Cambodia

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Brao
[brb] Ratanakiri province: Ta Veaeng district, north of Sesan river. L1 users: 9,030 (2009 UNSD). About 2,000 of the Brao counted in the census are Brao Tanap, which is actually more similar to Krung [krr]. 4,520 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,030. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Braou, Brou, Lave, Laveh, Love, Proue. Dialects: Ombaa, Ka-nying, Hamong, Jrii, Lun. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Comments: Krung [krr], Brao [brb], Kavet [krv], and Lun dialect [brb] form a mutually-intelligible cluster. At times, Brao may be used as a cover term for all groups. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cham, Western
[cja] Scattered, nearly half of the Cham in Cambodia live in Kampong Cham and Tbong Khmum provinces, where they are about 6% of the total population. Cham also live dispersed through all other provinces especially Kampong Chhnang and Kratié provinces. L1 users: 204,000 (2009 UNSD). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 400,000. Total users in all countries: 246,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cambodian Cham, New Cham, Tjam. Autonym: Cham. Dialects: None known. Cannot communicate with Eastern Cham [cjm] of central Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 84% with Eastern Cham [cjm] of Viet Nam (Pawley and Pawley 2010), 69% with Jarai [jra] of northeast Cambodia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham. Comments: Small ethnic groups from Cambodia settled in Thailand but no longer speak Cham (Bradley 2007a). Muslim.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Ratanakiri and Stung Treng provinces: border areas, 2 enclaves along Sesan river. L1 users: 500 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Confucianist, Daoist.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] L1 users: 350,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Banlamgi, Minnan, Southern Min. Dialects: Hainan, Hokkien, Teochiu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Confucianist, Daoist.

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Chong
[cog] Koh Kong province: possibly Areng valley and scattered. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,200 (2015 The Cambodian Daily). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Khmer Chong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chung
[scq] Preah Sihanouk province: near Kampong Saom bay, east coast, but inland. L1 users: 10 (2009 J. Filipi), decreasing. Ethnic population: 450. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong.

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English
[eng] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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French
[fra] 403,870 in Cambodia, all users. L1 users: 870 (2009 UNSD). L2 users: 403,000 (2013). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Barang, Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Jarai
[jra] Ratanakiri province: principally Andoung Meas, Bar Kaev, and Ou Ya Dav districts; northeast border near Viet Nam. L1 users: 20,800 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cho-Rai, Chor, Chrai, Djarai, Gia-Rai, Gio-Rai, Jorai, Mthur. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kaco’
[xkk] Ratanakiri province: Andoung Meas and Veun Sai districts, along Sesan river downstream from Phumi Ba Kham. L1 users: 3,370 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kachah’, Kachok. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric.

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Kavet
[krv] Ratanakiri province: Virochey area north of San river; Stung Treng province: Siempang east of Kang river. L1 users: 6,220 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Khvek, Kowet, Kravet. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet.

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Khmer
[khm] Widespread. 16,000,000 in Cambodia, all users. L1 users: 15,000,000 (2015). L2 users: 1,000,000. Total users in all countries: 17,390,040 (as L1: 16,390,040; as L2: 1,000,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 5). Alternate Names: Cambodian, Central Khmer. Autonym: ខ្មែរ‎ (Khmer). Dialects: Khmer Kandal (Central Khmer), Khmer Krom (Southern Khmer), Battambang Khmer, Khmer Keh (Stung Treng), Cardamom Khmer. Distinct from Northern Khmer [kxm] of Thailand. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer.

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Kraol
[rka] Kratié province: Sambour district, Srae Chis commune; Mondolkiri province: Kaoh Nheaek district, Roya commune. L1 users: 4,200 (2009 UNSD). 4,200 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible to speakers of Central Mnong [cmo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong. Comments: Different from Kraol dialect of Kuay [kdt].

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Krung
[krr] Ratanakiri province: Laos border area, mainly between Sesan and Sprepok rivers; Stung Treng province: southeast corner. L1 users: 20,700 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Brao Krung, Kreung, Kru’ng. Dialects: Brao Tanap, Lun. Brao [brb] and Kavet [krv] are reportedly inherently intelligible with Krung. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Comments: Different from Krung 1 dialect of Rade [rad] in Viet Nam.

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Kuay
[kdt] Kampong Thom and Preah Vihear provinces: Sen river area; Kratié province: isolated area east of Kratié city on Mekong river; Stung Treng province: west of Mekong river. L1 users: 10,000. Ethnic population: 37,700 (2007 E. Pawley). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kui, Kuy. Dialects: Kuay Ndroe (Kuy Antra), Kuay Ndua (Kuy Anthua), Kuy May (Kuy Ma’ay), Kuay Mla (Kuy Mlor), Kuy Ak, Kuay Oe. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay. Comments: Khmer [khm] used in schools. Dialects are based on the use of their word for ‘what’: Kuy Antra (northern Kompong Thom, southern Preah Vihear), Kuy Anthua (central Preah Vihear), Kuy May or Ma’ay (in Kratie), Kuy Mlor (1 village in northern Preah Vihear); only the older people still speak the last 2 dialects. Traditional religion.

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Lao
[lao] Banteay Meanchey province: 3 enclaves between Thai border and Sisophon city; Prey Veng province; Stung Treng province: between Laos border and Kong river; Svay Rieng province. L1 users: 18,500 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Lao Phuon
[phu] Banteay Meanchey province: Mongkol Borei district, Boung Preang, Kok Thnong, Pong Ror, Pouy Ta Sek, Prey To Teang, Rohat Teak, Sdey Kraom, Sdey Leu, Sranal, and Ta Sal villages. L1 users: 1,000 (Kev and Ly 2009). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Kev and Ly 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Mnong, Central
[cmo] Kratié province: northeast and central; Mondolkiri province. L1 users: 37,500 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Budong, Bunong, Phanong, Phnong, Pnong. Dialects: Biat, Preh, Bunor, Bu Rung, Dih Bri, Bu Dang, Bu Nar. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong. Comments: Bunor is main dialect.

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Pear
[pcb] Preah Vihear province: Rovieng district, 3–4 villages. L1 users: 1,670 (2011). Ethnic population: 1,830 (2008 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Por. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Eastern.

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Samre
[sxm] Siem Reap province: Siem Reap town area north of Lake Sap. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Samre.

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Somray
[smu] Battambang province: Phumi Chhak Rokar area; Koh Kong province: far north; Pursat province: 2 areas, north, east, and west of Phum Tasanh, and Tanyong river around Phum Pra Moi. L1 users: 4,100 (2005 J. Ironside). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Samre.

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Stieng, Bulo
[sti] Kratié province: Snuol district; possibly southern Mondolkiri province. L1 users: 6,540 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kajiang. Dialects: Budip, Bulo. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau.

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Su’ung
[syo] Kampong Speu and Pursat provinces: Phumi Krang Trachak area. L1 users: 860 (Bradley 2007b), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Suoy.

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Tampuan
[tpu] Ratanakiri province: Sesan river area south to Srepok river. L1 users: 31,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Campuon, Proon, Proons, Tamphuan, Tampuen, Tampuon, “Kha Tampuon” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric. Comments: Exogamous clans, together with Kaco’ and Jarai, override ethnic and linguistic boundaries.

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Thai
[tha] Banteay Meanchey province: between Sisophon and Paoy Pet on Thai border (Thai Norkor Raja); Koh Kong province: west of Meleuk river (Thai Koh Kong). L1 users: 2,460 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Thai Koh Kong, Thai Norkor Raja (Siam Nokor, Siam Trang). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Vietnamese
[vie] Phnom Penh; generally dispersed longstanding population; communities in urban areas, including Siem Reap, Preah Sihanouk, Ta Khmau, others. L1 users: 72,800 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Tiếng Việt. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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