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Alsatian
[gsw] Grand-Est region: south and west bank of Rhine river. 900,000 (2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Alemannic, Alemannisch, Alsacien, Elsaessisch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic. Comments: No standardized form of Alsatian, but a variety of village dialects. Christian.

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] Major cities. 70,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Arpitan
[frp] Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region: Ain, north and central Isere, Loire, Rhone, and Savoy departments; Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region: Doubs, Haute-Alpes, south Jura, and Saone-et-Loire departments; Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: border area. 150,000 (2013). Total users in all countries: 227,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2013, Law No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Franco-provençal, Patois. Dialects: Dauphinois, Lyonnais, Neuchatelais, Savoyard. Structurally distinct from French, Piedmontese [pms], and Lombard [lmo] (1985 F. Agard). In Switzerland, every canton has its own dialect, with no standardization. Difficult intelligibility among dialects, especially Fribourg. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern.

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Basque
[eus] Nouvelle-Aquitaine region: Pyrenees Atlantiques province, Labourd (Lapurdi) and Basse-Navarre departments, Bayonne and Soule areas; border with Spain. 72,000 (2013). Ethnic population: 730,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Euskara. Dialects: Navarrese-Labourtan (Bajo Navarro Occidental, Bajo Navarro Oriental, Benaffarera, Eastern Low Navarrese, Labourdin, Lapurdiera, Nafar-lapurtera, Navarro-Labourdin, Western Low Navarrese), Souletin (Souletino, Suberoan, Suletino, Xiberoera, Zuberera, Zuberoera). Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian.

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Breton
[bre] Brittany region: Finistere, western Cotes-d’Armor, and western Morbihan departments; elsewhere dispersed. 206,000 (2013 R. Milin), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Berton. Autonym: Brezhoneg. Dialects: Leoneg (Leonais), Tregerieg (Tregorrois), Gwenedeg (Vannetais), Kerneveg (Cornouaillais). Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic. Comments: In 1914 reportedly 90% (about 1 million) of the population of the western half of Brittany spoke Breton. In 1945 it was about 75%, and today, in all of Brittany the most optimistic estimate would be that 20% of Bretons can speak Breton. Brittany has a population of roughly 4 million, including the department of Loire-Atlantique separated from official Brittany in 1941.

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Caló
[rmq] Occitania region. 15,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gitano, Iberian Romani. Dialects: Catalonian Caló, Spanish Caló. Classification: Mixed language, Iberian-Romani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Catalan
[cat] Occitania region: Pyrenees-Orientales department. 126,000 (2013). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), education. Alternate Names: Català. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, East Iberian.

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Corsican
[cos] Corsica region; possibly in Marseilles, Paris, other urban centers. 150,000 (2013), decreasing. Ethnic population: 315,000 (2017). Total users in all countries: 151,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Corsica (2002, Act. No. 2002-92 (22 Jan) on Corsica, Article 7), mainly used in education. Alternate Names: Corse, Corsi, Corso. Autonym: Corsu. Dialects: Sartenais, Vico-Ajaccio, Northern Corsican (Bastia, Cape Cors), Venaco. Lexical similarity: 79%–89% with Bastia, Venaco, Vico, and Sartene dialects. Bonifacio on the southern tip of the island has 78% lexical similarity (highest) with Bastia at extreme north. Ajaccio dialect is central and prestigious. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Corsican.

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Erromintxela
[emx] Nouvelle-Aquitaine region. 500 (2009 J. McLaughlin). Total users in all countries: 1,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Basque Caló, Caló Vasco. Classification: Mixed language, Basque-Romani.

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French
[fra] 63,210,000 in France, all users. L1 users: 60,200,000 (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 3,010,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 284,952,860 (as L1: 76,795,640; as L2: 208,157,220). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1958, Constitution, Article 2.1). Autonym: français. Dialects: Standard French, Norman (Normand), Angevin, Berrichon, Bourbonnais, Bourguignon, Franc-Comtois, Gallo, Poitevin, Lorraine, Saintongeais. Lexical similarity: 89% with Italian [ita], 80% with Logudorese Sardinian [src], 78% with Romansh [roh], 75% with Portuguese [por], Romanian [ron], and Spanish[spa], 29% with German [deu], 27% with English [eng]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Christian.

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French Sign Language
[fsl] Scattered. 100,000 (2014 EUD). 169,000 (2014 IMB). Of these, approximately 1,000 use Marseille Sign Language (Sallagoity 1975). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LSF, Langue des signes française. Dialects: Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language). Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language), is used in Marseille, Toulon, La Ciotat and Salon de Provence. Many sign languages have been derived from or influenced by LSF, but are not necessarily intelligible with it. When Deaf and hearing people interact in sign, they use a mixture of elements drawn from LSF and French, and deaf people themselves vary in how much their signing is influenced by French. Lexical similarity: 58% with American Sign Language [ase] in an 872-word list (Woodward 1978a). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Promoted by the educational efforts of Charles Michel de l’Épée in the 18th century and one of the first sign languages in the western world to gain recognition as an actual language. Consequently it has influenced several other sign languages, especially in Europe and the Americas. 360 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Taught as an L2 to parents and others. Christian.

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Italian
[ita] Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur regions: Nice, Provence, and Savoy. 829,000 (2008 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Italiano, Italien. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ligurian
[lij] Corsica region: Bonifacio town; Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: between Italy and Monaco borders. 300–400 in Corsica (Salminen 2007). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Ligure. Dialects: Genoese (Genoan, Genovese). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian.

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Lorraine Franconian
[pfl] Grand-Est region: Lorraine, north and east. 400,000 (2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Francique, Lottrìnger Plàtt, Plàtt. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German.

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Luxembourgish
[ltz] Grand-Est region: Moselle river area, Germany border to Luxembourg, Thionville. 40,000 (2001 J. Nousse). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Frankish, Luxembourgeois, Platt. Dialects: Miseler, Minetter. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian.

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Norman French
[nrf] Normandy: Manche department (Cotentinais dialect); Calvados and Orne departments (Augeron dialect); Seine-Maritime department (Cauchois dialect). 17,000 (2015 M. Jones). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Normand, Normaund. Dialects: Cotentinais, Cauchois, Augeron. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Occitan
[oci] Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region: Ardeche, Cantal, Drome, Haute-Loire, Isere, Loire, and Puy-de-Dome departments; Nouvelle-Aquitaine region: Charentes, Correze, and Haute-Vienne departments; Occitania region: all except Pyrenees-Orientales department; Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region. 110,000 (Bernissan 2012). Total users in all countries: 218,310. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Occitani. Dialects: Auvergnat (Auverne, Auvernhas), Gascon, Languedocien (Langadoc, Languedoc, Lengadoucian), Limousin (Lemosin), Provençal (Alpine Provençal, Mistralien, Prouvençau). Highly fragmented dialect situation, with limited intelligibility between some varieties. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc.

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Picard
[pcd] Hauts-de-France region: Abbeville, Amiens, Arras, Beauvais, Boulogne sur Mer, Calais (except Dunkerque district), Cambrai, Douai, Lille, Saint Quentin, and Valenciennes; Normandy region: near Dieppe, Picardie border. 500,000 (Auger 2011). Total users in all countries: 700,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Chtimi, Rouchi. Dialects: Ponthieu, Vimeu, Hainaut, Artois, Lillois, Boulonnais, Santerre, Calaisis, Cambresis, Vermandois, Amienois (Amies). All dialects, including those in Belgium, are mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Christian.

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Portuguese
[por] Scattered. Corsica region; Hauts-de-France region: Roubaix, near Belgian border; Île-de-France region: Paris; Nouvelle-Aquitaine region: Bordeaux; Occitania region: Toulouse. 959,000 (2008 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Portugais, Português. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] Scattered. 28,400 (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Romanes, Sinte, Sinti, Tsigane. Dialects: Manouche (Manuche, Manush). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic group: Sasítka Romá. Christian.

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Shuadit
[sdt] Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: Avignon area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Judeo-Comtadine, Judeo-Provençal, Shuadi. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc.

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Spanish
[spa] Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region: Lyon; Île-de-France region: Paris; Nouvelle-Aquitaine region: Bordeaux; Occitania region: Toulouse; Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: Marseilles and Nice. 6,173,000 in France, all users. L1 users: 453,000 (2016). L2 users: 5,720,000 (2016). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Castillan, Espagnol, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Vlaams
[vls] Hauts-de-France region: Dunkerque area and southeast to Belgium border. 30,000 (2013). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Flamand, Frans Vlaams, Vlaemsch, Vlamingen. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian. Comments: Dutch [nld] sometimes referred to as Vlaams. Different orthographies used in the 3 countries. Christian.

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Zarphatic
[zrp] Grand-Est region: Moselle and Rhineland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Judeo-French. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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