Colombia

Print
Achagua
[aca] Casanare department; Meta department: Upper Meta River, between Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán, El Turpial reservation, and Umapo community. 250 (2000 M. Lozano), decreasing. Ethnic population: 280 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ajagua, Xagua. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Piapoco [pio]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco. Comments: Significant acculturation.

More Information

Andaqui
[ana] Caquetá department: upper reaches of Caquetá river; Cauca department, Fragua valley; Huila department: Suaza valley; southern highlands. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aguanunga, Andaki, Andaquí, Churuba. Classification: Paezan. Comments: Different from Andoque [ano] in Amazonas.

More Information

Andoque
[ano] Amazonas department: Aduche tributary of Caquetá, 15 km downriver from Araracuara; Caquetá department: Solano municipality. 370 (2007 B. Pencue), decreasing. 10,000 in 1908 (Landaburu 1979). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 520 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Andoke, Businka, Cha’oie, Paasi-ahá , Paasiaja, Paatsiaja, Poosioho. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Some intermarriage with Muinanes [bmr] and Huitotos [hux].

More Information

Anserma
[ans] Caldas, Quindío, and Risaralda departments. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Anserna. Dialects: None known. Related to Cauca [cca], Arma [aoh] (both extinct), and Caramanta [crf]. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco.

More Information

Arhuaco
[arh] Cesar and Magdalena departments: northeast and southern slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 8,000 (2009 P. Frank). 7,200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arauco, Arhuac, Aruac, Aruaco, Auroguac, Bintucua, Bintuk, Bíntuka, Bíntukua, Bítuncua, Ica, Ijca, Ijka, Ika, Ikan, Ike, Iku. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan, Southern and Eastern Arhuacan. Comments: Strong traditional culture. Traditional religion.

More Information

Arma
[aoh] Huila Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco. Comments: People spoke either Cenu or Cauca [cca] (both extinct).

More Information

Awa-Cuaiquer
[kwi] Nariño department: Barbacoas area; Cuaiquer del Alto Albí, Cuambíyaslambi, Cumbal, Mallama, and Ricaurte reservations; Pacific slopes of Andes. 12,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 13,000 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 15,130. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa, Awa Pit, Coaiquer, Cuaiquer, Înkal Awa, Kwaiker, Quaiquer. Dialects: None known. Distantly related to Chachi [cbi] and Colorado [cof]. Classification: Barbacoan, Northern. Comments: The presence of petroleum companies, paramilitary groups, guerrilla forces, the cultivation of illicit crops and subsequent widespread fumigation of their territory has had extremely disruptive effects on the Awa society that currently is coping with a very serious acculturation process. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Barasana-Eduria
[bsn] Amazonas department: Apaporis river south bank; Vaupés department: Cachivera Pina, Mitú, Sõnanã, Pacoa, Piedra Ñi, San Miguel; Pira-Paraná river and tributaries. 1,890 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banera yae, Barasana, Barasano, Come masa, Comematsa, Edulia, Eduria, Hanera oka, Janera, Paneroa, Southern Barasano, Taibano, Taiwaeno, Taiwano. Dialects: Barasana (Comematsa, Janera, Paneroa, Southern Barasano, Yebamasa), Eduria (Edulia, Taiwano). Reportedly similar to Macuna [myy] and Carapana [cbc] (2011 P. Jones). Lexical similarity: 98% between Eduria and Barasano; just some phonological differences. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka. Comments: Barasana and Eduria considered separate languages by the people, and distinct ethnic groups that can intermarry.

More Information

Barbacoas
[bpb] Nariño department: Barbacoas coastal town area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Barbacoan, Northern.

More Information

Barí
[mot] Cesar department: Chimichagua, La Gloria, and Pailitas municipalities; Norte de Santander department: Reserva Indígena Motilón-Barí and Resguardo Indígena Gabarra-Catalaura in Upper Catatumbo and Oro rivers and Serranía de los Motilones region. 3,500 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Total users in all countries: 5,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bari, Barira, Cunausaya, Dobocubi, Motilón, Motilone. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian. Comments: Classification as Chibchan has been questioned (1973 M. Durbin); Alternatively classified as Arawakan (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977).

More Information

Bora
[boa] Amazonas department: Bora, Providencia on Igaraparana (tributary of the Putumayo); Miraña: lower Caquetá river, near Cahuinari river mouth. 100 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 660 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Boro, Meamuyna, Miraña. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane. Comments: Some intermarriage with Ocainas and Huitotos (2007 B. Pencue).

More Information

Cabiyarí
[cbb] Amazonas and Vaupés departments: Cananarí river area, tributary of the Apaporis and Vaupés. 270 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 280 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cabiuarí, Cauyarí, Cuyare, Kabiyarí, Kauyarí, Kawiarí, Kawillary, Kawiyarí. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki.

More Information

Cacua
[cbv] Vaupés department: Wacará, 30 km east of Mitú. 400 (2010 A. Gonzalez). Many monolinguals, especially children. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Báda, Cakua, Kakua, Kákwa, Macu de Cubeo, Macu de Desano, Macu de Guanano, Macú-Paraná, Wacara. Dialects: Vaupés Cacua, Macú-Paraná Cacua. Lexical similarity: 90% similarity with Nukak [mbr] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Puinavean, Cacua.

More Information

Camsá
[kbh] Putumayo department: Sibundoy valley, near Ingas. 4,000 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 4,020 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Camëntsëá, Coche, Kamemtxa, Kamsa, Kamse, Sibundoy, Sibundoy-Gaché. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Ruhlen and others classify it as Equatorial.

More Information

Carabayo
[cby] Amazonas department: halfway between San Bernardo and Pure rivers. At least 3 long houses. 150. Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Amazonas Macusa” (pej.), Yuri. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: “Macusa” or “Macú”, savage, is arbitrarily applied to uncontacted groups.

More Information

Caramanta
[crf] Antioquia department: Jardín municipality, near Andes and Cristianía cities. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco.

More Information

Carapana
[cbc] Vaupés department: Cano Tí (tributary of middle Vaupés river) and upper Pirá-Paraná and Papurí rivers. 600 in Colombia (1990 SIL). Total users in all countries: 642. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Carapana-Tapuya, Karapaná, Karapanã, Karapano, Mextã, Mi tea, Mochda, Moxdoa, Muxtea. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tatuyo [tav] (Crevels 2007) and to Barasan-Eduria [bsn] (2004 DNP). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano.

More Information

Carijona
[cbd] Guaviare department: Miraflores municipality southeast of Lake Espajo. 6 (Crevels 2007). 6 speakers near La Pedrera and a few more near Miraflores (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 290 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Carifuna, Carihona, Hianacoto, Hianacoto-Umaua, Hianakoto, Huaque, Kaliohona, Karihona, Karijona, Koto, Omagua, Umawa. Dialects: None known. Possibly 2 separate languages, Hianacoto-Umaua and Carijona (1973 M. Durbin). The 2 groups had no contact for many years. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Karihona.

More Information

Cauca
[cca] Vaupés Department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Related to Anserma [ans]. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco.

More Information

Chimila
[cbg] Cesar department: Valle du Par minicipality; La Guajira department: La Jagua del Pilar and Urumita municipalities; Magdalena department: lowlands south and west of Fundación. 350 (2009 T. Malone), increasing. Ethnic population: 1,500 (2009 T. Malone). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caca Weranos, Chimile, Ette Ennaka, San Jorge, Shimizya, Simiza. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian. Comments: 2 major separated groups.

More Information

Cocama-Cocamilla
[cod] Amazonas department: Ronda Island in Amazon River opposite Leticia city, and in Naranjales, Palmeras, and San José villages. Possibly only a few semi-speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 770 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cocama, Inikana, Kokama. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama. Comments: Non-indigenous. Intermarriage with Colombian mestizos, Tikunas, Yaguas, and Huitotos (2007 A. Pencue).

More Information

Cofán
[con] Nariño department; Putumayo department: Orito, San Miguel, and Valle del Gamuéz. Colombia-Ecuador border area. 1,500 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), decreasing. Many monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: A’i, A’ingae, Kofan, Kofane. Dialects: Aguarico, Santa Rosa. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Colombian Sign Language
[csn] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Presidential Law 982). Alternate Names: Lengua de señas colombiana, LSC. Dialects: Southwest (Cali), Central (Bogotá-Eje cafetero), North (Caribe). Some signs reportedly similar to those in sign languages of El Salvador, Spain, and the United States. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Began sometime after 1924. Some schools use sign language in the classroom. Interpreters provided at important public events, and for college students. Many sign language classes for hearing people. Relatively little research.

More Information

Cubeo
[cub] Vaupés department: Cuduyari, Querarí, and Vaupés rivers and tributaries; possibly also in Guainía department. 6,100 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), increasing. 610 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 6,260. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Cubeo is lingua franca for northwest Vaupés area and Tucano [tuo] is the lingua franca for the southeast section. Alternate Names: Cuveo, Hehenawa, Hipnwa, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kubwa, Pamié, Pamiwa. Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan. Comments: Exogamous marriage pattern with speakers of other languages. Decrease in infant mortality has caused an increase in population. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Cuiba
[cui] Arauca department: Cravo Norte municipality; Casanare department: Betania, El Merey, Esmeralda, Mochuelo, San José de Ariporo, and Santa María on Capanaparo river and tributaries; Vichada department: Meta river south bank. 2,200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). 1,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,280 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 2,850. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiricoa, Cuiba-Wámonae, Cuiva, Hiwi, Maiben. Dialects: Chiricoa, Masiware (Masiguare), Chiripo (Siripu, Wupiwi), Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara, Mayayero, Mochuelo-Casanare-Cuiba, Tampiwi (Mariposas), Amaruwa (Amorua). 8 dialects in Venezuela and Colombia. Classification: Guajiboan. Comments: Seminomadic bands.

More Information

Curripaco
[kpc] Guainía department: Barrio La Primavera and Inírida on Inírida and Isana rivers, headwaters of Río Negro; Vaupés department: Mitu and Papunahua minicipalities. 7,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 7,060 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 11,880. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Curipaco, Karrupaku, Koripako, Kuripaco, Kurripaco, Waquenia. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Baniwa [bwi]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu. Comments: The ethnic group is related to the Puinave [pui] and Piapoco [pio] (2011 C. Suárez).

More Information

Desano
[des] Vaupes department: Vaupés river tributaries, Abiyu and Papurí rivers; Papurí tributaries Pacá, Macú Parana and others; Villa Fátima village and Acaricuara, Montfort, Piracuara, and Teresita missions. 2,460 in Colombia (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boleka, Desána, Dessana, Kotedia, Kusibi, Oregu, Wina, Wira. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano.

More Information

Emberá, Northern
[emp] Antioquia and Chocó departments: Atrato river basin; also inland from Cabo Corrientes north to Jurado on Pacific coast. 49,700 in Colombia (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atrato, Cholo, Darién, Eberã, Eberã Bed’ea, Embena, Embera, Emperã, Epena, Eperã Pedea, Panama Embera, Sambú. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Northern Emberá. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Emberá-Baudó
[bdc] Chocó department: Baudó river basin and Pacific coastal rivers between Cabo Corrientes north towards Northern Embera language area. 5,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baudó, Catrú, Embena, Embera, Epena. Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with Northern Emberá [emp] and Epena [sja]. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá.

More Information

Emberá-Catío
[cto] Antioquia, Chocó, and Córdoba departments: Murri, San Jorge, San Pedro, and upper Sinu rivers. 15,000 in Colombia (1992 SIL). 13,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Total users in all countries: 15,040. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Catio, Embena, Embera, Epena, Eyabida, Katio. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Northern Emberá. Comments: Catio is sometimes used for other Chocoan groups.

More Information

Emberá-Chamí
[cmi] Antioquia, Caldas, Chocó, Risaralda, and Valle del Cauca departments; includes Caramanta municipality. 5,510 (2001 DNP). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chami, Embena, Embera, Epena. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá.

More Information

Emberá-Tadó
[tdc] Chocó department: upper San Juan region, and Parecito and Pared reservation near Certegüi; Risaralda department. 2,300 (2014 SIL). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998)). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cholo, Embena, Embera, Epena, Êpêra, Katío. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá. Comments: Secluded.

More Information

Epena
[sja] Cauca, Nariño, and Valle del Cauca departments: 2 separate areas on South Pacific coast. 3,500 in Colombia (2004 IMB), increasing. Total users in all countries: 4,010. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cholo, Embena, Embera, Emberá-Saija, Epéna Pedée, Epená Saija, Saija, Southern Empera. Dialects: Basurudó. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Guahibo
[guh] Arauca, Casanare, Guainía, Guaviare, Meta, and Vichada departments: plains region, border areas. 23,000 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). 9,200 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 34,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goahibo, Goahiva, Guaigua, Guajibo, Guayba, Hivi, “Sicuani” (pej.), “Sikuani” (pej.), Wahibo. Dialects: Guahibo (Sikuani), Amorua (Rio Tomo Guahibo), Tigrero, Vichadeño. Guahiban languages may not be within Arawakan. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo. Comments: Río Tomo Guahibo are nomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Guambiano
[gum] Cauca department: Caldono, Jambaló, Silvia, Toribío, and Totoró municipalities, western slopes of Andean Cordillera Central on Piendamó river banks. 21,000 (Civallero 2008), increasing. 2,100 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Guambia, Moguex, Namdrik. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Guanano
[gvc] Vaupés department: Vaupés river south banks toward Mitu town. 300 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Ethnic population: 1,170 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anana, Kótedia, Kotiria, Uanano, Wanana, Wanano. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan. Comments: The Guanano move back and forth across the border with Brazil.

More Information

Guayabero
[guo] Guaviare and Meta departments: upper Guaviare river. 1,000 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2007 N. López). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cunimía, Jiw, Mítua, Mítus. Classification: Guajiboan. Comments: Marriage within their own community; 5% urban, 95% rural. Traditional religion.

More Information

Huitoto, Minica
[hto] Amazonas and Caquetá departments: Isla de los Monos in Caquetá river basin; Putumayo department: Leguizamo minicipality; Caguan river area near Sanvicente del Caguan unconfirmed. 6,800 (2002 A. Bríñez). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meneca, Minica. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto, Proto-Minica-Murai.

More Information

Huitoto, Murui
[huu] Amazonas, Caquetá, and Putumayo departments: between Putumayo and Caquetá rivers, north of Porto Arturo. 6,800 in Colombia (2002 A. Bríñez). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bue, Murui, Witoto. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto, Proto-Minica-Murai.

More Information

Hupdë
[jup] Vaupés department: Papurí and Tiquié river systems. 240 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 240 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hup, “Hupdá Makú” (pej.), Hupdah, “Jupdá Macú” (pej.), “Macú de Tucano” (pej.), “Makú-Hupdá” (pej.), Ubdé. Classification: Puinavean, Hupda. Comments: Subservient to Tucanoan Indians. Some nomadic between Colombia and Brazil.

More Information

Inga
[inb] Nariño and Putumayo departments; some in Cauca department: Piamonte and Santa Rosa municipalities; 1,000 in Bogotá, some in regional capitals. 18,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Dispersed in various regions; adopted commerce as a survival strategy (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 22,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Highland Inga. Dialects: Santiago Inga, San Andrés Inga, Aponte Inga. Partially intelligible with Imbabura Quichua [qvi] of Ecuador. Aponte Inga dialect is most distinct. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay.

More Information

Inga, Jungle
[inj] Cauca, Nariño. and Putumayo departments: upper Caquetá and Putumayo rivers. 11,200 (2007 OCIP). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingano, Lowland Inga, Mocoa. Dialects: Yunguillo-Condagua, Guayuyaco. Reportedly most similar to Highland Inga [inb]. Distinct from Napo Quechua [qvo]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay.

More Information

Islander Creole English
[icr] San Andrés y Providencia Islands. 12,000 (1981 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bende, San Andrés Creole. Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Belize Creole English [bzj]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western.

More Information

Kogi
[kog] La Guajira and Magdalena departments: north, east, and west slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 9,910 (2004 DNP). Nearly all monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cagaba, Coghui, Cogui, Kagaba, Kaggaba, Kogui. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan. Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Koreguaje
[coe] Caqueta department: Caquetá and Orteguaza rivers and tributaries; Putumayo department: Puerto Guzman municipality. 2,100 (Civallero 2008). Speakers of Koreguaje represent a fusion of various ethnic groups. Also spoken by Inga, Witoto, Carijona, and Tama (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caquetá, Chaocha Pai, Coreguaja, Coreguaje, Correguaje, Ko’reuaju, Korewahe. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan. Comments: ‘Caquetá’ is name of the river, not the people.

More Information

Kuna, Border
[kvn] Antioquia department: north coast region near Panama isthmus, east and west banks of Gulf of Uraba; Chocó department: Arquía. 2,600 in Colombia (2012 SIL). Total users in all countries: 3,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caiman Nuevo, Colombia Cuna, Cuna, Paya-Pucuro. Dialects: None known. Classification of Kuna uncertain; may be an isolate with some Chibchan features. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Cuna.

More Information

Macaguaje
[mcl] Putumayo department: Caquetá river tributaries. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje. Comments: A few still maintain group identity.

More Information

Macaguán
[mbn] Arauca department: Puerto Rondon and Tame municipalities; Casanare department: Hato Corozal municipality; Casanare river, other scattered locations. 300 (Civallero 2008). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 540 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Agualinda Guahibo, Hitnü, Macaguane, Macaguane-Hitnu. Dialects: None known. Unintelligible to other Guahibo variety speakers. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo. Comments: Small groups. Semi-nomadic.

More Information

Macuna
[myy] Vaupés department: Apaporis tributaries, Mirití-Paraná, and lower Pira-Parana. 1,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Total users in all countries: 1,170. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buhagana, Emoa, Ide, Jepa-Matsi, Makuna, Makuna-Erulia, Paneroa, Roea, Suroa, Tabotiro Jejea, Umua, Wuhána, Yeba, Yepá-Mahsá. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

More Information

Malayo
[mbp] Cesar and La Guajira departments: south and east slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 1,850 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,850 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arosario, Arsario, Damana, Guamaca, Guamaka, Maracasero, Marocasero, Sancá, Sanja, Sanka, Wamaka, Wiwa. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan, Southern and Eastern Arhuacan, Guamaca-Atanque.

More Information

Muinane
[bmr] Amazonas department: Puerto Santander municipality, south of Caquetá river; Caqueta department: between Caqueta and Yari rivers. 150 (2007 F. Cuéllar). Ethnic population: 550 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bora-Muinane, Muename, Muinana, Muinani. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane. Comments: Not the same as Muinane Huitoto [hux].

More Information

Nhengatu
[yrl] Guainía department: Rio Negro; Vaupés department: Caruru and Yavarate municipalities. 8,000 in Colombia (2004 IMB). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Geral, Modern Tupi, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Waengatu, Yeral. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí.

More Information

Nonuya
[noj] Amazonas department: Puerto Santander municipality, Peña Roja. 3 in Colombia (2007 J. Echeverri). Ethnic population: 90. Ethnic population covers both Colombia and Peru. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nononota. Classification: Witotoan.

More Information

Nukak Makú
[mbr] Jungle region between Guaviare and Inírida rivers, up to Mapiripan. Near Charco Caimán. 700 (2010 A. Gonzalez). 400 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guaviare, Macusa, Nukak. Dialects: None known. Sometimes considered the same language as Kakua [cbv] as they share a large percentage of their lexicon and supposedly are mutually intelligible (Crevels 2007). Classification: Puinavean, Cacua. Comments: Evasive hunters.

More Information

Ocaina
[oca] Amazonas department: upper Igará-Paraná and tributaries. 140 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Okaina. Dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo’tsa. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina.

More Information

Páez
[pbb] Cauca, Huila, and Tolima departments: Popayán area, central Andes range. 40,000 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 119,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nasa Yuwe, Paes. Dialects: Pitayo, Paniquita (Panikita). Classification: Paezan, Paezan. Comments: Christian.

More Information

Palenquero
[pln] Atlántico department: border area and 2 neighborhoods in Barranquilla; Bolivar department: San Basilio de Palenque village southeast of Cartagena. 500 (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lengua, Palenque. Dialects: None known. Linguistic influences from Koongo [kng] in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Hancock 1987). Classification: Creole, Spanish based. Comments: People are culturally distinct from nearby Spanish [spa] speakers. Palenque is Spanish for a fortified village of runaway slaves.

More Information

Piapoco
[pio] Guainía department: Guaviare south bank border areas; Vichada department: between Vichada and Guaviare rivers. 4,930 in Colombia (2007 Moyano). Ethnic population: 4,930 (2007). Total users in all countries: 6,380. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wenewika. Dialects: None known. Very similar to Guarequena [gae] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco.

More Information

Piaroa
[pid] Vaupés department: Resguardo Matavén Fruta, and Selva de Matavén; on Venezuela border, banks of smaller tributaries of Guaviare, Manaveni, Vichada, and Zama rivers. 80 in Colombia (1991 W. Adelaar). Ethnic population: 800 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Adole, Ature, Guagua, Kuakua, Maco, Quaqua Dearuwa, Wöthüha, Wo’tiheh. Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco.

More Information

Pijao
[pij] Tolima department. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Piajao. Dialects: None known. Not enough data to classify it linguistically (1973 M. Durbin). Classification: Unclassified.

More Information

Piratapuyo
[pir] Vaupés department: Yavarate municipality, Papurí and lower Vaupés rivers; most near Roman Catholic mission at Teresita. 450 in Colombia. Ethnic population: 630 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Uaikena, Urubu-Tapuya, Waikino. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

More Information

Playero
[gob] Arauca department: Venezuela border, Arauca river banks from Arauca to Gaviotas Island. 150 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 160 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 350. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pepojivi, Rio Arauca Guahibo. Dialects: None known. Low intelligibility of other Guahibo. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo. Comments: Many have fields in Venezuela.

More Information

Providencia Sign Language
[prz] San Andrés y Providencia department. 19 (Washabaugh 1986). Known by most people on the island including 19 born deaf out of 2,500 to 3,000 population (Washabaugh 1986). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Not exposed to other sign languages. East differs from west with some variation between villages. Classification: Sign language. Comments: High deaf population probably caused by in-breeding. Deaf fairly well integrated into daily activities.

More Information

Puinave
[pui] Guainía and Vichada departments: Inírida river and tributaries. 2,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 5,380 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 2,880. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Puinabe. Dialects: None known. Related to Macú (Ruhlen and others). Classification: Puinavean.

More Information

Quichua, Napo Lowland
[qvo] Putumayo river. Undetermined number in Colombia. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kichua, Lowland Napo Quechua, Runa Shimi. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Sáliba
[slc] Arauca, Casanare, Meta, and Vichadad departments: upstream from confluence of Meta and Casanare rivers. 1,300 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 1,900 (2004 DNP). Total users in all countries: 1,550. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sáliva. Classification: Sálivan.

More Information

Siona
[snn] Putumayo department: El Tablero and Resguardo Buenavista, between Poñuna Blanca and Poñuna Negra on Putumayo river and tributaries. 200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 730 (2001 Guía Etnográfica de Colombia). Total users in all countries: 500. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ceona, Ganteya, Ganteyabain, Kanú, Koka, Pioche-Sioni, Pioje, Sioni, Zeona. Dialects: None known. Ethnically different from the Secoya [sey], but they use the same language, Paicoca (2011 W. Largo). Lexical similarity: 95% with Secoya [sey] (2007 W. Largo). Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje. Comments: Those in Ecuador consider themselves Colombians. Distinct from Secoya (Siona-Secoya) [sey].

More Information

Siriano
[sri] Vaupés department: 3 separate areas near Vaupes river, south and west of Mitu town. 200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 750 (2001 Guía Etnográfica de Colombia). Total users in all countries: 217. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chiranga, Cirnga, Si-Ra, Sura Masa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Desano [des], but the 2 languages diverge in their use of grammatical suffixes (Crevels 2007). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano. Comments: Ethnic differences are important due to the system of exogamy, and persons are identified by L1 of father. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Spanish
[spa] 46,600,000 in Colombia (2013). L2 users: 94,200 in Colombia (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 10). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Tama
[ten] Caquetá department: Vicente, Orteguaza river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jabaal. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Koreguaje [coe]. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan.

More Information

Tanimuca-Retuarã
[tnc] Amazonas and Vaupés departments: Guacayá and Oiyaka rivers (tributaries of the Mirití-Paraná), Apaporis, Mirití-Paraná, and Popeyaca rivers near mouth of Pira river below Popeyaca. 300 (1976 SIL). 180 Tanimuca. Retuarã more monolingual than Tanimuca. Ethnic population: 1,800 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Letuama, Letuhama, Ohañara, Opaima, Retuama, Retuarã, Tanimboka, Tanimuca-Letuama, Uairã, Ufaina. Dialects: Tanimuca, Retuarã. Tanimuca and Retuarã are 2 ethnic groups living near each other who speak the same language. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan. Comments: All work for one rubber hunter.

More Information

Tariana
[tae] Vaupés department: lower Papurí. No known L1 speakers in Colombia. Ethnic population: 330 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tariána, Tariano. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Tatuyo
[tav] Vaupés department: Pira-Paraná headwaters and upper Papurí. 400 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 400 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Juna, Oa, Pamoa, Sina, Sura, Tatutapuyo. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano. Comments: Majority marry Carapana, Northern Barasano, or Barasana women.

More Information

Ticuna
[tca] Amazonas department: between Leticia and Perutate, north along the Amazon River. 6,600 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 6,600 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukúna. Classification: Language isolate.

More Information

Tinigua
[tit] Meta department: Sierra de la Macarena. 2 (2000). Ethnic population: 2. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tiniguas. Classification: Tiniguan.

More Information

Totoro
[ttk] Cauca department: Totoro, 17 km west of Silvia. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,550 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco.

More Information

Tucano
[tuo] Vaupés department: upper Papurí river and tributaries. 2,000 in Colombia. Ethnic population: 6,800 (Civallero 2008). Status: 6b (Threatened). Tucano is the lingua franca for southeast Vaupés section and Cubeo [cub] is the lingua franca for the northwest area. Alternate Names: Betaya, Betoya, Dachsea, Dasea, Daxsea, Tukana, Tukano. Dialects: Pisamira. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano.

More Information

Tunebo, Angosturas
[tnd] Arauca department: headwaters and southern tributaries of Casanare river. 50. Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. 71% intelligibility by Barro Negro [tbn] of Angosturas Tunebo. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese.

More Information

Tunebo, Barro Negro
[tbn] Arauca and Casanare departments: Barro Negro, San Lope (Casanare), and Tabías (Casanare), south of Tame Arauca; isolated in Andes foothills, eastern plains above Paz de Ariporo. 300 (1981 SIL). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Tunebo. Dialects: None known. 62% intelligibility of Cobaría Tunebo [tuf]. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese.

More Information

Tunebo, Central
[tuf] Arauca and Boyacá departments: Calafita, Cobaría (Boyacá), Satocá, Tegría (Boyacá) on north slopes of Sierra Nevada de Cocuy; Santander department: Capitanejo and Carcasi municipalities. 2,500 in Colombia (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cobaría Tunebo, Lache, U’wa, Uwa-Tunebo. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese. Comments: A taboo on the use of paper for writing was observed at one time.

More Information

Tunebo, Western
[tnb] Norte de Santander and Santander departments: east of Floridablanca; some in Boyacá department. 700 (1998). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aguas Blancas, U’wa. Dialects: None known. Most divergent Tunebo language. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese.

More Information

Tuyuca
[tue] Vaupés department: on Inambú, Papurí, and upper Tiquié along Comeyaca headwaters. 350 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 570 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 940. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dochkafuara, Tejuca, Tuyuka. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka.

More Information

Waimaha
[bao] Vaupés department: Mitú, upper Papurí, mid and upper Pira-Paraná tributaries, and Tiquié. 500 in Colombia (2004 DNP). Some monolinguals over 40. Total users in all countries: 539. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Bará” (pej.), Barasano, Bará-Tuyuka, Northern Barasano, Waimaja. Dialects: Eastern Waimaha, Pamoa Bara. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

More Information

Wajiara
[yui] Vaupés department: Upper Paca river (Papurí river tributary); Caño Yi and Caño Tuy rivers (Vaupes river tributaries). 1,100 in Colombia (2011 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 1,150. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Juriti, Juriti-Tapuia, Juruti, Luruty-Tapuya, Patsoka, Totsoca, Wadzana, Waijiara masa-wadyana, Waikana, Waimasá, Wajiaraye, Wayhara, Yuriti, Yuruti, Yuruti-Tapuya, Yurutiye. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano. Comments: Marriage patterns require spouses to be from different language groups. Children speak the languages of both parents and grandparents, but identify with the father’s language.

More Information

Wayuu
[guc] La Guajira department: Guajira peninsula, Caribbean coast. 122,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 199,000 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 321,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goajiro, Guajira, Guajiro, Uáira, Wahiro, Waiu, Wayu, Wayúu, Wayuunaiki. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

More Information

Woun Meu
[noa] Chocó department: middle and lower San Juan river banks, especially north of Buenaventura; some in Valle del Cauca. 4,000 in Colombia (Aikhenvald 2007). Ethnic population: 7,970 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 10,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Waumeo, Waun Meo, Waunana, Woun Meo, Wounaan. Classification: Chocoan.

More Information

Yahuna
[ynu] Amazonas department: Apaporis and Mirití rivers. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 95 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Yaúna, Yayuna. Dialects: Opaina, Datuana. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan.

More Information

Yucuna
[ycn] Amazonas department: Puerto Santander municipality, 3 enclaves; Ararcuara, La Pedrera on lower Caquetá, Leticia, Mirití-Paraná; Caqueta department: part of westernmost enclave. 1,800 (2001 SIL). 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Matapi, Yucuna-Matapi, Yukuna. Dialects: None known. In some traditional ceremonies ritual language used, mostly unintelligible even to those who have learned it. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki. Comments: Local subversive activity caused some Yucuna to move to other areas. Traditional religion, Christian.

More Information

Yukpa
[yup] Cesar department: Augustín Codazzi municipality and municipalities north and south, Colombia-Venezuela border in Serranía de Perijá mountain range. Río Casacará dialect in Agustín Codassi municipality along Casacará river and Caño Iroka. Yukpa sur dialect, Becerril municipality. 3,000 in Colombia (2009 W. Largo). 600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,530 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Total users in all countries: 6,020. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Carib Motilón, Macoíta, Northern Motilón, Yuco, Yucpa, Yuko, Yupa. Dialects: Río Casacará (Iroka), Río Maracas, Yukpa Sur (Caño Padilla-La Laguna), Coyaima. At least 5 extant dialects including 2 in Venezuela. Río Cascará and Río Maracas dialects are probably largest, and may be separate languages. Venezuela dialects seem more similar to Río Maracas. Unrelated to Barí [mot]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Japreria [jru] of Venezuela (2008 W. Largo). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria. Comments: Traditional religion.

More Information

Free Views Left: