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Alsatian
[gsw] Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine region: south and west bank of Rhine river. L1 users: 900,000 (2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Alemannic, Alemannisch, Alsacien, Elsaessisch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic. Comments: No standardized form of Alsatian, but a variety of village dialects. Christian.

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Arpitan
[frp] Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region: Savoy, Ain, Rhone, Loire, northern and central Isere departments; Bourgogne Franche-Comté region: southern Jura, Doubs, Saone-et-Loire, and Haute-Alpes departments; border area of Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region. L1 users: 150,000 (2013). Total users in all countries: 227,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2013, Law No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Franco-provençal, Patois. Dialects: Dauphinois, Lyonnais, Neuchatelais, Savoyard. Structurally distinct from French, Piedmontese [pms], and Lombard [lmo] (1985 F. Agard). In Switzerland, every canton has its own dialect, with no standardization. Difficult intelligibility among dialects, especially Fribourg. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern.

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Basque
[eus] Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes region: Pyrenees Atlantiques province, Labourd (Lapurdi) and Basse-Navarre departments, Bayonne and Soule areas; border with Spain. L1 users: 72,000 (2013). Ethnic population: 730,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Euskara. Dialects: Navarrese-Labourtan (Bajo Navarro Occidental, Bajo Navarro Oriental, Benaffarera, Eastern Low Navarrese, Labourdin, Lapurdiera, Nafar-lapurtera, Navarro-Labourdin, Western Low Navarrese), Souletin (Souletino, Suberoan, Suletino, Xiberoera, Zuberera, Zuberoera). Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian.

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Breton
[bre] Brittany region: Finistere, western Cotes-d’Armor, and western Morbihan departments; elsewhere dispersed. L1 users: 206,000 (2013 R. Milin), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Berton. Autonym: Brezhoneg. Dialects: Leoneg (Leonais), Tregerieg (Tregorrois), Gwenedeg (Vannetais), Kerneveg (Cornouaillais). Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic. Comments: In 1914 reportedly 90% (about 1 million) of the population of the western half of Brittany spoke Breton. In 1945 it was about 75%, and today, in all of Brittany the most optimistic estimate would be that 20% of Bretons can speak Breton. Brittany has a population of roughly 4 million, including the department of Loire-Atlantique separated from official Brittany in 1941.

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Caló
[rmq] Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées region. L1 users: 15,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gitano, Iberian Romani. Dialects: Catalonian Caló, Spanish Caló. Classification: Mixed language, Iberian-Romani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Catalan
[cat] Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées region: Pyrenees-Orientales department. L1 users: 126,000 (2013). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), education. Alternate Names: Català. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, East Iberian.

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Corsican
[cos] Corsica region; also possibly in Paris, Marseilles, other urban centers. L1 users: 30,000 (2009), decreasing. On Corsica, 125,000 people have some command of Corsican. Total users in all countries: 31,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Corsica (2002, Act. No. 2002-92 (22 Jan) on Corsica, Article 7), mainly used in education. Alternate Names: Corse, Corsi, Corso. Autonym: Corsu. Dialects: Sartenais, Vico-Ajaccio, Northern Corsican (Bastia, Cape Cors), Venaco. Lexical similarity: 79%–89% with Bastia, Venaco, Vico, and Sartene dialects. Bonifacio on the southern tip of the island has 78% lexical similarity (highest) with Bastia at extreme north. Ajaccio dialect is central and prestigious. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Corsican.

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Erromintxela
[emx] Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes region. L1 users: 500 (2009 J. McLaughlin). Total users in all countries: 1,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Basque Caló, Caló Vasco. Classification: Mixed language, Basque-Romani.

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French
[fra] 62,900,000 in France, all users. L1 users: 60,000,000 (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 2,900,000 (2010). Total users in all countries: 229,582,200 (as L1: 76,096,430; as L2: 153,485,770). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1958, Consitution, Article 2.1). Autonym: Français. Dialects: Standard French, Norman (Normand), Angevin, Berrichon, Bourbonnais, Bourguignon, Franc-Comtois, Gallo, Poitevin, Lorraine, Saintongeais. Lexical similarity: 89% with Italian [ita], 80% with Logudorese Sardinian [src], 78% with Romansh [roh], 75% with Portuguese [por], Romanian [ron], and Spanish[spa], 29% with German [deu], 27% with English [eng]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Christian.

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French Sign Language
[fsl] Scattered. L1 users: 100,000 (2014 EUD). 169,000 (2014 IMB). Of these, approximately 1,000 use Marseille Sign Language (Sallagoity 1975). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LSF, Langue des signes française. Dialects: Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language). Marseille Sign Language (Southern French Sign Language), is used in Marseille, Toulon, La Ciotat and Salon de Provence. Many sign languages have been derived from or influenced by LSF, but are not necessarily intelligible with it. When Deaf and hearing people interact in sign, they use a mixture of elements drawn from LSF and French, and deaf people themselves vary in how much their signing is influenced by French. Lexical similarity: 58% with American Sign Language [ase] in an 872-word list (Woodward 1978a). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Promoted by the educational efforts of Charles Michel de l’Épée in the 18th century and one of the first sign languages in the western world to gain recognition as an actual language. Consequently it has influenced several other sign languages, especially in Europe and the Americas. 360 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Taught as an L2 to parents and others. Christian.

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Italian
[ita] Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur and Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes regions: Nice, Savoy, and Provence. L1 users: 829,000 (2008 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Italiano, Italien. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ligurian
[lij] Corsica region: Bonifacio town; Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: between Italy and Monaco borders. L1 users: 300–400 in Corsica (Salminen 2007). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Ligure. Dialects: Genoese (Genoan, Genovese). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian.

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Lorraine Franconian
[pfl] Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine region: Lorraine, north and east. L1 users: 400,000 (2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Francique, Lottrìnger Plàtt, Plàtt. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German.

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Luxembourgish
[ltz] Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine region: Moselle river area, Germany border to Luxembourg, Thionville. L1 users: 40,000 (2001 J. Nousse). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Frankish, Luxembourgeois, Platt. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian.

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Lyons Sign Language
[lsg] Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region: Lyons city. Status: Unattested. Dialects: None known. 405 km from Paris, but supposedly little intelligibility with French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Very little information about it is available. Survey needed to determine if it is still used, and if so, what is its relationship to French Sign Language [fsl]. Indeed, there is so little information, there is some question whether it ever existed.

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Norman French
[nrf] Normandy: Manche department (Cotentinais dialect) and Calvados and Orne departments (Augeron dialect); Seine-Maritime department (Cauchois dialect). L1 users: 17,000 (2015 M. Jones). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Normand. Dialects: Cotentinais, Cauchois, Augeron. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Occitan
[oci] Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées region: all except for Pyrenees-Orientales department; Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region: Puy-de-Dome, Cantal, Haute-Loire, Loire, Drome, Isere, and Ardeche departments; Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes region: Haute-Vienne, Correze, and Charentes departments; Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region. L1 users: 110,000 (Bernissan 2012). Total users in all countries: 218,310. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Occitani. Dialects: Auvergnat (Auverne, Auvernhas), Gascon, Languedocien (Langadoc, Languedoc, Lengadoucian), Limousin (Lemosin), Provençal (Alpine Provençal, Mistralien, Prouvençau). Highly fragmented dialect situation, with limited intelligibility between some varieties. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc.

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Picard
[pcd] Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie region: Amiens, Abbeville, Beauvais, Saint Quentin, Lille, Douai, Cambrai, Arras, Valenciennes, Boulogne sur Mer, Calais (except Dunkerque district); Normandy region: near Dieppe, Picardie border. L1 users: 500,000 (Auger 2011). Total users in all countries: 700,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Chtimi, Rouchi. Dialects: Ponthieu, Vimeu, Hainaut, Artois, Lillois, Boulonnais, Santerre, Calaisis, Cambresis, Vermandois, Amienois (Amies). All dialects, including those in Belgium, are mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Christian.

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Portuguese
[por] Scattered. Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes region: Bordeaux; Corsica region; Île-de-France region: Paris; Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées region: Toulouse; Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie region: Roubaix, near Belgian border. L1 users: 959,000 (2008 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Portugais, Português. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] L1 users: 28,400 (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Romanes, Sinte, Sinti, Tsigane. Dialects: Manouche (Manuche, Manush). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic group: Sasítka Romá. Christian.

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Shuadit
[sdt] Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: Avignon area. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Judeo-Comtadine, Judeo-Provençal, Shuadi. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc.

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Spanish
[spa] Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes region: Bordeaux; Île-de-France region: Paris; Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées region: Toulouse; Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region: Lyon; Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region: Nice and Marseilles. 8,852,000 in France, all users. L1 users: 452,000 (2010). L2 users: 8,400,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Castillan, Espagnol, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Vlaams
[vls] Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardy region: Dunkerque area and southeast to Belgium border. L1 users: 30,000 (2013). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2013, No. 595), Education. Alternate Names: Flamand, Frans Vlaams, Vlaemsch, Vlamingen. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian. Comments: Dutch [nld] sometimes referred to as Vlaams. Different orthographies used in the 3 countries. Christian.

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Zarphatic
[zrp] Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine region: Moselle and Rhineland. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Judeo-French. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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