Colombia

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Achagua
[aca] Casanare department; Meta department: Upper Meta River, between Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán, El Turpial reservation, and Umapo community. Population: 250 (2000 M. Lozano), decreasing. Ethnic population: 280 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ajagua, Xagua. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Piapoco [pio]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco.

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Andaqui
[ana] Caquetá department: upper reaches of Caquetá river; Cauca department, Fragua valley; Huila department: Suaza valley; southern highlands. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1970s (Loukotka 1968). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aguanunga, Andaki, Andaquí, Churuba. Classification: Paezan.

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Andoque
[ano] Amazonas department: Aduche tributary of Caquetá, 15 km downriver from Araracuara; Caquetá department: Solano municipality. Population: 370 (2007 B. Pencue), decreasing. 10,000 in 1908 (Landaburu 1979). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andoke, Businka, Cha’oie, Paasi-ahá, Paasiaja, Paatsiaja, Poosioho. Classification: Language isolate.

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Anserma
[ans] Caldas, Quindío, and Risaralda departments. Population: No known L1 speakers. 7 families still spoke it in 1995 (Rendón 2011). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ancerma, Anserna, Caramanta, Cartama, Humbra, Umbra. Dialects: None known. Related to Caramanta [crf]. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco.

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Arhuaco
[arh] Cesar and Magdalena departments: northeast and southern slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Population: 8,000 (2009 P. Frank). 7,200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,800 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arauco, Arhuac, Aruac, Aruaco, Auroguac, Bintucua, Bintuk, Bintukwa, Bíntuka, Bíntukua, Bítuncua, Ica, Ijca, Ijka, Ika, Ikan, Ike. Autonym: Iku. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan, Southern and Eastern Arhuacan.

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Arma
[aoh] Huila Department. Population: Status: Unattested. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco.

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Awa-Cuaiquer
[kwi] Nariño department: Barbacoas area; Cuaiquer del Alto Albí, Cuambíyaslambi, Cumbal, Mallama, and Ricaurte reservations; Pacific slopes of Andes. Population: 12,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,400 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 14,100. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa, Awa Pit, Coaiquer, Cuaiquer, Kwaiker, Quaiquer, auapit, Înkal Awa. Autonym: Awapit. Dialects: None known. Distantly related to Chachi [cbi] and Colorado [cof]. Classification: Barbacoan, Northern.

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Barasana-Eduria
[bsn] Amazonas department: Apaporis river south bank; Vaupés department: Cachivera Pina, Mitú, Sõnanã, Pacoa, Piedra Ñi, San Miguel; Pira-Paraná river and tributaries. Population: 1,890 (1993 census). Ethnic population: 1,890 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Banera yae, Barasano, Barasano del Sur, Came-Masa, Come masa, Comea, Comematsa, Hadera, Hanera, Hanera oka, Janena, Janera, Palanoa, Panenoa, Panera, Paneroa, Southern Barasano, Taibano, Taiwaeno, Taiwano, Teiuana, Yebamasa, Yepa-Mahsa, Yepa-Matso. Autonym: Barasana-Eduria. Dialects: Barasana (Comematsa, Janera, Paneroa, Southern Barasano, Yebamasa), Eduria (Edulia, Erulia, Taiwano). Reportedly similar to Macuna [myy] and Carapana [cbc] (2011 P. Jones). Lexical similarity: 98% between Eduria and Barasano; just some phonological differences. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka.

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Barbacoas
[bpb] Nariño department: Barbacoas coastal town area. Population: Status: Unattested. Alternate Names: Barbácoa, Colima, Pasto. Classification: Barbacoan, Northern.

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Barí
[mot] Cesar department: Chimichagua, La Gloria, and Pailitas municipalities; Norte de Santander department: Reserva Indígena Motilón-Barí and Resguardo Indígena Gabarra-Catalaura in Upper Catatumbo and Oro rivers and Serranía de los Motilones region. Population: 3,500 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 3,620 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 5,020. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bari, Barira, Cunausaya, Dobocubi, Motilone, Motilón. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian.

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Bora
[boa] Amazonas department: Bora, Providencia on Igaraparana (tributary of the Putumayo); Miraña: lower Caquetá river, near Cahuinari river mouth. Population: 600 in Colombia (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,420 (Crevels 2012). 700 Bora and 720 Miraña in 2001 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Boro, Meamuyna, Miranya, Miraña, Mirañã, Miriña. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane.

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Cabiyarí
[cbb] Amazonas and Vaupés departments: Cananarí river area, tributary of the Apaporis and Vaupés. Population: 270 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 310 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cabiuarí, Cabuyari, Cauyarí, Cuyare, Kabiyarí, Kauyarí, Kawiarí, Kawillary, Kawiri, Kawiyarí. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki.

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Cacua
[cbv] Vaupés department: Wacará, 30 km east of Mitú. Population: 220 (Crevels 2012). Many monolinguals, especially children. Ethnic population: 220 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Báda, Cakua, Kakua, Kákwa, Macu de Cubeo, Macu de Desano, Macu de Guanano, Wacara. Autonym: Cacua. Dialects: Vaupés Cacua, Macú-Paraná Cacua. Lexical similarity: 90% similarity with Nukak [mbr] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Puinavean, Cacua.

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Camsá
[kbh] Putumayo department: Sibundoy valley, near Ingas. Population: 4,000 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 4,770 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Camëntxá, Coche, Kamemtxa, Kamsa, Kamse, Kamëntsa, Sibundoy, Sibundoy-Gaché. Autonym: Camënts̈á. Classification: Language isolate.

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Carabayo
[cby] Amazonas department: halfway between San Bernardo and Pure rivers. At least 3 long houses. Population: 150. Ethnic population: 220 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yuri, “Amazonas Macusa” (pej.). Classification: Unclassified.

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Caramanta
[crf] Antioquia department: Jardín municipality, near Andes and Cristianía cities. Population: No known L1 speakers. Extinctt by mid 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco.

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Carapana
[cbc] Vaupés department: Cano Tí (tributary of middle Vaupés river) and upper Pirá-Paraná and Papurí rivers. Population: 460 in Colombia (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 460 (2004 DNP). Total users in all countries: 523. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Carapana-Tapuya, Karapano, Karapaná, Karapanã, Mextã, Mi tea, Mochda, Moxdoa, Muxtea. Autonym: Carapana. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tatuyo [tav] (Crevels 2007) and to Barasan-Eduria [bsn] (2004 DNP). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano.

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Carijona
[cbd] Guaviare department: Miraflores municipality southeast of Lake Espajo. Population: 6 (Crevels 2007). 6 speakers near La Pedrera and a few more near Miraflores (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 310 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Carifuna, Carihona, Hianacoto, Hianacoto-Umaua, Hianakoto, Huaque, Kaliohona, Karihona, Karijona, Koto, Omagua, Tsahá, Umawa. Dialects: None known. Possibly 2 separate languages, Hianacoto-Umaua and Carijona (1973 M. Durbin). The 2 groups had no contact for many years. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Karihona.

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Cauca
[cca] Vaupés Department. Population: Status: Unattested. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco.

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Chimila
[cbg] Cesar department: Valle du Par minicipality; La Guajira department: La Jagua del Pilar and Urumita municipalities; Magdalena department: lowlands south and west of Fundación. Population: 350 (2009 T. Malone), increasing. Ethnic population: 1,500 (2009 T. Malone). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caca Weranos, Chimile, Ette Ennaka, Ette Taara, San Jorge, Shimizya, Simiza. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian.

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Cocama-Cocamilla
[cod] Amazonas department: Ronda Island in Amazon River opposite Leticia city, and in Naranjales, Palmeras, and San José villages. Population: No known L1 speakers in Colombia. Last known speakers in Colombia survived into the 1990s. Possibly only a few semi-speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 790 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cocama, Inikana, Kokama. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama.

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Cofán
[con] Nariño department; Putumayo department: Orito, San Miguel, and Valle del Gamuéz. Colombia-Ecuador border area. Population: 380 in Colombia (Crevels 2012), decreasing. Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,140 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: A’i, A’ingae, Kofan, Kofane. Dialects: Aguarico, Santa Rosa. Classification: Language isolate.

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Colombian Sign Language
[csn] Scattered. Population: Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Presidential Law 982). Alternate Names: LSC, Lengua de señas colombiana, Lengua manual colombiana. Dialects: Southwest (Cali), Central (Bogotá-Eje cafetero), North (Caribe). Some signs reportedly similar to those in sign languages of El Salvador, Spain, and the United States. Classification: Sign language.

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Cubeo
[cub] Vaupés department: Cuduyari, Querarí, and Vaupés rivers and tributaries; possibly also in Guainía department. Population: 6,100 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), increasing. 610 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,650 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 6,260. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Cubeo is lingua franca for northwest Vaupés area and Tucano [tuo] is the lingua franca for the southeast section. Alternate Names: Cuveo, Hehenawa, Hipnwa, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kubeo, Kubwa, Pamiwa. Autonym: Pamié. Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan.

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Cuiba
[cui] Arauca department: Cravo Norte municipality; Casanare department: Betania, El Merey, Esmeralda, Mochuelo, San José de Ariporo, and Santa María on Capanaparo river and tributaries; Vichada department: Meta river south bank. Population: 2,200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). 1,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,450 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 2,640. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Cuiva, Hiwi, Kuiva, Maiben. Autonym: Cuiba-Wámonae. Dialects: Chiricoa, Masiware (Masiguare), Chiripo (Siripu, Wupiwi), Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara, Mayayero, Mochuelo-Casanare-Cuiba, Tampiwi (Mariposas), Amaruwa (Amorua). 8 dialects in Venezuela and Colombia. Classification: Guajiboan.

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Curripaco
[kpc] Guainía department: Barrio La Primavera and Inírida on Inírida and Isana rivers, headwaters of Río Negro; Vaupés department: Mitu and Papunahua minicipalities. Population: 7,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 7,830 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 12,070. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Baniva del Isana, Curipaco, Curripaco-Baniva, Karrupaku, Koripako, Kuripaco, Kurripaco, Kurripako, Kúrrim, Waquenia. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Baniwa [bwi]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu.

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Desano
[des] Vaupes department: Vaupés river tributaries, Abiyu and Papurí rivers; Papurí tributaries Pacá, Macú Parana and others; Villa Fátima village and Acaricuara, Montfort, Piracuara, and Teresita missions. Population: 2,460 in Colombia (2001 census). Ethnic population: 2,460 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boleka, Dessana, Desána, Kotedia, Kusibi, Oregu, Wina, Wira. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano.

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Emberá, Northern
[emp] Antioquia and Chocó departments: Atrato river basin; also inland from Cabo Corrientes north to Jurado on Pacific coast. Population: 49,700 in Colombia (2001 census). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia in 2001: 88,700 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Atrato, Cholo, Darién, Eberã, Eberã Bed’ea, Embena, Embera, Emperã, Epena, Eperã Pedea, Epérã Pedée, Panama Embera, Pede, Pede Epenã, Sambú. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Northern Emberá.

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Emberá-Baudó
[bdc] Chocó department: Baudó river basin and Pacific coastal rivers between Cabo Corrientes north towards Northern Embera language area. Population: 5,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia in 2001: 88,700 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baudó, Catrú, Embena, Embera, Epena. Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with Northern Emberá [emp] and Epena [sja]. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá.

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Emberá-Catío
[cto] Antioquia, Chocó, and Córdoba departments: Murri, San Jorge, San Pedro, and upper Sinu rivers. Population: 15,000 in Colombia (1992 SIL). 13,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia in 2001: 88,700 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 15,040. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Catio, Catío Emberá, Embena, Embera, Emberá-Katío, Epena, Epẽrã, Eyabida, Katio, ẽbẽrã bed’ea–Katío. Autonym: Ẽ́bẽra Katío. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Northern Emberá.

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Emberá-Chamí
[cmi] Antioquia, Caldas, Chocó, Risaralda, and Valle del Cauca departments; includes Caramanta municipality. Population: 5,510 (2001 DNP). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia in 2001: 88,700 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Chami, Chamí Emberá, Embena, Embera, Epena. Autonym: ẽbẽra. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá.

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Emberá-Tadó
[tdc] Chocó department: upper San Juan region, and Parecito and Pared reservation near Certegüi; Risaralda department. Population: 2,300 (2014 SIL). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia in 2001: 88,700 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cholo, Embena, Embera, Epena, Katío, Êpêra. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá.

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English
[eng] San Andrés y Providencia department; scattered elsewhere. Population: 1,910,000 in Colombia (2015), L2 users. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Epena
[sja] Cauca, Nariño, and Valle del Cauca departments: 2 separate areas on South Pacific coast. Population: 3,500 in Colombia (2004 IMB), increasing. Total users in all countries: 3,552. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cholo, Embena, Embera, Emberá-Saija, Epená Saija, Saija, Southern Empera. Autonym: Epéna Pedée. Dialects: Basurudó. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá.

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Guahibo
[guh] Arauca, Casanare, Guainía, Guaviare, Meta, and Vichada departments: plains region, border areas. Population: 23,000 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). 9,200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 23,000 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 35,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goahibo, Goahiva, Guaigua, Guajibo, Guayba, Hiwi, Jive, Wahibo, Wahivo, “Sicuani” (pej.), “Sikuani” (pej.). Autonym: Hivi. Dialects: Guahibo (Sikuani), Amorua (Rio Tomo Guahibo), Tigrero, Vichadeño. Guahiban languages may not be within Arawakan. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo.

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Guambiano
[gum] Cauca department: Caldono, Jambaló, Silvia, Toribío, and Totoró municipalities, western slopes of Andean Cordillera Central on Piendamó river banks. Population: 21,000 (Civallero 2008), increasing. 2,100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 23,500 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Coconuco, Guambia, Guanaca, Moguex. Autonym: Namdrik. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco.

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Guanano
[gvc] Vaupés department: Vaupés river south banks toward Mitu town. Population: 300 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Ethnic population: 1,400 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anana, Kotiria, Kótedia, Uanano, Wanana, Wanano. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

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Guayabero
[guo] Guaviare and Meta departments: upper Guaviare river. Population: 1,000 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 1,120 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cunimía, Jiw, Mítua, Mítus. Classification: Guajiboan.

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Hupdë
[jup] Vaupés department: Papurí and Tiquié river systems. Population: 240 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 240 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hup, Hupda, Hupdah, Ubdé, “Hupdá Makú” (pej.), “Jupdá Macú” (pej.), “Macú de Tucano” (pej.), “Makú-Hupdá” (pej.). Classification: Puinavean, Hupda.

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Inga
[inb] Nariño and Putumayo departments; some in Cauca department: Piamonte and Santa Rosa municipalities; 1,000 in Bogotá, some in regional capitals. Population: 18,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Dispersed in various regions; adopted commerce as a survival strategy (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 19,100 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 22,000. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Highland Inga. Dialects: Santiago Inga, San Andrés Inga, Aponte Inga. Partially intelligible with Imbabura Quichua [qvi] of Ecuador. Aponte Inga dialect is most distinct. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay.

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Inga, Jungle
[inj] Cauca, Nariño. and Putumayo departments: upper Caquetá and Putumayo rivers. Population: 11,200 (2007 OCIP). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingano, Lowland Inga, Mocoa. Dialects: Yunguillo-Condagua, Guayuyaco. Reportedly most similar to Highland Inga [inb]. Distinct from Napo Quechua [qvo]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay.

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Islander Creole English
[icr] San Andrés and Providencia Islands. Population: 12,000 (1981 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bende, San Andrés Creole. Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar to Belize Creole English [bzj]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western.

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Kogi
[kog] La Guajira and Magdalena departments: north, east, and west slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Population: 9,910 (2004 DNP). Nearly all monolingual. Ethnic population: 9,910 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cagaba, Coghui, Cogui, Kagaba, Kaggaba, Kawgian, Kogui. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan.

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Koreguaje
[coe] Caqueta department: Caquetá and Orteguaza rivers and tributaries; Putumayo department: Puerto Guzman municipality. Population: 2,100 (Civallero 2008). Speakers of Koreguaje represent a fusion of various ethnic groups. Also spoken by Inga, Witoto, Carijona, and Tama (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,210 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Caquetá, Chaocha Pai, Coreguaja, Coreguaje, Correguaje, Ko’reuaju, Korewahe. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan.

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Kuna, Border
[kvn] Antioquia department: north coast region near Panama isthmus, east and west banks of Gulf of Uraba; Chocó department: Arquía. Population: 2,600 in Colombia (2012 SIL). Total users in all countries: 3,500. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Caiman Nuevo, Colombia Cuna, Cuna, Paya Kuna, Paya-Pucuro, Tule. Dialects: None known. Classification of Kuna uncertain; may be an isolate with some Chibchan features. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Cuna.

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Macaguaje
[mcl] Putumayo department: Caquetá river tributaries. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker either died or shifted to Siona [snn] or Koreguaje [coe] by the 1970s. Ethnic population: 50 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kakawahe, Makaguaje, Piojé, Secoya. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje.

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Macaguán
[mbn] Arauca department: Puerto Rondon and Tame municipalities; Casanare department: Hato Corozal municipality; Casanare river, other scattered locations. Population: 300 (Civallero 2008). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 440 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Agualinda Guahibo, Hitnü, Jitnu, Macaguane, Macaguane-Hitnu. Dialects: None known. Unintelligible to other Guahibo variety speakers. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo.

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Macuna
[myy] Vaupés department: Apaporis tributaries, Mirití-Paraná, and lower Pira-Parana. Population: 1,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 1,010 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 1,032. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buhagana, Emoa, Ide, Jepa-Matsi, Makuna, Makuna-Erulia, Paneroa, Roea, Suroa, Tabotiro Jejea, Umua, Wuhána, Yeba, Yepá-Mahsá. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

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Malayo
[mbp] Cesar and La Guajira departments: south and east slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Population: 1,850 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,920 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arosario, Arsario, Damana, Guamaca, Guamaka, Maracasero, Marocasero, Sancá, Sanja, Sanka, Wamaka, Wiwa. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan, Southern and Eastern Arhuacan, Guamaca-Atanque.

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Muinane
[bmr] Amazonas department: Puerto Santander municipality, south of Caquetá river; Caqueta department: between Caqueta and Yari rivers. Population: 150 (2007 F. Cuéllar). Ethnic population: 550 (Crevels 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bora-Muinane, Muename, Muinana, Muinani. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane.

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Nhengatu
[yrl] Guainía department: Rio Negro; Vaupés department: Caruru and Yavarate municipalities. Population: 8,000 in Colombia (2004 IMB). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Geral, Modern Tupi, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Waengatu, Yeral. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí.

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Nonuya
[noj] Amazonas department: Puerto Santander municipality, Peña Roja. Population: 2 in Colombia (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 230 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nononota. Classification: Witotoan.

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Nukak Makú
[mbr] Jungle region between Guaviare and Inírida rivers, up to Mapiripan. Near Charco Caimán. Population: 390 (Crevels 2012). 200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 390 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guaviare, Macusa, Nukak. Dialects: None known. Sometimes considered the same language as Kakua [cbv] as they share a large percentage of their lexicon and supposedly are mutually intelligible (Crevels 2007). Classification: Puinavean, Cacua.

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Ocaina
[oca] Amazonas department: upper Igará-Paraná and tributaries. Population: 140 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Ethnic population: 140 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Okaina. Dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo’tsa. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina.

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Páez
[pbb] Cauca, Huila, and Tolima departments: Popayán area, central Andes range. Population: 60,000 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 139,000 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nasa, Nasayuwe, Paes. Autonym: Nasa Yuwe. Dialects: Pitayo, Paniquita (Panikita). Classification: Paezan, Paezan.

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Palenquero
[pln] Atlántico department: border area and 2 neighborhoods in Barranquilla; Bolivar department: San Basilio de Palenque village southeast of Cartagena. Population: 500 (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lengua, Palenque. Dialects: None known. Linguistic influences from Koongo [kng] in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Hancock 1987). Classification: Creole, Spanish based.

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Piapoco
[pio] Guainía department: Guaviare south bank border areas; Vichada department: between Vichada and Guaviare rivers. Population: 4,930 in Colombia (2007 Moyano). Ethnic population: 4,930 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 6,680. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Piapoko, Tsáçe. Autonym: Wenewika. Dialects: None known. Very similar to Guarequena [gae] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco.

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Piaroa
[pid] Vichada department: Santa Rita municipality, between Vichada and Guaviare rivers. Population: 770 in Colombia (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 770 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adole, Ature, De’aruwã thiwene, Guagua, Kuakua, Maco, Quaqua Dearuwa, Wo’tiheh, Wöthüha. Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco.

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Pijao
[pij] Tolima department. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker may have died by the 1960s (Zwisler 2018). Ethnic population: 60,000 (Zwisler 2018). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Piajao, Pijao Paniquita, Pijao Paniquitá, Pinao, Pixao. Dialects: None known. Not enough data to classify it linguistically (1973 M. Durbin). Classification: Unclassified.

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Piratapuyo
[pir] Vaupés department: Yavarate municipality, Papurí and lower Vaupés rivers; most near Roman Catholic mission at Teresita. Population: 630 in Colombia (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 630 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Uaikena, Urubu-Tapuya, Waikino. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

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Playero
[gob] Arauca department: Venezuela border, Arauca river banks from Arauca to Gaviotas Island. Population: 150 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 160 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 350. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guahibo Playero, Pepojivi, Rio Arauca Guahibo. Dialects: None known. Low intelligibility of other Guahibo. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo.

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Providencia Sign Language
[prz] San Andrés y Providencia: Providencia island. Population: 19 (Washabaugh 1986). Known by most people on Providencia, including 19 born deaf out of 2,500 to 3,000 population (Washabaugh 1986). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Not exposed to other sign languages. East differs from west with some variation between villages (Washabaugh 1986). Classification: Sign language.

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Puinave
[pui] Guainía and Vichada departments: Inírida river and tributaries. Population: 2,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 6,600 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 2,550. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Puinabe. Dialects: None known. Related to Macú (Ruhlen and others). Classification: Puinavean.

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Quichua, Napo Lowland
[qvo] Putumayo river. Population: Undetermined number in Colombia. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kichua, Lowland Napo Quechua, Runa Shimi. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay.

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Sáliba
[slc] Arauca, Casanare, Meta, and Vichadad departments: upstream from confluence of Meta and Casanare rivers. Population: 1,300 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 1,930 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 1,336. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sáliva. Classification: Sálivan.

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Siona
[snn] Putumayo department: El Tablero and Resguardo Buenavista, between Poñuna Blanca and Poñuna Negra on Putumayo river and tributaries. Population: 200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 730 (2001 Guía Etnográfica de Colombia). Total users in all countries: 460. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ceona, Ganteya, Ganteyabain, Kanú, Koka, Piohé, Pioje, Pioje-Sioni, Siona-Secoya, Sioni, Zeona. Dialects: None known. Ethnically different from the Secoya [sey], but they use the same language, Paicoca (2011 W. Largo). Lexical similarity: 95% with Secoya [sey] (2007 W. Largo). Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje.

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Siriano
[sri] Vaupés department: 3 separate areas near Vaupes river, south and west of Mitu town. Population: 200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 750 (2001 Guía Etnográfica de Colombia). Total users in all countries: 217. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chiranga, Cirnga, Desana-Siriana, Si-Ra, Sura Masa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Desano [des], but the 2 languages diverge in their use of grammatical suffixes (Crevels 2007). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano.

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Spanish
[spa] Population: 47,281,100 in Colombia, all users. L1 users: 47,200,000 in Colombia (2017). L2 users: 81,100 (2017). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian.

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Tama
[ten] Caquetá department: Vicente, Orteguaza river. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died by the 1960s (Loukotka 1968). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jabaal. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Koreguaje [coe]. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan.

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Tanimuca-Retuarã
[tnc] Amazonas and Vaupés departments: Guacayá and Oiyaka rivers (tributaries of the Mirití-Paraná), Apaporis, Mirití-Paraná, and Popeyaca rivers near mouth of Pira river below Popeyaca. Population: 1,800 (Crevels 2007). Retuarã more monolingual than Tanimuca. Ethnic population: 1,950 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Letuama, Letuhama, Ohañara, Opaina, Retuama, Retuarã, Tanimboka, Tanimuca-Letuama, Uairã, Ufaina. Dialects: Tanimuca, Retuarã. Tanimuca and Retuarã are 2 ethnic groups living near each other who speak the same language. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan.

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Tariana
[tae] Vaupés department: lower Papurí. Population: No known L1 speakers in Colombia. Last known speaker in Colombia likely survived into the 1990s. Ethnic population: 450 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tariano, Tariána. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki.

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Tatuyo
[tav] Vaupés department: Pira-Paraná headwaters and upper Papurí. Population: 330 (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 330 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Juna, Oa, Pamoa, Sina, Sura, Tatutapuyo, Wa’ikhana, jʉna ye. Autonym: Tatuyo ye. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano.

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Ticuna
[tca] Amazonas department: between Leticia and Perutate, north along the Amazon River. Population: 6,600 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 7,100 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukúna. Classification: Language isolate.

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Tinigua
[tit] Meta department: Sierra de la Macarena. Population: 1 (2013 J. P. Tobal). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tiniguas. Classification: Tiniguan.

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Totoro
[ttk] Cauca department: Totoro, 17 km west of Silvia. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the first decade of the 2000s (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Ethnic population: 4,130 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco.

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Tucano
[tuo] Vaupés department: upper Papurí river and tributaries. Population: 7,020 in Colombia (Crevels 2012). 25 Pisamira and 7,000 Tucano (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 7,060 (Crevels 2012). 61 Pisamira and 7,000 Tucano (Crevels 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Tucano is the lingua franca for southeast Vaupés section and Cubeo [cub] is the lingua franca for the northwest area. Alternate Names: Betaya, Betoya, Dachsea, Dasea, Daxsea, Tukana, Tukano. Dialects: Pisamira (Pápiwa). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano.

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Tunebo, Angosturas
[tnd] Arauca department: headwaters and southern tributaries of Casanare river. Population: 50. Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Uw Cuwa. Dialects: None known. 71% intelligibility by Barro Negro [tbn] of Angosturas Tunebo. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese.

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Tunebo, Barro Negro
[tbn] Arauca and Casanare departments: Barro Negro, San Lope (Casanare), and Tabías (Casanare), south of Tame Arauca; isolated in Andes foothills, eastern plains above Paz de Ariporo. Population: 300 (1981 SIL). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Tunebo. Dialects: None known. 62% intelligibility of Cobaría Tunebo [tuf]. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese.

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Tunebo, Central
[tuf] Arauca and Boyacá departments: Calafita, Cobaría (Boyacá), Satocá, Tegría (Boyacá) on north slopes of Sierra Nevada de Cocuy; Santander department: Capitanejo and Carcasi municipalities. Population: 2,500 in Colombia (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cobaría Tunebo, Lache, U’wa, Uwa-Tunebo. Autonym: Uw Cuwa. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese.

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Tunebo, Western
[tnb] Norte de Santander and Santander departments: east of Floridablanca; some in Boyacá department. Population: 700 (1998). Ethnic population: All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aguas Blancas, U’wa. Dialects: None known. Most divergent Tunebo language. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese.

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Tuyuca
[tue] Vaupés department: on Inambú, Papurí, and upper Tiquié along Comeyaca headwaters. Population: 640 in Colombia (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 640 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 1,440. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Borá-Tuyuka, Dochkafuara, Tejuca, Tuyuka. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka.

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Waimaha
[bao] Vaupés department: Mitú, upper Papurí, mid and upper Pira-Paraná tributaries, and Tiquié. Population: 110 in Colombia (Crevels 2012). Some monolinguals over 40. Ethnic population: 110 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 131. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Barasano, Barasano del Norte, Bará-Tuyuka, Northern Barasano, Waimasa, Waymasa, “Bará” (pej.). Autonym: Waimaja. Dialects: Eastern Waimaha, Pamoa Bara. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka.

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Wajiara
[yui] Vaupés department: Upper Paca river (Papurí river tributary); Caño Yi and Caño Tuy rivers (Vaupes river tributaries). Population: 1,100 in Colombia (2011 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Juriti, Juriti-Tapuia, Juruti, Luruty-Tapuya, Patsoka, Totsoca, Wadzana, Waijiara masa-wadyana, Waikana, Waimasá, Wayhara, Yuriti, Yuruti, Yuruti-Tapuya, Yurutiye. Autonym: Wajiaraye. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano.

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Wayuu
[guc] La Guajira department: Guajira peninsula, Caribbean coast. Population: 122,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 150,000 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 416,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Goajiro, Guajira, Guajiro, Uáira, Wahiro, Waiu, Wayu, Wayúu. Autonym: Wayuunaiki. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

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Witoto, Minika
[hto] Amazonas and Caquetá departments: Isla de los Monos in Caquetá river basin; Putumayo department: Leguizamo minicipality; Caguan river area near Sanvicente del Caguan unconfirmed. Population: 1,500 (2008 K. Wojtylak). Ethnic population: 2,400 (2008 K. Wojtylak). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Meneca, Minica, Minica Huitoto. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto, Proto-Minica-Murai.

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Witoto, Murui
[huu] Amazonas, Caquetá, and Putumayo departments: between Putumayo and Caquetá rivers, north of Porto Arturo. Population: 600 in Colombia (2008). Ethnic population: 1,700 (2008). Total users in all countries: 1,000. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bue, Murui Huitoto, Witoto. Autonym: Murui. Dialects: Mika. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto, Proto-Minica-Murai.

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Witoto, Nipode
[hux] Amazonas and Caquetá departments. Population: 200 in Colombia (2017 K. Wojtylak). Ethnic population: 480 (Griffiths et al 2001). Total users in all countries: 250. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto.

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Woun Meu
[noa] Chocó department: middle and lower San Juan river banks, especially north of Buenaventura; some in Valle del Cauca. Population: 4,000 in Colombia (Aikhenvald 2007). Ethnic population: 8,180 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 10,800. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Chocó, Noanama, Waumeo, Waun Meo, Waunana, Waunméu, Waunán, Woun Meo, Wounaan, Wounaan Meu. Autonym: Woun Meu. Classification: Chocoan.

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Yahuna
[ynu] Amazonas department: Apaporis and Mirití rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the early 1900s. Ethnic population: 100 (Crevels 2012). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Jaúna, Yayuna, Yaúna. Dialects: Opaina (Tanimuca), Datuana. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan.

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Yucuna
[ycn] Amazonas department: Puerto Santander municipality, 3 enclaves; Ararcuara, La Pedrera on lower Caquetá, Leticia, Mirití-Paraná; Caqueta department: part of westernmost enclave. Population: 770 (Crevels 2012). 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 770 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Matapi, Yucuna-Matapí, Yukuna. Autonym: Yucuna. Dialects: None known. In some traditional ceremonies ritual language used, mostly unintelligible even to those who have learned it. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki.

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Yukpa
[yup] Cesar department: Augustín Codazzi municipality and municipalities north and south, Colombia-Venezuela border in Serranía de Perijá mountain range. Río Casacará dialect in Agustín Codassi municipality along Casacará river and Caño Iroka. Yukpa sur dialect, Becerril municipality. Population: 3,000 in Colombia (2009 W. Largo). 600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,650 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 6,020. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Carib Motilón, Japrería, Macoíta, Northern Motilone, Northern Motilón, Yuco, Yucpa, Yuko, Yukpa-Japería, Yupa. Autonym: Yukpa. Dialects: Río Casacará (Iroka), Río Maracas, Yukpa Sur (Caño Padilla-La Laguna), Coyaima. At least 5 extant dialects including 2 in Venezuela. Río Cascará and Río Maracas dialects are probably largest, and may be separate languages. Venezuela dialects seem more similar to Río Maracas. Unrelated to Barí [mot]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Japreria [jru] of Venezuela (2008 W. Largo). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria.

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