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Ainu
[ain] Kuril islands (Tsishima), Hokkaido. 10 (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ainu Itak Dialects: Hokkaido (Ezo, Yezo), Kuril (Shikotan, Tsishima), Sakhalin (Saghilin), Taraika. There were at least 19 dialects. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Ainu [aib] in China is a different, unrelated language.

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Amami-Oshima, Northern
[ryn] Northwest Okinawa; north Amami-Oshima island. 10,000 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northern Amami-Osima, Oosima, Oshima, Osima Dialects: Naze, Sani. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan

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Amami-Oshima, Southern
[ams] North Okinawa; south Amami-Oshima, Kakeroma, Yoro, and Uke islands. 1,800 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Southern Amami-Osima Dialects: Inherent intelligibility low with other Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan

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Japanese
[jpn] Widespread. Also in American Samoa, Argentina, Australia, Belize, Brazil, Canada, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Dominican Republic, Germany, Guam, Mexico, Micronesia, Mongolia, New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States. 121,000,000 in Japan (1985). Population figure may include other ethnic groups. Population total all countries: 122,072,000. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Eastern Japanese, Western Japanese, Zu-zu-ben. Possibly related to Korean [kor]. Kagoshima dialect is 84% cognate with Tokyo dialect. Zu-zu-ben dialects unintelligible to other Japanese, and dying out as standard Tokyo Japanese takes over. Classification: Japonic Comments: Buddhist, Shintoist.

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Japanese Sign Language
[jsl] 317,000 (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shuwa, Temane Dialects: Related to Taiwanese [tss] and Korean [kvk] sign languages. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: ‘Temane’ is the former name. Pidgin Signed Japanese is used often in formal situations, lectures, speeches. 80% of the deaf understand finger spelling.

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Kikai
[kzg] Northeast Okinawa; Kikai island. Ethnic population: 13,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Onotsu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible or very difficult with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan

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Korean
[kor] 670,000 in Japan (1988). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Language isolate Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Kunigami
[xug] Central Okinawa, central and north Okinawa island; Iheya, Izena, Ie-jima, Sesoko islands. 5,000 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Nago. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, of Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Ryukyuan languages are 62%-70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese. Lexical similarity: Ryukyu languages: 62%–70% with Tokyo dialect of Japanese. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan

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Miyako
[mvi] Southern Okinawa; Miyako, Ogami, Ikema, Kurima, Irabu, Tarama, Minna islands. Ethnic population: 67,700 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Irabu-Jima, Miyako-Jima (Hirara, Ogami), Tarama-Minna. Not intelligible of Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Dialects listed have noticeable differences, but communication is not impossible. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Sakishima

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Oki-No-Erabu
[okn] North central Okinawa; Oki-no-erabu island. 3,200 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: East Oki-No-Erabu, West Oki-No-Erabu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Dialect differences noticeable, but communication not impossible. Ryukyuan languages are 62%-70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese. Ryukyu languages are 62%–70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan

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Okinawan, Central
[ryu] Central Okinawa; southern Okinawa island, Kerama Islands, Kume-jima, Tonaki, Aguna islands, islands east of Okinawa island. 984,000 (2000). Ethnic population: Total ethnic population of Okinawan is 1,200,000 (2000 Yukio Uemura). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Luchu, Okinawan Dialects: Kudaka, Naha, Shuri, Torishima. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Ryukyu languages are 62%–70% cognate with Tokyo dialect of Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan

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Toku-No-Shima
[tkn] Northern Okinawa; Toku-no-shima island. 5,100 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Kametsu. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Northern Amami-Okinawan

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Yaeyama
[rys] Southern Okinawa; Ishigaki, Iriomote, Hatoma, Kohama, Taketomi, Kuroshima, Hateruma, Aregusuku islands. Ethnic population: 47,600 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yayeyama Dialects: Hateruma, Hatoma, Ishigaki, Kabira, Kohama, Kuroshima, Shiraho, Sonai, Taketomi. Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, of Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Sakishima

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Yonaguni
[yoi] Southern Okinawa; Yonaguni island. 800 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Sakishima

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Yoron
[yox] North central Okinawa; Yoron island. 950 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Inherent intelligibility generally impossible, or very difficult, with Ryukyuan languages and Japanese [jpn]. Lexical similarity: Ryukyu languages 62%–70% with Tokyo dialect of Japanese [jpn]. Classification: Japonic, Ryukyuan, Amami-Okinawan, Southern Amami-Okinawan

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