Ethiopia

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Aari
[aiw] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: central north Omo zone, south tip of Ethiopia plateau. Population: 298,300, all users. L1 users: 285,000 (2007 census). Includes Gayil [gyl] speakers. L2 users: 13,300. 129,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 290,000 (2007 census). Includes Gayil [gyl]. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Aarai, Ara, Ari, Aro, “Shankilla” (pej.), “Shankilligna” (pej.), “Shankillinya” (pej.). Autonym: Aari. Dialects: Bako (Baco), Biyo (Bio), Laydo, Seyki, Shangama, Sido, Wubahamer (Ubamer), Zeddo. Reportedly similar to Gayil [gyl]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South.

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Afar
[aar] Afar, Amhara, and Somali regions: eastern lowlands. Population: 1,302,800 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 1,280,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 22,800. 906,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 1,280,000 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 1,973,800 (as L1: 1,951,000; as L2: 22,800). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Afar Region (1994, Constitution, Art 47). Alternate Names: Adal, Afaraf, Affar, Affarigna, Qafar af, ʿAfár af, “Danakil” (pej.), “Denkel” (pej.). Autonym: Qafar. Dialects: Northern Afar, Central Afar, Aussa, Baadu (Ba’adu). Related to Saho [ssy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar.

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Alaba-K’abeena
[alw] Oromia region: Rift Valley southwest of Lake Shala; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region. Population: 307,700, all users. L1 users: 278,000 (2007 census). 227,000 Alaba, 51,300 K’abeena (2007 census). L2 users: 29,700. 111,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 286,000 (2007 census). 233,000 Alaba, 52,700 K’abeena (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alaaba, Allaaba, Halaba, K’abeena, K’abena, Qebena, Wanbasana. Dialects: Alaaba (Alaba, Wanbasana), K’abeena (Qebena). Lexical similarity: 81% with Kambaata [ktb], 64% with Sidamo [sid], 56% with Libido [liq], 54% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.

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Ale
[gwd] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Segen zone, west of Lake Chamo. Population: 85,670, all users. L1 users: 84,300 (2017). L2 users: 1,370. 27,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 68,600 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dabosse, Debase, Dobase, Dullay, Gobeze, Qawko, Werizoid, “Gauwada” (pej.), “Gawata” (pej.), “Gawwada” (pej.), “Gewada” (pej.), “Kawwad’a” (pej.), “Kawwada” (pej.). Autonym: Ale (Ale). Dialects: Tihinte (Dihina), Gargarte (K’ark’arte), Dobase (Gobeze), Golango (Kollanko, Wollango), Gorroze, Harse (Worase). Lexical similarity: 78% with Bussa [dox], 73% with Tsamai [tsb], 77% with the Harso dialect, 92% with the Gollango dialect, 41% with Konso [kxc]. The Harso dialect has 80% lexical similarity with the Dobase dialect of Bussa [dox], 56% with Tsamai [tsb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay.

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Amharic
[amh] Amhara region: north central; Addis Ababa. Population: 25,600,000 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 21,600,000 in Ethiopia (2016 World Factbook). L2 users: 4,000,000. 14,800,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 19,900,000 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 25,880,630 (as L1: 21,880,630; as L2: 4,000,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Art 5(2)), also statutory provincial language. Alternate Names: Abyssinian, Amarigna, Amarinya, Amhara, Ethiopian. Autonym: ኣማርኛ‎ (Amarəñña). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba.

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Anfillo
[myo] Oromia region: Anfillo forest, west of Dembi Dolo. Population: 500 (1990 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Southern Mao. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53% with Shekkacho [moy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, Central.

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Anuak
[anu] Gambela region: Akobo river right bank, Alworo, Baro, and Gilo rivers; small areas in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region and Oromia region. Population: 92,710 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 90,600 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 2,110. 34,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 89,100 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Anyiwak, Anyuak, Anywa, Anywaa, Anywak, Bar, Burjin, Dha Anywaa, Jambo, Miroy, Moojanga, Nuro, Yambo, Yembo. Dialects: Adoyo, Coro, Lul, Opëno. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak.

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Arabic, Sudanese Spoken
[apd] Sudan and South Sudan border area. Population: Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arbore
[arv] Oromia region: Lake Chew Bahir area; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone. Population: 10,320, all users. L1 users: 7,210 (2007 census). L2 users: 3,110. 3,900 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 7,280 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arbora, Arborie, Erbore, Irbore. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana.

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Argobba
[agj] Afar and Amhara regions: Berehet, Gusa, Khayr Amba, Melkajillo, Metehara, Shewa Robit, Shonke, and Yimlawo villages area in Rift Valley. Population: 46,940, all users. L1 users: 43,700 (2007 census). L2 users: 3,240. 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 141,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Argoba. Dialects: Aliyu Amba-Ankober, Shonke-T’allaha, Shagura. Lexical similarity: 53% with Amharic [amh] (Shonke-T’allaha dialect). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba.

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Awngi
[awn] Amhara region: Awi and north Gonder zones, southwest of Lake Tana; Benishangul-Gumuz region: Metekel zone. Population: 553,400, all users. L1 users: 489,000 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 64,400 (1994 census). 323,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 636,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Agau, Agaw, Agew, Agew-Awi, Agow, Awŋi, Awawar, Awi, Awija, Awiya, Damot, Kwollanyoch, “Kumfel” (pej.), “Kunfel” (pej.), “Kunfäl” (pej.). Dialects: Dega, Kwolla, Northern Awngi (“Kunfäl” (pej.)). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern.

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Baiso
[bsw] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: halfway between Soddo and Arba Minch, Merab Abaya area, Alge village (390); Gidicho Island, Baiso and Shigima villages (200); Welege island on Lake Abaya (420), and west shore. Population: 4,620 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 5,490 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alkali, Bayso, Gedicho, Gidicho. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana.

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Basketo
[bst] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north Omo zone, plateau west of Bulki. Population: 101,560, all users. L1 users: 92,600 (2007 census). L2 users: 8,960. 42,800 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 78,300 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Baskatta, Basketo-Dokka, Basketto, Mesketo, Misketto. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Oyda [oyd]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, West.

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Bench
[bcq] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Mizan Teferi area. Population: 370,600, all users. L1 users: 348,000 (2007 census). 14,300 Mer. L2 users: 22,600. 150,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 352,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Benchnon, Bencnon, Dizu, “Ghimarra” (pej.), “Gimarra” (pej.), “Gimira” (pej.). Autonym: Bèntʂ nòn‎ (Benc’non). Dialects: Bench (Bencho, Benesho), Mer (Mieru), She (Kaba, Sce). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Gimira.

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Berta
[wti] Benishangul-Gumuz region: Blue Nile river and Sudan border corner north of Asosa; Dalati, Sirba Abay area east of Dabus river; Matahara east. Population: 213,500 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 197,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 16,500. 99,700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 199,000 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 393,500 (as L1: 377,000; as L2: 16,500). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Barta, Bela-Shangul, Bela-Shanguru, Bertha, Burta, Funj, Jebelawi, Rotana, Wetawit. Autonym: Beni-Shangul. Dialects: Shuru, Bake, Undu, Mayu, Fadashi (Fedashe), Dabuso. May be more than one language with Dabuso as the more distant dialect (2017 S. Neudorf). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites.

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Borna
[bwo] Benishangul-Gumuz region: Metekel zone, near Blue Nile river. Population: 38,180, all users. L1 users: 35,900 (2007 census). L2 users: 2,280. 18,600 monolinguals. 77 Gamila. Ethnic population: 60,600 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Borəni noon, Bora, Borí noonə, Boro, Bworo, Dangabo, Gonga, Scinacia, Shinasha, Shinassha, Shinicho, Šinaša. Autonym: Bori Noona, Borna. Dialects: Wenbera-Dangur, Guba, Wambera. Scattered dialect groups. Lexical similarity: 46% with Shekkacho [moy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, North.

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Burji
[bji] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south of Lake Chamo; into Oromia region. Population: 49,450 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 46,400 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 3,050. 29,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 71,800 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 73,150 (as L1: 70,100; as L2: 3,050). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bambala, Bembala, Daashi. Autonym: ቡረጊ‎ (Burji). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 41% with Sidamo [sid] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.

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Bussa
[dox] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Segen zone, west of Lake Chamo. Population: 19,020, all users. L1 users: 18,100 (2007 census). L2 users: 920. 4,960 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000 (2007 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buusa, D’oopace, D’opaasunte, Dobase, Gobeze, Goraze, Gowase, Lohu, Mashelle, Mashile, Masholle, Mosittacha, Mosittata, Mosiye, Mossiye, Musiye, Orase. Dialects: Mashola. There is a dialect chain with Konso-Dirasha-Dobase. Lexical similarity: 78% with Ale [gwd], 51% with Konso [kxc], 86% with the Gollango dialect of Ale, 80% with the Harso dialect of Ale, 61% with Tsamai [tsb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole.

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Chara
[cra] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, Omo river. Population: 13,770, all users. L1 users: 13,100 (2007 census). L2 users: 670. 5,560 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 13,200 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ciara, Gimiri Nona. Dialects: Buch’a. Lexical similarity: 54% with Wolaytta [wal]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Chara.

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Daasanach
[dsh] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: lower Omo river, along Lake Turkana. Population: 48,230 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 48,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 230. 31,400 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 48,100 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 60,730 (as L1: 60,500; as L2: 230). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Af ’Daasanach, Daasanech, Dama, Dasenech, Dathanaic, Dathanaik, Dathanik, Dhaasanac, Gallab, Galuba, Gelab, Geleb, Geleba, Gelebinya, Gelubba, Gheleba, Marille, Merile, Merille, Morille, Reshiat, Russia, af’Daasanach, “Shangilla” (pej.). Autonym: Af Daasanach. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana.

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Daatsʼíin
[dtn] Amhara region: Qwara district, small villages in Mahadid K’ebele; Benishangul-Gumuz region: Guba district, villages in Aynshemsh K’ebele. Population: 300 (2015 C. Ahland). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sa-Daatsʼíin. Dialects: Low mutual intelligibility with Gumuz [guk]. Lexical similarity: 86% with Gumuz [guk] (southern dialects). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, B’aga.

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Dawro
[dwr] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Dawro zone; 2 small border areas in Oromia region. Population: 533,000, all users. L1 users: 513,000 (2007 census). 81,600 Konta (2007 census). L2 users: 20,000. 260,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 538,000 (2007 census). 83,600 Konta (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dauro, Dawuro, Ometay, “Cullo” (pej.), “Kullo” (pej.). Autonym: Dawrogna. Dialects: Konta (Conta), Kucha (Koysha, Kusha). Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with Gamo [gmv], 76% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Wolaytta [wal], 73%–75% with Dorze [doz], 48% with Koorete [kqy], 43% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Dime
[dim] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north of Omo river, just before it turns south. Population: 1,100, all users. L1 users: 570 (2007 census), decreasing. L2 users: 530. Ethnic population: 870 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dim-af, Dim-ap, Dima. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 47% with Hamer-Banna [amf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South.

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Dirasha
[gdl] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Tsegen zone, Gidole town area in hills west of Lake Chamo. Population: 80,500, all users. L1 users: 73,500 (2007 census). 15,300 Dirasha, 49,900 Gidole, 8,250 Kusumitta (2007 census). L2 users: 7,000. Ethnic population: 80,400 (2007 census). 30,100 Dirasha, 41,100 Gidole, 9,210 Kusumitta (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Derashe, Dhirasha, Dhiraytata, Diraasha, Dirashitata, Dirayta, Diraytta, Gardulla, Gedoligna, Ghidole, Gidole. Autonym: Dhirayta. Dialects: Mosiya, Kusumitta (Kusumie). Part of a dialect continuum with Konso [kxc] and Bussa [dox]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Konso [kxc]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole.

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Dizin
[mdx] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bench-Maji zone. Population: 35,950, all users. L1 users: 33,900 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 2,050. 17,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 34,700 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Diizinuog, Dizi, Dizi-Maji, Dizinog, Dizinya, Maji, Majinya, Sizi, Twoyu. Autonym: Diizi-Noog, Diizin. Dialects: Central Dizin, Eastern Dizin, Western Dizin. Related to Sheko [she] and Nayi [noz]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid.

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Dorze
[doz] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north Omo zone, Chencha area. Population: 24,400, all users. L1 users: 20,800 (1994 census). L2 users: 3,600. 9,910 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 29,000 (1994 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82%–87% with Gamo [gmv], 77%–81% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Wolaytta [wal], 73%–75% with Dawro [dwr], 54% with Koorete [kqy], 48% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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English
[eng] Widespread. Population: 171,870 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 1,870 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 170,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Ethiopian Sign Language
[eth] Scattered. Population: 250,000 (2008 WFD). WFD figure represents Deaf sign language users. 1,000,000 (2005 Ethiopian National Association of the Deaf). Unknown number of isolated deaf in rural areas. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: EthSL. Dialects: None known. Hosanna School for the Deaf uses more indigenous signs than Addis Ababa, which has more influence from Amharic [amh]. Influence from Amharic [amh] in grammar and lexicon. Possible lexical influence from European sign languages, due to presence of foreign advisors. Classification: Sign language.

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Gamo
[gmv] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gamo-Gofa zone. Population: 1,094,400, all users. L1 users: 1,070,000 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 24,400. 600,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,100,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gemu. Autonym: Gamotso. Dialects: Dache. Lexical similarity: 79%–91% with Gofa [gof], 82%–87% with Dorze [doz], 73%–80% with Dawro [dwr], 79%–89% with Wolaytta [wal], 49% with Koorete [kqy], 44% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Ganza
[gza] Gambela region: Mao-Komo special district, north of Zebsher. Population: 400 in Ethiopia (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganzo, Gwami, Koma. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao.

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Gayil
[gyl] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, Gelila district. Population: 55,700 (2007 L. Jordan). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galila, Gayi, Gayl, Gelila, Northern Ari. Dialects: None known. Related to Aari [aiw], Dime [dim], Hamer-Banna [amf], and Karo [kxh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South.

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Gedeo
[drs] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ and Oromia regions: central highland area, southwest of Dilla and east of Lake Abaya. Population: 1,023,000, all users. L1 users: 975,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 48,000. 439,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 976,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Geddeo, “Darasa” (pej.), “Darassa” (pej.), “Derasa” (pej.), “Derasanya” (pej.), “Deresa” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Sidamo [sid] (most similar), 57% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 54% with Kambaata [ktb], 51% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.

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Geez
[gez] Scattered. Population: No known L1 speakers in Ethiopia. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Total users in all countries: none known. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Ancient Ethiopic, Ethiopic, Ge’ez, Giiz. Autonym: ግዕዝ‎ (Gəʿəz). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North.

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Gofa
[gof] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gamo-Gofa zone. Population: 392,400, all users. L1 users: 359,000 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 33,400. 190,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 362,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Goffa, Goofa. Autonym: Goofatho. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 79%–91% with Gamo [gmv], 76% with Dawro [dwr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Gumuz
[guk] Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, and Oromia regions: Metemma area on Sudan border south through Gonder and Metekel zones; along Blue Nile south into Wellaga and Didessa valley up to Neqemt-Gimbi road; southwest of Addis Ababa, Welqite area villages. Population: 165,380 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 161,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 4,380. 88,200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 164,000 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 205,380 (as L1: 201,000; as L2: 4,380). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: B’ega, Bega-Tse, Debatsa, Debuga, Dehenda, Gombo, Gumis, Gumz, Kadallu, Mendeya, Sa-B’aga, Sigumza, “Shankillinya” (pej.). Autonym: Sa-Gumuz. Dialects: Guba, Wenbera, Sirba, Agalo, Yaso, Mandura, Dibate, Metemma. Noticeable dialect differences, and not all dialects are inherently intelligible. Mandura, Dibate, and Metemma form a distinct dialect subgroup. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, B’aga.

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Gwama
[kmq] Benishangul-Gumuz region: Mao Komo special woreda; Oromia region: West Wollega zone, Begi district; some villages near South Sudan border. Benishangul-Gumuz region (Lowland dialect); Oromia region: Begi and Tongo (Highland dialect). Population: 15,000 (Küspert 2015). Ethnic population: 20,000 (Küspert 2015). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afan Mao, Amam, Gogwama, Goma, Guwama, Kewama, Kuro, Kuwama, Kwama, Kwoma, Nokanoka, North Koma, Qewama, Takwama. Autonym: Gwama, Ttwa Gwama. Dialects: Highland Gwama (T’wa Sit Shwala), Lowland Gwama. Use of Highland Gwama is decreasing (Küspert 2015). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Hadiyya
[hdy] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones, between Omo and Billate rivers, Hosaina town area; Oromia region: east Shewa zone. Population: 1,401,000, all users. L1 users: 1,250,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 151,000. 595,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,270,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Adea, Adiya, Adiye, Hadia, Hadiya, Hadya. Autonym: Hadiyyisa. Dialects: Leemo, Soro. Lexical similarity: 82% with Libido [liq], 56% with Kambaata [ktb], 54% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 53% with Sidamo [sid]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.

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Hamer-Banna
[amf] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, near Omo river; north of Lake Turkana, near Kenya and Sudan borders; Oromia region: Borena zone. Population: 81,520, all users. L1 users: 74,400 (2007 census). 47,500 Hamer, 26,900 Banna (2007 census). L2 users: 7,120. 38,400 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 73,500 (2007 census). 46,500 Hamer, 27,000 Banna (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amar, Amarcocche, Amer, Ammar, Bana, Banna, Bena, Beshada, Cocche, Hamar, Hamar-Benna, Hamar-Koke, Hamer, Hammer, Hammercoche, Kara Kerre. Dialects: None known. Hamer and Banna are separate ethnic groups who speak virtually the same language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South.

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Harari
[har] Harari region: walled city of Harar; Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. Population: 33,570 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 25,800 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 20,000 in Addis Ababa, outside Harar city (Hetzron 1997). L2 users: 7,770. 2,350 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 31,700 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 34,890 (as L1: 27,120; as L2: 7,770). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Adare, Adarinnya, Adere, Aderinya, Hararri, Hareri. Autonym: ሃራሪ‎ (Gey Sinan). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage.

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Hozo
[hoz] Benishangul-Gumuz region; Oromia region: West Wollega zone, K’ondala district. Population: 6,000 (Küspert 2015). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Agmo Wandi, Begi-Mao, Hoozo, Mo Wandi, Nu Wandi, Shuluyo, Shulyo. Dialects: Hozo, Shulyo. Closely related to Seze [sze] (Küspert 2015); distantly related to Bambassi [myf] (Bender 1975). Hozo and Shulyo dialects have very high degree of intelligibility but viewed by speakers of these groups as separate languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao.

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Inor
[ior] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: west Gurage zone, Innemor and Endegeny districts. Population: 280,000. 50,000 Endegeny. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ennemor. Dialects: Endegeny (Enner). Part of Gurage subgroup of languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group.

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Kachama-Ganjule
[kcx] Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ regions: Lake Abaya, Gidicho island, Kachama; Lake Chamo, Ganjule on west shore, Shela-Mela village. Population: 2,830 (2007 census). 1,000 Gats’ame and less than 50 Ganjule (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Ethnic population: 2,590 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Qechem. Dialects: Ganjule (Ganjawle), Ganta, Kachama, Gats’ame (Gatame, Get’eme, Makka), Haro (Gidicho, Harro). Gats’ame, Ganjule and Haro form a dialectal cluster within Kachama-Ganjule (Brenzinger 1999). Lexical similarity: 46% with Wolaytta [wal]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East.

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Kacipo-Balesi
[koe] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south border with Sudan. Population: 2,360 in Ethiopia (2007 census). Ethnic population: 2,700 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kacipo, Silmamo, Suri, Suri-Baale, Tsilmano, Zelmam, Zelmamu, Zilmamu, Zulmamu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi.

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Kafa
[kbr] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bonga town area; border areas in Oromia region. Population: 881,700, all users. L1 users: 835,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 46,700. 445,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 865,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Caafiti, Caffino, Kaffa, Kaficho, Kefa, Keffa, Kefficho, Manjo. Autonym: Kafi noono. Dialects: Kafa, Bosha (Garo). Bosha may be a distinct language. Manjo is an argot based on Kafa [kbr] (Bender 1983b). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South.

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Kambaata
[ktb] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: southwest Gurage, Kambaata, and Hadiyya zones; Durame is main town. Population: 822,300, all users. L1 users: 743,000 (2007 census). 30,100 Donga, 97,800 Timbaro (2007 census). L2 users: 79,300. 330,500 monolinguals. Includes 279,000 Kambaata, 51,600 Timbaro. Ethnic population: 761,000 (2007 census). Includes 35,200 Donga, 98,600 Timbaro (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Donga, Kambara, Kambata, Kambatta, Kemata, Kembata. Autonym: Kambaatissata. Dialects: Tambaro, Timbaro (T’imbaaro, Timbaaro, Timbara, Timebaro). Lexical similarity: 95% between dialects, 81% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 62% with Sidamo [sid], 57% with Libido [liq], 56% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.

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Karo
[kxh] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone. Population: 1,480 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 1,490 (2007 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cherre, Kara, Kere, Kerre. Dialects: May be a dialect or a closely related language with Hamer-Banna [amf]. More similar to Hamer variety than Banna. Lexical similarity: 81% with Hamer-Banna [amf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South.

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Kistane
[gru] Oromia region; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones, southwest of Addis Ababa. Population: 315,500, all users. L1 users: 255,000 (1994 census). L2 users: 60,500. Ethnic population: 364,000 (1994 census). Includes 4,000 Gogot. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Gurage, Soddo, Soddo Gurage. Dialects: Soddo (Aymallal, Aymellel, Kestane, Kistane), Dobi (Dobbi, Goggot, Gogot). Not intelligible with Silt’e [stv] or Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw]. Dobi dialect comprehension of Soddo is 76%, and Soddo speakers’ of Dobi is 90%. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group.

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Komo
[xom] Benishangul-Gumuz region: Mao-Komo special district south of Asosa; Gambela region: Itang special district, Pokung; Sombo Garre (Wallaga, southwest of Mugi); Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bonga special district. Population: 1,000 in Ethiopia (Meckelberg 2016). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2018). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Koma, Gʊ̀ Kɔ̀mɔ̀, Koma, Madiin, South Koma, Tta Komo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Konso
[kxc] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Segen zone south of Lake Chamo, near Segen River bend. Population: 247,660 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 242,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 5,660. 139,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 251,000 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 247,660 (as L1: 242,000; as L2: 5,660). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Af Kareti, Afa Karatti, Conso, Gato, Karate, Kareti, Komso. Autonym: Khonso. Dialects: Kholme, Duuro, Fasha, Karatti. Lexical similarity: 55% with Dirasha [gdl], 51% with Bussa [dox], 41% with Ale [gwd], 31% with Tsamai [tsb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole.

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Koorete
[kqy] Oromia region: Lake Abbaya, Harro village; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Amaro Woreda; mountains east of Lake Abaya and Lake Chamo. Population: 159,370, all users. L1 users: 157,000 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 2,370. 84,400 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 157,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Amaarro, Amarro, Badittu, Haro, Harro, Koore, Kore, Koyra, Kwera, Nuna. Autonym: Koorete, Koori Nuuna. Dialects: South Koorete, North Koorete, Middle Koorete. Dialects are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 54% with Dorze [doz], 53% with Wolaytta [wal], 52% with Gofa [gof], 49% with Gamo [gmv], 48% with Dawro [dwr], 45% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East.

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Kunama
[kun] Tigray region: west of Sheraro and Yirga. Population: 7,570 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 7,430 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 140 (1994 census). Ethnic population: 4,860 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Kunama.

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Kwegu
[xwg] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Omo river west bank, Kuchur village, and a small group north. Population: 5,110 (2007 census). 3,470 Bacha and 1,640 Koyego (2007 census). Ethnic population: 4,570 (2007 census). 2,630 Bacha and 1,940 Koyego. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bacha, Koegu, Koyego, Kwegi, Menja, Nidi. Dialects: Yidinich (Yidi, Yidinit), Muguji. Listed dialects may not be inherently intelligible with Kwegu. May be a name for several hunter groups. Lexical similarity: 36% with Mursi [muz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southeast, Kwegu.

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Libido
[liq] Oromia region: west of Lake Ziway; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones, northeast of Hosaina. Population: 68,010, all users. L1 users: 58,800 (2007 census). L2 users: 9,210. 14,700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 64,300 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mareko, Mareqo. Dialects: None known. Syntactic, morphological, and lexical differences from Hadiyya [hdy]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Hadiyya [hdy], 57% with Kambaata [ktb], 56% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 53% with Sidamo [sid]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.

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Majang
[mpe] Gambela and Oromia regions; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: a long, narrow belt east of Gambela, and Guraferda south. Population: 30,000 (Joswig 2018). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ajo, Ato Majang, Ato Majanger-Onk, Majanjiro, Masango, Masongo, Mejenger, Mesengo, Messengo, Mezhenger, Ojanjur, Tama. Autonym: Ato Majangerongk. Dialects: Minor dialect variation. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, North, Majang.

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Male
[mdy] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north Omo zone, southeast of Jinka. Population: 101,430, all users. L1 users: 94,700 (2007 census). L2 users: 6,730. 40,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 97,900 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maale, Malie. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48% with Dorze [doz], 46% with Gofa [gof], 45% with Koorete [kqy], 44% with Gamo [gmv], 43% with Wolaytta [wal] and Dawro [dwr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo.

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Màwés Aasʼè
[myf] Benishangul-Gumuz region: Bambassi area toward the east to the Yabus River and also 300 km to the east in the Didessa river valley; Oromia region: western Wellaga zone. Population: 2,300 (2011 M. Ahland). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Amam, Bambassi, Bambeshi, Didessa, Fadiro, Northern Mao, Siggoyo. Autonym: Màwés Aasʼè. Dialects: Didessa, Bambassi. Lexical similarity: 30% with other Omotic languages, 60% with Sezo [hoz] (Bender 2003). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao.

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Me’en
[mym] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bench-Maji zone; highlanders (Banio dialect) in Bachuma area; lowlanders (Koruwo dialect) south; Bodi near Omo river. Population: 157,300, all users. L1 users: 151,000 (2007 census), increasing. Includes 5,770 Bodi (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 6,300. 143,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 157,000 (2007 census). Includes 6,980 Bodi (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Me’enite, Mekan, Mela, Men, Meqan, Mie’en, Mieken, Suro, “Teshenna” (pej.), “Teshina” (pej.), “Tishana” (pej.), “Tishena” (pej.). Autonym: Mɛʼɛnɛn‎ (Me’enen). Dialects: Banio, Bodi (Mela, Podi), Koruwo. Lexical similarity: 65% with the Chai and Tirma dialects of Suri [suq], 30% with Murle [mur]. Lexical differences between highland and lowland. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Me’en.

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Melo
[mfx] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north Omo zone, Malo-Koza area. Population: 24,860, all users. L1 users: 20,200 (1994 census). L2 users: 4,660. 13,700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,200 (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with the majority of Ometo language varieties. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Mesmes
[mys] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones. Population: No known L1 speakers. One L1 speaker was still living in 2001 (2018 M. Ahland). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Related to Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group.

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Mesqan
[mvz] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: west Gurage zone, Mesqan district, principal villages: Butajira, Hudat, Mesqan, and Mikayelo. Population: 195,000 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 205,000 (Woreda Farmers’ Cooperatives Office). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masqan, Meskan. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group.

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Mursi
[muz] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: central Omo area, lowlands southwest of Jinka. Population: 7,424, all users. L1 users: 7,390 (2007 census). L2 users: 34. 7,000 monolinguals (2017 M. Bryant). Ethnic population: 7,480 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dama, Merdu, Meritu, Munɛn, Mursinya, Murzi, Murzu, Nyikalabong. Dialects: Closely related to the Chai dialect of Suri [suq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri.

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Nayi
[noz] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: scattered in Decha and Shoa Bench districts, Dulkuma village; Sheko district, Aybera, Jomdos, and Kosa villages. Population: 9,070, all users. L1 users: 7,190 (2007 census). L2 users: 1,880. 1,140 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Na’o, Nao. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Dizin [mdx]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid.

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Nuer
[nus] Gambela region: along Baro river. Population: 154,120 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 153,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 1,120. 61,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 148,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Naath, Nuwer. Dialects: Eastern Nuer (Abigar, Door, Ji, Jikany, Kany). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer.

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Nyangatom
[nnj] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, Omo and Kibish rivers area. Population: 24,420, all users. L1 users: 24,300 (2007 census). L2 users: 120. 13,800 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 25,200 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dongiro, Donyiro, Idongiro, Inyangatom. Dialects: None known. Inherently intelligible with Toposa [toq] and Turkana [tuv]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana.

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Ongota
[bxe] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, 1 village on Weyt’o river west bank. Population: 10 (2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ifa, “Birale” (pej.), “Birelle” (pej.), “Shanqilla” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Unclassified.

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Oromo
[orm] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 17,465,900. Includes: Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo [gax], Eastern Oromo [hae], Orma [orc] (Kenya), West Central Oromo [gaz].

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Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji
[gax] Afar, Amhara, and Somali regions; Oromia region: south; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region. Population: 3,630,000 in Ethiopia (2007). 24,900,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 3,949,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afan Oromo, Booranaa, Borana, Oromiffa, Oromoo, Southern Oromo, “Galla” (pej.), “Galligna” (pej.), “Gallinya” (pej.). Autonym: Afaan Oromoo. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo.

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Oromo, Eastern
[hae] Afar region: south; Dire Dawa and Harari regions; Oromia region: north Bale, east Hararghe, and west Hararghe zones; Somali region: Shinile zone. Population: 4,530,000 (1994). 24,900,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afan Oromo, Harar, Harar Oromo, Harer, Ittu, Oromiffa, Oromoo, “Kwottu” (pej.), “Qottu” (pej.), “Qotu Oromo” (pej.), “Quottu” (pej.), “Qwottu” (pej.). Autonym: Afaan Oromoo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo [gax]. A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo.

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Oromo, West Central
[gaz] Widespread. Population: 8,920,000 (1994 census). 24,900,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Ethnic population: 30,000,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Oromia Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)). West Central Oromo [gaz] is lingua franca of the area. Alternate Names: Afan Oromo, Oromiffa, Oromoo, “Galla” (pej.). Autonym: Afaan Oromoo. Dialects: Western Oromo, Central Oromo. Subdialects are Mecha (Maccha, Wellaga, Wallaga, Wollega), Raya, Wello (Wollo), and Tulema (Tulama, Shoa, Shewa). Harar and Borana are most divergent. A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo.

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Oyda
[oyd] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: northwest Omo area, southwest of Sawla. Population: 40,940, all users. L1 users: 36,900 (2007 census). L2 users: 4,040. 6,250 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 45,100 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oida. Autonym: Oyda. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Wolaytta [wal], 61% with Basketo [bst]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Qimant
[ahg] Amhara region: north Gonder zone, north of Lake Tana. Population: 4,830, all users. L1 users: 1,650 (1994 census). L2 users: 3,180. Ethnic population: 172,000 (1994 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Agaw, Kemant, Kemantney, Kimanteney, Qemant, Western Agaw. Dialects: Qimant (Chemant, Kamant, Kemanat, Kemant, Kimant, Qemant), Dembiya (Dambya, Dembya), Hwarasa (“Kara” (pej.), Qwara, Qwarina), Kayla, Semyen, Achpar, Kwolasa (Kwolacha). Distinct from Awngi [awn], Bilen [byn], and Xamtanga [xan]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Western.

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Rer Bare
[rer] Somali region: Gode zone, Wabi Shebelle river near Somalia border; along Ganale and Dawa rivers. Population: No known L1 speakers. Extinct by 2000s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adona, Rerebere. Classification: Unclassified.

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Saho
[ssy] Afar and Tigray regions. Population: 36,180 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 32,800 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 3,380. Ethnic population: 33,400 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Sao, Shaho, Shiho, Shoho. Dialects: Irob. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar.

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Sebat Bet Gurage
[sgw] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: west Gurage zone; Emdibir area (Chaha dialect); Agenna (Ezha dialect); Gura Megenase and Wirir areas (Gura dialect); K’abul and K’want’e (Gyeto dialect); Ch’eza area, mountains north of Chaha and Ezha (Muher dialect). Population: 1,480,000 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 1,860,000 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central West Gurage, Gouraghie, Gurage, Guragie, Gurague, West Gurage. Autonym: ሰባት ቤት ጉራጌ‎ (Səbat Bet Gurage). Dialects: Chaha (Cheha), Ezha (Eza, Izha), Gumer (Gwemarra), Gura, Gyeto, Muher (Muxir). Member of Gurage subgroup of languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group.

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Seze
[sze] Oromia region: West Wollega zone, K’ondala district. Population: 13,000 (Küspert 2015). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Begi Mao, Seez waani, Seezi, Seze Wani, Sezo. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Hozo [hoz] (Küspert 2015); distantly related to Bambassi [myf] (Bender 1975). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao.

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Shabo
[sbf] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Sheka zone; Oromia region: Illubabor zone. Population: 400 (2000 M. Brenzinger), decreasing. Ethnic population: 600 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chabu, Sabu, “Mekeyer” (pej.), “Mikair” (pej.), “Mikeyir” (pej.), “Shako” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Distinct from Sheko [she]. Lexical similarity: 30% with Majang [mpe], 12% with other West Cushitic (Omotic) languages. Classification: Unclassified.

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Shekkacho
[moy] Oromia and Gambela regions; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Maasha area. Population: 83,580, all users. L1 users: 80,100 (2007 census). L2 users: 3,480. 36,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 77,600 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mocha, Shakacho, Shekacho, Shekecho, Shekicho, Shekka, Šakačo, Šekki noono. Autonym: Shekki-noone. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kafa [kbr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South.

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Sheko
[she] Southeast Gambela region: southeast; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bench-Maji zone. Population: 43,820, all users. L1 users: 38,900 (2007 census). L2 users: 4,920. 13,600 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 37,600 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Shak, Shako, Shekka, Shekko, Tschako. Autonym: S’oku noogu. Dialects: Sheko, Tepi, Guraferda. Distinct from Shabo [sbf] and Shekkacho [moy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid.

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Sidamo
[sid] Oromia region: southeast of Lake Awasa; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: northeast of Lake Abaya. Population: 3,081,000, all users. L1 users: 2,980,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 101,000. 2,530,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,950,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Sidaama, Sidaamu afii, Sidama, Sidaminya, Sidámo ’Afó. Autonym: Sidaamu Afoo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 62% with Kambaata [ktb], 53% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.

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Silt’e
[stv] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Silte zone. Population: 881,000 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 935,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: East Gurage, Selti, Silte, Silti. Autonym: የስልጤ‎ (Yesiltʼe). Dialects: Enneqor (Inneqor), Ulbarag (Urbareg). Reportedly similar to Wolane [wle]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage.

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Somali
[som] Mainly Oromia and Somali regions; areas in Afar and Dire Dawa regions. Population: 4,705,600 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 4,610,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 95,600. 2,880,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,590,000 (2007 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Somali Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)). Alternate Names: Af-Soomaali, Common Somali, Somalie, Standard Somali. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali.

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Suri
[suq] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bench-Maji zone, toward Sudan border; west of Mizan Teferi. Population: 26,900 (2007 census), increasing. 24,200 monolinguals (2017). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Churi, Dama, Dhuri, Eastern Suri, Shuri, Shuro, Surma. Autonym: Surichɛn. Dialects: Tirmaga (Cirma, Dirma, Terema, Terna, Tid, Tirima, Tirma, Tirmagi), Chai (Caci, Cai). Lexical similarity: 81% with Mursi [muz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri.

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T’apo
[lgn] Gambela region: Sudan border area, 5 villages. Population: 5,000 in Ethiopia (2014). Most are monolingual. Community self-reports population up to 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ansita, Ciita, Cita, Kina, Kwina, Opo, Opo-Shita, Opuo, Opuuo, Po, Shiita, Shita, T’ap’o, Tʼashita, Upo, “Langa” (pej.). Autonym: T’apo. Dialects: Modin, Bilogo. Lexical similarity: 24% with Komo [xom]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Tigrigna
[tir] Afar and Amhara regions; Tigray region border areas. Population: 4,467,000 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 4,320,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 147,000. 2,820,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,490,000 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 7,659,780 (as L1: 7,507,780; as L2: 152,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Tigray Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)). Alternate Names: Beta Israel, Tigray, Tigrie, Tigrinya. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North.

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Tsamai
[tsb] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: South Omo area, lowlands west of Lake Chamo. Population: 19,200, all users. L1 users: 18,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 1,200. 5,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,000 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bago S’aamakk-Ulo, Cule, Kuile, Kule, S’amai, Tamaha, Ts’amay, Tsamakko, Tsamako, Tsemay. Autonym: Bago Ts’amakkilo. Dialects: The Tsamai say Ale [gwd] is difficult to understand. Possibly related to Birale [bxe]. The most divergent variety in the Dullay classification. Lexical similarity: 56%–73% with Ale [gwd] dialects, 61% with Bussa [dox], 31% with Konso [kxc]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay.

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Weyto
[woy] Amhara region: Lake Tana area. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker had either died or shifted to Amharic by 1900 (Sommer 1992). Ethnic population: 1,630. 1,520 (93%) speak Amharic as L1. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wayto, Weyt’o. Dialects: None known. Possibly Eastern Sudanic or an Awngi variety (Bender 1983b), or Cushitic (Bender et al 1976:14). Classification: Unclassified.

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Wolane
[wle] Oromia region: southwest of Addis Ababa; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage zone. Population: 70,000 (Meyer 2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Olane, Walane, Welene, Wäläne. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Silt’e [stv]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage.

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Wolaytta
[wal] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Wolaytta zone, Lake Abaya area. Population: 1,719,800, all users. L1 users: 1,630,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 89,800. 1,000,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,680,000 (2007 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Borodda, Ometo, Uba, Welaita, Wolaita, Wolaitta, Wolataita, Wolayta, “Ualamo” (pej.), “Uollamo” (pej.), “Walamo” (pej.), “Wallamo” (pej.), “Welamo” (pej.), “Wellamo” (pej.), “Wollamo” (pej.). Autonym: Wolaytta. Dialects: Zala. Dorze [doz], Melo [mfx], and Oyda [oyd] may be dialects of Wolaytta. Lexical similarity: 79%–93% with Gamo [gmv], 84% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Dawro [dwr] and Dorze [doz], 48% with Koorete [kqy], 43% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Xamtanga
[xan] Amhara region: Avergele district, Lasta and Waag zones; Tigray region: southeast in Jirurzba area. Population: 224,000, all users. L1 users: 213,000 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 11,000. 93,900 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Agaw, Agawinya, Khamtanga, Simt’anga, Xamir, Xamta. Autonym: ኃምታጛ‎ (X’imt’a-nga). Dialects: None known. Low inherent intelligibility of Qimant [ahg]. Lexical similarity: 45% with Qimant [ahg]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Eastern.

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Yemsa
[jnj] Oromia region: Fofa (main village); mixed in Oromo villages Deedoo, Jimma, Saja, and Sak’a; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Yem zone. Population: 92,200 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 160,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Yem, “Janjerinya” (pej.), “Janjero” (pej.), “Janjor” (pej.), “Yangaro” (pej.), “Zinjero” (pej.). Autonym: Yemsa. Dialects: Fuga of Jimma, Toba. The Fuga of Jimma dialect may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 24% with Shekkacho [moy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Janjero.

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Zay
[zwa] Oromia region: Lake Zway shores and east islands. Population: 14,000 (Meyer 2005), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gelilla, Lak’i, Laqi, Zway. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Harari [har], 70% with Silt’e [stv] (Bender, M. 1971). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage.

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Zaysete
[zay] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Tsegen zone, west of Lake Chamo. Population: 18,500 (2007 census). 10,200 Zayse, 7,600 Zergulla. 3,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 17,900 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Korisadam, Zagisite, Zaisse, Zayse, Zayse-Zergulla, Zaysinya, Zaysitè, Zaysse, Zeyese. Autonym: Zaysite. Dialects: Zergulla (Zargulla, Zergullinya), Zayse. Speakers are shifting from Zergulla to Zayse (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Similar to the Gidicho dialect of Koorete [kqy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East.

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