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Ainu
[ain] Hokkaido prefecture: Kuril and Tsishima islands. L1 users: 10 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ainu Itak. Autonym: アイヌ‎ (Aynu), アイヌ イタㇰ‎ (Aynu itak). Dialects: Sakhalin (Saghilin), Taraika, Hokkaido (Ezo, Yezo), Kuril (Shikotan, Tsishima). There were at least 19 dialects. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Ainu [aib] in China is a different, unrelated language.

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Amami-Oshima, Northern
[ryn] Kagoshima prefecture: north Amami-Oshima and northwest Okinawa islands. L1 users: 10,000 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northern Amami-Osima, Oosima, Oshima, Osima. Dialects: Naze, Sani. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan.

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Amami-Oshima, Southern
[ams] Kagoshima prefecture: south Amami-Oshima, Kakeroma, north Okinawa, Uke, and Yoro islands. L1 users: 1,800 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Southern Amami-Osima. Dialects: None known. Inherent intelligibility low with other Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan.

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Japanese
[jpn] Widespread. L1 users: 127,000,000 (2010). Total users in all countries: 128,204,860 (as L1: 128,193,360; as L2: 11,500). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Autonym: 日本語‎ (Nihongo). Dialects: Eastern Japanese, Western Japanese, Zu-zu-ben. Possibly related to Korean [kor]. Kagoshima dialect is 84% cognate with Tokyo dialect. Zu-zu-ben dialects unintelligible to other Japanese, and dying out as standard Tokyo Japanese takes over. Classification: Japonic. Comments: Buddhist, Shintoist.

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Japanese Sign Language
[jsl] Scattered. L1 users: 317,000 (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: JSL, NS, Nihon Shuwa, Shuwa, Temane. Dialects: None known. Related to Taiwanese [tss] and Korean [kvk] sign languages. Classification: Sign language. Comments: ‘Temane’ is the former name. Pidgin Signed Japanese is distinct, and used often in formal situations, lectures, speeches, and for interaction with hearing people. 80% of the deaf understand finger spelling.

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Kikai
[kzg] Kagoshima prefecture: Kikai and northeast Okinawa islands. Ethnic population: 13,100 (2000). Those under 20 are mainly monolingual in Japanese (1989 T. Fukuda). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Onotsu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible or very difficult with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan.

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Korean
[kor] Kyoto prefecture: Gion area; Osaka prefecture: Imazato-Shinchi and Tsuruhashi; Tokyo prefecture: Mikawashima, Okubo, and Ueno areas; Yamaguchi prefecture: Shimonoseki; mainly urban areas. L1 users: 905,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Zanichi Korean. Classification: Koreanic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist, Christian.

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Kunigami
[xug] Okinawa prefecture: central and north Okinawa island; Ie-jima, Iheya, Izena, and Sesoko islands. L1 users: 5,000 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Nago. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, of Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Ryukyuan languages are 62%–70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese. Lexical similarity: Ryukyu languages: 62%–70% with Tokyo dialect of Japanese. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan.

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Miyako
[mvi] Okinawa prefecture: south; Ikema, Irabu, Kurima, Minna, Miyako, Ogami, and Tarama islands. Ethnic population: 67,700 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Miyako-Jima (Hirara, Ogami), Irabu-Jima, Tarama-Minna. Not intelligible of Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Dialects listed have noticeable differences, but communication is not impossible. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Sakishima.

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Oki-No-Erabu
[okn] Kagoshima prefecture: north central Okinawa, Oki-no-erabu island. L1 users: 3,200 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: East Oki-No-Erabu, West Oki-No-Erabu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Dialect differences noticeable, but communication not impossible. Ryukyuan languages are 62%–70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese. Ryukyu languages are 62%–70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan.

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Okinawan, Central
[ryu] Okinawa prefecture: Aguna Islands, Kerama Islands, Kume-jima, southern Okinawa island, Tonaki, and islands east of Okinawa island. L1 users: 984,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,200,000 (2000 Y. Uemura). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Luchu, Okinawan. Dialects: Shuri, Naha, Torishima, Kudaka. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Ryukyu languages are 62%–70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan.

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Toku-No-Shima
[tkn] Kagoshima prefecture: northern Okinawa, Toku-no-shima islands. L1 users: 5,100 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Kametsu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan.

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Yaeyama
[rys] Okinawa prefecture: Aregusuku, Hateruma, Hatoma, Iriomote, Ishigaki, Kohama, Kuroshima, and Taketomi islands. Ethnic population: 47,600 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yayeyama. Dialects: Ishigaki, Kabira, Shiraho, Taketomi, Kohama, Hatoma, Sonai, Kuroshima, Hateruma. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, of Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Sakishima.

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Yonaguni
[yoi] Okinawa: south; Yonaguni island. L1 users: 800 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Sakishima.

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Yoron
[yox] Kagoshima prefecture: north central Okinawa, Yoron islands. L1 users: 950 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Lexical similarity: Ryukyu languages 62%–70% with Tokyo dialect of Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan.

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