Lesser Liangshan mountains. Spoken in over 40 counties. 2,000,000 (2000 census), increasing. 1,200,000 monolinguals (Jiafa 1994). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Yi, Liangshan Yi, Northern Yi, Nosu Yi, Sichuan Yi Dialects: Northern Shypnra, Southern Shypnra, Suondi (Adu), Yynuo. Chinese linguists recognize 3 primary dialects: Shengzha (standard), Northern (Lindimu-Yinuo), and Southern (Adur-Suondi) (Bradley 2007). Some dialects, such as Lindimu, are likely distinct languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern Comments: When applied to the Nuosu, terms Black Yi (Hei Yi) and White Yi (Bai Yi) refer to caste distinctions rather than to ethnic or linguistic distinctions. However, the same terms often do refer to ethnic and linguistic distinctions when applied to Yi groups in Yunnan. Also, some outsiders refer to Nuosu as Black Yi. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nusu
[nuf] Northwestern Yunnan Province, Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture, southern Fugong (formerly Bijiang) county, Pihe town area. Northern Nusu: Wawa, Kongtong, and Youduoluo villages; Southern Nusu: Guoke, Puluo, Tuoping (Tongping), and Jiajiu (Jiajia) villages; Central Nusu: Zhiziluo, Laomudeng, Miangu, Shawa, and Zileng villages. 12,000 in China (Bradley 2007). 2,000 Northern Nusu; 4,000 Southern; 6,000 Central. Population total all countries: 12,670. 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Nu. Dialects: Other dialect speakers comprehend the prestige dialect Miangu (Central Nusu, Miangu, Laomudeng) fairly well. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: With Ayi, Anong, 1,500 Zauzou, and 5,500 Drung. Traditional religion.

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Oroqen
[orh] Heilongjiang Province, Da Hinggan Ling prefecture, Tahe and Huma counties; Heihe prefecture, Xunke county; Yichun prefecture, Jiayin county, Heihe city; Nei Mongol, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hulun Buir league, Oroqen and Butha banners. 1,200 (Li Fengxiang and Whaley 2009). 30% of ethnic group (Salminen 2007). Only 12 fluent speakers in 1990, all over 65 yrs (Li Fengxiang and Whaley 2009). 800 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,200 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Oroqen. Alternate Names: Elunchun, Olunchun, Orochen, Orochon, Oronchon, Ulunchun Dialects: Birarchen, Kumarchen, Orochen, Selpechen. Gankui in Inner Mongolia is the standard dialect. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Northern, Evenki Comments: Maintain native language and customs. Came to China from the Russian Federation. Traditional religion.

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Pa Di
[pdi] Yunnan Province, Honghe Hani and Yi prefectures, Hekou and Jinping counties. 1,000 in China. Population total all countries: 1,300. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Padi Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: In China probably Dai nationality. Traditional religion.

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Pa-Hng
[pha] Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefecture. 26,800 in China (McConnell 1995). 45,000 total ethnic population in China and Vietnam (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 33,610. 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 26,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Baheng, Bahengmai, Man Pa Seng, Meo Lai, Pa Hng, Pa Ngng, Pa Then, Paheng, Tóng Dialects: Northern Pa-Hng, Southern Pa-Hng. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Pa-hng Comments: Official ethnic community in Viet Nam, although the variety spoken there may be a distinct language. Daoist.

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Palaung, Ruching
[pce] West Yunnan Province, Dehong prefecture, Luxi county, east of Rumai. 9,000 in China (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: De’ang. Alternate Names: Bulai, Bulei, Da’ang, Dlang, Ngwe Palaung, Palay, Pale, Pale Palaung, Pulei, Silver Palaung, Southern Ta’ang Dialects: Bulei, Da’ang, Raojin. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung Comments: Total De’ang nationality in China (17,935, 2000 census). Buddhist (Hinayana).

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Palaung, Rumai
[rbb] Far western Yunnan Province, Dehong prefecture, Longchuan and Ruili counties, on Myanmar border. 3,600 in China (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: De’ang. Alternate Names: Humai, Rumai, Ta’ang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung Comments: Total De’ang nationality in China (17,935, 2000 census).

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Palaung, Shwe
[pll] Southwest Yunnan Province, Lincang prefecture, Zhenkang county; Baoshan prefecture, Longyang county. 2,000 in China (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: De’ang. Alternate Names: Golden Palaung, Liang Palaung, Shwe Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung Comments: Buddhist (Hinayana).

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Pela
[bxd] Yunnan Province, Dehong prefecture, Luxi county, Santaishan township; Yingjiang and Lianghe counties. Maybe also Myanmar. 400 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2001 J. Edmondson). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Jingpo. Alternate Names: Bela, Bola, Bula, Pala, Polo Dialects: Reportedly similar to Zaiwa [atb]. Considered by some a Zaiwa dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern Comments: Live among the Jingpo majority and wear Jingpo clothing. They regard themselves as different from Zaiwa and Jingpo and have different traditions. Traditional religion.

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Phala
[ypa] Yunnan Province, Shiping and Honghe counties, north and south banks of Yuanjiang (Honghe) river; Yuanyang and Jianshui counties, a few isolated villages downriver. 12,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 13,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Phula, Bola, Hei Phula, Khapho, Phula, Phulepho Dialects: None known. Most similar to Phola [ypg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phola
[ypg] Yunnan Province, Yuanjiang, Shiping, and Honghe counties, along confluence of Yuanjiang (Honghe) and Xiaohedi rivers. 13,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 13,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bola, Flowery Phula, Hua Phula, Phula, Phulepho, Tsha Phula Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Phala [ypa]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phola, Alo
[ypo] Yunnan Province, Yuanjiang county, Tuguozhai village. 500 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bola, Pula Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Phola [ypg], but reportedly unintelligible due to contact with a Tai-Kadai variety. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Pholo
[yip] Yunnan Province, northeast Yanshan county, southeast Qiubei county; east Yanshan, west Guangnan, and northeast Malipo counties, scattered. 30,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 34,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Phula, Flowery Phula, Phu, Phula Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Affiliated with the Phula ethnic group historically but not phylogenetically; Ngwi isolate. Traditional religion.

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Phowa, Ani
[ypn] Yunnan Province, north central Mengzi county, Xibeile district; south Kaiyuan county, Yangjie district. 10,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Anipho, Flowery Phu, Hua Phu, Laotshipu, Pho, Phula Dialects: Daheineng, Dayongsheng, Xibeile. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phowa, Hlepho
[yhl] Yunnan Province, Kaiyuan county, eastern Beige township; Yanshan county, southeastern Ashe township; also northern Mengzi, western Weshan, and northern Pingbian counties. 36,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Abo, Boren, Bozi, Conehead Phula, Cowtail Phula, Daizhanpho, Digaopho, Flowery Phula, Hua Phula, Jiantou Phula, Minjia, Niuweiba Phula, Paola, Pho, Phula, Sandaohong Phula, Shaoji Phula, Sifter Basket Phula, Thrice Striped Red Phula, Xiuba Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phowa, Labo
[ypb] Yunnan Province, central, north-central and southeast Kaiyuan county, primarily in western Beige township; also in Mazheshao, Laozhai, Zhongheying, Yanggai, Mazheshao, and Lebaidao townships. 17,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 21,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Asaheipho, Asahopho, Ekhepho, Labopho, Pho, Phula, White Phu, Zemapho Dialects: None known. Transitional with Hlepho Phowa [yhl]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phukha
[phh] Yunnan Province, southeast Maguan and southwest Malipo counties. 5,000 in China (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Fu Khla, Phu Khla, Phù Lá, Phù Lá Hán Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Also classified as Phula nationality in Viet Nam.

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Phuma
[ypm] Yunnan Province, east central Pingbian county, Baihe township; also Wantang and Baiyun townships. 8,000 (Pelkey 2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 8,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Muji, Hei Muji, Muji, Paotlo, Phula, Phuli, Shaoji Phula, Sifter Basket Phula Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Phupa
[ypp] Yunnan Province, southwest Mengzi county; southeast corner of Gejiu panhandle: southeast Shuitian and southeast Lengquan townships. 3,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Hlagho, Laghï, Lala, Lamu, La’ou, Lapa, Larhwo, Muzi, Phula, Phupha, Tshebu Dialects: Baiwushan, Da Fengkou, Gamadi, Jiangnanbo, Nuogumi, Xiao Fengkou. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Phupha
[yph] Yunnan Province, southwest Gejiu county, 4 villages; Yuangyang county, across Honghe river, 1 village. 1,300 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Phula, Phupho, Tsapho Dialects: None known. Closely related to, but not intelligible of, Alugu [aub]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Phuza
[ypz] Yunnan Province, southwest Mengzi county, west Lengquan township; and southeast Gejiu county, southeast Kafang township. 6,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Hei Phu, Phu’a, Phujitsu, Phula Dialects: Bujibai, Dabaqi. Not intelligible of Phupa [ypp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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Pumi, Northern
[pmi] Southwest Sichuan Province, Muli, Yanyuan, and Jiulong counties; northwest Yunnan Province, Ninglang county, Yongning district. 35,000 (1999). 5,000 in Pumi nationality, 30,000 in Tibetan nationality (1994). 10,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Ch’rame, Pimi, P’ömi, Primmi, P’rome, Pruumi, P’umi Dialects: Taoba. 4 other dialects. Intelligibility of Southern Pumi [pmj] is low. Lexical similarity: between Northern Pumi and Southern Pumi [pmj] is 60%, grammatical differences minor. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Pumi, Southern
[pmj] Northwest Yunnan Province, Lanping, Weixi, Yongsheng, and Lijiang counties; Ninglang county, Xinyingpan district; western Sichuan Province, Garze Tibetan autonomous prefecture. 19,000 (1999). 6,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 28,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Pumi. Alternate Names: Pimi, P’ömi, Primmi, P’rome, Pruumi, P’umi Dialects: Qinghua. 4 other dialects. Intelligibility of Northern Pumi [pmi] is difficult. Lexical similarity: 60% between Northern Pumi [pmi] and Southern Pumi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Qabiao
[laq] Southeast Yunnan Province, Malipo county, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefectures, Donggan township, villages on Vietnam border: Matong, Punong, Pucha, and Makun; Tiechang district, Pufeng village; Babu district, Longlong village; Liuhe district, Xinfa and Meitang villages; Longlin village. (Ethnic Pubiao live in these villages, but the language is no longer spoken in all villages). 18 in China (2002 Li Yunbing), decreasing. A few fluent elderly speakers in 2001 (Li Jinfang 2006). Ethnic population: 400 (Li Jinfang 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bendi Lolo, Ka Bao, Ka Biao, Kabeo, Laqua, Man La Qua, Phubyau, Pu Beo, Pu Péo, Pubiao, Pupeo, Qabiau, Qaqiau Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra Comments: Ethnic autonym: Qa Biau (Ka Biao) or Qa Qiau; Ethnonym: Pubiao in Chinese. Intermarriage with Han, Zhuang, Miao and Dai nationality peoples is common.

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Qau
[gqu] Central Guizhou Province, Shuicheng county, Dongkou village; Zhijin county, Niudong village; Pingba county, Dagoufang; Anshun county, Mosu and Wanzi villages; Puding county, Wozi village; Langdai county, Longxia village. 2,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: Aqao, Gao Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra

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Qiang, Northern
[cng] North central Sichuan Province, Mao, Songpan, Heishui, and Beichuan counties. 57,800 (1999), decreasing. 14,000 Mawo, 14,000 Weigu, 11,000 Luhua, 8,000 Cimulin, and 9,000 Yadu. 130,000 total for Northern and Southern Qiang languages, including 80,000 as Qiang nationality and 50,000 as Tibetan nationality (1990 J-O. Svantesson). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 306,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Qiang. Alternate Names: Ch’iang Dialects: Cimulin, Luhua, Mawo, Weigu, Yadu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), Daoist, traditional religion.

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Qiang, Southern
[qxs] North central Sichuan Province, Wenchuan and Li counties; South Mao county, which transitions into Northern Qiang [cng]. 81,300 (1999 J. Evans), decreasing. 8,300 Daqishan, 4,100 Taoping, 3,100 Longxi, 14,500 Mianchi, 31,000 Hehu. Around 130,000 total for Northern and Southern Qiang. 80,000 officially classified within Qiang nationality and speakers 50,000 within Tibetan nationality (1990 J-O. Svantesson). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 306,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Qiang. Alternate Names: Ch’iang Dialects: Dajishan (Daqishan), Heihu, Jiaochang, Longxi, Mianchi, Sanlong, Taoping. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), Daoist, traditional religion.

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Queyu
[qvy] West Sichuan Province, Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Xinlong (Nyagrong) and Yajiang (Nyagquka) Litang counties. 7,000 (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Choyo, Zhaba Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Zhaba [zhb]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic Comments: Glossonym: Zhaba is used in Tuanjie Township of Yajiang County. Different from Zhaba language in Zhamai District. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Riang
[ril] Southwest Yunnan Province, Lincang prefecture, Zhenkang county; Baoshan prefecture, Longyang county. 3,000 in China (1995). Ethnic population: 17,900 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: De’ang. Dialects: De’ang, Liang, Liang Palaung, Na’ang, Riang-Lang, Xiaoan’gou, Xiaochanggou, Yang Sek, Yang Wan Kun, Yanglam, Yin. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Riang Comments: Along with Palaung speakers. Traditional religion.

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Russian
[rus] North Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Urumqi, Karamay (Kelamayi), Changji, and Tacheng cities; Yili prefecture (especially Yi’ning city); Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, E’erguna Enhe Russian autonomous district (Hulunbeier banner); Heilongjiang Province, Heihe city. 2,940 in China (Shearer and Sun Hong Kai 2002). Ethnic population: 15,600 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality: Russian. Alternate Names: Eluosi, Olossu, Russ, Russki Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East Comments: Christian.

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Salar
[slr] Qinghai Province, Xunhua Salar and Hualong Hui autonomous counties; Gansu Province, Jishishan autonomous county; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Yilli. Kazakh autonomous prefecture. 70,000 (2002), increasing. 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 105,000 (2000 census). L2 users: Some, especially men of other area languages, use Salar. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Salar. Alternate Names: Sala Dialects: Ili, Jiezi, Mengda. Salar is spoken by descendants of an Oghuz-Turkic-speaking subtribe. Has an Oghuz Turkic base, and took on a medieval Chaghatay Turkic stratum through Central Asian contacts and finally acquired a stratum of features from local languages (1989 R. Hahn). Jiezi often seen as standard dialect. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern Comments: Muslim (Sufi), Muslim (Ikhwan), Muslim (Sunni).

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Samatao
[ysd] Yunnan Province, Guandu district, Kunming municipality, Zijun village. A few elderly speakers in Zhenkang and Yongde. 400 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,810 (Bradley 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Samadu, Samaduo, Samou Dialects: None known. Similar to Samei [smh] and Sanie [ysy], but not mutually intelligible (Bradley 2007). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern

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Samei
[smh] Yunnan Province, Guandu district, Kunming city, Ala and surrounding communities, 47 villages; west Yiliang County, 7 villages. 20,000 (Bradley 2007). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 28,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Samtao
[stu] Southwest Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna prefecture. 100 in China (1993). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Alternate Names: Samtau, Samtuan Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: No recent evidence that this language is still spoken in China. May be officially classified within Blang nationality or Undetermined nationality. Buddhist (Theravada), traditional religion.

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Sangkong
[sgk] South Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Jinghong county, Xiaojie (3 villages) and Menglong (1 village) districts. 1,500 (1995 D. Bradley), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Buxia Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bisu [bzi] and Phunoi [pho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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Sani
[ysn] Southeast Yunnan Province, Shilin, Yilang, Mile, Luxi, and Qiubei counties. 100,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Dialects: Northern Sani, Southern Sani. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Population 7,762,300 (2000 census). The Samei, an Eastern Yi group east of Kunming in the Guandu region, call themselves Sani, but are not part of the Sani in Shilin. Tones differ on the 2 names, sa21 ni53 versus sa21 ni21. An Eastern Yi group with a similar name call themselves Sanie, immediately west of Kunming in Xishan region and in Anning and Fumin counties. For the Samei, Sani is their autonym. For the Sani in Shilin, Sani is an exonym. The Sani of Shilin call themselves ni21, but outsiders know them by the Chinese name Sani. Traditional religion.

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Sanie
[ysy] Yunnan Province, north Anning county, Kunming municipality, Xishan district; southwest Fumin county. 8,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 17,200 (Bradley 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bai Lolo, Bai Yi, Sa’nguie, Sanyie, Shanie, Shaniepu, White Yi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Samatao [ysd]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern

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Sarikoli
[srh] Southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Taxkorgan (Tashkurghan) area, Sarikol valley. 16,000 (2000 G. Erqing). Ethnic population: 20,400 (2000 G. Erqing). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tajik. Alternate Names: Saliku’er, Salikur, Sarikuli, Sariqul, Sarykoly, Tadzik, Tajik, Tajiki Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Shughni [sgh] of Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami Comments: Different from Tajiki [tgk] of Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Iran. The label Tajik is used in different ways in different countries. Muslim (Ismaili).

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Shan
[shn] Yunnan Province, Myanmar border area, 1 village. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Dehong Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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She
[shx] Southeast Guangdong Province. Luofu: Boluo and Zengcheng counties; Lianhua: Haifeng and Huidong counties. More than 10 villages. 910 (1999 Mao Zongwu). 580 Luofu, 390 Lianhua (McConnell 1995). 200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 710,000 (2000 census). 375,000 (Fujian Province), 171,000 (Zhejiang Province), 78,000 (Jiangxi Province), 45,000 (Guizhou Province), 28,000 (Guangdong). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: She. Alternate Names: Huo Nte Dialects: Lianhua (Western She), Luofu (Eastern She). Major linguistic differences with Iu Mien [ium]. Reportedly most similar to Jiongnai Bunu [pnu]. Dialects inherently intelligible. Classification within Hmong-Mien is in dispute (McConnell 1995:1320). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Ho Nte Comments: Shehua refers to Hakka [hak] variety spoken by the She. Daoist.

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Sherpa
[xsr] Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region. 800 in China (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Serwa, Sharpa, Sharpa Bhotia, Xiaerba Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Shixing
[sxg] Southwest Sichuan Province, Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Muli Tibetan autonomous county, Shuiluo township. Two dialects: upper reaches of the Shuiluo river, lower reaches of the Shuiluo river. 1,800 (2000 D. Bradley). 1,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Xumi Dialects: Restricted mutual intelligibility between the Upper and the Lower Reaches dialects; salient phonological, lexical and grammatical differences between the two varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Naic Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Sinicized Miao
[hmz] West Guizhou Province, Dafang, Guanling, Nayong, Pu’an, Puding, Qianxi, Qinglong, Shuicheng, Xingren, Zhenning, Zhijin, and Ziyun counties, Anshun municipality; southeast Yunnan Province, Guangnan, Funing, and Jinping counties, Gejiu municipality; northwest Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Longlin county. 250,000 in China (Hattaway 2000). Population total all countries: 252,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Biantou Miao, Changshu Miao, Curved Comb Miao, Flat Head Miao, Han Miao, Hmong Nzi, Hmong Sa, Hmong Shua, Hmong Sua, Long Comb Miao, Lopsided Comb Miao, Mushu Maio, Shuixi Miao, Waishu Miao, Water Miao, West of the Water Miao, Wooden Comb Miao Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sonaga
[ysg] Yunnan Province, Heqing county, Liuhe township. 2,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Suoneiga Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kuamasi [yku] and Kua-nsi [ykn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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sTodsde
[jih] North central Sichuan Province, south Rangthang county, Shangzhai district, Shili, Zongke, and Puxi townships, near confluence of Duke river and its tributary, Zhongke river. 4,100 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Shangzhai, Western Jiarong Dialects: Dayili, Puxi, Zongke. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. Lexical similarity: 75% between Eastern and Northern Jiarong, 60% between Western and Northern Jiarong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, rGyalrongic Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Sui
[swi] Guizhou Province, centered in Sandu; Duyun, Dushan, Libo, Rongjiang, Danzhai, Leishan, and Congjiang counties; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nandan, and Rongshui counties; Yunnan Province, Fuyuan county. 300,000 in China (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 300,120. Ethnic population: 407,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Shui. Alternate Names: Ai Sui, Shui, Sui Li, Suipo Dialects: Pandong, Sandong (Central Sui, Southern Sui), Yang’an. Some communication difficulty between dialects. Sandong (Central) is the standard and most intelligible in the area (Castro 2011). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Dam
[blt] Southeast Yunnan Province, Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai autonomous counties. 10,000 in China (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Black Tai, Hei Dai, Jinping Dai, Tailam, Tailon Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Tai Dón
[twh] Southeast Yunnan Province, Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Jinping Miao, Yao and Dai autonomous counties. 15,000 in China (2000 census). Population figure 90% of Dai nationality in Jinping County in 2000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Bai Dai, Tai Jinping, White Tai Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Tai Hongjin
[tiz] Southeast and north Yunnan Province. Yongwu dialect: Chuxiong Yi autonomous prefecture, Yongren, Wuding and Dayao counties, and Kunming prefecture, Luquan Yi and Miao autonomous counties; Maguan dialect: Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefectures, Maguan county; Yuanjiang dialect: Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Honghe and Yuanyang counties, as well as Yuxi prefecture, Yuanjiang Hani, Yi, and Dai autonomous counties; Lüshi dialect: Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Lüchun, Shiping, and Jianshui counties. 85,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Dialects: Lüshi, Maguan, Yongwu, Yuanjiang (Shui Dai). Dialects are significantly different and probably not all mutually intelligible. Tai Hongjin is a subgroup of scattered non-Buddhist Southwestern Tai language groups, who have some common phonological traits, but many differences as well. Tai Hongjin dialects have undergone more influence from Chinese and surrounding Ngwi languages (Yi and Hani) than other Yunnan Tai languages, and are only 50%–60% lexically similar to other Tai languages. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Nüa
[tdd] Southwest Yunnan Province, Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefectures, Baoshan, Simao, and Lincang municipal prefectures. Mangshi dialect: Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefectures, Luxi, Yingjiang, Lianghe, Longchuan, and Wanding counties, Baoshan municipal prefecture, Baoshan, Tengchong, Longling, and Shidian counties. Menggeng dialect: Simao municipal prefecture, Menglian Dai-Lahu-Va, Jinggu Dai-Yi, Lancang Hani, Zhenyuan Yi-Hani-Lahu, Ximeng Va, Jingdong Yi, Pu’er Hani-Yi, and Mojiang Hani autonomous counties, as well as Simao county, Baoshan municipal prefecture, Changning county, Lincang municipal prefecture, Lincang, Yongde, Zhenkang, Yun, and Fengqing counties, and Shuangjiang Lahu-Va-Blang-Dai, and Cangyuan Va autonomous counties; southern Sichuan Province, Liangshan autonomous prefecture. 540,000 in China (Zhou Yaowen and Luo Meizhen 2001). Population total all countries: 717,400. Ethnic population: 610,000 (Zhou Yaowen and Luo Meizhen 2001). Includes Tai Lü, Tai Hongjin, Tai Ya, Tai Dam and Tai Dón. Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Chinese Shan, Chinese Tai, Dai Kong, Dai Na, Dai Nuea, Daide, Dehong, Dehong Dai, Tai Dehong, Tai Le, Tai Mao, Tai Neua, Tai nö, Tai Nü, Tai Nue, Tai taü, Tai-Kong, Tai-Le, Yunannese Shan, Yunnan Shant’ou Dialects: Mangshi (Debao, Dehong, Taile), Menggeng (Taita), Tai Pong (Ka, La, Sai, Tai Ka, Ya, You), Yongren. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Northern Shan-like varieties in China are referred to collectively as Tai Na, or Dehong Dai in Chinese. Buddhist (Theravada), traditional religion.

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Tai Ya
[cuu] Central and south Yunnan Province, Yuxi prefecture, Xinping Yi-Dai autonomous county, Mosha district; Yuanjiang Hani, Yi, and Dai autonomous counties; Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Yuanyang and Honghe counties. 50,000 in China (2000 census). Population total all countries: 50,400. Ethnic population: 50,000 (2000 census). Based on county level Dai populations. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Cung, Daiya, Huayao Dai, Multi-colored Waistband Tai, Tai Cung, Tai-Chung, Tai-Cung, Ya, Yuanxin Hongjin Dai Dialects: Tai Chung (Cung, Dai Zhong), Tai Kha (Dai Ka), Tai Sai (Dai Sai), Tai Ya. Dialects mutually intelligible, though speakers of the latter 3 may understand Tai Ya dialect (the largest) more easily than speakers of Tai Ya understand the other 3 dialects. Some linguists have analyzed Tai Ya as most similar to Tai Nüa [tdd], others have grouped Tai Ya with other non-Buddhist Southwestern Tai groups. Tai Ya is probably not easily intelligible with other varieties of Tai. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Called Daiya or Huayao Dai (Multi-colored Waistband Dai) in China. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Talu
[yta] Yunnan Province, Yongsheng county, mainly in 4 villages of Liude township; Ninglang county, Ninglangping townhip; Huaping county, Tongda township. 13,600 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Tagu, Taliu, Tazhi Dialects: None known. Similar to Lolopo [ycl] (Bradley 2007). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central

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Tanglang
[ytl] Northwest Yunnan Province, south Lijiang county, Tai’an district, Hongmai community. Locals call this area Tanglangba or Tanglang basin. 950 (Bradley 2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Tholo Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lisu [lis]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central

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Tatar
[tat] North Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Yining (Ghulja, Kulja), Qvqek, and Ürümqi. 800 in China (1999 C. Zongzhen), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,890 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tatar. Alternate Names: Tartar, Tata’er Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian Comments: Some speak only Kazakh. Speech in different areas is influenced by Uyghur and Kazakh. Muslim (Sunni).

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T’en
[tct] Guizhou Province, east Pingtang county; Dushan county; Huishui, just south of Guiyang; some in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. 20,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 25,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Bouyei. Alternate Names: Rao, Rau, Then, Yang Hwang, Yanghuang Dialects: Hedong, Hexi, Huishui. Reportedly similar to Sui [swi], some scholars consider T’en to be a dialect of Sui (Shearer and Sun 2002). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui Comments: Traditional religion.

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Thangmi
[thf] Xizang Tibetan Autonomous Region. 300 in China (2002). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dolakha, Thami Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Thangmi-Baraamu

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Thopho
[ytp] Yunnan Province, Guangnan county, South central Zhetu district; northeast Zhulin district, 2 villages. 200 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Hat Folk, Black Phula, Hei Mao Ren, Phula Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern Comments: Substantial subsequent contact with Pholo [yip] and Tai-Kadai varieties.

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Tibetan, Amdo
[adx] Tibet Autonomous Region, Huangnan, Hainan, Haibei, and Guoluo (Golog) autonomous prefectures; Qinghai Province, Haixi Mongolian-Tibetan-Kazakh autonomous prefecture and Gannan Tibetan autonomous prefecture; southwest Gansu Province, Tianzhu autonomous county; west and north Sichuan Province, Ganzi and Aba (Ngaba) Tibetan autonomous prefectures. 1,800,000 (2005 C. Lhungrub). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Amdo, Anduo, Ngambo, Panang Dialects: Hbrogpa, Panang (Banag, Banang, Panags, Panakha, Pananag, Sbanag, Sbranag), Rongba, Rongmahbrogpa, Rtahu. Central Tibetan [bod] or Khams Tibetan [khg] varieties not intelligible. Lexical similarity: 70% with Central Tibetan [bod] and Khams Tibetan [khg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Amdo Comments: Those in Golog are called Golog, Ngolok, Mgolog, Ggolo, or Gugoluo. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Tibetan, Central
[bod] Xizang Province,Tibet Autonomous Region; some in Xinjiang Province. 1,070,000 in China (1990 census). 570,000 Dbus, 460,000 Gtsang, 40,000 Mngahris out of 4,593,000 in the official nationality. Population total all countries: 1,172,940. 920,000 monolinguals. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet) (1984, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Act, Articles 10 and 21). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bhotia, Dbus, Dbusgtsang, Phoke, Tibetan, U, Wei, Weizang, Zang Dialects: Dbus, Deqing Zang, Gtsang (Lhasa, Tsang), Mngahris (Ngari). In the exile community a so-called diaspora Tibetan has developed. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central Comments: Xifan (Hsifan) and Bhotia are general terms for Tibetan. Probably includes many languages: Groma, Niarong, Lhomi, Panang, Sherpa, Tseku, Tinan Lahul. Nomads in central and northern Tibet in Phala on the 4,500-meter Chang Tang plateau are known as Drokba. They number around 500,000. Written Tibetan is reportedly based on a southern dialect. Buddhist (Lamaist), Muslim.

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Tibetan, Khams
[khg] West, northeast Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region, Changdu (Qamdo) and Naqu (Nagqu) districts; west Sichuan Province, Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture; northwest Yunnan Province, Diqing (Dechen) Tibetan autonomous prefecture; southwest Qinghai Province, Yushu Tibetan autonomous prefecture. 1,380,000 in China (1994). 996,000 Eastern, 135,000 Southern, 158,000 Western, 91,000 Northern. Population total all countries: 1,380,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Kam, Kang, Khamba, Khampa, Khams, Khams Bhotia, Khams-Yal Dialects: Eastern Khams, Northern Khams, Southern Khams, Western Khams. Dialects may be distinct languages; large differences reported. Lexical similarity: 80% with Central Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Khams Comments: Different from Western Parbate [kjl], Eastern Parbate [kif], Sheshi Kham [kip], and Gamale Kham [kgj] of Nepal. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Tinani
[lbf] Western border of Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region. 450 in China (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bhotia of Lahul, Gondla, Lahauli, Lahouli, Lahuli Tinan, Rangloi Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri

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Tsat
[huq] South Hainan Prefecture; Yaxian (Sanya) County, Yanglan District, Huixin and Huihui villages. 4,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Hui. Alternate Names: Hainan Cham, Hui, Huihui, Sanya Hui, Utsat, Utset Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Northern Roglai [rog], but very different. Tsat is structurally changed to be like Chinese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham Comments: The phonology suggests a history of some independence from other Chamic languages (Maddieson 1991). Their name for themselves is Utsat, for their language Tsat. Huihui or Hui is the Chinese name. Muslim.

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Tseku
[tsk] Xizang Tibetan Autonomous Region. 12,600 (2000). Population total all countries: 19,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Tsuku, Tzuku Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish

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Tshangla
[tsj] Southeast Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region, Linzhi prefecture, Motuo (Medoz, Medog) county, Beibeng, Motuo, Bangxing, and Dexing districts; Dongjiu district, Linzhi (Ngingchi) county. 7,000 in China (2000 census). Majority are monolingual. Ethnic population: 8,920 (2000 census). Includes Moinba (Cuona Monba) [twm] speakers. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Menba. Alternate Names: Canglo Monba, Cangluo Menba, Cangluo Monba, Central Monpa, Menba, Monba, Monpa, Motuo Menba, Sangla, Tsangla Monba, Tsanglo Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish Comments: Different from Angami Naga [njm] of India. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Tu
[mjg] East Qinghai Province, Huzhu Tu, Minhe Tu, and Hui autonomous counties; Gansu Province. 152,000 (2000 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 190,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tu. Alternate Names: Mongor, Mongour, Monguor Dialects: Huzhu (Halchighol, Mongghul, Naringhol), Minhe (Mangghuer). Reportedly most divergent of all Mongolian languages. Dialects reported not inherently mutually intelligible. Huzhu: 150,000 people, 50,000 speakers; Minhe: 25,000. Dongren Huzhu considered standard. Dialects of Huzhu: Halchi, Karlong (18,000), and Naringhol. Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Mongour Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Tujia, Northern
[tji] Northwest Hunan Province, Yingjiang and Yanhe counties; southwest Hubei and southeast Chongqing provinces, Wuling mountain range; some in Guizhou Province. 70,000 (Brassett and Brassett 2005). Regularly used but increasingly the young prefer to speak Chinese and are encouraged by their parents. In most areas children acquire a passive knowledge only. No longer used in southeastern Sichuan, northeastern Guizhou, and southwestern Hubei provinces. No longer used or moribund in northwestern Hunan and severely endangered in the remaining areas (Bradley 2007). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,030,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population includes 1,500 speakers of Southern Tujia [tjs]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Tujia. Alternate Names: Tuchia, Tudja Dialects: Baojing, Longshan. Northern and Southern Tujia [tjs] are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40% with Southern Tujia [tjs]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Tujia Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Tujia, Southern
[tjs] Northwest Hunan Province, Luxi county, 3 villages. 1,500 (Brassett and Brassett 2005), decreasing. Monolinguals are mainly women, children, and older adults. Ethnic population: 8,030,000 (2000 census). Includes 70,000 in Northern Tujia. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Tujia. Alternate Names: Tuchia Dialects: None known. Northern [tji] and Southern Tujia are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40% with Northern Tujia [tji], but with phonological and grammatical differences. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Tujia Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Tuva
[tyv] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Altay prefecture, Burjin, Habahe, Fuyun, and Altay counties. 2,400 in China (1999 W. Hongwei). 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Alternate Names: Diba, Kök Mungak, Tuvin, Tuwa Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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U
[uuu] Southwest Yunnan Province, Baoshan municipal prefecture, Shidian and Changning counties. May be in Myanmar. 40,000 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Alternate Names: A’erwa, Awa Blang, Puman, P’uman, Wa, Wu, Wu Blang Dialects: Not closely related to Plang [blr] (1990 J-O. Svantesson). May be same as Wu dialect of Wa [wbm] in Myanmar and Hu [huo] of China. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: Buddhist (Theravada), traditional religion.

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Uyghur
[uig] Mainly in Xinjiang Province, Uyghur Autonomous Region. Small areas in Gansu and Xizang provinces. 8,400,000 in China (2000 census). 4,700,000 Central Uyghur, 1,150,000 Hotan, 25,000 Lop. Population total all countries: 8,791,610. Most are monolingual. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (1984, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Act, Articles 10 and 21). Language of recognized nationality: Uygur. Alternate Names: Uighuir, Uighur, Uiguir, Uigur, Uygur, Weiwu’er, Wiga Dialects: Central Uyghur, Hotan (Hetian), Lop (Luobu). The Akto Türkmen speak a dialect of Uyghur with 500 different seldom-used words. There are 2,000 in 2 villages, Kösarap and Oytak in Akto County, south of Kashgar, Xinjiang. Dolan is a dialect spoken around the fringes of the Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang. Chinese linguists recognize 3 dialects. Others have used the following dialect names: Kashgar-Yarkand (Kashi-Shache), Yengi Hissar (Yengisar), Khotan-Kerya (Hotan-Yutian), Charchan (Qarqan, Qiemo), Aksu (Aqsu), Qarashahr (Karaxahar), Kucha (Kuqa), Turfan (Turpan), Kumul (Hami), Ili (Kulja, Yining, Taranchi), Urumqi (Urumchi), Lopnor (Lopnur), and Dolan, Akto Türkmen. There are significant dialect differences between China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern Comments: Some speakers classified within other official nationalities, such as Kyrghyz. Those in the north are more influenced by modern Chinese culture. Muslim (Sunni).

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Uzbek, Northern
[uzn] North and west Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; Urumqi, Kashgar, and Yining (Ghulja) cities, especially Ili. 5,000 in China (2000 A. Chentgshiliang). Ethnic population: 12,400 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality: Uzbek. Alternate Names: Ouzbek, Ozbek, Usbaki, Usbeki Dialects: Andizhan, Fergana, Samarkand, Tashkent. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Vietnamese
[vie] South coast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, on Shanxin, Wanwei, and Wutou peninsulas (the ‘3 peninsulas’), Fangcheng Pan-Nationality autonomous county; Jiangping region. 7,200 in China (1999 O. Jueya). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Jing. Alternate Names: Annamese, Ching, Gin, Jing, Kinh Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese Comments: Christian, Daoist.

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Wa, Parauk
[prk] Southwest Yunnan Province, Lincang prefecture, Cangyuan Va autonomous, Shuangjiang Lahu, Blang, Dai autonomous, Gengma Dai, and Yongde counties; Simao prefecture, Lancang Lahu autonomous county; Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Menghai county, Mengman district. 399,000 in China (2008 P. Hopple). Speaker population based on 2000 census. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Around 10,000 Parauk speakers are classified as being within Blang nationality. Language of recognized nationality: Wa. The vast majority of speakers are assigned to the Wa nationality. Alternate Names: Baraog, Baroke, Buliu, Bulu, Burao, Phalok, Praok, Wa Dialects: Aishuai, Alwa, Banhong, Dazhai. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa Comments: According to Chinese sources. Buddhist (Hinayana), Christian.

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Wa, Vo
[wbm] Southwest Yunnan Province, Lincang prefecture, Yongde and Zhenkang counties; Simao prefecture, Lancang Lahu autonomous county. 40,000 in China (Zhou Zhizhi, Qixiang Yan, and Guoqing Chen 2004). Population total all countries: 40,700. Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Wa. Alternate Names: Ban, Kawa, K’awa, La, Pan, Pinyin, Va, Vo, Wa Pwi, Wakut Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Wakhi
[wbl] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Taxkorgan Tajik autonomous county (especially Daftar); mountains south of Pishan. 6,000 in China. Ethnic population: 41,000 (2000 census). Includes Sarikoli [srh] speakers. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tajik. Alternate Names: Khik, Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi Dialects: Eastern Wakhi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir Comments: Muslim (Ismaili).

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Waxianghua
[wxa] West Hunan Province, a 6,000 square km area, Wuling mountains, including Yuanling, Chunxi, Jishou, Guzhang, and Dayong. 300,000 (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Wogang, Xianghua Dialects: None known. Classified as Han nationality. It differs greatly from both Southwestern Mandarin (Xinan Guanhua) [cmn] and Xiang Chinese (Hunanese) [hsn], but is relatively uniform within itself. Neighboring Han Chinese, Miao, and Tujia people do not understand it. Some view it as a special variety of Chinese, others as a minority language, perhaps related to Miao. Classification: Unclassified

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Wutunhua
[wuh] East Qinghai Province, Huangnan Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Tongren county, Longwu township, Upper and Lower Wutun and Jiangchama villages. 2,000 (1995). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tu. Alternate Names: Wutong, Wutun Classification: Mixed language, Chinese-Tibetan-Bonan Mongour Comments: A variety of Chinese heavily influenced by Tibetan or perhaps a Tibetan language undergoing relexification with Chinese forms. Also described as Chinese which converged to an agglutinative language, Tibetan or Mongolian, using only Chinese material. Neighboring Tibetans refer to the Wutun people use ethnonym: Sanggaixiong, center of the lion. Known for their paintings of Buddha. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Xibe
[sjo] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Qapqal, Huocheng, Gongliu, Xinyuan, Nilka, Tekes, and Zhaosu counties; Ili prefecture, Yining city; Tacheng prefecture, Tacheng county; Bortala prefecture, Bole county, Ürümqi city. 30,000 (2000 A. Jun). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 189,000 (2000 census). L2 users: Chinese, Uyghur, or Kazakh speakers in the area can also speak Xibe. Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (1984, Ethnic Regional Autonomy Act, Articles 10 and 21). Language of recognized nationality: Xibe. Alternate Names: Sibe, Sibin, Sibo, Xibo Dialects: None known. Inherently intelligible of Manchu [mnc]. Classification: Altaic, Tungusic, Southern, Southwest Comments: Descendants of an 18th century Qing dynasty military garrison. Loans from Uyghur, Kazakh, and Chinese. Traditional religion.

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Yerong
[yrn] West Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Baise prefecture, Napo county, on the Yunnan Province and Viet Nam border; Longhe district, Rongtun and Gonghe villages; Pohe district, Shanhe, Yong’an and Guoba. 380 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Ban Yao, Da Ia, Daban Yao, Eastern Buyang, Guangxi Buyang, Ia Hrong, Iron Yao, Khyung Buyang, Liu Yao, Napo Buyang, Six Yao, Tie Yao, Tu Yao Indigenous Yao, Yalang, Yang Khyung, Yerong Buyang Dialects: None known. Not mutually intelligible of the 3 Buyang languages. May be most similar to En [enc] of Northern Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 67% with Langnian Buyang [yln], 63% with E’ma Buyang [yzg], and 46% with Baha Buyang [yha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra Comments: Traditional religion.

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Yi, Wuding-Luquan
[ywq] Yunnan Province, Luquan, Wuding, Yongren, Lufeng, Yuanmou, Qujing, Xundian, and Huize counties; south Sichuan Province, Huili county. 250,000 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Yi, Dian Dongbei Yi, Hei Yi, Nasu, Wu-Lu Yi Dialects: Luquan Naso, Wuding Naisu. The Naisu dialect is also called Hong Yi (Red Yi). Degrees of similarity between dialects, and also with Naluo [ylo], needs further investigation. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern Comments: Hei Yi means Black Yi. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yugur, East
[yuy] Northwest Gansu Province, east Sunan Yugur autonomous county, Kangle, Mati, and Dahe districts; some in Qinghai Province. 4,000 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Yugur. Alternate Names: Eastern Yogor, Enge’er, Enger, Shera Yogur, Shira Yugur, Yogor, Yögur, Yugar, Yugu Classification: Altaic, Mongolic, Eastern, Mongour Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Yugur, West
[ybe] Northwest Gansu Province, Sunan Yugur autonomous county near Zhangye (Kanchow). 4,600 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 7,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Yugur. Alternate Names: Sari Yogur, Sarig, Sarygh Uygur, Sary-Uighur, Ya Lu, Yellow Uighur, Yugu, Yuku Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Zaiwa
[atb] Yunnan Province, Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Luxi, Ruili, Longchuan, Yingjiang, and Bangwa counties. 80,000 in China (1999 X. Xijian). Population total all countries: 110,000. 20,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Jingpo. Alternate Names: Aci, Aji, Atshi, Atsi, Atsi-Maru, Atzi, Azi, Szi, Tsaiwa, Xiaoshanhua Dialects: Bengwa, Longzhun, Tingzhu. Some consider Pela [bxd] (Bola, Polo, Pala), Lashi [lsi] (Leqi), and Maru [mhx] (Langsu, Langwa) to be dialects of Zaiwa. Dialects have only minor phonological differences. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Daoist.

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Zakhring
[zkr] Southeast Xizang Tibet Autonomous Region, Zayul county, Lower Zayul township, 3 villages: Songgu, Lading, and Tama. 600 in China (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 900. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Zaiwa, Zha Dialects: None known. Similar to Tibetan [bod] (Singh 1994), Miju-Mishmi [mxj] (Bradley 2007). Not related to Zaiwa [atb] in Yunnan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Keman

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Zauzou
[zal] Northwest Yunnan Province, Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture, Lanping county, Tu’e, Biji, Wupijiang, Guoli, Xiaocun, and Jiangmo districts; Lushui county, Luzhang, Shuilizhai and Liukuzhen districts and townships. 2,100 (Bradley 2007). 210 monolinguals. Mainly older adults. Ethnic population: 2,500 (1999 Sun Hong Kai). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Nu. Alternate Names: Jaojo, Raorou, Rourou Dialects: Bijilan, Wupijiang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Also Nusu [nuf], and 5,500 ethnic Nung who speak Drung [duu]. Traditional religion, Daoist.

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Zhaba
[zhb] Sichuan Province, Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Yajiang (Nyagquka) county, Zhamai district; Daofu (Dawu) county, Zhaba district. 7,800 (Genxia Wengmu and Hu Shujin 2008), decreasing. Many young monolingual speakers in Zhaba and Zhamai districts. Ethnic population: 9,000 (Gong 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bazi, Bozi, Draba, nDrapa, Zaba, Zha Dialects: Drame (Southern nDrapa, Zhami), Drate (Northern nDrapa). Reportedly similar to Stau (Horpa [ero]) and Queyu [qvy], but no mutual intelligibility. Many loanwords from Tibetan and Chinese varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic Comments: Different from Queyu [qvy]. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Zhuang
[zha] Population total all languages: 14,936,200. Comments: Includes: Central Hongshuihe Zhuang [zch], Dai Zhuang [zhd], Eastern Hongshuihe Zhuang [zeh], Guibei Zhuang [zgb], Guibian Zhuang [zgn], Lianshan Zhuang [zln], Liujiang Zhuang [zlj], Liuqian Zhuang [zlq], Minz Zhuang [zgm], Nong Zhuang [zhn], Qiubei Zhuang [zqe], Yang Zhuang [zyg], Yongbei Zhuang [zyb], Yongnan Zhuang [zyn], Youjiang Zhuang [zyj], Zuojiang Zhuang [zzj].

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Zhuang, Central Hongshuihe
[zch] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, either side of central stretch of Hongshuihe river, including Du’an, Dahua, Mashan, north Shanglin and possibly other border areas such as east Pingguo. 1,080,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern

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Zhuang, Dai
[zhd] Southeast Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefectures, Wenshan county, Matang, Dehou, Laohuilong, Panzhihua, and Kaihua townships; Yanshan county, Pingyuan township; Guangnan county, Zhulin township; Maguan and Malipo (western edge) counties. 100,000 in China (Wang Mingfu and Johnson 2008). Population total all countries: 100,200. Very few monolinguals, though it is L1 learned by children in most Dai Zhuang villages. Ethnic population: 120,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Bu Dai, Kau Ndae, Khaau Daai, Thu Lao, Tu, Tuliao, Tuzu, Wen-Ma Southern Zhuang, Zhuangyu Nanbu fangyan Dejing tuyu, Zhuangyu Nanbu Fangyan Wen-Ma Tuyu Dialects: Central Wenshan (Ping Tou Tu), Guangnan (Pian Tou Tu), Maguan-Malipo (Jian Tou Tu), Western Yanshan-Northern Wenshan (Da Tou Tu). Most similar language is Nong Zhuang [zhn], but not mutually intelligible of Nong Zhuang, Min Zhuang [zgm] or Yang Zhuang [zyg] (2010 E. Johnson). Lexical similarity: 63%–70% among Nong, Yang [zhn], Yongnan [zyn], Zuojiang [zzj], and Dai [zhd]; 54% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb] (2011 E. Johnson). A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Buddhist, Daoist.

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Zhuang, Eastern Hongshuihe
[zeh] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, south of eastern Hongshuihe river and south of Qianjiang river, includes south Shanglin, south Xincheng, south Xingbin, north Guigang, west Guiping, and south Wuxuan; some in Guangdong Province. 1,200,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern

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Zhuang, Guibei
[zgb] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Longsheng, Sanjiang, Yongfu, Rongan, Rongshui, Luocheng, Huanjiang, Hechi, Nandan, Tian’e, Donglan, and Bama. Also in Hunan and Guizhou provinces. 1,500,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern

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Zhuang, Guibian
[zgn] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Fengshan, Tianlin, Longlin, Xilin, Lingyun, Leyun; Yunnan, Funing, and north Guangnan. 1,000,000 (2007). 420,000 monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang.In concentrated Guibian areas, the main trade language on market days. Alternate Names: Buyei, Buyoi, Kang Yei, Northern Zhuang Dialects: None known. Some intelligibility of standard Bouyei [pcc]; none of Qiubei Zhuang [zqe], Yongbei Zhuang [zyb], or Nong Zhuang [zhn] (2011 E. Johnson). Lexical similarity: 71% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb], 83% with Qiubei Zhuang [zqe] (northern Taic), 64%–66% with Nong Zhuang [zhn] (central Taic). A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Zhuang, Lianshan
[zln] West Guangdong Province, Lianshan Zhuang Yao autonomous county, Huaji county, Xiashuai and Zhongzhou districts; some in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. 48,000 (2007 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern

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Zhuang, Liujiang
[zlj] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Liujiang, North Laibin, Yishan, Liucheng, and north Xincheng. 1,560,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern

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Zhuang, Liuqian
[zlq] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, east of Liujiang and north of Qianjiang rivers; includes north Wuxuan, Xiangzhou, and Luzhai; possibly Pingle, Yangshuo, and Hezhou. 370,000 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern

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Zhuang, Minz
[zgm] Southwest Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Dejing area, Napo, Jingxi, and Debao counties; southeast Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefectures, Funing county, Langheng district (now in Tianbeng township), Sankeshu, Xionggu, Shangmabu, Tianfang, Getao, Gezao, Gecai, Bagan, Na’en, Longnong, and Anha villages. 173,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Black Zhuang, Bu Xiong, Heiyi Zhuang, Kon Min, Sung, Zong Zhuang Dialects: Cuengh (Zong), Minz (Min). Nong Zhuang [zhn] is reportedly most similar. A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Traditional religion.

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Zhuang, Nong
[zhn] Southeast Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefectures, central and west Guangnan, east Yanshan, north Wenshan, Maguan, Xichou, and Malipo counties. A few in Funing and Qiubei counties. 500,000 (Wang Mingfu and Johnson 2008). 125,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600,000 (2007). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Daez, Kau Nong, Khaau Nong, Noangx, Nong hua, Phu Nong, Phu Tei, Yan-Guang Southern Zhuang, Zhuangyu Nanbu fanyan Yan-Guang tuyu Dialects: Central Zhuang, Liancheng, Southern Zhuang, Western Guangnan. Reportedly most similar Tày [tyz], and Min Zhuang [zgm]. Some Tày dialects near Viet Nam-Yunnan border reportedly mutually intelligible. Nong Dialects mutually intelligible for simple topics. Not intelligible of Dai Zhuang [zhd], Min Zhuang [zgm], Yang Zhuang [zyg], Guibian Zhuang [zgn], or Qiubei Zhuang [zqe]. Lexical similarity: over 70% with Nong, Yang [zyg], Yongnan [zyn], and Zuojiang [zzj]; about 67% with Dai [zhd]; 54% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb]. A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: ‘Phu Nong’, Nong People; ‘Khau Nong’, Nong Language. Over half the Nong live in Guangnan and Yanshan counties. Nong represent a majority of Zhuang in all their counties except for Funing and Qiubei, where mostly northern Taic Zhuang languages are spoken. Traditional religion.

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Zhuang, Qiubei
[zqe] Southeast Yunnan Province, Qiubei county (and west edge Guangnan county), Wenshan Zhuang Miao autonomous prefecture; Qujing municipal prefecture, Shizong county, Longqing Yi-Zhuang and Wulong Zhuang autonomous districts. 140,000 (2007 census). 28,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 150,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Bau i, Bui, Buyi, Northern Zhuang, Qiubei Sha Dialects: None known. Not mutually intelligible with Guibian Zhuang [zgn], Nong Zhuang [zhn], or Dai Zhuang [zhd]. Lexical similarity: 83% with Guibian Zhuang [zgn], 69% with Yongbei (standard) Zhuang [zyb], 64%–66% with Nong Zhuang [zhn] and Yang Zhuang [zyg], 55% with Dai Zhuang [zhd]. (2011 E. Johnson). A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Zhuang, Yang
[zyg] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, most Zhuang populations of Jingxi, Debao, and Napo counties; Yunnan Province, Funing county, scattered in Bo’ai, Xinhua, Zhesang, Dongbo, Guichao, and Banlun townships and districts. 765,000 in China (2004). 745,000 in the Dejing area (Jingxi, Napo, and Debao Counties, Guangxi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Dejing Zhuang, Gen Yang, Jingxi Zhuang, Lang, Nong, Nung Giang, Tianbao, Tuhua, Yangyu, Yangzhou, Zhuangyu Nanbu fangyan Dejing tuyu Dialects: Caj coux (Jiazhou, Zouzhou), Fouh (Fu), Sengh (Sheng), Tianbao (Dianbao, Tianpao), Yang (Tuhua, Yangyu). Most similar languages are Zuojiang Zhuang [zzj] and other Nung languages of Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 70% with Nong Zhuang [zhn], Yang [zyg], Yongnan [zyn], Zuojiang, and Dai [zhd], 65% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb]. A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Mahayana), Daoist.

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Zhuang, Yongbei
[zyb] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, north Yongning, Hengxian, Bingyang, Wuming, and Pingguo. 1,980,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern

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Zhuang, Yongnan
[zyn] South Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, south Yongning, Longan, Fusui, Shangsi, Qinzhou, and Fangcheng counties; some in Jingxi county; Yunnan Province, Funing county. 1,800,000 in China (2000 J. Edmondson). Population total all countries: 1,810,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Bou Rau, Long An, Long’an, Nung An, Southern Zhuang, Yongnan Vernacular of the Southern Dialect of the Zhuang Language, Zhuangyu nanbu fangyan Yongnan tuyu Dialects: None known. Most similar languages are Zuojiang Zhuang [zzj] (Nung Chao), Yongbei Zhuang [zyb], Yang Zhuang [zyg] (Nung Giang), and other Nung languages of Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 70% with Nong [zhn], Yang [zyg], Yongnan [zyn], Zuojiang [zzj], and Dai [zhd], 65% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb]. A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Mahayana), Daoist.

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Zhuang, Youjiang
[zyj] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Tiandong, Tianyang, and Baise; some in Yunnan Province. 870,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern

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Zhuang, Zuojiang
[zzj] Southwest Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Tiandeng, Daxin, Chongzuo, Ningming, Longzhou, Pingxiang, and Jingxi counties; Yunnan Province, Funing county, a few villages. 1,500,000 in China (2000 census). 35,000 in Jingxi and Napo counties. Population total all countries: 1,840,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Ken Tho, Longyin, Longzhou, Pho Thai, Pu Tho, Southern Zhuang, Zhuangyu nanbu fangyan Zuojiang tuyu Dialects: None known. Most similar languages are Yang Zhuang [zyg], Yongnan Zhuang [zyn], Nong Zhuang [zhn], and other Nung languages of Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 70% between Nong [zhn], Yang [zyg], Yongnan, and Dai [zhd], 65% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb]. A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: The language is named for Zuojiang river that runs through this area, from northern Viet Nam into Longzhou, Chongzuo, and Fusui counties. Traditional religion, Buddhist (Mahayana), Daoist.

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Zokhuo
[yzk] Yunnan Province, southeast Wenshan county, north Zhuiligai and south Dongshan townships; south Yanshan county. 13,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 17,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Cowtail Phula, Nimitso, Niuweiba Phula, Phula, Ruoke, Tshokha, Zekhe, Zuoke Dialects: Daxingzhai, Longle. Most closely related to, but not mutually intelligible with, Khlula [ykl]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern

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