Ghana

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Abron
[abr] Brong-Ahafo region: southwest northwest of Asante Twi [aka] language area. 1,170,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,303,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bron, Brong, Doma, Gyaman. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan. Comments: Muslim.

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Adamorobe Sign Language
[ads] Eastern region: Akuapim South district, Adamorobe village; north of Tema. 41 (Kusters 2012). Many of the approximately 3,500 hearing people in Adamorobe village also use Adamorobe Sign Language, to varying degrees of proficiency (Kusters 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: AdaSL. Classification: Sign language. Comments: In past years, incidence of deafness was as high as 11% in 1961, but it has dropped drastically, to about 1% in 2012, due to a local law enacted in 1975 forbidding deaf people to marry each other. Many of the approximately 3,500 hearing people in Adamorobe village also use Adamorobe Sign Language, to varying degrees of proficiency. (Kusters 2012).

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Adangbe
[adq] Togo border area east of Ho. Agotime ethnic group mostly in Volta region: Kpoeta, Apegame. Ethnic population: 6,000 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adan, Adantonwi, Agotime, Dangbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Comments: Different from Adangme [ada]. The Adan and Agotime are separate ethnic groups who speak Adangbe.

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Adele
[ade] Volta region: Nkwanta and Jasikan districts; east central border with Togo; Upper Adele dialect in Togo; Lower Adele in Ghana. 11,000 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bidire, Gidire. Dialects: Upper Adele, Lower Adele. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele. Comments: Different from Adere [add] of Cameroon. Traditional religion.

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Ahanta
[aha] Western region: Takoradi to Princes Town. Southwest coast. 175,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Akan
[aka] Widespread. 8,100,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD). Population includes 111,000 Agona, 85,900 Ahafo, 626,000 Akuapem, 3,820,000 Asante, 142,000 Asen, 124,000 Dankyira, 2,730,000 Fante, 443,000 Kwawu, and 15,400 other (2013 UNSD). L2 users: 1,000,000 in Ghana. Total users in all countries: 9,186,600 (as L1: 8,186,600; as L2: 1,000,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Dialects: Agona, Anomabo Fanti, Abura Fanti, Akuapem (Akuapim, Akwapem Twi, Akwapi, Twi), Akyem (Akyem Bosome), Asante (Achanti, Asanti, Ashante Twi), Asen, Dankyira, Fante (Fanti, Mfantse), Kwawu (Kwahu), Bono, Gomua, Ahafo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan. Comments: The two main subdivisions of Akan are assigned codes in the ISO 639-3 standard: Fanti (fat) and Twi (twi). Fanti dialects: Agona, Anomabo Fanti, Abura Fanti, Gomua. Twi dialects: Ahafo, Akuapem, Akyem, Asante, Asen, Dankyira, Kwawu.

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Akposo
[kpo] Volta Region, Jasikan district, near Togo border. 7,500 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akposso, Ikposo, Ikposso, Kposo. Dialects: Amou Oblou, Ikponu, Iwi (Uwi), Litime (Badou), Logbo, Uma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Animere
[anf] Volta region: enclave north of Jasikan town; Kecheibi and Kunda villages, remote. 700 (2003). Only a few fluent speakers left in an ethnic group of several hundred (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Anyimere, Kunda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Anufo
[cko] Northern region: Wawjayga area. 91,300 in Ghana (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 177,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Kyokosi, Tchokossi, Tiokossi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Large migration to Togo. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Anyin
[any] Western region: Aowin Suman district; between Abron north and Nzema south, Côte d’Ivoire west, Twi east; Aowin dialect in Ghana. 66,400 in Ghana (2013 UNSD). Designated as Aowin in the 2010 census (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agni, Anyi. Dialects: Aowin (Anyin Aowin, Brissa, Brosa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Avatime
[avn] Volta region: center at Amedzofe. 27,200 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afatime, Sia, Sideme, Si-ya. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nyangbo [nyb] and Tafi [tcd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awutu
[afu] Central region: Awutu district, coast west of Accra. 129,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Awutu, Efutu, Senya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang. Comments: Many have school education. Christian, Muslim.

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Bimoba
[bim] Northern region: Bunkpurugu-Yunyoo and Sabobal-Chereponi districts; Upper East region: Garu-Tempane district, south of Kusaal [kus] and north of Konkomba [xon] language areas. 176,000 (2013 UNSD). Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Moar, Moor. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Birifor, Southern
[biv] Northern region; Upper West region: Wa West district. Northwest corner. 125,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Total users in all countries: 129,310. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo, Ghana Birifor. Dialects: None known. A separate language from Wali [wlx], Southern Dagaari [dga], and Malba-Birifor [bfo] of Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bisa
[bib] Upper East region: Bawku Municipal district. Northeast. 166,000 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bissa, Busansi. Dialects: Lebir (Western Bisa), Baraka (Eastern Bisa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa. Comments: Not the same as Busa [bqp] of Nigeria. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Buli
[bwu] Upper East region; Northern region: White Volta river area. Southwest. 168,000 (2013 UNSD), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Builsa, Bulisa, Bulsa, Guresha, Kanjaga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Konni [kma]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Mampruli [maw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Buli-Koma. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chakali
[cli] Upper West region: Wa East district; Northern region: West Gonja district; Ducie village is largest. 6,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 62% with Tampulma [tpm], 68% with Vagla [vag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Chala
[cll] Volta region: Nkwanta, Odomi, Ago villages; Northern region: Jadigbe village near Seipe, south of Ekumdipe is 35% Chala. 3,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cala, Tshala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Cherepon
[cpn] Eastern region: east of Koforidua town; a pocket between Ga [gaa] and Twi language areas, north of Larteh. 132,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiripon, Chiripong, Kyerepong, Okere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chumburung
[ncu] Northern region: East Gonja district; Brong-Ahafo region: Sene district; Volta region: Krachi district; triangular area with Volta lake south, Daka river northwest, Yeji is south of the lake. 69,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. 2,700 Yeji. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kyongborong, Nchimburu, Nchumburu, Nchummuru. Dialects: Northern Chumburung (Banda), Southern Chumburung (Bejamse, Borae, Chinderi, Gurubi, Lonto), Yeji (Yedji). Reportedly somewhat intelligible with Krache [kye]. Lexical similarity: 77% with the Yeji dialect, 79% with Kplang [kph], 78% with Krache, 69% with Dwang [nnu], 67% with Nawuri [naw] and Gikyode [acd], 60% with Gonja [gjn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dagaare, Southern
[dga] Upper West region. Northwest corner. 924,000 (2013 UNSD), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Dagaare, Dagara, Dagare, Dagari, Dagati, Degati, Dogaari, Southern Dagari. Dialects: None known. Southern Dagaare and Southern Birifor [biv] are partially intelligible. Distinct from Northern Dagara [dgi] in Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari. Comments: Dagaare is more prominent politically and socially than Birifor. Different from Northern Dagara [dgi] in Burkina Faso. Christian, traditional religion.

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Dagbani
[dag] Northern region: northeast of Tamale area, as far as Yendi. 1,160,000 (2013 UNSD), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Dagbamba, Dagbane, Dagbanli, Dagomba. Dialects: Nanuni (Nanumba). Lexical similarity: 95% with Mampruli [maw], 90% with Farefare [gur], 89% with Kusaal [kus]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Dangme
[ada] Eastern region, Yilo Krobo, Lower Manya Krobo, Upper Manya Krobo, Asuogyaman, Fanteukwa, East Akim, and New Juaben districts; Greater Accra region, Dangme East and West districts, southeast coast and inland; Volta region, North Tongu district. 1,020,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Adangme. Dialects: Ada, Ningo, Osu, Shai, Gbugbla, Krobo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Ga-Dangme. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Deg
[mzw] Brong-Ahafo region: Kintampo North district; Northern region: Bole district; west of Volta lake. 42,900 in Ghana (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 44,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aculo, Buru, Degha, Janela, Mmfo, Mo. Dialects: Longoro, Mangum, Boe. Lexical similarity: 78% with Vagla [vag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Delo
[ntr] Volta region: Pampawie area, Togo border. East central. 10,900 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Total users in all countries: 18,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ntribou, Ntribu, Ntrubo. Dialects: None known. Reclassified from Kwa to Gur family. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: ‘Ntrubo’ is the name of the people. The paramount chief is at Brewaniase, 35 km south of Nkwanta. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dompo
[doy] Brong-Ahafo region: Banda quarter called Dompofie. 65 (Blench 1999a), decreasing. Ethnic population: 970 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dumpo, Ndmpo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: ‘Dompo’ is the name of people and language.

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Dwang
[nnu] Brong-Ahafo region: south of Volta lake and the Chumburung [ncu] language area, east of Atebubu. 8,200 (2003 GILLBT). 1,600 Bekye, 3,300 Kenyen, 3,300 Wiase. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bassa, Dwan, Nchumunu. Dialects: Bekye, Kenyen, Wiase. Reportedly most similar to Kplang [kph]. Comprehension of Chumburung [ncu] 75%. Krache [kye] is understood well due to contact. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang.

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English
[eng] L2 users: 1,400,000 in Ghana (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Éwé
[ewe] Volta region: easternmost Greater Accra; Eastern region: Askuma town area, west of Lake Volta. Southeast corner. 3,320,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD), increasing. L2 users: 500,000 in Ghana. Total users in all countries: 4,684,000 (as L1: 4,184,000; as L2: 500,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Ebwe, Efe, Eibe, Eue, Eve, Gbe, Krepe, Krepi, Popo, Vhe. Dialects: Anglo (Anlo), Awuna, Hudu, Kotafoa. Westernmost language of the Gbe language subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Farefare
[gur] Upper East region: Bolgatanga area, Frafra district, west to Navrongo. Northeast. 638,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD), increasing. 588,000 Gur and Nankansi, 49,200 Namnam (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 663,100. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Upper East Region. Alternate Names: Frafra, Gurene, Gurenne, Gurune, Nankani, Ninkare, Ninkarsé, Talensi. Dialects: Gurune (Gudeni, Gudenne, Gurenne, Zuadeni), Nankani (Naani, Nankanse), Booni, Talni (Talene, Talensi), Nabt (Nabdam, Nabde, Nabdug, Nabit, Nabnam, Nabrug, Nabte, Namnam). 5 major dialects and many minor ones. Dialects are divided according to geography and ethnic sub-boundaries. Some named after towns or localities. Consider Southern Dagaare [dga] in particular a sister language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Fulfulde, Maasina
[ffm] Widespread in north. 4,240 in Ghana (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Fulbe, Maacina, Peul. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Nomadic. Considered foreigners by Ghanaians. Muslim.

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Ga
[gaa] Greater Accra region, Accra and west. 745,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Accra, Acra, Amina, Gain, Gamei. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Ga-Dangme. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ghanaian Pidgin English
[gpe] Greater Accra region, scattered. 5,000,000 (2011 V. Velupillai). L2 users: 2,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as a lingua franca in multilingual contexts as well as an in-group language among males in secondary schools and universities with the purpose of expressing group solidarity. Alternate Names: Broken, Kroo Brofo, Kru English, Pidgin, Pidgin English. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nigerian Pidgin [pcm], Cameroon Pidgin [wes], and Krio [kri]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio. Comments: Spoken across ethnic groups.

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Ghanaian Sign Language
[gse] Scattered. 6,000 (2008 WFD). Over 6,000 deaf signers (2008 WFD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: GSL. Dialects: None known. 50% intellibility of ASL [ase] on a test in which ASL understood 80% (Hopkins 2013). Related to American Sign Language [ase] and Nigerian Sign Language [nsi]. Ghanaian Sign Language now differs from American Sign Language with new and local signs. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Developed out of American Sign Language (ASL) [ase], introduced by American educator Andrew Foster, but is now distinct. References to ASL in Ghana generally describe some form of Signed English, rather than standard ASL. Some sign language classes for hearing people.

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Gikyode
[acd] Volta region: Nkwanta district, on Togo border, 9 remote villages. East central. 10,400 (2003), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achode, Akyode, Chode, Gichode, Kyode. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Ginyanga [ayg] of Togo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gonja
[gjn] Northern region: upper basin of Volta lake area; Brong-Ahafo region: Kintampa North district, separate area to west. 310,000 (2013 UNSD), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Ngbanyito. Dialects: Gonja, Choruba (Choroba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Gua
[gwx] Volta and Eastern regions; pocket in Éwé [ewe] language area and Lake Volta to the west. 17,600 (2013 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anum-Boso, Guan, Gwa. Dialects: Anu (Anum), Boso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Hanga
[hag] Northern region: southeast of Mole Game Reserve, Damongo district; Murugu is biggest village. 6,800 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. 4,100 in the traditional area, 2,700 elsewhere. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anga. Dialects: Northern Hanga, Southern Hanga. Kamara [jmr] is a separate language. Subdialects of Southern Hanga are Langantere, Murugu, Damongo; subdialects of Northern Hanga are Yazori and Bowena. Lexical similarity: 84% with Southern Dagaare [dga] and Farefare [gur]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast. Comments: Politically a subgroup of the Gonja.

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Hausa
[hau] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as L2 in the north. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Jwira-Pepesa
[jwi] Western region; Jwira north of Axim from Bamiankaw to Humjibere along Ankobra river (18 villages); Pepesa on Wasa land between Agona Junction and Tarkwa; Dompim is main town. Southwest corner. 18,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gwira, Pepesa-Jwira. Dialects: Jwira, Pepesa. 60% intelligibility with Nzema [nzi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern. Comments: A mountain range separates the 2 groups. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kabiyè
[kbp] Northern region: near Togo border. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabire, Kabure, Kabye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Kamara
[jmr] Northern region: edge of Hanga [hag] language area, on road west of Damongo, Larabanga village. Safaliba [saf] language group sources report another small village 30 km south of Bole. 3,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Significantly different linguistically and culturally from Hanga [hag]. More similar to Dagbani [dag] than to Hanga (1997 G. Hunt). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast. Comments: Population of 3,000 in Bouna, Côte d’Ivoire reported (Becuwe 1981). Muslim.

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Kantosi
[xkt] Upper East region: Sandema district; Navrongo, Bolgatonga, Nalerigu, and Kpaliwogo, near Wa. 2,300 (2003 GILLBT). 280–400 in Sandema District, probably about 280 in Kpaliwongo. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dagaare-Dioula, Kantonsi, Yare, Yarsi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kamara [jmr], Farefare [gur], and Dagbani [dag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast. Comments: A source says they are from Niger or Mali. Distinct from Dagari-Dioula [dgd] in Burkina Faso. Muslim.

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Kasem
[xsm] Upper West region: Sissala East and West districts; Upper East region: area of Navrongo town west. North central. 149,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Kasena, Kassena, Kassene. Dialects: Nunuma, Lela, Kasem, Fere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Konkomba
[xon] Northern region: east border area, Guerin, Yendi district; north central, many scattered groups. 831,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD), increasing. Total users in all countries: 915,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kpankpamba, Likpakpaanl. Dialects: Limonkpel, Linafiel, Likoonli (Likonl, Liquan), Lichabool, Nalong, Ligbeln, Komba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bikpakpam. Patrilineal, patrilocal. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Konni
[kma] Northern region: West Mamprusi district; isolated, no roads, 5 villages, Yikpabongo and Nangruma largest. 3,800 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koma, Komung, Koni. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Buli [bwu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Buli-Koma. Comments: Politically under the Mampruli chief. A high percentage of blindness from onchocerciasis. Traditional religion.

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Kplang
[kph] Brong-Ahafo region: Sene district, south of Volta lake and Yeji town. 1,600 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Prang. Dialects: 73% intelligibility with Chumburung [ncu]. 96% comprehension of the Yeji dialect of Chumburung due to proximity. Lexical similarity: 92% with the Yeji, 79% with Chumburung [ncu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Krache
[kye] Volta region: central near Nchimburu, Kete Krachi area. 58,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaakyi, Krachi, Krakye. Dialects: None known. Considerable mutual intelligibility of Chumburung [ncu] and Dwang [nnu] (Guan languages); less with Guan languages of Gonja [gjn] or Gikyode [acd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bondoukou
[kzc] Brong-Ahafo region: west of Wenchi. West central. 27,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bonduku, Kolango, Koulango, Kulange, Kulango, Nkuraeng, Nkurange. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bouna
[nku] Northern region: Bole district, west central border area. 15,500 in Ghana (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bouna Koulango, Buna Kulango, Nkuraeng. Dialects: Sekwa, Nabanj. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Kusaal
[kus] Upper East region: Bawku district. Northeast corner. 535,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD), increasing. 350,000 Agole, 70,000 Toende (2004 SIL). Total users in all countries: 549,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kusaas, Kusaasi, Kusale, Kusasi. Dialects: Toende (Western Kusaal), Agole (Angole, Eastern Kusaal). Further investigation of the Toende dialect in Burkina Faso is needed. Possible marginal intelligibility with Eastern (Angole) Kusaal. Many claim to be able to understand the related languages: Mòoré [mos], Dagbani [dag], Mampruli [maw], and Farefare [gur]. Kusaal is a member of the Mòoré-Dagbani subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Lama
[las] Northern region: between Yendi, and Tamale. Several hundred or perhaps thousands in Ghana (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamba, Losso. Dialects: Kadjala (Kadjalla). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Larteh
[lar] Eastern region: east of Adwaso, a pocket in Ga [gaa] language area, Twi area, south of Cherepon. 74,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gua, Late, Lete. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lelemi
[lef] Volta region: Jasikan district. Southeast. 48,900 (2003), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buem, Lafana, Lefana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Lelemi-Akpafu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ligbi
[lig] Brong-Ahafo region: Numasa, east of Sampa, northwest of Wenchi. 15,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Total users in all countries: 19,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda, Dzowo, Jogo, Ligwi, Namasa, Nigbi, Nigwi, Tsie, Tuba, Weela, Weila, Wiila. Dialects: Bungase, Gyogo, Hwela (Vwela, Weela, Weila, Wiila), Dwera (Manji-Kasa), Atumfuor (Atumfuor-Kasa), Ntoleh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo. Comments: Numu is a caste of blacksmiths who speak the same dialect. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Logba
[lgq] Volta region: southeast of Date. 7,500 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikpana. Dialects: None known. A population sample averaged 87% comprehension of Éwé [ewe] mixed discourse types. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Logba. Comments: Different from Lokpa [dop] of Benin and Togo.

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Mampruli
[maw] Northeast Northern region: east and west of Gambaga; Upper East region: scattered border areas north of the White Volta river, between Pwalagu and Zongoiri. 316,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD), increasing. Total users in all countries: 326,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in northeast North Region. Alternate Names: Mampelle, Mamprule, Mamprusi, Manpelle, Ngmamperli. Dialects: Eastern Mampruli. 50% intelligibility with Dagbani [dag]. Lexical similarity: 95% with Dagbani [dag], 90% with Farefare [gur]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Nafaanra
[nfr] Brong-Ahafo region: Jaman North, Jaman South, and Tain districts; border area in Northern region: Bole district. West border. 61,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banafo, Banda, Dzama, Gambo, Nafaara, Nafana, Pantera-Fantera. Dialects: Pantera, Fantera. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Nafaanra. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nawdm
[nmz] Scattered, Volta region: Ho and Kpando districts; Greater Accra. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Naoudem, Naudm, Nawdam. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Nawuri
[naw] Volta and Northern regions: Lake Volta, mostly Oti river west bank branch, northeast of Katiajeli. 14,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with the Buipe dialect of Gonja [gjn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nchumbulu
[nlu] Brong-Ahafo region: west of Lake Volta near Kplang, 3 villages. 1,800 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Similar to Chumburung [ncu] and Dwang [nnu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Whistle speech reported.

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Nkami
[nkq] Eastern region: Afram Plains district, Amankwakrom. 7,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nkonya [nko]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: The Nkamis are under Akan (Kwahu) chiefs.

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Nkonya
[nko] Central Volta region: east of Lake Volta, north of Ahenkro. 20,400 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ntcham
[bud] Northern region: Zabzugul Tantale district. 169,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basar, Basare, Basari, Bassar, Bassari, Ncham, Tobote. Dialects: Bitaapul. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nyangbo
[nyb] Volta region: east of Afeyi. 6,400 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tutrugbu. Dialects: None known. A population sample averaged 72% comprehension of Éwé [ewe] mixed discourse types. People who have had no contact with Tafi [tcd] had 67% intelligibility of it on tests; people 30 to 50 years old had nearly perfect comprehension. Reportedly only phonological differences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nzema
[nzi] Western region: Jomoro district. Southwesternmost corner. 299,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD). Includes 27,800 Evalue (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 365,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Appolo, Nzima. Dialects: Evalue. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Paasaal
[sig] Upper West region: south of Tumu, 105 km east of Wa, 18 villages; Northern region: West Gonja district. 36,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Funsile, Pasaale, Pasaale Sisaala, Southern Sisaala. Dialects: Gilbagala, Pasaali. The dialect in Funsi Kundogo is predominant among the Paasaal villages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Safaliba
[saf] Northern region: Mandari, Tanyire, Manfuli, and Gbenfu villages; Bote, Sawla, Kalba town areas. 5,000 (2013 UNSD), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Safalaba, Safalba, Safali. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Southern Dagaari [dga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest. Comments: Speakers also reported in Vonkoro and Bouna, Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sehwi
[sfw] Western region. Southwest. 305,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asahyue, Sefwi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any] of Côte d’Ivoire. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sekpele
[lip] Volta region: north of Hohoe. Southeast. 23,400 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bosele, Likpe, Mu. Dialects: Sekwa, Sekpele. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Selee
[snw] Volta region: northeast of Ahenkro, Benua, Bume, and Gbodome villages. Southeast. 11,300 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bale, Santrokofi, Sele, Sentrokofi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sisaala, Tumulung
[sil] Upper West region: Tumu area east to Sisili river; Upper East region: Bulisa district. North central. 105,000 (2003 GILLBT). 219,000 Sisaala (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hissala, Isaalung, Issala, Sisai, Sisala Tumu. Dialects: Isala, Gil Bagale (Galebagla), Nsihaa, Potule. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sisaala, Western
[ssl] Upper West region: between Lambusie and Tumu. Northwest. 30,000 (2003 GILLBT). 219,000 Sisaala (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Busillu Sisala, Hissala, Issala, Sisai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sissala [sld] of Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Siwu
[akp] Volta region: Mpeasem area north of Hohoé. Southeast. 71,900 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akpafu-Lolobi, Lolobi-Akpafu, Mawu, Siwusi. Dialects: Akpafu, Lolobi. Lolobi and Akpafu dialects are inherently intelligible, but have been politically separate since the 1800s. A population sample averaged 66% comprehension of Éwé [ewe] mixed discourse types. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Lelemi-Akpafu. Comments: Ethnonym: Lolobi and Akpafu, also town names. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tafi
[tcd] Volta region: north of Ho, near Togo border. East central. 4,400 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tegbo. Dialects: None known. A population sample averaged 73% comprehension of Éwé mixed discourse types. 83% understand Nyangbo [nyb] narrative well. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tampulma
[tpm] Northern region: Damongo district, south of Sisaala, 25 villages. 16,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tampele, Tamplima, Tampole, Tampolem, Tampolense, Tamprusi. Dialects: 2 inherently intelligible dialects. Lexical similarity: 62% with Chakali [cli]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: ‘Tamprusi’ is the name of the people. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tem
[kdh] Greater Accra. 134,000 in Ghana (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Temba, Tim, Timu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Tuwuli
[bov] Volta region: Volta lake east to Amanfro on Hohoe-Jasikan road. 11,400 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bawuli, Bowili, Bowiri, Liwuli, Siwuri, Tuwili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Vagla
[vag] Northern region: Damongo district, near Sawla. West central. 13,900 (2013 UNSD), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Konosarola, Paxala, Vagala. Dialects: Bole, Buge. Lexical similarity: 68% with Chakali [cli]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wali
[wlx] Upper West region: Wa town south; Northern region, northwest. 84,800 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ala, Ouala, Waali, Wala. Dialects: Fufula, Yeri Waali, Cherii, ’Bulengee, ’Dolimi. Distinct from Southern Birifor [biv] and Southern Dagaari [dga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest. Comments: The ’ before dialect names indicates a change in vowel quality. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wasa
[wss] Western region: mostly south, mainly Wassa West, Wassa East, Wasa Amenti West, and Wass Amenti East districts. 273,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wasaw, Wassa. Dialects: Amenfi, Fianse. Some intelligibility with Abron [abr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan. Comments: Traditional religion.

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