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Adyghe
[ady] HaZafon District, Kafr Kama and Rehaniya, small border villages. 3,000 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adygey, Circassian, West Circassian. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Came about 100 years ago from the Caucasus (now the Russian Federation). Very slight dialect differences between the 2 villages. Understand radio programs in Adyghe from Jordan. Muslim.

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Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language
[syy] HaDarom (Negev) District, Al-Sayyid village. 140 (Sandler et al 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ABSL, Bedouin Sign Language. Dialects: None known. Those who have any familiarity with Israeli Sign Language (ISL) [isr], including those who have attended schools for the deaf outside the village, recognize that the two sign languages are distinct. ISL signers outside the village do not understand ABSL. ABSL signers do not understand Jordanian Sign Language [jos] used on Jordanian television programs received in the area. Classification: Sign language.

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Amharic
[amh] Jerusalem District; several waves of repatriation, important population centers; HaMerkaz (Central) District: Netanya, Rehovot, Rishon LeZion, Petah Tikva; HaDarom (Southern) District: Ashdod, Beersheba, Ashkelon, Kiryat Malachi; Hefa District: Haifa, Hadera. 40,000 in Israel (1994 H. Mutzafi). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Beta Israel, “Falasha” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba. Comments: Non-indigenous. Spoken by Jews of Ethiopian origin. Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi
[yhd] Scattered. 100,000 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 151,820. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Arabi, Iraqi Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Yahudic. Dialects: None known. Reportedly not intelligible with Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [ajt], or Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju]. Reportedly similar to Baghdadi Arabic and North Mesopotamian Arabic [acm]. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: The term Yahudic is used by a few scholars to denote all Judeo-Arabic languages. Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Moroccan
[aju] Widespread. 250,000 in Israel (1992 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 258,930. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Many dialects. Much intelligibility with Tunisian Judeo-Arabic [aeb], some with Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], none with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]. May be inherently intelligible with Moroccan Arabic [ary]. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Many borrowings from Spanish [spa], Ladino [lad] and French [fra]. Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Tripolitanian
[yud] HaMerkaz District, south of Tel Aviv. 30,000 in Israel (1994 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 35,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jewish Tripolitanian-Libyan Arabic, Tripolita’it, Tripolitanian Judeo-Arabic, Yudi. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]; medium intelligibility with Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [aeb] and Judeo-Morocco Arabic [aju]. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian
[ajt] Jerusalem District, Beit Shemesh. 45,000 in Israel (1995 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 45,500. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Medium intelligibility with Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju] and Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], but none with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]. A lexicon of 5,000 words in 1950 had 79% words of Arabic origin, 15% Romance loanwords, 5% Hebrew loanwords, 2% others (Cohen 1985). A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Jewish.

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Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni
[jye] HaDarom and Yerushalayim districts; Jaffa and Jerusalem. 50,000 in Israel (1995 Y. Kara). Total users in all countries: 51,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Judeo-Yemeni, Yemenite Judeo-Arabic. Dialects: San’a, ’Aden, Be:da, Habban. Jewish varieties markedly different from their coterritorial Muslim counterparts. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Jewish.

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Arabic, South Levantine Spoken
[ajp] HaZafon District. 1,210,000 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Levantine, Palestanian-Jordanian Arabic. Dialects: Madani, Fellahi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: A few hundred are of Gypsy origin. Muslim, Christian, Druze, Jewish.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1922, Palestine Order in Council, Article 82, 10 October). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Armenian
[hye] Jerusalem. 3,000 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Armjanski, Ermenice, Haieren, Somkhuri. Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous. The Eastern Armenian dialect of Armenian [hye] is spoken in Armenia, Turkey, and Iran; Western Armenian in other countries, including Israel. Christian.

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Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic
[bjf] Jerusalem District, near Hebrew University. 20 (2004 H. Mutzafi). In 1951, it was spoken among the 8 Jewish families of Bijil, a village in Iraqi Kurdistan. (1998 H. Mutzafi). Speaker who died in 1998 was over 80. Last Bijil dialect speaker died in 1998. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bijil Neo-Aramaic, Lishan Didan, Lishan Dideni. Dialects: Barzan, Shahe, Bijil. Sandu is a Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialect closely related to Barzani, but several isoglosses link it with Lishana Deni [lsd]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Originally spoken in 3 villages near Aqra, Iraq. Also in Nerim village perhaps as a separate dialect.

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Bukharic
[bhh] Tel Aviv District and city, Or Yehuda, Holon; HaMerkaz (Central) District, Ramla. 50,000 in Israel (1995 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 110,600. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bokharan, Bokharic, Bukharan, Bukharian, Judeo-Tajik. Dialects: None known. May be easily intelligible of Tajiki or Farsi [pes]. Similar to Dzhidi [jpr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Many recent immigrants (1995). Jewish.

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Domari
[rmt] Jerusalem District, mainly old city), Bir Zeit near Ramallah, and Gaza. 10 in Israel (Matras 2012). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 Y. Matras). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dom, Nawari, Near-Eastern Gypsy. Dialects: Nawari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. Many loanwords from Arabic [arb], Kurdish, and other Iranian languages. Muslim.

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Dzhidi
[jpr] Jerusalem District; possibly Galilee and Negev, HaDarom and HaZafon districts. 60,000 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Judeo-Persian. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bukharic [bhh] and Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Jewish.

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English
[eng] Widespread. 103,000 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Anglit. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Hebrew
[heb] Widespread. 4,380,000 in Israel (Dekel 2014). Spoken by all Israelis as L1 or L2. Some who use it as L1 now in Israel learned it as L2 originally. Total users in all countries: 4,822,400. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1922, Palestine Order in Council, Article 82, 10 October). Alternate Names: Israeli, Ivrit. Dialects: Standard Hebrew (Europeanized Hebrew, General Israeli), Oriental Hebrew (Arabized Hebrew, Yemenite Hebrew). An amalgamation of different Hebrew strata plus intrinsic linguistic evolution; not a direct offspring from Biblical or other varieties of Ancient Hebrew. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite. Comments: Jewish.

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Hebrew, Ancient
[hbo] Jerusalem District; west Jerusalem. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Old Hebrew. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite. Comments: Jewish.

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Hulaulá
[huy] HaZafon (Northern) District. 10,000 in Israel (1999 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 10,350. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: ’Aramit, Galiglu, Hula Hula, Jabali, Judeo-Aramaic, Kurdit, Lishana Axni, Lishana Noshan. Dialects: Saqiz, Kerend, Sanandaj, Suleimaniya. Very different and not intelligible with Senaya [syn] or Lishana Deni [lsd]. 60%–70% intelligibility of Lishanan and Lishanid Noshan [aij]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Originally from Iranian Kurdistan and adjoining areas of Iraq. Jewish.

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Hungarian
[hun] HaMerkaz and Hefa districts, Haifa and Tel Aviv. 70,000 in Israel (1998 H. Mutzafi). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Uralic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Israeli Sign Language
[isr] Scattered. L2 users: 10,000 (Meir et al 2010). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ISL. Dialects: Based in part on German Sign Language [gsg] but incorporating signs from many other sources. Minor dialect variation. Classification: Sign language. Comments: The first deaf school was established in Jerusalem in 1934. Jewish.

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Jewish Babylonian Aramaic
[tmr] Jerusalem District; extinct as a spoken language; the language of the Talmud in Israel and other sacred literature. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Extinct around 11th or 12th century. Language of Babylonian Talmud and other sacred Jewish works. Familiar to students of Judaism in religious and scholarly realms; studied diligently by most Orthodox Jewish young men.

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Judeo-Arabic
[jrb] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 542,250 Status: Comments: Includes: Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd], Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju], Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [ajt], Judeo-Yemeni Arabic [jye].

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Judeo-Berber
[jbe] HaMerkaz district, between Haifa and Hadera; formerly High Atlas range. 2,000 (1992 B. Podolsky). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas. Comments: Migrated to Israel from 1950 to 1960. Jewish.

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Judeo-Georgian
[jge] HaDarom District, near Rahat. 59,800 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 79,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Oriental and Ashkenazic Jews in Georgia live separately; Judeo-Georgian speakers live separately from non-Jewish Georgian [kat] speakers. May not be a separate language from Georgian, but a dialect using various Hebrew loanwords. Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian. Comments: Some migrated to the Russian Federation and other countries. Jewish.

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Judeo-Tat
[jdt] HaMerkazi District, Hadera and Or ’Akiva, near Mediterranean coast; HaDarom District, Sderot, near northeast corner, Gaza Strip. 70,000 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bik, Dzhuhuric, Jewish Tat, Judeo-Tatic, Juhuri, Juwri, “Tati” (pej.). Dialects: Derbend. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat. Comments: Non-indigenous. 2,000 speakers a year, called Bik, emigrate from the Caucasus Mountains to Israel. Jewish.

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Ladino
[lad] Jerusalem District; other scattered areas; used in literary and music contexts. 100,000 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 112,130. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dzhudezmo, Haquetiya, Judeo Spanish, Judeo-Espagnol, Judezmo, Sefardi, Sephardic, Spanyol. Dialects: Judezmo (Jidyo, Judyo), Ladino, Haquetiya (Haketia, Haketiya, Hakitia). The Balkan dialect is more influenced by Turkish [tur] and Greek [ell]. The North African dialect is more influenced by Arabic [arb]and French [fra]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: The name Dzhudezmo is used by Jewish linguists and Turkish Jews, Judeo-Spanish by Romance philologists, Ladino by laymen (especially in Israel), Hakitia by Moroccan Jews, Spanyol by some others. Different from Ladin [lld] in the Rhaeto-Romansch group. Jewish.

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Lishán Didán
[trg] Jerusalem and HaMerkaz districts, Jerusalem city, Tel-Aviv areas. 6,230 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 6,450. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Galihalu, Lakhlokhi, Lishanán, Lishanid Nash Didán, Persian Azerbaijan Jewish Aramaic. Dialects: Northern Cluster Lishán Didán (Anatolia, Salmas, Urmi), Southern Cluster Lishán Didán (Mahabad, Naghada, Ushno). 60%–70% intelligibility of Hulaulá [huy] and Lishanid Noshan [aij], but not of other Aramaic languages. The Urmi variety of Lishán Didán is different from the Urmi variety of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Many loanwords from Kurdish, Turkish [tur], Arabic, Eastern Farsi [prs] or Western Farsi [pes], Hebrew [heb], and several European languages. Sometimes erroneously called ‘Judeo-Kurdish’ or ‘Azerbaijani Kurdish’. Originally from Iranian Azerbaijan and southeast Turkey. Jewish.

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Lishana Deni
[lsd] Jerusalem District, Jerusalem city vicinity, including Maoz Tsiyon. 7,500 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Ethnic population: 9,060. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Judeo-Aramaic, Kurdit, Lishan Hozaye, Lishan Hudaye. Dialects: Zakho, Amadiya, Barashe, Shukho, Nerwa, Dohuk, Atrush, Bétanure. Resembles Chaldean Neo-Aramaic [cld], but with differences in morphology and other features. Inherent intelligibility is high between them. Low intelligibility with Ashirat dialects of Assyrian New-Aramaic [aii]; not intelligible with other Neo-Aramaic varieties. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Jewish.

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Lishanid Noshan
[aij] HaZafon District, near source of Jordan river. 2,200 (1994 H. Mutzafi). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Galigalu, Hulani, Hula’ula, Jbeli, Kurdit, Lishana Didán. Dialects: Arbel (Arbil), Dobe, Koy Sanjaq, Rwanduz, Rustaqa, Shaqlawa, Ranye, Qaladze. 60%–70% inherent intelligibility with Lishanan [lsd] and Hulaulá [huy]. Very different and not inherently intelligible with Christian Aramaic languages and Lishana Deni. Western cluster subdialects are Arbil, Dobe. Eastern cluster subdialects are Southeastern varieties: Koy Sanjaq, Qaladze. Northeastern varieties: Rwanduz, Rustaqa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Jewish.

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Polish
[pol] Peripheral settlements, HaZafon District, Nahalal; HaDarom DIstrict, ’Afula. 100,000 in Israel (1992 H. Mutzafi). Ethnic population: 272,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Polski. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Romanian
[ron] HaMerkaz District. 250,000 in Israel (1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Russian
[rus] Central District, Tel Aviv; Hefa district, Haifa; Yerushalayim District, Jerusalem. 750,000 in Israel (1999 H. Mutzafi). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Russit, Russki. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Tigrigna
[tir] Jerusalem District. 10,000 in Israel (1994 H. Mutzafi). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Beta Israel, “Falashas” (pej.), Tigrinya. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North. Comments: Non-indigenous. The liturgy is written in Geez [gez]. Jewish.

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Yevanic
[yej] Jerusalem District. 35 in Israel. Total users in all countries: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Judeo-Greek, Yevanitika. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Possibly also a handful of older adults in Turkey. Jewish.

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Yiddish
[yid] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,546,690 Status: Comments: Includes: Eastern Yiddish [ydd] (Ukraine), Western Yiddish [yih] (Germany).

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Jerusalem District. 215,000 in Israel (1986). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Judeo-German, Yiddish. Dialects: Southeastern Yiddish, Mideastern Yiddish, Northeastern Yiddish (Litvish). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous. Southeastern dialect in Ukraine and Romania, Mideastern dialect in Poland and Hungary, Northeastern dialect in Lithuania and Belarus. Jewish.

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