Gambia

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English
[eng] 1,000 in Gambia (2004). L2 users: 40,000 in Gambia (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Jola-Fonyi
[dyo] West Coast division: southwest. 56,600 in Gambia (2001 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diola-Fogny, Jola, Jola-Fogny, Kujamataak, Kújoolaak Kati Fooñi, Yola. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Fonyi. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Karon
[krx] West Coast division: south coast, from Senegal border north to Brikama. 6,000 in Gambia (2007 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaloon, Karone, Karoninka, Kulonay. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Karon-Mlomp. Comments: Non-indigenous. Most live among other ethnic groups in villages where they form a minority group, except Darsilami village on the border, where they form a large percentage. Gambian Karons maintain strong links with the ‘heartland’—Karon islands in south Senegal.

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Mandinka
[mnk] Widespread. 482,000 in Gambia (2001 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Mandé, Manding, Mandingo, Mandinque, Socé. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Muslim.

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Mandjak
[mfv] West Coast division: south of Gambia river. 20,800 in Gambia (2001 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kanyop, Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaca, Manjack, Manjaco, Manjacu, Manjiak, Ndyak. Dialects: Bok (Babok), Sarar, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaamo, Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus), Cur (Churo), Lund, Yu (Pecixe), Manjaaku. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Maninkakan, Western
[mlq] Upper River division. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malinka, Malinke, Northwestern Maninka. Dialects: Jahanka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Muslim.

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N’ko
[nqo] Widespread. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Mixed language. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Pulaar
[fuc] Central River, Lower River, North Bank, and Upper River divisions. 267,000 in Gambia (2001 J. Leclerc). 177,000 Fulacunda, 90,000 Toucouleur. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulani, Fulbe Jeeri, Fulfulde-Pulaar, Peul, Peulh, Pulaar Fulfulde. Dialects: Fulacunda (Fulakunda, Fulkunda), Toucouleur (Haalpulaar, Halpulaar, Tukolor, Tukulor). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Serahule
[snk] Southeast corner, mainly MacCarthy Island and Upper River divisions. 17 villages. 166,000 in Gambia (2006 World Factbook), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sarakole, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Saraxuli, Soninke, Sooninkanxanne. Dialects: Kinxenna, Kinbakka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke. Comments: Non-indigenous. The Soninke of The Gambia and those of southern Senegal, Kolda region, form one contiguous, cross-border language community. Muslim.

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Serer-Sine
[srr] North Bank division: northwest. 30,700 in Gambia (2001 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seereer, Serer, Serer-Sin, Serrer, Sine-Saloum. Dialects: Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Sine, Dyegueme (Gyegem). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Serer. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Wolof, Gambian
[wof] North Bank division: Kombo north of Saint Mary’s district, Serekunda and Bakau, Banjul; Central River and Upper River divisions. 226,000 (2001 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Dialects: None known. Senegalese Wolof [wol] intelligible by speakers of Gambian Wolof but with significant enough differences to require adaptation of materials. Needs further investigation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Wolof. Comments: Muslim.

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