Cambodia

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Brao
[brb] Ratanakiri province: Ta Veaeng district, north of Sesan river. 9,030 (2009 UNSD). About 2,000 of the Brao counted in the census are Brao Tanap, which is actually more similar to Krung [krr]. 4,520 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,030. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Braou, Brou, Lave, Laveh, Love, Proue. Dialects: Ombaa, Ka-nying, Hamong, Jrii, Lun. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Comments: Krung [krr], Brao [brb], Kavet [krv], and Lun dialect [brb] form a mutually-intelligible cluster. At times, Brao may be used as a cover term for all groups. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cham, Western
[cja] Scattered, nearly half of the Cham in Cambodia live in Kampong Cham and Tbong Khmum provinces, where they are about 6% of the total population. Cham also live dispersed through all other provinces especially Kampong Chhnang and Kratié provinces. 204,000 (2009 UNSD). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 400,000. Total users in all countries: 246,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cambodian Cham, New Cham, Tjam. Autonym: Cham. Dialects: None known. Cannot communicate with Eastern Cham [cjm] of central Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 84% with Eastern Cham [cjm] of Viet Nam (Pawley and Pawley 2010), 69% with Jarai [jra] of northeast Cambodia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham. Comments: Small ethnic groups from Cambodia settled in Thailand but no longer speak Cham (Bradley 2007a). Muslim.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Ratanakiri and Stung Treng provinces: border areas, 2 enclaves along Sesan river. 500 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Confucianist, Daoist.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] 350,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Banlamgi, Minnan, Southern Min. Dialects: Hainan, Hokkien, Teochiu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Confucianist, Daoist.

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Chong
[cog] Koh Kong province: possibly Areng valley and scattered. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,200 (2015 The Cambodian Daily). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Khmer Chong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chung
[scq] Preah Sihanouk province: near Kampong Saom bay, east coast, but inland. 10 (2009 J. Filipi), decreasing. Ethnic population: 450. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong.

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English
[eng] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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French
[fra] 403,870 in Cambodia, all users. 870 (2009 UNSD). 403,000 (2013). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Barang, Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Jarai
[jra] Ratanakiri province: principally Andoung Meas, Bar Kaev, and Ou Ya Dav districts; northeast border near Viet Nam. 20,800 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cho-Rai, Chor, Chrai, Djarai, Gia-Rai, Gio-Rai, Jorai, Mthur. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kaco’
[xkk] Ratanakiri province: Andoung Meas and Veun Sai districts, along Sesan river downstream from Phumi Ba Kham. 3,370 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kachah’, Kachok. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric.

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Kavet
[krv] Ratanakiri province: Virochey area north of San river; Stung Treng province: Siempang east of Kang river. 6,220 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Khvek, Kowet, Kravet. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet.

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Khmer
[khm] Widespread. 16,000,000 in Cambodia, all users. 15,000,000 (2015). 1,000,000. Total users in all countries: 17,390,040 (as L1: 16,390,040; as L2: 1,000,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 5). Alternate Names: Cambodian, Central Khmer. Autonym: ខ្មែរ‎ (Khmer). Dialects: Khmer Kandal (Central Khmer), Khmer Krom (Southern Khmer), Battambang Khmer, Khmer Keh (Stung Treng), Cardamom Khmer. Distinct from Northern Khmer [kxm] of Thailand. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer.

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Kraol
[rka] Kratié province: Sambour district, Srae Chis commune; Mondolkiri province: Kaoh Nheaek district, Roya commune. 4,200 (2009 UNSD). 4,200 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible to speakers of Central Mnong [cmo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong. Comments: Different from Kraol dialect of Kuay [kdt].

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Krung
[krr] Ratanakiri province: Laos border area, mainly between Sesan and Sprepok rivers; Stung Treng province: southeast corner. 20,700 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Brao Krung, Kreung, Kru’ng. Dialects: Brao Tanap, Lun. Brao [brb] and Kavet [krv] are reportedly inherently intelligible with Krung. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Comments: Different from Krung 1 dialect of Rade [rad] in Viet Nam.

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Kuay
[kdt] Kampong Thom and Preah Vihear provinces: Sen river area; Kratié province: isolated area east of Kratié city on Mekong river; Stung Treng province: west of Mekong river. 10,000. Ethnic population: 37,700 (2007 E. Pawley). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kui, Kuy. Dialects: Kuay Ndroe (Kuy Antra), Kuay Ndua (Kuy Anthua), Kuy May (Kuy Ma’ay), Kuay Mla (Kuy Mlor), Kuy Ak, Kuay Oe. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay. Comments: Khmer [khm] used in schools. Dialects are based on the use of their word for ‘what’: Kuy Antra (northern Kompong Thom, southern Preah Vihear), Kuy Anthua (central Preah Vihear), Kuy May or Ma’ay (in Kratie), Kuy Mlor (1 village in northern Preah Vihear); only the older people still speak the last 2 dialects. Traditional religion.

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Lao
[lao] Banteay Meanchey province: 3 enclaves between Thai border and Sisophon city; Prey Veng province; Stung Treng province: between Laos border and Kong river; Svay Rieng province. 18,500 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Lao Phuon
[phu] Banteay Meanchey province: Mongkol Borei district, Boung Preang, Kok Thnong, Pong Ror, Pouy Ta Sek, Prey To Teang, Rohat Teak, Sdey Kraom, Sdey Leu, Sranal, and Ta Sal villages. 1,000 (Kev and Ly 2009). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Kev and Ly 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Mnong, Central
[cmo] Kratié province: northeast and central; Mondolkiri province. 37,500 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Budong, Bunong, Phanong, Phnong, Pnong. Dialects: Biat, Preh, Bunor, Bu Rung, Dih Bri, Bu Dang, Bu Nar. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong. Comments: Bunor is main dialect.

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Pear
[pcb] Preah Vihear province: Rovieng district, 3–4 villages. 1,670 (2011). Ethnic population: 1,830 (2008 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Por. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Eastern.

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Samre
[sxm] Siem Reap province: Siem Reap town area north of Lake Sap. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Samre.

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Somray
[smu] Battambang province: Phumi Chhak Rokar area; Koh Kong province: far north; Pursat province: 2 areas, north, east, and west of Phum Tasanh, and Tanyong river around Phum Pra Moi. 4,100 (2005 J. Ironside). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Samre.

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Stieng, Bulo
[sti] Kratié province: Snuol district; possibly southern Mondolkiri province. 6,540 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kajiang. Dialects: Budip, Bulo. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau.

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Su’ung
[syo] Kampong Speu and Pursat provinces: Phumi Krang Trachak area. 860 (Bradley 2007b), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Suoy.

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Tampuan
[tpu] Ratanakiri province: Sesan river area south to Srepok river. 31,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Campuon, Proon, Proons, Tamphuan, Tampuen, Tampuon, “Kha Tampuon” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric. Comments: Exogamous clans, together with Kaco’ and Jarai, override ethnic and linguistic boundaries.

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Thai
[tha] Banteay Meanchey province: between Sisophon and Paoy Pet on Thai border (Thai Norkor Raja); Koh Kong province: west of Meleuk river (Thai Koh Kong). 2,460 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Thai Koh Kong, Thai Norkor Raja (Siam Nokor, Siam Trang). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Vietnamese
[vie] Phnom Penh; generally dispersed longstanding population; communities in urban areas, including Siem Reap, Preah Sihanouk, Ta Khmau, others. 72,800 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Tiếng Việt. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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