Madagascar

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English
[eng] Scattered. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Anglisy. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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French
[fra] 4,840,000 in Madagascar, all users. L1 users: 120,000 (2005). L2 users: 4,720,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 6). Alternate Names: Frantsay, Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Madagascar Sign Language
[mzc] Scattered. 110,000 (2014 IMB). Estimated 170,000, based on 1% of general population (2014 Rajaonary Theodoric, World Association of Sign Language Interpreters). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malagasy Sign Language. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Norwegian Sign Language [nsl], but this needs verification. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 7 deaf schools sponsored by Evangelical Lutherans. 5 working sign language interpreters (2014 World Association of Sign Language Interpreters).

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Malagasy
[mlg] Population total all languages: 18,138,380 Status: Comments: Includes: Antankarana Malagasy [xmv], Bara Malagasy [bhr], Masikoro Malagasy [msh], Northern Betsimisaraka Malagasy [bmm], Plateau Malagasy [plt], Sakalava Malagasy [skg], Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy [bzc], Tandroy-Mahafaly Malagasy [tdx], Tanosy Malagasy [txy], Tesaka Malagasy [tkg], Tsimihety Malagasy [xmw].

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Malagasy, Antankarana
[xmv] Diana and Sava regions; Sofia region: a small area. 156,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antakarana Malagasy, Antekarana, Antekarana Malagasy, Tankarana, Tankarana Malagasy. Autonym: Antakarana. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy. Comments: Muslim.

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Malagasy, Bara
[bhr] Amoron’i Mania, Anosy, Atsimo-Andrefana, Ihorombe, Menabe, and Vakinankaratra regions into Atsimo-Atsinanana region; some in Androy and west Haute Matsiatra regions. 724,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Autonym: Bara Malagasy. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Masikoro
[msh] Atsimo-Andrefana region: Moromba south to Tollara; Menabe region: coast near Mangoky river, inland near Mozambique channel. 550,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: A quarter are Masikoro; the rest are Masikoro speakers from other ethnic groups. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Autonym: Masikoro Malagasy. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka
[bmm] Alaotra-Mangoro, Analanjirofo, and Atsinanana regions; Sava region: south of Bemariva river; Sofia region: east and southeast; areas in Analamanga and Vakinankaratra regions. East coast from Mahanoro north. 1,270,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antavaratra. Autonym: Betsimisaraka. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Plateau
[plt] Alaotra-Mangoro, Amoron’i Mania, Analamanga, Antananarivo, Betsiboka, Bongolava, Fianarantsoa, and Vakinankaratra regions. 7,520,000 (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 7,544,380. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Provisional Constitution, Article 6), use limited in higher education. Alternate Names: Ambaniandro, Borizany, Fiteny Malagasy, Hova, Malgache, Official Malagasy, Standard Malagasy, Teny ofisiealy. Autonym: Malagasy. Dialects: Merina, Betsileo, Sihanaka, Bezanozano, Tanala, Vakinankaritra, Zafimaniry. Reportedly the most similar language outside Madagascar is Ma’anyan [mhy] in south Borneo (Kalimantan, Indonesia). A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy. Comments: The standard is most similar to the Merina dialect, with loans incorporated from Bantu languages, Swahili [swh], Arabic, English, French. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Malagasy, Sakalava
[skg] Atsimo-Andrefana, Betsiboka, Boeny, Diana, Melaky, Menabe (coastline only) and Sofia regions; western Amoron’i Mania, Bongolava, and Vakinankaratra regions. 1,210,000 (2014 SIL). Based on extrapolations of latest census figures to report on Malagasy people groups (2014 L. Bouwer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Vezo, Northern Sakalava Boeny, Southern Sakalava Boeny, Menabe. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka
[bzc] Alaotra-Mangoro region: south border; Amoron’i Mania, Atsimo-Atsinanana, and Vakinankaratra regions; Atsinanana region: Mahanoro district; Vatovavy-Fitovinany region: Nosy Varika, Manakara Atsimo, and Mananjary districts. 2,000,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Antatsimo, Betsimisaraka. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Malagasy, Tandroy-Mahafaly
[tdx] Androy region: Ambovombe, Bekily, Beloha, and Tsihombe districts; Anosy and Atsimo-Andrefana regions. 1,300,000 (2011 SIL). Tandroy 865,000; Mahafaly 330,000; Karimbola 103,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahafaly, Tandroy. Autonym: Antandroy. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Tanosy
[txy] Androy, Anosy, and Atsimo-Andrefana regions: southeast coast; Atsimo-Atsinanana region: Mahafaly area and northeast. 639,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Tesaka
[tkg] Anosy, Atsimo-Atsinanana, and Ihorombe regions; migrating, particularly to western deltas. 1,130,000 (2010 T. Bergman). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antaisaka, Antesaka, Atesaka. Autonym: Tesaka Malagasy. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Malagasy, Tsimihety
[xmw] Analanjirofo, Sava and Sofia regions; Alaotra-Mangoro and Diana regions: small areas. 1,615,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tsimihety. Autonym: Tsimihety Malagasy. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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