Cambodia

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Brao
[brb] Ratanak Kiri province: Ta Veaeng district, north of Sesan river. 9,030 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). About 2,000 of the Brao counted in the census are Brao Tanap, which is actually more similar to Krung [krr]. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,030. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Braou, Brou, Lave, Laveh, Love, Proue. Dialects: Ombaa, Ka-nying, Hamong, Jrii, Lun. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Comments: Krung [krr], Brao [brb], Kavet [krv], and Lun dialect [brb] form a mutually-intelligible cluster. At times, Brao may be used as a cover term for all groups. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cham, Western
[cja] Scattered, nearly half of the Cham in Cambodia live in Kampong Cham and Tbong Khmum provinces, where they are about 6% of the total population. Cham also live dispersed through all other provinces especially Kampong Chhnang and Kratié provinces. 204,000 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 400,000. Total users in all countries: 246,990. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cambodian Cham, Cham, New Cham, Tjam. Dialects: None known. Cannot communicate with Eastern Cham [cjm] of central Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 84% with Eastern Cham [cjm] of Viet Nam (Pawley and Pawley 2010), 69% with Jarai [jra] of northeast Cambodia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham. Comments: Small ethnic groups from Cambodia settled in Thailand but no longer speak Cham (Bradley 2007a). Muslim.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Ratanak Kiri and Stung Treng provinces: border areas, 2 enclaves along Sesan river. 500 in Cambodia (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Confucianist, Daoist.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] 350,000 in Cambodia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Minnan, Southern Min. Dialects: Hainan, Hokkien, Teochiu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Confucianist, Daoist.

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Chong
[cog] Koh Kong province: possibly Areng valley and scattered. No known L1 speakers in Cambodia. Ethnic population: 1,200 (2015 The Cambodian Daily). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Khmer Chong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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English
[eng] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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French
[fra] 870 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). L2 users: 403,000 in Cambodia (2013). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Jarai
[jra] Ratanak Kiri province: principally Andoung Meas, Bar Kaev, and Ou Ya Dav districts; northeast border near Viet Nam. 20,800 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chor, Cho-Rai, Chrai, Djarai, Gia-Rai, Gio-Rai, Jorai, Mthur. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kaco’
[xkk] Ratanak Kiri province: Andoung Meas and Veun Sai districts, along Sesan river downstream from Phumi Ba Kham. 3,370 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kachah’, Kachok. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric.

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Kavet
[krv] Ratanak Kiri province: Virochey area north of San river; Stung Treng province: Siempang east of Kang river. 6,220 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Khvek, Kowet, Kravet. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet.

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Khmer, Central
[khm] Widespread. 12,900,000 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). L2 users: 1,000,000 in Cambodia. Total users in all countries: 15,291,040 (as L1: 14,291,040; as L2: 1,000,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 5). Alternate Names: Cambodian, Khmer. Dialects: Khmer Kandal (Central), Khmer Krom (Southern), Battambang Khmer, Khmer Keh (Stung Treng), Cardamom Khmer. Distinct from Northern Khmer [kxm] of Thailand. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer.

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Kraol
[rka] Kratié province: Sambour district, Srae Chis commune; Mondul Kiri province: Kaoh Nheaek district, Roya commune. 4,200 (2009 UNSD). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible to speakers of Central Mnong [cmo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong. Comments: Different from Kraol dialect of Kuy [kdt].

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Kru’ng 2
[krr] Ratanak Kiri province: Laos border area, mainly between Sesan and Sprepok rivers; Stung Treng province: southeast corner. 20,700 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Brao Krung, Kreung. Dialects: Brao Tanap, Lun. Brao [brb] and Kavet [krv] are reportedly inherently intelligible with Kru’ng 2. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Comments: Different from Krung 1 dialect of Rade [rad] in Viet Nam.

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Kuy
[kdt] Kampong Thom and Preah Vihear provinces: Sen river area; Kratié province: isolated area east of Kratié city on Mekong river; Stung Treng province: west of Mekong river. 10,000 in Cambodia. Ethnic population: 37,700 (2007 E. Pawley). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kuay, Kui. Dialects: Kuy Antra, Kuy Anthua, Kuy May (Kuy Ma’ay), Kuy Mlor, Kuy Ak. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Nheu. Comments: Central Khmer used in schools. Dialects are based on the use of their word for ‘what’: Kuy Antra (northern Kompong Thom, southern Preah Vihear), Kuy Anthua (central Preah Vihear), Kuy May or Ma’ay (in Kratie), Kuy Mlor (1 village in northern Preah Vihear); only the older people still speak the last 2 dialects. Traditional religion.

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Lao
[lao] Banteay Meanchey province: 3 enclaves between Thai border and Sisophon city; Prey Veng province; Stung Treng province: between Laos border and Kong river; Svay Rieng province. 18,500 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Lao Phuon
[phu] Banteay Meanchey province: Mongkol Borei district, Boung Preang, Kok Thnong, Pong Ror, Pouy Ta Sek, Prey To Teang, Rohat Teak, Sdey Kraom, Sdey Leu, Sranal, and Ta Sal villages. 1,000 in Cambodia (Kev and Ly 2009). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Kev and Ly 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Mnong, Central
[cmo] Kratié province: northeast and central; Mondul Kiri province. 37,500 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Budong, Bunong, Phanong, Phnong, Phong. Dialects: Biat, Preh, Bu Nar, Bu Rung, Dih Bri, Bu Dang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong. Comments: Biat is main dialect.

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Pear
[pcb] Preah Vihear province: Rovieng district, 3–4 villages. 1,670 (2011). Ethnic population: 1,830 (2008 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Por. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Eastern.

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Samre
[sxm] Siemreap province: Siemreap town area north of Lake Sap. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Samre.

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Sa’och
[scq] Sihanoukville province: near Kampong Saom bay, east coast, but inland. 10 (2009 J. Filipi), decreasing. Ethnic population: 450. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Saotch, Sauch. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong.

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Somray
[smu] Battambang province: Phumi Chhak Rokar area; Koh Kong province: far north; Pursuit province: 2 areas, north, east, and west of Phum Tasanh, and Tanyong river around Phum Pra Moi. 4,100 (2005 J. Ironside). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Samre.

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Stieng, Bulo
[sti] Kratié province: Snuol district; possibly southern Mondul Kiri province. 6,540 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kajiang. Dialects: Budip, Bulo. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau.

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Suoy
[syo] Kampong Speu and Pursuit provinces: Phumi Krang Trachak area. 860 (Bradley 2007b), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Su’ung. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Suoy.

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Tampuan
[tpu] Ratanak Kiri province: Sesan river area south to Srepok river. 31,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Campuon, Kha Tampuon, Proon, Proons, Tamphuan, Tampuen, Tampuon. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric. Comments: Exogamous clans, together with Kaco’ and Jarai, override ethnic and linguistic boundaries.

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Thai
[tha] Banteay Meanchey province: between Sisophon and Paoy Pet on Thai border (Thai Norkor Raja); Koh Kong province: west of Meleuk river (Thai Koh Kong). 2,460 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Thai Koh Kong, Thai Norkor Raja (Siam Nokor, Siam Trang). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Vietnamese
[vie] Phnom Penh; generally dispersed longstanding population; communities in urban areas, including Siemreab, Preah Sihanouk, Ta Khmau, others. 72,800 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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