Finland

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English
[eng] Widespread. Population: 3,858,800 in Finland, all users. L1 users: 18,800 in Finland (2016 census). L2 users: 3,840,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Englanti. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Estonian, Standard
[ekk] Kymenlaakso and Uusimaa regions; scattered throughout south coast. Population: 49,200 in Finland (2016 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Eesti, Eesti Kirjakeel. Dialects: Tallinn (Northern Estonian, Reval), Tartu (Dorpat, Southern Estonian), Mulgi. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Finland-Swedish Sign Language
[fss] Scattered; south and west coast areas. Population: 150 in Finland (2014 EUD). EUD estimates 150 deaf signers out of 300 total signers. Total users in all countries: 152. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: FinSSL, Finlandssvenskt Teckenspråk, SRVK, Suomenruotsalainen Viittomakieli. Dialects: Developed originally out of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) [swl], but now distinct. Closely-related to Finnish Sign Language (FinSL) [fse], differing in some lexical items, and sometimes considered a dialect of FinSL that is more like SSL, especially in the west bordering Sweden. FinSSL signers generally understand FinSL due to familiarity with it as the dominant sign language of Finland. Borrowing from FinSL, SSL, and Swedish [swe]. (Hoyer 2004). Classification: Sign language.

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Finnish
[fin] Population: 5,700,000 in Finland, all users. L1 users: 5,200,000 in Finland (European Commission 2012). 30,000 speakers of Tornedalen Finnish. L2 users: 500,000 (2018 Institute for the Languages of Finland). Total users in all countries: 6,305,020 (as L1: 5,529,020; as L2: 776,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 17(1,2)). Autonym: Suomi. Dialects: Southwestern Finnish, Häme (Tavast), South Pohjanmaa, Central and North Pohjanmaa, Peräpohja, Savo (Savolax), Southeastern Finnish (Finnish Karelian, Finnish Karjala). Southeastern dialects called, Karelian, in colloquial Finnish are distinct from true Karelian [krl] (1988 T. Salminen). Finnish is closely related to Karelian [krl] and Livvi [olo]. In the Russian Federation eastern dialects merge gradually into Karelian. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Finnish Sign Language
[fse] Scattered. Population: 5,000 (2006 Institute for the Languages of Finland). Institute for the Languages of Finland estimates 5,000 deaf and 10,000 hearing signers. 5,000 deaf signers (2014 EUD). 26,500 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, No. 61, Institute for sign language status). Alternate Names: FinSL, SVK, Suomalainen viittomakieli, Viittomakieli. Dialects: 2 major dialects from the Finnish (17 schools) and Swedish (1 school) communities. Signed Finnish, used by some teachers of the deaf, is distinct. Developed originally out of Swedish Sign Language [swl], but now distinct. Closely-related to Finland-Swedish Sign Language (FinSSL) [fss], but FinSL users generally have difficulty understanding FinSSL unless FinSSL users adapt towards FinSL. Some borrowing from Finnish [fin]. (Hoyer 2004) Not intelligible with Danish Sign Language [dsl]. Classification: Sign language.

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Finnish, Tornedalen
[fit] Lapland region: Kolari, Muonio, Pello, Tonio, and Ylitonio western municipalities. Population: 30,000 in Finland (1997 B. Winsa). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Meänkieli. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Karelian
[krl] Northern Ostrobothnia region: Kuusano municipality, Russian border area; dispersed. Population: 5,000 in Finland (2018 Institute for the Languages of Finland). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Karelian Proper, Karely. Dialects: Northern Karelian, Southern Karelian, Norgorod, Tver (Kalinin). Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Livvi
[olo] North Karelia and South Karelia regions: scattered communities. Population: 5,170 in Finland (2000). Ethnic population: 140,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aunus, Livvikovian, Livvin kieli, Olonets, Olonetsian. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Romani, Kalo Finnish
[rmf] Scattered. Population: 10,000 in Finland (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 11,650. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Fíntika Rómma, Kaalo, Roma. Autonym: Kaalengo tšibbaha. Dialects: East Finnish Romani, West Finnish Romani. Not inherently intelligible of Tavringer Romani [rmu], Traveller Norwegian [rmg], Traveller Danish [rmd], or Angloromani [rme]. A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern.

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Saami, Inari
[smn] Lapland region: mostly Utsjoki border town area between Lake Inari and Norway border. Population: 300 (2001 census). 1,830 all Saami in Finland (2010 census). Ethnic population: 700 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sodankyla in Lapland, 3 municipalities elsewhere (2003, Sami Language Act No. 1086). Alternate Names: Anar, Saam, Saame, Samic, Sámi, “Finnish Lapp” (pej.), “Inari Lappish” (pej.), “Lapp” (pej.). Autonym: Anarâškielâ. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern.

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Saami, North
[sme] Lapland region: Enontekiö, western Inari, Sodankylä, and Utsjoki municipalities. Population: 1,700 in Finland (2001 census). 1,830 all Saami in Finland (2010 census). Ethnic population: 3,500 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2003, Sami Language Act No. 1086). Alternate Names: Davvin, Northern Lapp, Saame, Same, Sámegiella, “Lapp” (pej.). Dialects: Ruija, Torne, Sea Lappish. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Northern.

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Saami, Skolt
[sms] Lapland region: Inari municipality, Sevettijärvi area. Population: 300 in Finland (Salminen 2007). 1,830 all Saami in Finland (2010 census). Ethnic population: 500 (1995 M. Krauss). Total users in all countries: 320. Status: 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of provincial identity in Sodankyla in Lapland, 3 municipalities elsewhere (2003, Sami Language Act No. 1086). Alternate Names: Kolta, Koltta, Lopar, Russian Lapp, Saame, Same, Skolt Lappish, “Lapp” (pej.). Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern.

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Swedish
[swe] Kymenlaakso, Ostrobothnia, and Southwest Finland regions. Population: 2,700,000 in Finland, all users. L1 users: 290,000 in Finland (2016 census). L2 users: 2,410,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2000, Constitution, Article 17(1,2)). Alternate Names: Ruotsi, Svenska. Dialects: Standard Swedish, Österbotten (Ostrobothnian), Southwest Finland Swedish, Uusimaa Swedish (Nyland Swedish). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, North, East Scandinavian, Danish-Swedish, Swedish.

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