Ethiopia

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Aari
[aiw] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region, Central North Omo zone, south tip of Ethiopia plateau, near the Hamer-Banna [amf] language area. 285,000 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 13,300. 129,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aarai, Ara, Ari, Aro, “Shankilla” (pej.), “Shankilligna” (pej.), “Shankillinya” (pej.). Dialects: Bako (Baco), Biyo (Bio), Laydo, Seyki, Shangama, Sido, Wubahamer (Ubamer), Zeddo. Reportedly similar to Gayil [gyl]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. Comments: Patrilineal. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Afar
[aar] Eastern lowlands, Afar, Amhara, and Somali regions. 1,280,000 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 22,800 in Ethiopia. 906,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Total users in all countries: 1,828,800 (as L1: 1,806,000; as L2: 22,800). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Afar Region (1994, Constitution, Art 47). Alternate Names: Adal, ’Afar Af, Afaraf, Affarigna, “Danakil” (pej.), “Denkel” (pej.), Qafar. Dialects: Northern Afar, Central Afar, Aussa, Baadu (Ba’adu). Related to Saho [ssy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar. Comments: Called “Danakil” in Arabic and by others, but that is considered offensive by the Afar. Called Adal in Amharic. Nomadic. Muslim.

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Alaba-K’abeena
[alw] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region; Oromia region: Rift Valley southwest of Lake Shala, separated by Belate river from Kambatta [ktb] language area. 287,000 (2010 UNSD). 234,000 Alaba, 52,700 K’abeena (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 29,700. 111,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Alaaba, Allaaba, Halaba, K’abeena, K’abena, Qebena, Wanbasana. Dialects: Wanbasana (Alaba), K’abeena. Lexical similarity: 81% with Kambaata [ktb], 64% with Sidamo [sid], 56% with Libido [liq], 54% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Comments: Muslim.

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Amharic
[amh] North central, Amhara region; Addis Ababa. 21,600,000 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 4,000,000 in Ethiopia. 14,800,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 25,820,220 (as L1: 21,820,220; as L2: 4,000,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Art 5(2)), also statutory provincial language. Alternate Names: Abyssinian, Amarigna, Amarinya, Amhara, Beta Israel, Ethiopian. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba. Comments: Christian, Jewish.

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Anfillo
[myo] Oromia region: Anfillo forest, west of Dembi Dolo. 500 (1990 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Southern Mao. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53% with Shekkacho [moy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, Central.

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Anuak
[anu] Gambela region: Baro, Alworo, and Gilo rivers and Akobo river right bank; small areas in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region, Oromia state. Southwest. 90,600 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 2,110 in Ethiopia. 34,300 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Anyuak, Anywa, Anywaa, Anywak, Bar, Burjin, Dha Anywaa, Jambo, Miroy, Moojanga, Nuro, Yambo, Yembo. Dialects: Adoyo, Coro, Lul, Opëno. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Arbore
[arv] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: South Omo zone; Oromia region: Lake Chew Bahir area. 7,210 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 3,110. 3,900 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arbora, Erbore, Irbore. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana.

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Argobba
[agj] Amhara and Afar regions: Rift Valley in Yimlawo, Gusa, Shonke, Berehet, Khayr Amba, Melkajillo, Metehara, and Shewa Robit villages area. Northeast. 43,700 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 3,240. 100 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Aliyu Amba-Ankober, Shonke-T’allaha, Shagura. Lexical similarity: 53% with Amharic [amh] (Shonke-T’allaha dialect). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba. Comments: Muslim.

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Awngi
[awn] Amhara region: Awi and North Gonder zones, southwest of Lake Tana; Benishangul-Gumuz region: Metekel zone. 489,000 (2010 UNSD), increasing. L2 users: 64,400 (1994 census). 323,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Agau, Agaw, Agew, Agow, Awawar, Awi, Awiya, Damot, Kumfel, “Kunfäl” (pej.), Kunfel, Kwollanyoch. Dialects: Dega, Kwolla, Kunfäl (Northern Awngi). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern.

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Baiso
[bsw] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: halfway between Soddo and Arba Minch, Merab Abaya area, Alge village (390); Gidicho Island, Baiso and Shigima villages (200); Welege island on Lake Abaya (420), and west shore. 5,480 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alkali, Bayso. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. Comments: Are the minority in all their locations.

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Bambassi
[myf] Benishangul-Gumuz region: Bambassi area and Didessa river valley; Oromia region: western Wellaga zone. 5,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amam, Bambeshi, Didessa, Fadiro, Northern Mao, Siggoyo. Dialects: Didessa, Bambassi. Lexical similarity: 30% with other Omotic languages, 60% with Sezo [hoz] (Bender 2003). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, East. Comments: Muslim.

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Basketo
[bst] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: North Omo zone, plateau west of Bulki. 92,600 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 8,960. 42,800 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Baskatta, Basketto, Mesketo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Oyda [oyd]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, West. Comments: Christian.

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Bench
[bcq] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Mizan Teferi area. 348,000 (2010 UNSD). 14,300 Mer. L2 users: 22,600. 150,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dizu, Ghimarra, Gimarra, Gimira. Dialects: Bench (Bencho, Benesho), Mer (Mieru), She (Kaba, Sce). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Gimira. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Berta
[wti] Benishangul-Gumuz region: Blue Nile river and Sudan border corner north of Asosa; Dalati, Sirba Abay area east of Dabus river; Matahara in eastern Ethiopia. 1,630,000 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD), increasing. 4,840 Fadashi (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 16,500 in Ethiopia. 99,700 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 1,826,500 (as L1: 1,810,000; as L2: 16,500). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Barta, Beni Shangul, Bertha, Burta, Jebelawi, Rotana, Wetawit. Dialects: Shuru, Bake, Undu, Mayu, Fadashi, Dabuso. Probably more than one language. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites. Comments: ‘Beni Shangul’ is the Arabic name. Muslim.

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Borna
[bwo] Benishangul-Gumuz region: Metekel zone, near Blue Nile river. 37,500 (2010 UNSD). 140 Gamila. L2 users: 2,280. 18,600 monolinguals. 77 Gamila. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Boro, Bworo, Scinacia, Shinasha. Dialects: Bulen-Dibat’e, Wenbera-Dangur, Amuru, Gamila, Guba, Wambera. Scattered dialect groups. Lexical similarity: 46% with Shekkacho [moy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, North. Comments: Boro is the ethnic name.

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Burji
[bji] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south of Lake Chamo; into Oromia state. 46,400 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 3,050 in Ethiopia. 29,300 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 73,150 (as L1: 70,100; as L2: 3,050). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bambala, Bembala, Daashi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 41% with Sidamo [sid] (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Bussa
[dox] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Tsegen zone, west of Lake Chamo. 19,700 (2007 census). 10,500 Mashola. L2 users: 920. 4,960 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dobase, D’oopace, D’opaasunte, Gobeze, Goraze, Gowase, Lohu, Mashelle, Mashile, Masholle, Mosiye, Musiye, Orase. Dialects: Mashola. There is a dialect chain with Konso-Dirasha-Dobase. Lexical similarity: 78% with Gawwada [gwd], 51% with Konso [kxc], 86% with the Gollango dialect of Gawwada, 80% with the Harso dialect of Gawwada, 61% with Tsamai [tsb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay.

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Chara
[cra] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: South Omo zone, both sides of Omo river. 13,100 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 670. 5,560 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ciara, Gimiri Nona. Dialects: Buch’a. Lexical similarity: 54% with Wolaytta [wal]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Chara. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Daasanach
[dsh] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: lower Omo river, along Lake Turkana. 48,000 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 230 in Ethiopia. 31,400 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 60,730 (as L1: 60,500; as L2: 230). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daasanech, Dama, Dasenech, Dathanaic, Dathanaik, Dathanik, Dhaasanac, Gallab, Galuba, Gelab, Geleb, Geleba, Gelebinya, Gelubba, Gheleba, Marille, Merile, Merille, Morille, Reshiat, Russia, “Shangilla” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Daatsʼíin
[dtn] Amhara: Qwara wereda, small villages in Mahadid K’ebele; Benishangul-Gumuz: Guba wereda, villages in Inashemsh K’ebele. 300 (2015 C. Ahland). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sa-Daatsʼíin. Dialects: Low mutual intelligibility with Gumuz [guk]. Lexical similarity: 86% with Gumuz [guk] (southern dialects). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Gumuzoid. Comments: Muslim.

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Dawro
[dwr] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Dawro zone; 2 small border areas in Oromia state. 543,000 (2007 census). 81,600 Konta (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 20,000. 260,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cullo, Dauro, Kullo, Ometay. Dialects: Konta (Conta), Kucha (Koysha, Kusha). Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with Gamo [gmv], 76% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Wolaytta [wal], 73%–75% with Dorze [doz], 48% with Koorete [kqy], 43% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Dime
[dim] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north of Omo river, just before it turns south. 570 (2010 UNSD), decreasing. L2 users: 530. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dima, Dim-af, Dim-ap. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 47% with Hamer-Banna [amf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. Comments: Population diminished through disease and war.

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Dirasha
[gdl] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Tsegen zone, hills west of Lake Chamo, Gidole town area. 49,900 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 7,000. Ethnic population: 90,000 (2005 SIL). 41,100 Gidole, 7,470 Kusumitta (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhirasha, Diraasha, Dirayta, Diraytta, Gardulla, Ghidole, Gidole. Dialects: Mosiya, Kusumitta. Part of a dialect continuum with Konso [kxc] and Bussa [dox]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Konso [kxc]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole. Comments: Christian.

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Dizin
[mdx] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bench-Maji zone. 33,900 (2010 UNSD), increasing. L2 users: 2,050. 17,600 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dizi, Dizi-Maji, Dizinog, Dizinya, Maji, Majinya, Sizi, Twoyu. Dialects: None known. Related to Sheko [she] and Nayi [noz]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dorze
[doz] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: North Omo zone, Chencha area. 30,100 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 3,600. 9,910 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 29,000 (1994 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82%–87% with Gamo [gmv], 77%–81% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Wolaytta [wal], 73%–75% with Dawro [dwr], 54% with Koorete [kqy], 48% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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English
[eng] 1,870 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 170,000 in Ethiopia. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ethiopian Sign Language
[eth] Scattered. 250,000 (2008 WFD). 1,000,000 (2005 Ethiopian National Association of the Deaf). Unknown number of isolated deaf in rural areas. 250,000 deaf (2008 WFD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: EthSL. Dialects: None known. Hossana School for the Deaf uses more indigenous signs than Addis Ababa, which has more influence from Amharic [amh]. Influence from Amharic [amh] in grammar and lexicon. Possible lexical influence from European sign languages, due to presence of foreign advisors. Classification: Sign language.

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Gamo
[gmv] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gamo-Gofa zone. 1,070,000 (2010 UNSD), increasing. L2 users: 24,400. 600,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gamotso, Gemu. Dialects: Dache. Lexical similarity: 79%–91% with Gofa [gof], 82%–87% with Dorze [doz], 73%–80% with Dawro [dwr], 79%–89% with Wolaytta [wal], 49% with Koorete [kqy], 44% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Ganza
[gza] Gambela region: Mao-Komo special wereda, north of Zebsher. 400 in Ethiopia (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganzo, Gwami, Koma. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ganza came originally from Sudan; most have now returned.

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Gawwada
[gwd] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Tsegen zone, west of Lake Chamo. 68,600 (2007 census). L2 users: 1,370. 27,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ale, Dabosse, Dullay, Gauwada, Gawata, Kawwada, Kawwad’a. Dialects: Dihina (Tihina, Tihinte), Gergere (K’ark’arte), Gobeze, Gollango (Kollanko), Gorose (Gorrose, Korrose), Harso (Worase). Lexical similarity: 78% with Bussa [dox], 73% with Tsamai [tsb], 77% with the Harso dialect, 92% with the Gollango dialect, 41% with Konso [kxc]. The Harso dialect has 80% lexical similarity with the Dobase dialect of Bussa [dox], 56% with Tsamai [tsb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay.

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Gayil
[gyl] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, Gelila wereda. 55,700 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galila, Gayi, Gayl, Gelila, Northern Ari. Dialects: None known. Related to Aari [aiw], Dime [dim], Hamer-Banna [amf], and Karo [kxh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South.

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Gedeo
[drs] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ and Oromia regions: central highland area, southwest of Dilla and east of Lake Abaya. 975,000 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 48,000. 439,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: “Darasa” (pej.), “Darassa” (pej.), “Derasa” (pej.), “Derasanya” (pej.), “Deresa” (pej.), Geddeo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Sidamo [sid] (most similar), 57% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 54% with Kambaata [ktb], 51% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Geez
[gez] No known L1 speakers in Ethiopia. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Total users in all countries: NaN. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Ancient Ethiopic, Ethiopic, Ge’ez, Giiz. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North. Comments: Christian.

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Gofa
[gof] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gamo-Gofa zone. 359,000 (2010 UNSD), increasing. L2 users: 33,400. 190,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Goffa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 79%–91% with Gamo [gmv], 76% with Dawro [dwr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Gumuz
[guk] Benishangul-Gumuz, Amhara, Oromia regions: Metemma area on Sudan border south through Gonder and Metekel zones; along Blue Nile south into Wellaga and Didessa valley up to Neqemt-Gimbi road; southwest of Addis Ababa, Welqite area villages (possibly 1,000). 179,000 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 4,380 in Ethiopia. 88,200 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 223,380 (as L1: 219,000; as L2: 4,380). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bega, Bega-Tse, Debatsa, Debuga, Dehenda, Gombo, Gumis, Gumuzinya, Kadallu, Mendeya, “Shankilligna” (pej.), “Shankillinya” (pej.), “Shanqilla” (pej.), Sigumza. Dialects: Guba, Wenbera, Sirba, Agalo, Yaso, Mandura, Dibate, Metemma. Noticeable dialect differences, and not all dialects are inherently intelligible. Mandura, Dibate, and Metemma form a distinct dialect subgroup. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Gumuzoid. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Hadiyya
[hdy] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Kambaata, and Hadiyya zones, between Omo and Billate rivers, Hosaina town area; Oromia region: east Shewa zone. 1,250,000 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 151,000. 595,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Adea, Adiya, Adiye, Hadia, Hadiya, Hadya. Dialects: Leemo, Soro. Lexical similarity: 82% with Libido [liq], 56% with Kambaata [ktb], 54% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 53% with Sidamo [sid]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Hamer-Banna
[amf] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, near Omo river; north of Lake Turkana, southwest corner, near Kenya and Sudan borders; Oromia region: Borena zone. 74,500 (2007 census). 47,500 Hamer, 27,000 Banna. L2 users: 7,120. 38,400 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amar, Amarcocche, Amer, Ammar, Bana, Banna, Beshada, Cocche, Hamar, Hamar-Koke, Hamer, Hammer, Hammercoche, Kara Kerre. Dialects: None known. Hamer and Banna are separate ethnic groups who speak virtually the same language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Harari
[har] Harari region: walled city of Harar; Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. East. 25,800 (2010 UNSD). 20,000 in Addis Ababa, outside Harar City (Hetzron 1997). L2 users: 7,770. 2,350 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Adare, Adarinnya, Adere, Aderinya, Gey Sinan, Hararri. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage. Comments: Muslim.

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Hozo
[hoz] Benishangul-Gumuz region: Tongo zone; west Oromia region: Begi area, 50 or more villages. 3,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Begi-Mao. Dialects: None known. Related to Bambassi [myf] (Bender 1975). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West.

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Inor
[ior] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: west Gurage zone, Innemor and Endegeny woredas. 280,000. 50,000 Endegeny. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ennemor. Dialects: Endegeny (Enner). Part of Gurage subgroup of languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group.

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Kachama-Ganjule
[kcx] Oromia State and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Lake Abaya, Gidicho island, Kachama, and Lake Chamo, Ganjule on west shore, Shela-Mela village. 2,830 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 420 (1994 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Ganjule (Ganjawle), Ganta, Kachama, Gats’ame (Gatame, Get’eme, Makka). Lexical similarity: 46% with Wolaytta [wal]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East.

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Kacipo-Balesi
[koe] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south border with Sudan. 4,120 in Ethiopia (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kacipo, Silmamo, Suri, Suri-Baale, Tsilmano, Zelmamu, Zilmamu, Zulmamu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi. Comments: Different from Suri [suq].

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Kafa
[kbr] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bonga town area; border areas in Oromia region. 835,000 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 46,700. 445,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Caffino, Kaffa, Kaficho, Kefa, Keffa, Manjo. Dialects: Kafa, Bosha (Garo). Bosha may be a distinct language. Manjo is an argot based on Kafa [kbr] (Bender 1983b). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Kambaata
[ktb] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: southwest Gurage, Kambaata, and Hadiyya zones; Durame is main town. 713,000 (2010 UNSD). 97,800 Timbaro (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 79,300. 330,500 monolinguals. Includes 279,000 Kambaata, 51,600 Timbaro. Ethnic population: 764,000 (2007 census). Includes 98,600 Timbaro, 35,000 Donga (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Donga, Kambara, Kambata, Kambatta, Kemata, Kembata. Dialects: Tambaro, Timbaro (Timbaaro, Timbara). Lexical similarity: 95% between dialects, 81% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 62% with Sidamo [sid], 57% with Libido [liq], 56% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Comments: Timbaro is now officially recognized as a seprate language in Ethiopia, although it is linguistically very close to Kambaata. Christian.

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Karo
[kxh] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, upstream from Daasanach [dsh] language area, riverside settlements near Hamer-Banna [amf] language area. 1,480 (2007 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cherre, Kere, Kerre. Dialects: May be a dialect or a closely related language with Hamer-Banna [amf]. More similar to Hamer variety than Banna. Lexical similarity: 81% with Hamer-Banna [amf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South.

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Kistane
[gru] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Kambaata, and Hadiyya zones, southwest of Addis Ababa; Oromia region. 255,000 (1994 census). L2 users: 60,500. Ethnic population: 364,000 (1994 census). Includes 4,000 Gogot. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Gurage, Soddo, Soddo Gurage. Dialects: Soddo (Aymallal, Aymellel, Kestane, Kistane), Dobi (Dobbi, Goggot, Gogot). Not intelligible with Silt’e [stv] or Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw]. Dobi dialect comprehension of Soddo is 76%, and Soddo speakers’ of Dobi is 90%. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group. Comments: Not used in media. Christian.

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Komo
[xom] Oromia region: Mao-Komo woreda south of Asosa, south and west of Kwama [kmq] language area; Gambela region: Bonga area, near Baro river. 8,530 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Central Koma, Koma, Madiin, South Koma. Dialects: Koma of Begi, Koma of Daga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman. Comments: Different from Koma [kmy] of Cameroon. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Konso
[kxc] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south of Lake Chamo, Tsegen zone, near Tsegen river bend. 242,000 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD), increasing. L2 users: 5,660 in Ethiopia. 139,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 247,660 (as L1: 242,000; as L2: 5,660). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Af Kareti, Afa Karatti, Conso, Gato, Karate, Kareti, Khonso, Komso. Dialects: Kholme, Duuro, Fasha, Karatti. Lexical similarity: 55% with Dirasha [gdl], 51% with Bussa [dox], 41% with Gawwada [gwd], 31% with Tsamai [tsb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole. Comments: Gat(t)o is a town on both sides of Gatto River; those living on Konso side speak a dialect of Konso; those on Gidole side speak a dialect of Diraytta [gdl]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koorete
[kqy] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Sidama zone, Amaro mountains east of Lake Abaya; Oromia region: about 60 Harro families (200 people) in Lake Abbaya, on Gidicho (Gidicció) island, Harro village. 157,000 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 2,370. 84,400 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Amaarro, Amarro, Badittu, Haro, Harro, Koore, Koyra, Kwera, Nuna. Dialects: South Koorete, North Koorete, Middle Koorete. Dialects are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 54% with Dorze [doz], 53% with Wolaytta [wal], 52% with Gofa [gof], 49% with Gamo [gmv], 48% with Dawro [dwr], 45% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East. Comments: Baiso [bsw] and Oromo [orm] are replacing Harro on Gidiccho Island (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007).

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Kunama
[kun] Tigray state, west of Sheraro and Yirga. 7,430 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 140 in Ethiopia (1994 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Kunama. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kwama
[kmq] South Benishangul-Gumuz and western Oromia regions: near Sudan border, south of Asosa to Gidami; 19 villages, including one (Yabus) in Sudan. 15,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afan Mao, Amam, Gogwama, Goma, Gwama, Koma of Asosa, Nokanoka, North Koma, Takwama, T’wa Kwama. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kwegu
[xwg] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: southwest, Omo river west bank, Kuchur village, and a small group north. 5,110 (2007 census). L2 users: 51. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bacha, Koegu, Kwegi, Menja, Nidi. Dialects: Yidinich (Yidi, Yidinit), Muguji. Listed dialects may not be inherently intelligible with Kwegu. May be a name for several hunter groups. Lexical similarity: 36% with Mursi [muz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southeast, Kwegu. Comments: Seen as lower class by Bodi, Mursi, Karo, or Nyangatom. Men from these patron groups may marry Kwegu women. A small group who maintain a basically constant population.

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Libido
[liq] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Hadiyya, Kambaata, and Gurage zones, northeast of Hosaina; Oromia region: west of Lake Ziway. 64,400 (2007 census). L2 users: 9,210. 14,700 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Marako, Maraqo. Dialects: None known. Syntactic, morphological, and lexical differences from Hadiyya [hdy]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Hadiyya [hdy], 57% with Kambaata [ktb], 56% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 53% with Sidamo [sid]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Comments: Muslim.

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Majang
[mpe] Oromia and Gambela regions; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: a long, narrow belt between Bure, east of Gambela, and Guraferda south. 32,800 (2007 census). L2 users: 440. 10,800 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ajo, Ato Majang, Ato Majanger-Onk, Majanjiro, Masango, Masongo, Mesengo, Ojanjur, Tama. Dialects: Minor dialect variation. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, North, Majang. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Male
[mdy] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: North Omo zone, southeast of Jinka. 94,700 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 6,730. 40,500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maale. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48% with Dorze [doz], 46% with Gofa [gof], 45% with Koorete [kqy], 44% with Gamo [gmv], 43% with Wolaytta [wal] and Dawro [dwr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo. Comments: Different from Malo (see Zayse).

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Me’en
[mym] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bench-Maji zone; highlanders (Banio) in Bachuma area; lowlanders (Koruwo) south; Bodi near Omo river. 151,000 (2010 UNSD), increasing. 5,770 Bodi (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 6,300. 143,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mekan, Mela, Men, Meqan, Mie’en, Mieken, Suro, “Teshenna” (pej.), “Teshina” (pej.), “Tishana” (pej.), “Tishena” (pej.). Dialects: Banio, Bodi (Mela, Podi), Koruwo. Lexical similarity: 65% with the Chai and Tirma dialects of Suri [suq], 30% with Murle [mur]. Lexical differences between highland and lowland. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Me’en. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Melo
[mfx] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: North Omo zone, Malo-Koza area, northeast of Basketo [bst] language area. 20,200 (1994 census). L2 users: 4,660. 13,700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,200 (1994 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with the majority of Ometo language varieties. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Mesmes
[mys] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Related to Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group.

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Mesqan
[mvz] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: west Gurage zone, Mesqan woreda, principal villages: Mikayelo, Mesqan, Butajira and Hudat. 195,000 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 205,000 (Woreda Farmers’ Cooperatives Office). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masqan, Meskan. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group.

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Mursi
[muz] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: central Omo area, lowlands southwest of Jinka. 7,390 (2007 census). L2 users: 34. 3,160 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dama, Merdu, Meritu, Murzi, Murzu. Dialects: Closely related to the Tirmaga and Chai dialects of Suri [suq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nayi
[noz] Scattered in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Decha Awraja, Shoa Bench wereda, Dulkuma village; Sheko wereda, Aybera, Kosa, and Jomdos villages. 7,190 (2007 census). L2 users: 1,880. 1,140 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nao, Na’o. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Dizin [mdx]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid.

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Nuer
[nus] Gambela region: along Baro river. 153,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 1,120 in Ethiopia. 61,600 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Naath. Dialects: Eastern Nuer (Abigar, Door, Ji, Jikany, Kany). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer. Comments: Severe displacement caused by fighting in Ethiopia and Sudan (1991). Traditional religion.

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Nyangatom
[nnj] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: extreme southwest corner, south Omo zone, Omo and Kibish rivers area. 24,300 (2007 census). L2 users: 120. 13,800 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dongiro, Donyiro, Idongiro, Inyangatom. Dialects: None known. Inherently intelligible with Toposa [toq] and Turkana [tuv]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana. Comments: Semi-nomadic; follow cattle into Sudan, Moru Angipi region. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ongota
[bxe] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, west bank of Weyt’o river, 1 village. 10 (2007 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Birale” (pej.), “Birelle” (pej.), Ifa, “Shanqilla” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Unclassified.

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Opuuo
[lgn] Gambela region: Sudan border north of Anuak [anu] and Nuer [nus] language areas, 5 villages. 5,000 in Ethiopia (2014). Most are monolingual. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ansita, Ciita, Cita, Kina, Kwina, “Langa” (pej.), Opo, Opo-Shita, Opuo, Shiita, Shita, Upo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 24% with Komo [xom]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Oromo
[orm] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 17,465,900 Status: Comments: Includes: Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo [gax], Eastern Oromo [hae], Orma [orc] (Kenya), West Central Oromo [gaz].

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Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji
[gax] South Oromia region; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region; Amhara, Afar, and Somali regions. 3,630,000 in Ethiopia. 25,500,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 3,949,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afan Oromo, “Galla” (pej.), “Galligna” (pej.), “Gallinya” (pej.), Southern Oromo. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Comments: In Ethiopia, Oromo is viewed as one people who speak one language. Called Borana in Kenya where Gabra and Sakuye dialects may have significant dialect and language attitude differences from Borana dialect. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Oromo, Eastern
[hae] Oromia region: northern Bale, East Hararghe, and West Hararghe zones; Somali region: Shinile zone, and southernmost Afar region; Dire Dawa and Harari regions. 4,530,000 (1994). 25,500,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Harar, Harar Oromo, Harer, Ittu, “Kwottu” (pej.), “Qottu” (pej.), “Qotu Oromo” (pej.), “Quottu” (pej.), “Qwottu” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo [gax]. A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Comments: In Ethiopia, Oromo is viewed as one people who speak one language. Muslim.

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Oromo, West Central
[gaz] Widespread. 8,920,000 (1994 census). 25,500,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Ethnic population: 30,000,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Oromia Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)). West Central Oromo [gaz] is lingua franca of the area. Alternate Names: Afan Oromo, “Galla” (pej.), Oromiffa, Oromoo. Dialects: Western Oromo, Central Oromo. Subdialects are Mecha (Maccha, Wellaga, Wallaga, Wollega), Raya, Wello (Wollo), and Tulema (Tulama, Shoa, Shewa). Harar and Borana are most divergent. A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Comments: In Ethiopia, Oromo is viewed as one people who speak one language. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Oyda
[oyd] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: northwest Omo area, southwest of Sawla. 36,900 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 4,040. 6,250 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Wolaytta [wal], 61% with Basketo [bst]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central.

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Qimant
[ahg] Amhara region: northwest, north Gonder zone, north of Lake Tana. 1,650 (1994 census). L2 users: 3,180. Ethnic population: 172,000 (1994 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Agaw, Kemant, Kimanteney, Qemant, Western Agaw. Dialects: Qimant (Chemant, Kamant, Kemanat, Kemant, Kimant, Qemant), Dembiya (Dambya, Dembya), Hwarasa (“Kara” (pej.), Qwara, Qwarina), Kayla, Semyen, Achpar, Kwolasa (Kwolacha). Distinct from Awngi [awn], Bilen [byn], and Xamtanga [xan]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Western. Comments: Christian, Jewish.

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Rer Bare
[rer] Somali region: Gode zone, Wabi Shebelle river near Somalia border; along Ganale and Dawa rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Adona, Rerebere. Classification: Unclassified.

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Saho
[ssy] Afar and Tigray regions. 32,800 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 3,380 in Ethiopia. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Sao, Shaho, Shiho, Shoho. Dialects: Irob. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar. Comments: Ethnic group names are Asa’orta, Hadu (Hazu), Miniferi. Irob, unlike others, are not nomadic. Christian.

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Sebat Bet Gurage
[sgw] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: west Gurage zone; Chaha dialect: Emdibir area; Gura dialect: Gura Megenase and Wirir areas; Muher dialect: Ch’eza area, mountains north of Chaha and Ezha; Gyeto dialect: south of Ark’it’ in K’abul and K’want’e; Ezha dialect: Agenna. 1,480,000 (2010 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central West Gurage, Gouraghie, Gurage, Guragie, Gurague, West Gurage. Dialects: Chaha (Cheha), Ezha (Eza, Izha), Gumer (Gwemarra), Gura, Gyeto, Muher (Muxir). Member of Gurage subgroup of languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group.

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Seze
[sze] West Oromia region: near Begi, north of Hozo [hoz] language area. 3,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sezo. Dialects: None known. Related to Bambassi [myf] (Bender 1975). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West.

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Shabo
[sbf] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Sheka zone; Oromia State, Illubabor zone, between Majang [mpe] and Shekkacho [moy] language areas. 400 (2000 M. Brenzinger), decreasing. Ethnic population: 600 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Chabu” (pej.), “Mekeyer” (pej.), “Mikair” (pej.), “Mikeyir” (pej.), Sabu, “Shako” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Distinct from Sheko [she]. Lexical similarity: 30% with Majang [mpe], 12% with other West Cushitic (Omotic) languages. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: They live in family units, not villages. Traditional religion.

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Shekkacho
[moy] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Maasha area; Oromia and Gambela regions. 79,900 (2007 census). L2 users: 3,480. 36,500 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Mocha, Shakacho, Shekka. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kafa [kbr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Sheko
[she] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bench-Maji zone; southeast Gambela region. 38,900 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 4,920. 13,600 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Shak, Shako, Shekka, Shekko, Tschako. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Shabo [sbf]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sidamo
[sid] South central, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: northeast of Lake Abaya; Oromia region: southeast of Lake Awasa. 2,980,000 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 101,000. 2,530,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Sidaama, Sidaamu Afoo, Sidaminya, Sidámo ’Afó. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 62% with Kambaata [ktb], 53% with Hadiyya [hdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.

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Silt’e
[stv] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: 150 km south of Addis Ababa, Silte zone. 935,000 (2007 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: East Gurage, Selti, Silte, Silti. Dialects: Enneqor (Inneqor), Ulbarag (Urbareg). Reportedly similar to Wolane [wle]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage.

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Somali
[som] Mainly, Somali and Oromia regions; areas in Afar and Dire Dawa regions. 4,610,000 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 95,600 in Ethiopia. 2,880,000 monolinguals. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Somali Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)). Alternate Names: Common Somali, Standard Somali. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. Comments: Daarood, Ogaadeen, Dir, Gadabuursi, Hawiye, and Isxaaq are major clan families in Ethiopia. Muslim.

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Suri
[suq] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bench-Maji zone, toward Sudan border; west of Mizan Teferi. 26,900 (2007 census), increasing. 18,700 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Churi, Dama, Dhuri, Eastern Suri, Shuri, Shuro, Surma. Dialects: Tirmaga (Cirma, Dirma, Terema, Terna, Tid, Tirima, Tirma, Tirmagi), Chai (Caci, Cai). Lexical similarity: 81% with Mursi [muz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tigrigna
[tir] Tigray region border areas; Amhara and Afar regions. 4,320,000 in Ethiopia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 147,000 in Ethiopia. 2,820,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 7,899,400 (as L1: 7,747,400; as L2: 152,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Tigray Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)). Alternate Names: Beta Israel, Tigray, Tigrinya. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North. Comments: Christian.

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Tsamai
[tsb] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Omo area, lowlands west of Lake Chamo. 18,000 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 1,200. 5,300 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bago S’aamakk-Ulo, Cule, Kuile, Kule, S’amai, Tamaha, Tsamakko, Tsamako, Ts’amay. Dialects: The Tsamai say Gawwada [gwd] is difficult to understand. Possibly related to Birale [bxe]. The most divergent variety in the Dullay classification. Lexical similarity: 56%–73% with Gawwada [gwd] dialects, 61% with Bussa [dox], 31% with Konso [kxc]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay.

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Weyto
[woy] Amhara region: Lake Tana area. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,630. 1,520 (93%) speak Amharic as L1. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Wayto, Weyt’o. Dialects: None known. Possibly Eastern Sudanic or an Awngi variety (Bender 1983b), or Cushitic (Bender et al 1976:14). Classification: Unclassified.

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Wolane
[wle] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage zone; Oromia region: southwest of Addis Ababa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Olane, Walane, Wäläne, Welene. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Silt’e [stv]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage.

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Wolaytta
[wal] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Wolaytta zone, Lake Abaya area. 1,710,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 89,800. 1,000,000 monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Borodda, Ometo, Ualamo, Uba, Uollamo, “Walamo” (pej.), Wallamo, Welamo, Wellamo, Wolaita, Wolaitta, Wolataita, Wolayta, Wollamo. Dialects: Zala. Dorze [doz], Melo [mfx], and Oyda [oyd] may be dialects of Wolaytta. Lexical similarity: 79%–93% with Gamo [gmv], 84% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Dawro [dwr] and Dorze [doz], 48% with Koorete [kqy], 43% with Male [mdy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central. Comments: Geographic names: Balta, Borodda, Ganta, Otschollo, Uba. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Xamtanga
[xan] North Amhara region: Avergele district, Lasta and Waag zones, 100 km north of Weldiya; southeast Tigray region: Jirurzba area. 213,000 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 11,000. 93,900 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Agaw, Agawinya, Khamtanga, Simt’anga, Xamir, Xamta. Dialects: None known. Low inherent intelligibility of Qimant [ahg]. Lexical similarity: 45% with Qimant [ahg]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Eastern. Comments: Surrounded by Amharic [amh] and Tigrigna [tir] speakers. Different from Awngi [awn]. Christian.

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Yemsa
[jnj] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Yem zone; Oromia region: northeast of Jimma zone, Fofa (main village); mixed in Oromo villages; Saja, Deedoo, Sak’a, Jimma. Southwest. 92,200 (2010 UNSD). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: “Janjerinya” (pej.), “Janjero” (pej.), “Janjor” (pej.), “Yangaro” (pej.), Yem, “Zinjero” (pej.). Dialects: Fuga of Jimma, Toba. The Fuga of Jimma dialect may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 24% with Shekkacho [moy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Janjero. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Zay
[zwa] Oromia region: Lake Zway shores and east islands. 4,880 (1994 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,880. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gelilla, Lak’i, Laqi, Zway. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Harari [har], 70% with Silt’e [stv] (Bender, M. 1971). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage.

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Zaysete
[zay] Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Tsegen zone, west of Lake Chamo. 18,500 (2010 UNSD). 10,200 Zayse, 7,600 Zergulla. 3,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zaisse, Zayse-Zergulla, Zaysitè, Zaysse, Zergula. Dialects: Zergulla (Zargulla, Zergullinya), Zayse. Similar to the Gidicho dialect of Koorete [kqy]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East.

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