Kenya

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Arabic, Omani Spoken
[acx] Scattered. Kilifi, Kwale, Lamu, and Tana River counties. Population: 15,000 in Kenya (1995), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Aweer
[bob] Garissa county: north and west of Mundane range; Lamu county: Indian Ocean area inland north of Lamu city; Tana River county: forests inland from Kipini city; 11 villages or more. Population: 7,600 (2009 census), increasing. 1,600 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aweera, Bon, Ogoda, Waboni, Wata-Bala, “Boni” (pej.), “Sanye” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: with Rendille [rel] of Marsabit County (most similar). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Rendille-Boni.

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Borana
[gax] Isiolo, Laikipia, Mandera, Marsabit, and Wajir counties: Lake Turkana east to Ethiopia-Somalia border, and south toward Nairobi. Population: 278,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Borana: 161,000, Gabra: 89,500, Sakuye: 26,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afaani Borana, Booran, Boraan, Boraana, Boran, Oromo, Southern Oromo, “Galla” (pej.). Dialects: Boran, Arsi, Guji. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo.

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Bukusu
[bxk] Bungoma, Kakamega, and Trans Nzoia counties: south of Kitale. Population: 1,433,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 1,470,100. Status: 4 (Educational). Autonym: Lubukusu. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.31).

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Burji
[bji] Marsabit county: Moyale township area. Population: 23,700 in Kenya (2009 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bambala. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland.

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Chichonyi-Chidzihana-Chikauma
[coh] Kilifi county: Indian Ocean area northeast of Mombasa. Population: 184,000 (2009 census), increasing. Chonyi 149,000, Jibana 35,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chonyi, Conyi, Kichonyi. Dialects: Chonyi (Chichonyi, Kichonyi), Jibana (Chidzihana). May understand Kigiryama [nyf]. Kauma (Chikauma) now considered to be a dialect of Kigiryama (2012 M. Wekunda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.72).

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Chidigo
[dig] Kwale county: south of Mombasa. Population: 313,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 479,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Digo, Kidigo. Autonym: Chidigo. Dialects: Chichifundi, Chichinondo, Chigwirani. Partially intelligible with Kigiryama [nyf] but most remote from Kigiryama of the Mijikenda subgroup. Lexical similarity: 74% with Chiduruma [dug], 72% with Chichonyi [coh] and Kiswahili [swh], 71% with Kiswahili dialects Mrima and Mvita, 67% with Amu [swh], 62% with Bajun [swh], 58% with Upper Pokomo [pkb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.73).

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Chiduruma
[dug] Kwale county: inland, south of Mombasa to Tanzania border. Population: 397,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Duruma, “Wanyika” (pej.). Autonym: Chiduruma. Dialects: None known. 9 ethnic groups form the Mijikenda community. Chiduruma is reportedly the second least similar to Kigiryama [nyf]. Comprehension of Kiswahili [swh] and Chidigo [dig] is low. Lexical similarity: 74% with Chidigo [dig], 66% with Kiswahili [swh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.72).

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Daasanach
[dsh] Marsabit and Turkana counties: north Lake Turkana, both shores. Population: 12,500 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Population varies as people freely cross the Ethiopian border. 6,250 monolinguals. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daasanech, Dama, Dasenech, Dathanaik, Dhaasanac, Geleb, Geleba, Gheleba, Marille, Reshiat, “Shangilla” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana.

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Dahalo
[dal] Lamu and Tana River counties: near Tana river mouth. Population: 400 (1992 M. Brenzinger). Ethnic population: 2,400 (2009 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Guo Garimani, Sanye. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South.

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Dawida
[dav] Taita-Taveta county: Taita hills. Population: 274,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dabida, Davida, Kidabida, Kitaita, Taita, Teita. Autonym: Kidawida. Dialects: Mbololo, Werugha, Mbale, Chawia, Bura, Mwanda, Kasigau. Lexical similarity: 62% with Sagalla [tga], 46% with Gweno [gwe], 41%–44% with Chaga languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.74).

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Dholuo
[luo] Homa Bay, Kisumu, Migori, and Siaya counties; north Kisii and Nyamira counties; Busia and Kakamega counties: border areas. Kavirondo Gulf area. Population: 4,044,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 4,229,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Luo, “Kavirondo Luo” (pej.), “Nilotic Kavirondo” (pej.). Autonym: Dholuo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Luo.

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Ekegusii
[guz] Kisii, north Migori, and Nyamira counties; Narok county: Thimjope area; south of Kavirondo Gulf. Population: 2,705,000 in Kenya, all users. L1 users: 2,205,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. L2 users: 500,000. Total users in all countries: 2,706,470 (as L1: 2,206,470; as L2: 500,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: EkeGusii, Gusii, Guzii, Kisii, Kosova. Autonym: Ekegusii. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.42).

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El Molo
[elo] Marsabit county: Lake Turkana southeast shore, west of Mount Kulal. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker, Kaayo, died in 1999 (2012 M. Tosco). Ethnic population: 2,840 (2009 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dehes, Elmolo, Fura-Pawa, Ldes, “Ndorobo” (pej.). Dialects: None known. The original language is reportedly similar to Daasanach [dsh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana.

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English
[eng] Widespread. Population: 2,700,000 in Kenya (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 7(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Gichuka
[cuh] Tharaka-Nithi county: south of Meru city. Population: 70,000 (1980 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chuka, Chuku, Cuka, Suka. Dialects: Comprehension of northern Kimîîru [mer] dialects is borderline. Similar to Kitharaka [thk]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Embu [ebu], 70% with Gikuyu [kik], 67% with Kimîîru [mer], 63% with Kikamba [kam]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.541).

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Gikuyu
[kik] Kiambu, Kirinyaga, Meru, Murang’a, and Nyeri counties; Nakuru county: Lake Naivasha area; Nairobi. Population: 6,623,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gekoyo, Kikuyu. Autonym: Gĩgĩkũyũ. Dialects: Southern Gikuyu (Kiambu, Southern Murang’a), Ndia (Southern Kirinyaga), Gichugu (Northern Kirinyaga), Mathira (Karatina), Northern Gikuyu (Northern Murang’a, Nyeri). Lexical similarity: 73% with Kiembu [ebu], 70% with Gichuka [cuh], 67% with Kikamba [kam], 63% with Kimîîru [mer]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.51).

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Gujarati
[guj] Mostly Nairobi. Population: 50,000 in Kenya (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati.

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Kalenjin
[kln] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 4,779,250. Includes: Keiyo [eyo], Kipsigis [sgc], Markweeta [enb], Nandi [niq], Okiek [oki], Pökoot [pko], Sabaot [spy], Terik [tec], Tugen [tuy].

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Kamba
[kam] Kajiado, Kitui, Machakos, and Makueni counties; Taita-Taveta county: small border area. Population: 4,493,000 in Kenya, all users. L1 users: 3,893,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. L2 users: 600,000. Total users in all countries: 4,493,000 (as L1: 3,893,000; as L2: 600,000). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Akamba, Kekamba, Kiikamba, Kikamba. Autonym: Kĩĩkamba. Dialects: Masaku (Machakos), South Kitui, North Kitui, Mumoni. Lexical similarity: 67% with Gikuyu [kik], 66% with Embu [ebu], 63% with Chuka [cuh], 57%–59% with Kimîîru [mer]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.55).

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Keiyo
[eyo] Elgeyo-Marakwet and Uasin Gishu counties. Population: 314,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Elgeyo, Keyo. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Kalenjin [kln]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi.

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Kenyan Sign Language
[xki] Scattered. Population: 340,000 (2007 DOOR), increasing. Another estimate: 600,000 (over 1% of general population, Wilson and Kakiri 2011). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2010, Constitution, Official Languages of Parliament, Article 120(2)). Alternate Names: KSL. Dialects: Nairobi (central), Kisumu (western), Mombasa (eastern). Standardized with minor variations between dialects since 1961, when primary schools for deaf children began. Mainly unrelated to other sign languages, although appears to have influenced Uganda Sign Language [ugn]. There appears to be less lexical borrowing (fingerspelling, initialization) from spoken languages than in many other sign languages. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language.

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Kiembu
[ebu] Embu county: southeast of Mount Kenya. Population: 324,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Embo, Embu. Autonym: Kiembu. Dialects: Mbeere (Kimbeere, Mbere), Embu. Mbeere dialect reportedly has intelligibility with Embu. Population estimate may include Gichuka [cuh] and Mwimbi-Muthambi [mws]. Lexical similarity: 85% with the Mbeere dialect, 73% with Gikuyu [kik] and Gichuka [cuh], 66% with Kamba [kam], 63%–65% with Kimîîru [mer]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.52).

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Kigiryama
[nyf] Kilifi and Kwale counties: north of Mombasa; Tana River county. Population: 944,000 (2009 census), increasing. 752,000 Giryama; 25,400 Kambe; 98,700 Rabai; 14,500 Ribe; 52,900 Kauma. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agiryama, Giriama, Giryama, Kigiriama, Kinyika, Nika, Nyika. Autonym: Kigiryama. Dialects: Ribe (Rihe), Kambe, Chwaka, Rabai, Kauma (Chikauma). Dialect speakers may understand Chichonyi-Chidzihana-Chikauma [coh]. Lexical similarity: 72% with Chidigo [dig], 63% with Mrima [swh], 62% with Mvita [swh], 61% with Amu [swh], 59% with Kipfokomo [pkb] and Bajun [swh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.72).

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Kimîîru
[mer] Isiolo and Meru counties: northeast of Mount Kenya; Laikipia county: Ewaso Ngiro river north bank. Population: 1,660,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kimeru, Mero, Meru. Autonym: Kimîîru. Dialects: Meru (Beik), Igembe, Tigania, Imenti, Miutini, Igoji. Lexical similarity: 85% with dialects Imenti and Tigania, 67% with Chuka [cuh], 63% with Embu [ebu] and Gikuyu [kik], 57% with Kamba [kam]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.53).

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Kipfokomo
[pkb] Garissa, Lamu, and Tana River counties: upper and lower Tana river between Tulu and Masabubu. Population: 95,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kipokomo, Lower Pokomo, Malachini, Pfokomo, Pokomo, Upper Pokomo. Autonym: Kipfokomo. Dialects: Malalulu, Zubaki, Ndura, Kinakomba, Gwano, Ndera, Mwina, Buu I, Buu II, Buu III, Kulesa, Ngatana, Dzunza, Kalindi. Lexical similarity: 63% with Mvita [swh], 61% with Amu [swh], 60% with Mrima [swh], 59% with Kigiryama [nyf], 58% with Chidigo [dig], 57% with Bajun [swh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.71).

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Kipsigis
[sgc] Bomet, Kericho, Nakuru, and Narok counties. Population: 1,916,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kipsiikis, Kipsikiis, Kipsikis. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nandi [niq]. A member of macrolanguage Kalenjin [kln]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Kipsigis.

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Kitharaka
[thk] Embu, Meru, and Tharaka-Nithi counties. Population: 176,000 (2009 census), increasing. 61,600 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atharaka, Saraka, Sharoka, Tharaka. Autonym: Kitharaka. Dialects: Gatue (North Tharaka), Ntugi (Central Tharaka), Igoki, Thagicu. Thagicu dialect has extensive Kamba [kam] borrowings. Gatue is influential. Difficult intelligibility of northern Kimîîru [mer] dialects. Some Meru words have offensive meanings in Kitharaka. Lexical similarity: with Chuka [cuh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.54).

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Kiwilwana
[mlk] Garissa and Tana River counties: Tana River north of Pokomo, between Bura and Garissa. Population: 16,800 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Elwana, Ilwana, “Malakote” (pej.), “Malankote” (pej.). Autonym: Kiwilwana. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Kipfokomo Pokomo [pkb]. Lexical similarity: 55%–57% with Kipfokomo [pkb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.701).

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Konkani, Goan
[gom] Nairobi. Population: 3,900 in Kenya (1987). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Goan, Gomataki, Konknni, “Goanese” (pej.). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Konkani.

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Kuria
[kuj] Migori and southwest Narok counties. Population: 260,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ekiguria, Gikuria, Igikuria, Kikoria, Kikuria, Koria, Kurya. Dialects: Nyabasi, Bugumbe, Bukira, Bwirege, Kiroba, Sweta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.43).

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Luidakho-Luisukha-Lutirichi
[ida] Bungoma, Kakamega, and Nandi counties. Population: 598,000 (2009 census), increasing. Idakho 171,000; Isukha 217,000; Tiriki 210,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Idakho-Isukha-Tiriki, Idaxo-Isuxa-Tiriki. Autonym: Luidakho-Luisukha-Lutirichi. Dialects: Idakho (Idaxo, Itakho, Itoxo), Isukha (Isuxa, Lwisukha), Tiriki. High comprehension of Lulogooli [rag], but resist each other’s pronunciation. Lexical similarity: 70% with Logooli [rag], 52% with Masaba [myx] (Uganda) and Oluluyia [luy]. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.411).

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Lukabaras
[lkb] Kakamega, Nandi, and Uasin Gishu counties. Population: 253,000 (2009 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kabarasi, Kabras. Autonym: Lukabaras. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lutachoni [lts]. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.32).

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Lulogooli
[rag] Kakamega and Vihiga counties: north of Kisumu. Population: 618,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 618,300. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Llogole, Llugule, Logooli, Lugooli, Luragoli, Maragoli, Maragooli, Ragoli, Uluragooli. Autonym: Lulogooli. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70%–80% with Idakho-Isukha-Tiriki [ida]. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.41).

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Lutachoni
[lts] Bungoma and Kakamega counties: Nzoia river middle reaches. Population: 118,000 (2009 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Tachon, Tachoni, Tatsoni. Autonym: Lutachoni. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lukabaras [lkb]. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.31).

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Maasai
[mas] Kajiado and Narok counties; Kiambu county: enclave west of Nairobi; Laikipia county: enclave north of Nairobi; Taita-Taveta county: small border area. Population: 842,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 1,524,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Masai, ɔl Maa. Autonym: Maa. Dialects: Kaputiei, Keekonyokie, Matapo, Laitokitok, Iloodokilani, Damat, Purko, Loitai, Siria, Moitanik (Wuasinkishu), Kore, Arusa (Arusha), Parakuyo (Baraguyu, Ilparakuyo, Kwavi), Kisonko. Arusha is distinct from Bantu Chaga-related variety. Reportedly Arusha, who are pastoralists, dress like Maasai and speak a Maasai-related variety; whereas, agriculturalists intermarry with the Chaga. Other sources say the Arusha originally spoke a Bantu language. Lexical similarity: 82%–86% between Kenya and Tanzania dialects. Purko has 91%–96% lexical similarity with other Kenya dialects, 82% with Baraguyu, 86% with Arusa, 77%–89% with Samburu [saq], 82%–89% with Chamus [saq], 60% with Ngasa [nsg] (Ongamo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa.

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Markweeta
[enb] Baringo, Elgeyo-Marakwet, Nandi, and West Pokot counties. Population: 180,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Marakuet, Marakwet. Autonym: Markweta. Dialects: Endo (Endo-Marakwet, Northern Markweeta), Sambirir (Southern Markweeta), Cherang’any. Low intelligibility of major Kalenjin dialects. A member of macrolanguage Kalenjin [kln]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Markweta.

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Mwimbi-Muthambi
[mws] Meru county. Population: 70,000 (1980 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Mwimbi (Kimwimbi), Muthambi. People may be able to use Kimîîru [mer] literature. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.531).

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Nandi
[niq] Nandi and Uasin Gishu counties; Kisumu county: some north of Kisumu town. Population: 949,000 (2009 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Cemual, Kalenjin Nandi, Naandi. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Kalenjin [kln]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi.

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Nubi
[kcn] Nairobi. Population: 15,500 in Kenya (2009 census). 3,000–6,000 in Kibera. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ki-Nubi, Kinubi. Classification: Creole, Arabic based.

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Nyala
[nle] Busia and Siaya counties: Lake Victoria area, Nzoia river mouth to northwest of Luambwa and Busonga; enclave up river; Bungoma and Kakamega counties. Population: 273,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LuNyala, OluNyala, Olunyala. Autonym: Lunyala. Dialects: East Nyala, West Nyala. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.32).

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Okiek
[oki] Nakuru county: east Mau escarpment. Mau forest between Amala and Ewas Ng’iro rivers near Nosogami stream (Sogoo dialect). Population: 50 L1 speakers in Kenya and Tanzania (Austin 2008). Spoken by a small number of people (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Ethnic population: 79,000 (2009 census). Total users in all countries: 250. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Akie, Akiek, Kinare, Ogiek, “Ndorobo” (pej.). Dialects: Okiek, Suiei, Sogoo (Sokoo). A member of macrolanguage Kalenjin [kln]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Okiek.

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Olukhayo
[lko] Busia county: Nambare area. Population: 125,000 (2009 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Khayo, Xaayo. Autonym: Olukhayo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Olumarachi [lri]. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.341).

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Oluluyia
[luy] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 5,291,900. Includes: Bukusu [bxk], Luidakho-Luisukha-Lutirichi [ida], Lukabaras [lkb], Lulogooli [rag], Lutachoni [lts], Nyala [nle], Olukhayo [lko], Olumarachi [lri], Olumarama [lrm], Olunyole [nyd], Olushisa [lks], Olutsotso [lto], Oluwanga [lwg], Saamya-Gwe [lsm] (Uganda).

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Olumarachi
[lri] Busia county: northwest of Nzoia river. Population: 155,000 (2009 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Marachi. Autonym: Olumarachi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Olukhayo [lko]. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.342).

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Olumarama
[lrm] Kakamega and Vihiga counties: north of Kisumu town. Population: 152,500 (2009 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Marama. Autonym: Olumarama. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Oluwanga [lwg]. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.32).

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Olunyole
[nyd] Kakamega and Vihiga counties: above Kavirondo gulf. Population: 311,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lunyole, Lunyore, Nyole, Nyoole, Nyore, Olunyore. Autonym: Olunyole. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Nyole [nuj] of Uganda. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.33).

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Olusamia
[lsm] Busia and Siaya counties: west of Ukewala to Lake Victoria. Population: 125,000 in Kenya (2009 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lusaamia, Saamia, Ólusaamya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.34).

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Olushisa
[lks] Kakamega county: Yala town northeastward. Population: 137,000 (2009 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kisa. Autonym: Olushisa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Olumarama [lrm]. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.32).

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Olutsotso
[lto] Kakamega county: capital area. Population: 122,000 (2009 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Tsotso. Autonym: Olutsotso. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.32).

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Oluwanga
[lwg] Kakamega county: both banks of Nzoia river. Population: 309,000 (2009 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Hanga, Kawanga, Luhanga, Luwanga, Oluhanga, Wanga. Autonym: Oluwanga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Olumarama [lrm]. A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.32).

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Omotik
[omt] Narok county: Lemek area. Population: 50 (1980). Ethnic population: 200 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Laamoot, Omotic, “Ndorobo” (pej.). Dialects: Suiei. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kalenjin [kln], 50% with Datooga [tcc]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Tatoga.

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Orma
[orc] Kilifi, Lamu, and Tana River counties. Population: 66,300 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Munyo (Korokoro, Munyo Yaya), Orma. Distinct from Borana [gax]. Munyo Yaya is an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Orma. A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo.

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Pökoot
[pko] Baringo, Turkana and West Pokot counties; Nakuru and Nyandarua counties: northeast of Nakuru town. Population: 633,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 738,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pakot, Pokot, Pökot, Suk, ng’ala Pokot. Autonym: ngala Pökot. Dialects: East Pokot, West Pokot. A member of macrolanguage Kalenjin [kln]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Pokot.

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Punjabi, Eastern
[pan] Nairobi. Population: 10,000 in Kenya (1995 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Eastern Panjabi, Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi, Punjabi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi.

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Rendille
[rel] Marsabit and Samburu counties: between Lake Turkana and Marsabit mountain. Population: 60,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Randile, Rendile. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Rendille-Boni.

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Sabaot
[spy] Bungoma and Trans Nzoia counties: Mount Elgon southeastern slopes. Population: 241,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sebei, “Mount Elgon Maasai” (pej.). Autonym: Sābāwōōt. Dialects: Bong’omeek (Bong’om, Pong’om), Koony (Kony), Book (Bok, Pok), Soomeek, Mosoop, Sabiiny. Related to Kupsapiiny [kpz] of Uganda. A member of macrolanguage Kalenjin [kln]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Elgon.

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Sagalla
[tga] Taita-Taveta county: Taita hills between Mwatate and Rukanga towns. Population: 100,000 (1992 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kisagala, Sagala, Saghala, Teri, kiSaghala. Autonym: Kisagalla. Dialects: Dambi, Mugange, Teri, Kishamba, Gimba. Lexical similarity: 62% with Dawida [dav]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.741).

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Samburu
[saq] Isiolo, Marsabit, and Samburu counties: Lake Turkana east towards Marsabit. Population: 237,000 (2009 census), increasing. Ilchamus 27,300, Njemps 5,300 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Burkeneji, E Lokop, Lokop, Nkutuk, Sambur, Sampur. Dialects: Chamus (Ilcamus, Ilchamus), Njemps. Lexical similarity: 94%–88% with the Chamus dialect, 89%–77% with Maasai [mas], 59% with Ngasa [nsg] (Ongamo), 82% between Chamus and Maasai [mas]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa.

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Singa
[sgm] Homa Bay county: Rusinga island, Kavirondo gulf entrance. Population: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Cula, Logang, Lusinga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.406).

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Somali
[som] Garissa, Mandera, and Wajir counties: entire eastern border area; northwest Lamu county. Population: 2,386,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Includes 58,200 Hawiyah; 516,000 Degodia; 622,000 Ogaden (2009 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Standard Somali. Dialects: Degodia, Ogaden, Wardei (Uardai, Wadai, Warday). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali.

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Suba
[sxb] Homa Bay county: Lake Victoria east shore, Mfangano and Rusinga islands. Population: 139,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Luo AbaSuba. Autonym: Olusuba. Dialects: Suba, EgiSuba. Reportedly most similar to Suba-Simbiti [ssc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Logooli-Kuria (E.403).

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Swahili
[swh] Garissa and Lamu counties: Somali border to Tana river mouth, along coast and inland. Population: 16,611,000 in Kenya, all users. L1 users: 111,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. 6,200 Amu, 69,000 Bajuni, 1,000 Chitundi, 2,600 Changamwe, 480 Faza, 5,200 Jomvu, 170 Katwa, 700 Kilifi, 700 Kilindini, 300 Mtwapa, 1,600 Ngare, 1,400 Pate, 290 Shaka, 3900 Siu, 650 Tangana, 2,000 Vumba (2009 census). L2 users: 16,500,000 (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 7(2)). Alternate Names: Arab-Swahili, Kisuahili, Kiswaheli, Kiswahili, Suahili. Dialects: Amu (Ozi), Mvita (Kimvita, Mombasa), Bajuni (Bajun, Gunya, Tikulu, Tikuu, Tukulu), Pemba (Hadimu, Phemba, Tambatu), Mambrui (Malindi), Pate, Siu (Siyu), Jomvu, Kilindini, Changamwe, Ngare, Vumba, Tangana, Chitundi, Faza, Katwa, Kilifi, Mtwapa, Shaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42).

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Taveta
[tvs] Kajiado county: east of Mount Kilimanjaro; Taita-Taveta county. Population: 21,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dabida, Kitaveta, Kitubeta, Tubeta. Autonym: Kitubheta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika-Taita (E.74).

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Terik
[tec] Nandi and Uasin Gishu counties: west of Eldoret. Population: 301,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyang’ori. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nandi [niq]. A member of macrolanguage Kalenjin [kln]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi.

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Teso
[teo] Busia county: north of Mambara. Population: 339,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ateso. Dialects: Orom (Rom). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso.

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Tugen
[tuy] Baringo, Nakuru, and Nyandarua counties: generally north of Nakuru town; some in Laikipia county. Population: 140,000 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. People may not be able to use other Kalenjin [kln] literature. A member of macrolanguage Kalenjin [kln]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi.

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Turkana
[tuv] Samburu and Turkana counties: west and south of Lake Turkana. Population: 989,000 (2009 census). 593,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buma, Bume, Turkwana. Autonym: Ng’aturkana. Dialects: Northern Turkana, Southern Turkana. Inherently intelligible of Toposa [toq] speakers, but hostile to them. Partially intelligible of Ng’aKarimojong [kdj], Jie [kdj], and Nyangatom [nnj], but all 5 are ethnically distinct. A few phonological, lexical, and discourse marker differences between them. Northern Turkana [tuv] and Eastern Toposa [toq] are reportedly more similar to Southern Turkana [tuv], but Western Toposa [toq] is further apart linguistically. The 4 varieties form a subgroup divided in the middle by the Kenya-Sudan border. Lexical similarity: 85% similarity with Ng’aKarimojong [kdj], 76% with Teso [teo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana.

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Waata
[ssn] Isiolo county: north of Meru town; Garissa and Lamu counties: east of Tana river; Kilifi county: Indian Ocean coast and inland from Formosa Bay south to Gongoni town; Tana River county: Garsen area west of Tana river. Population: 12,600 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ariangulu, Langulo, Sanya, Sanye, Waat, Wasanye. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo.

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Yaaku
[muu] Isiolo and Laikipia counties: Mukogodo forest west of Doldol, foothills north of Mount Kenya; Samburu and Turkana counties: Lake Turkana south tip. Population: 10 (2016 BBC). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2016 BBC). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mogogodo, Mukogodo, Mukoquodo, Siegu, Yaakua, Yiaku, Yiakunte, “Ndorobo” (pej.), “Ntorobo” (pej.). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Yaaku.

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