Iraq

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Adyghe
[ady] Baghdad, Diyala, As Sulaymaniyah, and At Ta’mim (Kirkuk) governorates; scattered communities. 34,000 (Leclerc 2014). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adygey, West Circassian. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Arabic, Gulf Spoken
[afb] Al Basrah governorate: south of Basrah city, near Persian Gulf. 67,000 (Leclerc 2014). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gulf Arabic. Dialects: Zubair-Faau Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi
[yhd] Scattered. 120 (1992 H. Mutzafi). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Iraqi Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Yahudic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Widespread. (Tigris and Euphrates area, southeast from Baghdad to Kuwait and Persian Gulf; An Anbar governorate: Al-Q’aim district, small area). 13,400,000 (Leclerc 2014). Total users in all countries: 15,649,800. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Arabic, Baghdadi, Furati, Iraqi Arabic, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic. Autonym: عراقي‎ (ʕirāgi). Dialects: Geographical and sectarian divisions correlate with Iraqi dialects. The vernacular standard based on Baghdad speech. Also Bedouin dialects. Nearly unintelligible to speakers of certain other vernacular Arabic varieties. Anatolian Cluster in Turkey. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim, Christian, Jewish, Yezidi.

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Arabic, Najdi Spoken
[ars] Widespread; Al Anbar, Al Muthanna, and An Najaf governorates: western desert, (Central Najdi dialect); Ninawa governorate: south between the rivers to the Syrian border (North Najdi dialect). 1,470,000 (Leclerc 2014). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Najdi. Dialects: North Najdi (Shammar), Central Najdi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[ayp] Al Anbar, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, Diyala, Kirkuk, Ninawa, and Salah ad Din governorates: Tigris and Euphrates valleys north of Baghdad; An Najaf, Al Qadisiyah, and Babil governorates: border area northeast of An-Najaf. 7,570,000 (Leclerc 2014). Total users in all countries: 8,694,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Maslawi, Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Vernacular Arabic. Dialects: Mardini Aramaic (Abdul-Massih, Jesrawi, Mardilli, Mardini), Tigris Group, Euphrates Group, Kurdistan Group. Reportedly very similar to Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd], but has important sociolinguistic differences. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. 27,200,000 in Iraq (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] Al Basrah, Baghdad, Dahuk, Kirkuk, and Ninawa governorates. 60,000 (Leclerc 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] Dahuk and Ninawa governorates: 2 areas, one northeast of Buhayrat al Mawsil, the other, at Turkish border; scattered in Al Basrah, Arbil, Baghdad, and Kirkuk governorates. 152,000 (Leclerc 2014). Ethnic population: 4,250,000 (1994). Total users in all countries: 549,420. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Syriac. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Assyrian, Assyrianci, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Sooreth, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya. Autonym: ܐܬܘܪܝܐ‎ (Ātūrāyā), ܣܘܪܬ‎ (Sūrët). Dialects: Urmi (Sipurghan, Solduz, Urmi Assyrian), Northern Assyrian (Baz, Dez, Gavar, Jilu, Qudshanis, Salamas, Upper Barwari, Van), Central Assyrian (Anhar, Mar Bishu, Nochiya, Shamezdin, Tergawar), Western Assyrian (Lewin, Lower Barwari, Tal, Tkhuma), Sapna (Aradhin, Benatha, Daudiya, Inishke, Tina). Similar linguistically to other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. Inherent intelligibility is difficult to estimate due to extensive exposure throughout the Assyrian diaspora to many dialects, especially Urmi and Iraqi Koine. As a result, intelligibility between dialects is as high as 80%–90%. Urmian group subdialects: Urmi, Sipurghan, Solduz; Northern Group: Salamas, Van, Jilu, Gavar, Qudshanis, Upper Barwari, Dez, Baz; Central Group: Mar Bishu, Nochiya (Shamezdin), Tergawar, Anhar; Western Group: Tkhuma, Lower Barwari, Tal, Lewin; Sapna Group: Aradhin, Tina, Daudiya, Inishke, Benatha. Standard literary Assyrian is based on Urmi. Many left original areas and developed a common spoken and written form based on the prestigious Urmi dialect as spoken in Baghdad, the United States, and elsewhere (Iraqi Koine). Most Christians understand it. This Urmi variety is different from Lishán Didán Urmi variety. All dialects of Western, Northern, and Central Assyrian are spoken in Syria. A member of macrolanguage Syriac [syr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Religious separation of Assyrian and Chaldean happened in the 16th century. Christian.

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Kirkuk and Arbil governorates: Arbil and Kirkuk and area between them (As Sulaymaniyah), Sar Qal’ah area near Diyala border; Ninawa governorate: Mosul area. 2,040,000 (Leclerc 2014). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Turkmen. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Azeri, Turk, Turkmen. Dialects: Kirkuk. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Bajelani
[bjm] Ninawa governorate: Bin Qudra, Qasr-e Shirin, Quratu, Zohâb, north of Khanaqin; Kurdish areas. 59,000 (Leclerc 2014). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bajalani, Bajoran, Bejwan, Chichamachu, Gurani. Dialects: In the Gurani and Zaza group. Closely related to other Gurani varieties, such as Shabak, Sarli (less closely to Zaza dialects). Contact with Kurdish. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Many displaced since late 1980s. Muslim.

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Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
[cld] Dahuk and Ninawa governorates. 100,000 (1994 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 225,350. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Syriac. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Chaldean, Fallani, Fellihi, Kaldaya, Kildani, Lishana Kaldaya, Modern Chaldean, Neo-Chaldean, Soorath, Soorith, Suras, Sureth. Dialects: Mangesh, Alqosh, Tel Kepe, Tisqopa, Bartille, Shirnak-Chizre (Bohtan), Dihok. High intelligibility of Lishana Deni [lsd] and Ashirat [aii] (western dialect group of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic); little or no intelligibility with other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. A member of macrolanguage Syriac [syr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Ethnic group distinct religiously from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties; separated from the Assyrian in 16th century. The names Chaldean and Assyrian sometimes used in a popular sense to include both groups. Originally located in central western and northern Iraqi Kurdistan and some in bordering Turkey. Christian.

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Koy Sanjaq Surat
[kqd] Arbil governorate: Armota, Koi-Sanjaq. 800 (1995 H. Mutzafi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koi Sanjaq Soorit, Koi-Sanjaq Sooret, Koy Sanjaq Sooret, Koy Sanjaq Soorit, Surat. Dialects: None known. Related in certain morphological and lexical respects to Senaya [syn]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Christian.

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Kurdish
[kur] Population total all languages: 25,016,300 Status: Comments: Includes: Central Kurdish [ckb], Northern Kurdish [kmr] (Turkey), Southern Kurdish [sdh] (Iran).

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Kurdish, Central
[ckb] Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta’mim (Kirkuk), and Diyala governorates; Salah ad Din governorate: east of Tuz Khurmatu; all areas are south of Great Zab river; diaspora communities elsewhere. 4,000,000 (Leclerc 2014). Total users in all countries: 7,250,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Kurdistan Region (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Alternate Names: Kurdi, Sorani. Autonym: زمانێ کوردی‎ (zimanê kurdî), کوردی‎ (kurdî). Dialects: Hewleri (Arbili), Xoshnaw, Pizhdar, Suleimani (Silemani), Warmawa, Rewandiz, Bingird, Mukri, Kerkuki, Garmiyani. In Sulaimaniya, Hewleri and Kerkuki dialects seen as mutually intelligible. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim.

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] Arbil, Dahuk, and Ninawa governorates: north of Great Zab river. Great Zab river area (Surchi dialect). 3,440,000 (Leclerc 2014). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Kurdistan Region (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Alternate Names: Badinani, Bahdini, Behdini, Kirmanciya Jori, Kurmanji. Dialects: Akre, Amadiye, Barwari Jor, Gulli, Sheikhan, Surchi, Zakho. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Surchi dialect shares elements of both Northern and Central Kurdish. Many displaced since late 1980s. Muslim, Yezidi.

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Kurdish, Southern
[sdh] Diyala, Maysan, and Wasit governorates: Iran border area east of Baghdad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kalhori, Sanjabi, Maleksh ahi (Maleksh ay), Bayray, Kordali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim.

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Macho
[hac] As Sulaymaniyah governorate: Halabja area east of Silemani, Topzawa near Tawuq, pockets from Khanaqin to Mosul. 120,000 (Paul 2007). Population provisionally estimated to be one-third of the 300,000 speakers in Iran and Iraq (2007 L. Paul). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gorani, Gurani, Hawramani, Hawrami, Hewrami, Macho-Zwani. Dialects: Kakai (Kakkai), Zengana. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Very old literary tradition since A.D. 1300s. Muslim, Ahl-e Haqq.

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Mandaic
[mid] Scattered in Al Basrah and Baghdad governorates. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Mandaayi, Mandaean, Mandi, Mandini, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabe’in, Sabean, Subbi. Dialects: Iraqi Neo-Mandaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic. Comments: Mandaean.

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Mandaic, Classical
[myz] Al Basrah. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Persian, Iranian
[pes] Al Basrah, Diyala, Maysan, and Wasit governorates: Iran border area. 408,000 (Leclerc 2014). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Persian, Western Farsi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Sarli
[sdf] At Ta’mim and Kirkuk governorates: area north of Mosul; many displaced. Fewer than 20,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sarliya. Dialects: None known. In the Gurani [hac] (Gorani) and Zaza group. Reportedly most similar to Bajelani [bjm]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Muslim.

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Shabak
[sdb] Ninawa governorate: Ali Rach, Khazna, Talara, and Yangija villages north of Mosul; many displaced since 1980s. 10,000 (Blau 1989). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. In the Gurani [hac] (Gorani) and Zaza group. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Muslim.

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Syriac
[syr] Population total all languages: 774,770 Status: Comments: Includes: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [aii], Chaldean Neo-Aramaic [cld].

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Turkmen
[tuk] Scattered. 400,000 (Leclerc 2014). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Turkmen in Iraq displays heavy Turkish [tur] and Arabic influences lexically with some Azeri features.

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