[mey] Souss-Massa-Drâa region, western Algeria border; Western Sahara, south from Laayoune, El-Aaiún, El Ayun; Mhamid. 195,000 (2004 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Hasanya, Hassani, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sahrawi, Sulaka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.
[aju] Casablanca-Settat region. 8,930 (2000). 90% in Casablanca (1997 World Jewish Congress). Total users in all countries: 258,930. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Many borrowings from Spanish [spa], Ladino [lad], and French [fra]. Jewish.
Arabic, Moroccan Spoken
[ary] Widespread, south of Atlas Mountains, including Sahara port cities. 24,800,000 in Morocco, all users. L1 users: 19,800,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 5,000,000. Total users in all countries: 28,421,200 (as L1: 23,301,200; as L2: 5,120,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Colloquial Arabic, Maghrebi Arabic, Maghribi, Moroccan Arabic, Moroccan Colloquial Arabic, Moroccan Dareja, Moroccan Darija, Moroccan Dereja. Autonym: الدارجة (Darija). Dialects: Rabat-Casablanca Arabic, Fez, Meknes, Tangier, Oujda, Jebli (Jbala, Jebelia), Southern Morocco Arabic, Marrakech. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.
[fra] Widespread. 10,380,000 in Morocco, all users. L1 users: 80,000. L2 users: 10,300,000 (2013). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.
Moroccan Sign Language
[xms] Scattered in urban areas. 63,400. 63,400 sign language users, 155,000 total deaf (2008 WFD). 165,000 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LSM, Langue des signes du Maroc, Langue des signes marocaine, MSL. Dialects: None known. Signing varies between different cities, due to differences in the deaf schools, but is beginning to unify as younger Deaf people from different cities are in contact with each other. Signed exact version of the spoken language (Arabic [arb] or French [fra]) is often used by teachers, and they may introduce signs from ASL [ase], LSF [fsl] or other foreign sign languages; students learn the local variety of sign language from their peers. Reported Algerian Sign Language [asp] influence in Oujda. Young Deaf adults, ages 15–40 (as of 2014), are in contact with deaf from other cities and countries via the internet and are borrowing some signs. Classification: Sign language. Comments: One-handed fingerspelling systems for words borrowed from French [fra] and Arabic [arb]. American Sign Language [ase] reportedly introduced by United States Peace Corps. 5 interpreters (2008 WFD). Very few hearing people sign well. Muslim.
[sjs] Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate region: west of Tarifit, Ketama area. 50,000 (2013). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Senhaja de Srair, Senhajiya, Shilha, Shilha Barbarya, Shilha n Jbala, Tajeblit, Tamazight, Tamazight n Jbala, Tasenhajit. Dialects: Beni Ahmed, Beni Bechir, Beni Buensar, Beni Jennus, Beni Mesdui, Beni Seddat, Quetama (Ketama), Sarcat, Tagsut. A separate language from Tarifit [rif]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Riff. Comments: Shilha is Arabic for Moroccan Berber language varieties in general. Shilha n Jbala or Tamazight n Jbala are commonly used names which mean Berber of the Mountain People. An Arabic name for this is Senhajiya. Muslim.
[spa] Scattered. North coast. 3,416,590 in Morocco, all users. L1 users: 6,590 (Instituto Cervantes 2012). L2 users: 3,410,000 (Instituto Cervantes 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.
[shi] Souss-Massa-Drâa, Guelmim-Es Semara, Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz, and Tadla-Azilal regions: coast south to Ifni, north to near Agadir, northeast to Marrakech outskirts, east to Drâa, including Sous valley, and south near the border. 3,890,000 (2004 census). Total users in all countries: 3,896,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Shilha, Soussiya, Southern Shilha, Susiya, Tachilhit, Tashelheyt, Tashelhit, Tashilheet, Tashlhiyt, Tasoussit. Autonym: Tachelhit. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas. Comments: ‘Shilha’ is the Arabic name for Moroccan Berber varieties in general. Muslim.
Tamazight, Central Atlas
[tzm] Widespread, especially Middle and east High Atlas Mountains, adjacent valleys to Taza, Rabat area; 1,200,000 in rural areas between Taza, Khemisset, Azilal, Errachidia; 100,000 outside the language area. 2,340,000 (2004 census). 936,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 2,490,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Shilha, Middle Atlas Berber, Moroccan Amazigh, Shilha, Tachelhit. Dialects: Much dialect variety. May be more than 1 language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas. Comments: 65% live in rural areas, 10% live outside the traditional area. Muslim.
Tamazight, Standard Moroccan
[rif] Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate and Oriental regions. Dialects from all areas of the Rif. 1,270,000 (2004 census). Total users in all countries: 1,423,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arrif, Northern Shilha, Rif, Rif Berber, Rifeño, Riff, Rifia, Rifiya, Ruafa, Shilha, Tamazight, Tamazight n Arrif, Tarifiyt, Tarifyt Berber. Dialects: Iznasen (Beni Snassen), Ayt Waryaghar, Ayt Ittef, Ayt Mezduy, Ayt Aamart, Ibeqquyen, Ayt Tamsaman, Ayt Tuzin, Igzennayen, Ayt Saaid, Ayt Urishesh, Ayt Tfarsit, Iqeraayen, Ayt Buyahyi, Ayt Settut, Icebdanen. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Riff. Comments: Muslim.