Finland

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Estonian, Standard
[ekk] Kymenlaakso and Uusimaa regions; scattered throughout south coast. 33,100 in Finland (Laakso 2013). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Eesti Dialects: Muly (Mulgi), Tallinn (Northern Estonian, Reval), Tartu (Dorpat, Southern Estonian, Tatu). Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Refugees from World War II or recent immigrants. The traditional community was assimilated to the Swedish-speaking community. Christian.

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Finland-Swedish Sign Language
[fss] Scattered; southern and western coastal areas. 150 (2014 EUD). 150 deaf signers out of 300 total signers (2014 EUD). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Finlandssvenskt Teckenspråk, FinSSL, SRVK, Suomenruotsalainen Viittomakieli Dialects: Developed originally out of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) [swl], but now distinct. Closely-related to Finnish Sign Language (FinSL) [fse], differing in some lexical items, and sometimes considered a dialect of FinSL that is more like SSL, especially in the west bordering Sweden. FinSSL signers generally understand FinSL due to familiarity with it as the dominant sign language of Finland. Borrowing from FinSL, SSL, and Swedish [swe]. (Hoyer 2004). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl].

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Finnish
[fin] 5,100,000 in Finland (European Commission 2012). 30,000 speakers of Tornedalen Finnish. Population total all countries: 5,392,180. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 17(1,2)). Alternate Names: Suomi Dialects: Central and North Pohjanmaa, Häme (Tavast), Peräpohja, Savo (Savolax), South Pohjanmaa, Southeastern Finnish (Finnish Karelian, Finnish Karjala), Southwestern Finnish. Southeastern dialects called, Karelian, in colloquial Finnish are distinct from true Karelian [krl] (1988 T. Salminen). Finnish is closely related to Karelian [krl] and Livvi [olo]. In the Russian Federation eastern dialects merge gradually into Karelian. Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Christian.

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Finnish Sign Language
[fse] Scattered. 5,000 (2006 Institute for the Languages of Finland–KOTUS). 5,000 deaf and 10,000 hearing signers (2006 Institute for the Languages of Finland–KOTUS). 5,000 deaf signers (2014 EUD). 26,500 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, No. 61, Institute for sign language status). Alternate Names: FinSL, Suomalainen viittomakieli, SVK, Viittomakieli Dialects: 2 major dialects from the Finnish (17 schools) and Swedish (1 school) communities. Signed Finnish, used by some teachers of the deaf, is distinct. Developed originally out of Swedish Sign Language [swl], but now distinct. Closely-related to Finland-Swedish Sign Language (FinSSL) [fss], but FinSL users generally have difficulty understanding FinSSL unless FinSSL users adapt towards FinSL. Some borrowing from Finnish [fin]. (Hoyer 2004.) Not intelligible with Danish Sign Language [dsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. First deaf school founded 1850s. Government-paid interpreters. Interpreters required in court. Instruction for parents of deaf children. Many classes for hearing people. Christian (Protestant).

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Finnish, Tornedalen
[fit] Lapland region: western municipalities Muonio, Kolari, Pello, Ylitonio, and Tonio. 30,000 in Finland (1997 B. Winsa). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Meänkieli Classification: Uralic, Finnic

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Karelian
[krl] Northern Ostrobothnia region: Kuusano municipality, Russian border area; dispersed. 10,000 in Finland (1994). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Karelian Proper, Karely Dialects: Norgorod, Northern Karelian, Southern Karelian, Tver (Kalinin). Classification: Uralic, Finnic

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Livvi
[olo] North Karelia and South Karelia regions: scattered communities. 5,170 in Finland (2000). Ethnic population: 140,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aunus, Livvikovian, Olonets, Olonetsian Classification: Uralic, Finnic Comments: Resettled from areas ceded to Russia between 1940 and 1944.

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Romani, Kalo Finnish
[rmf] Scattered. 10,000 in Finland (2001 census). Population total all countries: 11,650. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fíntika Rómma, Gypsy Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Tavringer Romani [rmu], Traveller Norwegian [rmg], Traveller Danish [rmd], or Angloromani [rme]. A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern Comments: Originally from Scotland. Christian.

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Saami, Inari
[smn] Lapland region: between Lake Inari and Norway border, mostly Utsjoki border town area; above 68.00 N latitude. 300 (2001 census). 4,700 all Saami in Finland (1995). Ethnic population: 700 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sodankyla in Lapland, 3 municipalities elsewhere (2003, Sami Language Act No. 1086). Alternate Names: Anar, “Finnish Lapp” (pej.), “Inari Lappish” (pej.), “Lapp” (pej.), Saam, Saame, Sámi, Samic Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Some literature.

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Saami, North
[sme] Lapland region: Utsjoki, Sodankylä, western Inari, and Enontekiö municipalities. 1,700 in Finland (2001 census). Ethnic population: 3,500 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory provincial language in Sodankyla in Lapland, 3 municipalities elsewhere (2003, Sami Language Act No. 1086). Alternate Names: Davvin, “Lapp” (pej.), Northern Lapp, Saame, Same Dialects: Ruija, Sea Lappish, Torne. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Northern Comments: The most widely spoken Saami language in Finland.

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Saami, Skolt
[sms] Lapland region: Inari municipality, Sevettijärvi area. 300 in Finland (Salminen 2007). Population total all countries: 650. Ethnic population: 500 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in Sodankyla in Lapland, 3 municipalities elsewhere (2003, Sami Language Act No. 1086). Alternate Names: Kolta, Koltta, “Lapp” (pej.), Lopar, Russian Lapp, Saame, Same, Skolt Lappish Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern Comments: Moved to Finland from Russia during World War II. Christian.

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Swedish
[swe] Åland, Finland Proper, Kymenlaakso, and Ostrobothnia regions. 271,000 in Finland (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 2,390,000 in Finland (European Commission 2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2000, Constitution, Article 17(1,2)). Statutory provincial language in Åland Islands (1920, Autonomy Act, Article 36). Dialects: Åland Islands Swedish, Österbotten (Ostrobothnian), Southwest Finland Swedish, Standard Swedish, Uusimaa Swedish (Nyland Swedish). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, North, East Scandinavian, Danish-Swedish, Swedish Comments: Swedish Finns have distinctive pronunciation compared to the dialect in Sweden, but no apparent difficulty in intelligibility. Some Österbotten dialects are intelligible to others with difficulty.

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