Arabic, Algerian Spoken
Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken
[avl] Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Isma’iliyah, As Suways, and Bur Sa’id governorates: parts of Red Sea coast east bank, almost to south border; Janub Sina’, Shamal Sina’, and Sinai governorates: mainly Bedouin regions. L1 users: 1,030,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 1,917,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Levantine Bedawi Arabic, Levantine Bedawi Spoken Arabic. Dialects: Northeast Egyptian Bedawi Arabic, South Levantine Bedawi Arabic, North Levantine Bedawi Arabic. Similar to some Hijazi dialects in northwestern Saudi Arabia. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.
Arabic, Egyptian Spoken
[arz] Widespread. L1 users: 62,300,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 64,542,400. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Lower Egypt Arabic, Massry, Modern Egyptian Language, Normal Egyptian Arabic. Autonym: مصري (Masri). Dialects: North Delta Arabic, South Central Delta Arabic, Cairene Arabic. Egyptian Spoken Arabic, based on Cairo speech (Cairene) is the most widely understood variety used for media, both in Egypt and throughout the non-nomadic Arab world. It is an amalgam of Delta Arabic and Middle Egypt Arabic, with borrowings from literary Arabic. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.
Arabic, Gulf Spoken
Arabic, Moroccan Spoken
Arabic, Sa’idi Spoken
[aec] Widespread; Cairo to Sudan border. L1 users: 22,400,000 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Saidi Arabic, Upper Egypt Arabic. Dialects: Middle Egypt Arabic, Upper Egypt Arabic. Reportedly similar to Sudanese Arabic [apd], especially in the south, but heavily influenced by Cairene Arabic (Cairo speech). A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Some might be in Libya or the Gulf.
Arabic, Western Egyptian Bedawi Spoken
[ayl] Al Buhayrah, Al Iskandariyah, and Matruh governorates; Al Fayyum, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Wadi al Jadid, and Bani Suwayf governorates: western oases. Bedouin regions along Mediterranean coast, west to Libya border. L1 users: 374,000 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Libyan Spoken Arabic, Maghrebi Arabic, Sulaimitian Arabic. Dialects: Western Egyptian Bedawi Arabic, Tripolitanian Arabic, Southern Libyan Arabic, Eastern Libyan Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.
[rmt] Ad Daqahliyah governorate: north of Cairo; Shamal Sina’ governate: El Arish. L1 users: 280,000 (2015). Ethnic population: 1,350,000 (2006). Muslim Roma in Egypt: 1,080,000. Total users in all countries: 281,670. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dom. Dialects: Nawar (Nawari), Helebi, Ghajar (Ghagar). Dialects in Iran may be highly divergent from one another. Not intelligible to Romani speakers. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Muslim.
Egyptian Sign Language
[esl] Scattered. L1 users: 474,000 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ESL, Egypt Sign Language, LIM, Lughat al-Ishaara al-Masriya, Lughat al-‘Ishāra al-Maṣriyya. Dialects: None known. Survey needed. Not the same as Unified Arabic Sign Language, an artificial system promoted by representatives of 18 Arabic-speaking countries (Rashdan 2016). Relatively low lexical similarity with Jordanian Sign Language (LIU) [jos]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Mouthing sometimes distinguishes manually-identical signs. Several fingerspelling systems used in schools; the one traditionally used by Deaf is one-handed. Over 200 schools for Deaf children, also mainstream education and special classes in public schools; classroom use varies from none (oralism) to signing by non-fluent teachers. Prior to 2015, university education was only available to those educated entirely in public schools. (Rashdan 2016). Taught as L2. Muslim, Christian.
[xnz] Al Wadi al Jadid governorate: scattered in various cities; Aswan governorate: Lake Nasser northern tip, and near Kom Ombo, 50 km north of Aswan city. L1 users: 50,000 (2014), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kenuz, Kenuzi, Kenzi, Kunuz, Kunuz Nubian, Kunuzi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Andaandi [dgl]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central. Comments: Muslim.
[fia] Aswan governorate: Kom Ombo area; shares area with Mattokki [xnz]; scattered in cities. L1 users: 374,000 (2016). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Fadicca, Fadicha, Fadija, Fedicca, Fedija, Fiadidja, Fiadidja-Mahas, Fiyadikkya, Mahas, Mahas-Fiadidja, Nile Nubian, Sukot. Dialects: Fiyadikka. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. The language is the central feature of Nubian identity. Spoken by the Fedicca in Egypt and the Mahas in Sudan. Muslim.
[siz] Matruh governorate: northwest desert, Siwa oasis; several isolated villages in Gara oasis. L1 users: 20,000 (2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oasis Berber, Sioua, Siwa, Zenati. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other Berber languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Eastern, Siwa. Comments: Muslim.