Micronesia

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Chuukese
[chk] Chuuk state: Chuuk Lagoon, Caroline Islands, some on Pohnpei island. 48,200 in Micronesia (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 97,630. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Chuuk (1989, Chuuk State Constitution, Article 11(6)). Alternate Names: Chuuk, Lagoon Chuukese, Ruk, Truk, Trukese. Dialects: East Lagoon, Fayichuck. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic.

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English
[eng] 4,000 in Micronesia (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 60,000 in Micronesia (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kapingamarangi
[kpg] Pohnpei state: Caroline Islands; Kapingamarangi and Pohnpei islands. 3,000 (1995 SIL). 1,000 on Kapingamarangi and 2,000 in Pohnrakied village on Pohnpei. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kirinit. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 55% with Nukuoro [nkr], 54% with Rarotongan [rar], 53% with Samoan [smo], 51% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 50% with Tahitian [tah]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean. Comments: Intermarry with Nukuoro [nkr] people. Christian.

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Kosraean
[kos] Kosrae state; Caroline Islands. 6,620 in Micronesia (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 7,680. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Kosrae (1984, Kosrae State Constitution, Article 13(1)). Alternate Names: Kosrae, Kusaie, Kusaiean. Dialects: Lelu-Tafunsak, Malen-Utwe. Lexical similarity: 26% with Pohnapeian [pon]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Kusaiean.

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Mokilese
[mkj] Pohnpei state: Mokil (Mwoakiloa) atoll, southeast of Pohnpei island. 1,000 in Micronesia (2015 P. Knapp). 135 on Mokil Atoll. Total users in all countries: 1,450. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mokil, Mwoakilese, Mwoakilloa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Pingelapese [pif], 75% with Pohnapeian [pon]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Pohnpeic.

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Mortlockese
[mrl] Chuuk state: Mortlock islands southeast of Chuuk islands; some on Pohnpei island. 5,900 in Micronesia (1989 census). 1,690 Upper Mortlock, 1,760 Mid Mortlock, 2,460 Lower Mortlock, about 1,000 elsewhere. Total users in all countries: 5,940. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mortlock, Nomoi. Dialects: Upper Mortlock, Mid Mortlock, Lower Mortlock. 75% intelligibility of Puluwatese [puw], 18% of Satawalese [stw], 8% of Woleaian [woe]. Lexical similarity: 80%–85% with Chuukese [chk], 83% with Puluwatese, 82% with Satawalese, 81% with Carolinian [cal], 78% with Woleaian, 72% with Ulithian [uli]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic.

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Namonuito
[nmt] Chuuk state: Magur, Namonnuito and other islands. 940 (1989 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Namon Weite. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic.

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Ngatik Men’s Creole
[ngm] Pohnpei state: Ngatik (Sapwuahfik) atoll, southwest of Pohnpei island. 700. 500 on atoll (1983 L. Poyer), 200 on Ponape. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ngatikese, Ngatikese Men’s Language. Dialects: A creolized language from Sapuahfik Pohnapeian [pon] dialect and English [eng] whose genesis is the direct result of a massacre in 1837 of adult males on Ngatik by British traders. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific.

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Nguluwan
[nuw] Yap state: Ngulu atoll, 480 km south of Yap island. 50 (Sakiyama 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Phonology from Ulithian [uli] and grammar and lexicon from Yapese [yap]. Classification: Mixed language, Yapese-Ulithi.

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Nukuoro
[nkr] Pohnpei state: Nukuoro island, about 480 km southwest of Pohnpei island. 860 in Micronesia (Johnstone 1993). 130 on Pohnpei. Total users in all countries: 1,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nuguor, Nukoro. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 55% with Kapingamarangi [kpg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean. Comments: Christian.

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Pááfang
[pfa] Chuuk state: Hall Islands of Fananu, Marilo, Nomwin, and Ruo. 1,320 (1989 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Indications of convergence with Chuukese [chk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic.

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Pingelapese
[pif] Pohnpei state: Pingelap and Pohnpei islands. 2,500 in Micronesia (1991 K. Rehg). 500 on Pingelap, about 2,000 on Ponape. Total users in all countries: 3,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pingelap, Pingilapese. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Pohnpeian [pon], 79% with Mokilese [mkj]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Pohnpeic.

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Pohnpeian
[pon] Caroline Islands; Pohnpei island. 29,000 in Micronesia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). 24,000 on Pohnpei, 3,430 on outer islands, 280 elsewhere. Total users in all countries: 31,350. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Pohnpei (1984, Pohnpei State Constitution, Article 13(1)). Alternate Names: Ponapean. Dialects: Kiti, Ponapean, Sapwuahfik. Lexical similarity: 81% with Pingelapese [pif], 75% with Mokilese [mkj], 36% with Chuukese [chk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Pohnpeic.

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Puluwatese
[puw] Chuuk state: Pollap, Polowat, Pulusuk, and Tamtam islands, about 260 km west of Chuuk lagoon. 1,360 (1989 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Puluwat. Dialects: Puluwatese, Pulapese, Pulusukese. 64% intelligibility of Satawalese [stw], 40% of Woleaian [woe], 21% of Ulithian [uli]. Lexical similarity: 88% with Satawalese [stw] and Carolinian [cal], 83% with Mortlockese [mrl], 82% with Woleaian [woe], 81% with Chuukese [chk], 72% with Ulithian [uli]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic.

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Satawalese
[stw] Yap state: Satawal island. 460 (1987 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. 60% intelligibility of Ulithian [uli] and Woleaian [woe]. Lexical similarity: 95% with Carolinian [cal], 88% with Woleaian [woe] and Puluwatese [puw], 82% with Mortlockese [mrl], 79% with Chuukese [chk], 77% with Ulithian [uli]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic.

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Ulithian
[uli] Yap state: Fais, Ngulu, Sorol, and Ulithi islands. 3,000 in Micronesia (1987 UBS). Total users in all countries: 3,039. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in State of Yap (1982, Yap State Constitution, Article 14(5)). Dialects: None known. 85% intelligibility of Woleaian [woe], 57% of Satawalese [stw], very low intelligibility of Puluwatese [puw] and Chuukese [chk]. Lexical similarity: 74%–80% with Woleaian [woe], 77% with Satawalese [stw], 74% with Carolinian [cal], 72% with Puluwatese [puw] and Mortlockese [mrl], 68% with Chuukese [chk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Woleaian
[woe] Yap state: eastern islands, mainly Woleai (Wottegai) island and others: Eauripik, Elato, Falalop (Falalap), Falalus, Faraulep, Ifaluk, Lamotrek, Mariang, Paliau, Seliap (Sulywap), and Tegailap (Tagalap) islands; some inhabited, 22 islands total. 1,630 (1987 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in State of Yap (1982, Yap State Constitution, Article 14(5)). Dialects: Woleaian, Lamotrek. 84% intelligibility of Satawalese [stw], 81% of Ulithian [uli], 50% of Sonsorol [sov], very low of Puluwatese [puw] and Chuukese [chk]. Lexical similarity: 88% with Satawalese [stw] and Carolinian [cal], 82% with Puluwatese [puw], 80% with Ulithian [uli], 78% with Mortlockese [mrl], 75% with Chuukese [chk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic.

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Yapese
[yap] Yap state: Yap island and 10 islands nearby. 5,130 in Micronesia (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 5,930. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Yap (1982, Yap State Constitution, Article 14(5)). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Yapese. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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