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Adyghe
[ady] HaZafon district: Kafr Kama, Rehaniya, and small border villages. 3,000 (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adygey, West Circassian. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Came about 100 years ago from the Caucasus (now the Russian Federation). Very slight dialect differences between the 2 villages. Understand radio programs in Adyghe from Jordan. Muslim.

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Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language
[syy] HaDarom (Negev) district: Al-Sayyid village. 140 (Sandler et al 2005). About 140 deaf and an unknown number of hearing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ABSL, Bedouin Sign Language. Dialects: None known. Distinct from national sign languages in the area. Israeli Sign Language (ISL) [isr] users from outside the village do not understand ABSL; ABSL signers do not understand ISL except for younger deaf who learn ISL in school. ABSL signers do not understand Jordanian Sign Language [jos] used on Jordanian television programs received in the area. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Developed spontaneously when four deaf siblings in one family born 1924–1940. Four generations of descendants are recognized (Kisch 2012).

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Amharic
[amh] HaDarom (southern) district: Ashdod, Ashkelon, Beersheba, Kiryat Malachi; HaMerkaz (central) district: LeZion, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Rehovot, Rishon; Hefa district: Hadera, Haifa; Jerusalem district. 40,000 (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Beta Israel, “Falasha” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba. Comments: Non-indigenous. Spoken by Jews of Ethiopian origin. Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi
[yhd] Scattered. 125,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 125,120. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Iraqi Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Yahudic. Dialects: None known. Reportedly not intelligible with Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [ajt], or Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju]. Reportedly similar to Baghdadi Arabic and North Mesopotamian Arabic [acm]. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: The term Yahudic is used by a few scholars to denote all Judeo-Arabic languages. Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Moroccan
[aju] Widespread. 316,000 (2016). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Many dialects. Much intelligibility with Tunisian Judeo-Arabic [aeb], some with Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], none with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]. May be inherently intelligible with Moroccan Arabic [ary]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Many borrowings from Spanish [spa], Ladino [lad] and French [fra]. Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Tripolitanian
[yud] HaMerkaz district: south of Tel Aviv. 30,000 (1994 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 35,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jewish Tripolitanian-Libyan Arabic, Tripolita’it, Tripolitanian Judeo-Arabic, Yudi. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]; medium intelligibility with Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [aeb] and Judeo-Morocco Arabic [aju]. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian
[ajt] Jerusalem district: Beit Shemesh. 45,000 (1995 H. Mutzafi). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Medium intelligibility with Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju] and Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], but none with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]. A lexicon of 5,000 words in 1950 had 79% words of Arabic origin, 15% Romance loanwords, 5% Hebrew loanwords, 2% others (Cohen 1985). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni
[jye] HaDarom and Jerusalem districts; Tel Aviv district: Jaffa. 50,000 (1995 Y. Kara). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Judeo-Yemeni, Yemenite, Yemenite Judeo-Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Arabic, South Levantine Spoken
[ajp] HaZafon district. 1,550,000 (2016). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Levantine, Palestanian-Jordanian Arabic. Dialects: Madani, Fellahi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: A few hundred are of Gypsy origin. Muslim, Christian, Druze, Jewish.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. 2,170,000 in Israel (2014 SIL), all users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1922, Palestine Order in Council, Article 82, 10 October). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] Jerusalem. 3,000 (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Barzani-Sandu Jewish Neo-Aramaic
[bjf] Jerusalem. 6 (2017 H. Mutzafi). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Central Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Lishan Didan, Lishan Dideni. Dialects: Barzani dialect cluster (Barzan, Bijil, Shahe), Sandu. Sandu is a Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialect closely related to Barzani, but several isoglosses link it with Lishana Deni [lsd]. Bijil went extinct in 1998, Shahe in 2000, and Sandu in 2008 (2017 H. Mutzafi). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Originally spoken in 4 villages near Aqra, Iraq. Also in Nerim village perhaps as a separate dialect (2017 H. Mutzafi).

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Bukharic
[bhh] Tel Aviv district and city: Holon and Or Yehuda; HaMerkaz (central) district: Ramla. 50,000 (1995 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 110,600. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bokharan, Bokharic, Bukharan, Bukharian, Judeo-Tajik. Dialects: None known. May be easily intelligible of Tajiki or Farsi [pes]. Similar to Dzhidi [jpr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Many recent immigrants (1995). Jewish.

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Dzhidi
[jpr] HaDarom, HaZafon, and Jerusalem districts; possibly Galilee and Negev. 60,000 (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Judeo-Persian. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bukharic [bhh] and Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Jewish.

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English
[eng] Widespread. 125,000 (2016). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Hebrew
[heb] Widespread. 8,330,000 in Israel, all users. L1 users: 4,380,000 (Dekel 2014). Spoken by all Israelis as L1 or L2. Some who use it as L1 now in Israel learned it as L2 originally. L2 users: 3,950,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 9,291,800 (as L1: 5,341,800; as L2: 3,950,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1922, Palestine Order in Council, Article 82, 10 October). Alternate Names: Israeli. Autonym: עברית‎ (Ivrit), עברית חדשה‎ (ivrít ḥadašá[h]). Dialects: Standard Hebrew (Europeanized Hebrew, General Israeli), Oriental Hebrew (Arabized Hebrew, Yemenite Hebrew). An amalgamation of different Hebrew strata plus intrinsic linguistic evolution; not a direct offspring from Biblical or other varieties of Ancient Hebrew. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite. Comments: Jewish.

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Hebrew, Ancient
[hbo] Jerusalem district: west Jerusalem. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Old Hebrew. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite. Comments: Jewish.

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Hulaulá
[huy] Scattered. Several thousands (2017 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 350. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jabali, Lishana Akhni, Lishana Noshan. Dialects: Saqiz, Kerend, Sanandaj, Suleimaniyya, Bijar, Tekab, Khanaqin. Very different and not intelligible with Senaya [syn] or Lishana Deni [lsd]. 60%–70% intelligibility of Lishán Noshan [trg] and Inter-Zab Jewish Neo-Aramaic [aij]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern, Trans-Zab. Comments: Originally from Iranian Kurdistan and adjoining areas of Iraq. Jewish.

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Hungarian
[hun] HaMerkaz, Hefa, and Tel Aviv districts. 70,000 (1998 H. Mutzafi). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Magyar. Classification: Uralic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Inter-Zab Jewish Neo-Aramaic
[aij] Widespread. 2,200 (1994 H. Mutzafi). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hulani, Jbeli, Kurdit, Lishana Didán, Lishanid Noshan. Dialects: Arbel (Arbil), Dobe, Koy Sanjaq, Rwanduz, Rustaqa, Shaqlawa, Ranye, Qaladze. 60%–70% inherent intelligibility with Lishanan [lsd] and Hulaulá [huy]. Very different and not inherently intelligible with Christian Aramaic languages and Lishana Deni. Western cluster dialects are Arbel, Dobe, and Shaqlawa. Eastern cluster dialects are Southeastern varieties: Koy Sanjaq, Qaladze, and Ranye. Northern cluster dialects are Rwanduz and Rustaqa (2017 H. Mutzafi). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern, Trans-Zab. Comments: Originally spoken in the area of Arbil, Iraq, between the Great Zab and Little Zab rivers (2017 H. Mutzafi). Jewish.

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Israeli Sign Language
[isr] Scattered. 10,000 (Meir et al 2010). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ISL. Dialects: Some regional lexical variation (Tel-Aviv, Haifa, Be’er-Sheva, Jerusalem) (Lanesman and Meir 2012). Early influence from German Sign Language [gsg] but incorporating signs from many other sources due to immigration of Jewish Deaf. Existence of a sign language in Palestine in the late 19th century is documented, but the extent of its influence on ISL is unknown (Meir and Sandler 2008). Classification: Sign language. Comments: First deaf school established in Jerusalem in 1932. Deaf community began to coalesce in the late 1930s in Tel Aviv. Deaf association established 1944 (Meir and Sandler 2008). Jewish.

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Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
[tmr] Jerusalem district. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Extinct around 11th or 12th century. Language of Babylonian Talmud and other sacred Jewish works. Familiar to students of Judaism in religious and scholarly realms; studied diligently by most Orthodox Jewish young men.

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Judeo-Arabic
[jrb] Population total all languages: 580,850 Status: Comments: Includes: Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd], Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju] (Morocco), Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [ajt] (Tunisia), Judeo-Yemeni Arabic [jye] (Yemen).

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Judeo-Berber
[jbe] HaMerkaz district: between Hadera and Haifa. 2,000 (1992 B. Podolsky). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas. Comments: Migrated to Israel from 1950 to 1960. Jewish.

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Judeo-Georgian
[jge] HaDarom district: Rahat area. 59,800 (2005 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 62,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Oriental and Ashkenazic Jews in Georgia live separately; Judeo-Georgian speakers live separately from non-Jewish Georgian [kat] speakers. May not be a separate language from Georgian, but a dialect using various Hebrew loanwords. Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian. Comments: Some migrated to the Russian Federation and other countries. Jewish.

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Judeo-Tat
[jdt] HaDarom district: Sderot, border town with Gaza Strip; HaMerkazi district: Hadera and Or ’Akiva, near Mediterranean coast. 70,000 (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bik, Dzhuhuric, Jewish Tat, Judeo-Tatic, Juhuri, Juwri, “Tati” (pej.). Dialects: Derbend. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat. Comments: Non-indigenous. 2,000 speakers a year, called Bik, emigrate from the Caucasus Mountains to Israel. Jewish.

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Ladino
[lad] Jerusalem district and scattered. 125,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 137,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Judeo Spanish, Judeo-Espagnol, Sefardi, Sephardic, Spanyol. Autonym: גﬞודיאו־איספאנייול‎ (Djudeo-espanyol), לאדינו‎ (Ladino). Dialects: Judezmo (Dzhudezmo, Jidyo, Judyo), Ladino, Haquetiya (Haketia, Haketiya, Hakitia). The Balkan dialect is more influenced by Turkish [tur] and Greek [ell]. The North African dialect is more influenced by Arabic [arb]and French [fra]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: The name Dzhudezmo is used by Jewish linguists and Turkish Jews, Judeo-Spanish by Romance philologists, Ladino by laymen (especially in Israel), Hakitia by Moroccan Jews, Spanyol by some others. Different from Ladin [lld] in the Rhaeto-Romansch group. Jewish.

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Lishán Noshan
[trg] HaMerkaz and Jerusalem districts: Jerusalem city, Tel-Aviv areas. 6,230 (2005 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 6,350. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Iranian Azerbaijan Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Lakhlókh, Lishanid Nash Didán, Lishanán, Lishán Didán. Dialects: Northern Cluster Lishán Noshan (Başkale, Gavar, Salmas, Urmi), Southern Cluster Lishán Noshan (Mahabad, Naghada, Ushno, Ṣablagh). 60%–70% intelligibility of Hulaulá [huy] and Inter-Zab Jewish Neo-Aramaic [aij], but not of other Aramaic languages. The Urmi variety of Lishán Noshan is extremely different from the Urmi variety of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (2017 H. Mutzafi). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern, Trans-Zab. Comments: Many loanwords from Kurdish, Turkish [tur], Arabic, Eastern Farsi [prs] or Western Farsi [pes], Hebrew [heb], and several European languages. Sometimes erroneously called ‘Judeo-Kurdish’ or ‘Azerbaijani Kurdish’. Originally from Iranian Azerbaijan and southeast Turkey. Jewish.

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Lishana Deni
[lsd] Mainly in Jerusalem district: Jerusalem city area, including Maoz Tsiyon. 7,500 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Ethnic population: 9,060. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kurdit, Lishan Hozaye, Lishan Hudaye. Dialects: Zakho, Amadiya, Barashe, Shukho, Nerwa, Dohuk, Atrush, Bétanure, Gzira (Cizre), Challa (Çukurca), Dohok. Resembles Chaldean Neo-Aramaic [cld], but with differences in morphology and other features. Inherent intelligibility is high between them. Low intelligibility with Ashirat dialects of Assyrian New-Aramaic [aii]; not intelligible with other Neo-Aramaic varieties. Gzira, Challa, and Shukho dialects are extinct; Nerwa extinct since 2012 (2017 H. Mutzafi). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern, Trans-Zab. Comments: Jewish.

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Polish
[pol] HaDarom district: ’Afula; HaZafon district: Nahalal area. 125,000 (2016). Ethnic population: 272,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Romanian
[ron] HaMerkaz district. 250,000 (1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Română. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Russian
[rus] Hefa, Jerusalem, and Tel Aviv districts: Haifa, Jerusalem. 1,000,000 in Israel (Arefyev 2012), all users. L1 users: 958,000 (2016). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Russit. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Samaritan
[smp] Scattered. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Shamerim. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite.

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Samaritan Aramaic
[sam] Scattered. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Shamerim. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Western.

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Tigrigna
[tir] Jerusalem district. 10,000 (1994 H. Mutzafi). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Beta Israel, Tigrinya, “Falashas” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North. Comments: Non-indigenous. The liturgy is written in Geez [gez]. Jewish.

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Yevanic
[yej] Jerusalem district. 35. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Judeo-Greek, Yevanitika. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Possibly also a handful of older adults in Turkey. Jewish.

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Yiddish
[yid] Population total all languages: 514,160 Status: Comments: Includes: Eastern Yiddish [ydd] (Ukraine), Western Yiddish [yih] (Germany).

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Jerusalem district. 275,000 (2016). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Judeo-German, Yiddish. Dialects: Southeastern Yiddish, Mideastern Yiddish, Northeastern Yiddish (Litvish). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous. Southeastern dialect in Ukraine and Romania, Mideastern dialect in Poland and Hungary, Northeastern dialect in Lithuania and Belarus. Jewish.

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