Myanmar

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Akeu
[aeu] Shan State, Kengtung and Mongla townships. 1,000 in Myanmar (2004 E. Johnson). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akheu, Aki, Akui. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Akha
[ahk] Shan State, east Kengtung district. 200,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007a). Total users in all countries: 563,960. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Aka, Ak’a, Ekaw, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani. Dialects: Much dialectal variation; some do not understand each other. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Anal
[anm] Sagaing: Tamu town, 10 households. 50 in Myanmar (2010). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Namfau. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Anong
[nun] Northern Kachin State, mainly Kawnglangphu township. 400 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley), decreasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 450. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Anoong, Anu, Anung, Fuchve, Fuch’ye, Khingpang, Kwingsang, Kwinp’ang, Naw, Nawpha, Nu. Dialects: Slightly different dialects of Anong spoken in China and Myanmar, although no reported difficulty communicating with each other. Low inherent intelligibility with the Matwang variety of Rawang [raw]. Lexical similarity: 87%–89% with Anong in Myanmar and Anong in China, 73%–76% with T’rung [duu], 77%–83% with Matwang variety of Rawang [raw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish. Comments: Different from Nung (Tai family) of Viet Nam, Laos, and China, and from Chinese Nung (Cantonese) of Viet Nam. Anong is one of the five principal divisions of Rawang clans, along with Matwang [raw], Daru-Jerwang, Longmi, and Tangsar (Morse 1989:240). Christian.

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Blang
[blr] Shan State: Mong Yang and Kengtung townships. 12,000 in Myanmar (1994). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bulang, K’ala, Kawa, Kontoi, Plang, Pula, Pulang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang. Comments: Some urbanized in Myanmar, Thailand, and China. An official nationality in China. Buddhist, Christian.

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Burmese
[mya] Widespread in central Myanmar. 32,000,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007a), increasing. 250,000 Beik, 20,000 Yaw. L2 users: 10,000,000 in Myanmar. Total users in all countries: 42,875,600 (as L1: 32,875,600; as L2: 10,000,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1974, Constitution, Articles 102, 152(b), 198). Alternate Names: Bama, Bamachaka, Myanmar, Myen. Dialects: Beik (Merguese, Mergui), Yaw, Mandalay Burmese, Yangon Burmese. Diglossic high and low varieties. Bangladesh speakers use a non-standard variety called Bomang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: The official language name is Myanmar. Educated speech has many Pali borrowings. Buddhist.

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Chak
[ckh] Rakhine State: 17 villages. 1,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 1,600 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ashah, Sak, Thet. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Luish. Comments: Distinct from Chakma [ccp]. Buddhist.

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Chakma
[ccp] Chin State: Paletwa township, a few villages; Rakhine State: Buthidaung, Maungdaw, Punnakyun, and Kyauktaw (main concentration) townships. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daingnet, Sangma. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Dialect variation by township. A variety of Bangla, not to be confused with Chak [ckh]. Buddhist.

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Chin, Anu-Hkongso
[anl] Chin State: Paletwa township, between Kaladan and Michaung rivers. 4,000 (2008), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaungso, Kaungtso, Khaungtso, Khawngso, Khong, Khongso, No. Dialects: Anu, Hkongso. Lexical similarity: 96%–98% and high intelligibility between Anu and Hkongso dialects, 72%–76% with Mru [mro] but intelligibility is low, 23%–37% lexical similarity with all neighboring Chin languages, but bilingualism is high. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Mru. Comments: Although the Anu and Hkongso varieties are not part of the Kuki-Chin-Naga branch, these groups consider themselves to be Chin. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Asho
[csh] Ayeyarwady, Bago, and Magway regions, and Rakhine State. 170,000 in Myanmar (2015 Language and Social Development Organization). Total users in all countries: 174,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asho, Ashu, Hyow, Khamaw, Khamoe, Khyang, Kyang, Qin, Saingbaung, Sho, Shoa. Dialects: None known. Hyow (Khyang) variety in Bangladesh is more similar to Laitu [clt] than Asho [csh] and is likely a separate language. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: Although some consider the Uppu [cnb], Laitu [clt], Sumtu [csv], Songlai [csj], and Mro-Khimi [cmr] to be part of Asho [csh], these groups speak different languages from Asho (and each other) and view themselves as separate from Asho. Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Bawm
[bgr] Chin State, Paletwa township, south Chin hills, Pi Taung, Ton Balay, and Bahun Taung villages. 1,500 in Myanmar (2010), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bawm, Bawn, Bawng, Boam, Bom, Laisaw, Langkay. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Bualkhaw
[cbl] Chin State, Falam township, north of Falam town. 2,500 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bualkhaw-Chin, Phadei. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Falam Chin [cfm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Chinbon
[cnb] Chin State: Kanpetlet and Paletwa townships; Magway region: Saw and Sidoktaya townships; Rakhine State: Minbya township. 19,600 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chindwin Chin, Chinpon, Oo-pu, Sho, Tuishiip, Tuiship, Uppu, Ütbü. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Asho Chin [csh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Daai
[dao] Chin State: Kanpetlet, Matupi, Mindat, and Paletwa townships, 142 villages. 37,000 (2010). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dai, Khyo, Kkhyou. Dialects: Ngxang, Nghngilo (Yang), Ma-Tu, Shiip, Vet (Yet), Daa Yindu, Duk-Msang, Kheng, Mkui. Intelligibility among Nghngilo (Yang), Daa Yindu, and Mkui groups is high, but is lower among other groups. Lexical similarity: more than 90% with Daa Yindu, Yang, Mkui, Duk, and Msang, 81%–88% with Ngxang (Paletwa township) and Kheng, 80% with Shiip (Matupi township), 91%–94% with Gah/Ng-Gha (part of Müün [mwq]), and 81%–87% with Müün [mwq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: The name Nghmoye is used by both Yang and Daa Yindu to refer to each other. The Daai varieties in Matupi township have low intelligibility with the other varieties and should perhaps be considered a separate language. The Daa Yindu consider themselves to be a separate group from the Daai and do not accept the Daai name. Christian.

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Chin, Eastern Khumi
[cek] Chin State: Matupi township, 4 villages; Paletwa township, Sami subtownship, 85 villages. 12,000 (2009 SIL). Total for all the Eastern Khumi groups. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khami. Dialects: Nisay (Nise, Palyng, Tao Cha), Nideun (Amlai, Ghu, Laungtha, Maru, Paru, Tahaensae, Taheunso, Uiphaw), Lemi (Akelong, Aki Along, Kaja, Kajauk), Khongtu, Likhy (Likhaeng), Rengcaa (Namboi, Nangbwe), Khenlak, Asang (Kasang, Sangtha). High degree of intelligibility among the dialect groups, although strong attitudes against sharing the same literature. Lexical similarity: Nisay, Nideun, and Khongtu dialects share 92%–97%; Khenlak and Asang dialects also share 92%–97%; all dialects share at least 74% with each other; 75%–87% with Khumi Chin [cnk]; Likhy variety shares 86%–90% with Mro-Khimi Chin [cmr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: These dialect groups do not have a unified identity or overarching name for themselves. However, because their speech varieties are highly intelligible with each other and because they are referred to as Nisay - eastern groups - by the Khumi, the term Eastern Khumi is used here as a cover term to refer to these groups. The Likhy people live among the other Eastern Khumi peoples, but their language is very similar to the Aroeng variety of Mro-Khimi [cmr]. Also, some people use the name Ta-aw to refer to the groups in this region. Christian.

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Chin, Falam
[cfm] Chin State: Falam township. 69,000 in Myanmar (1983). 9,000 Tashon, 16,000 Zanniat, 7,000 Khualshim, 4,000 Lente, 14,400 Zahao, 18,600 Laizo (1983). Total users in all countries: 107,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Falam, Fallam, Halam, Hallam Chin. Dialects: Zanniat (Zahnyiet, Zanniet), Taisun (Shunkla, Sunkhla, Taishon, Tashom, Tashon), Laizo (Laiso, Laizao, Laizo-Shimhrin), Zahao (Lyen-Lyem, Yahow, Zahau, Zahau-Shimhrin, Za-How), Khualsim (Khualshim, Kwelshin), Lente (Gunte, Lyente), Sim, Tapong, Hualngo. The Chorei dialect (in India) and Zanniat may be separate languages. Collectively called Baro Halam. Tapong reportedly has difficult intelligibility for other dialect speakers. 75% lexical similarity with Zanniat dialect. Ngawn [cnw] is often included as a sub-group in Falam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Hakha
[cnh] Chin State: Hakha township; Magway region: extreme north, 2 small border areas. 100,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS). L2 users: 40,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 165,000 (as L1: 125,000; as L2: 40,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as an LWC in church, market, business, and some media in parts of Chin State: Hakha township, Thantlang township, and parts of Matupi township. Alternate Names: Baungshe, Haka, Haka Chin, Hakha, Lai, Lai Chin. Dialects: Klangklang (Thantlang), Zokhua. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Kaang
[ckn] Chin State, Mindat township, 3 villages. 1,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kang, Makaang, Mgan, M’kaang, Mkan. Dialects: Some dialectal variation among Kaang villages. Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with Rawngtu Chin [weu], 77%–79% with Müün Chin [mwq], 67%–80% with Daai [dao] varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Khumi
[cnk] Chin State, Paletwa township, Kaladan river area; Rakhine State, Kyauktaw township, a few villages. 60,000 in Myanmar (2006). Total users in all countries: 62,090. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaladan Khumi, Khumi, “Khweymi” (pej.), Yangpan. Dialects: Pi Chaung, Kaladan, Eastern Kaladan, Southern Paletwa. Little dialect variation within Khumi. Lexical similarity: 76%–87% with Eastern Khumi varieties, 78%–81% with Mro-Khimi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Laitu
[clj] Rakhine State: Sittwe district, Minpya, Mrauk-U, and Myepung townships; Chin State: Paletwa township. 15,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daitu, Hio Bei, Hle-tu, Laikhy, Laitu Chin, Laitu Kheu, Ledu, Leitu. Dialects: Panmyaunggyi Stream (Kongtu), Phuntha Stream (Daaitu), Kanni Stream, Yaw Stream, Dalet Stream (Doitu, Ekai, Khulai). Dialects tend to differ by stream. High intelligibility within the main dialect area along the Kanni Stream and Yaw Stream. Lower intelligibility with more distant dialect areas, such as Dalet Stream. Intelligibility to some extent with Sumtu Chin [csv]. Low intelligibility with Chinbon Chin [cnb]. Low intelligibility with Songlai [csj]. Lexical similarity: 91%–96% with Sumtu Chin [csv] and Songlai Chin [csj], 85%–89% with Chinbon Chin [cnb], 82%–84% with Asho [csh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Chin, Lautu
[clt] Chin State, Matupi and Thantlang townships, 17 villages. 15,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lautu, Lautu Chin, Lawhtu. Dialects: None known. High intelligibility within Lautu. Some differences between the northern Surngen variety and the southern varieties. Lexical similarity: 90%–97% within Lautu Chin, 87%–94% with Mara Chin [mrh], 82%–85% with Zophe Chin [zyp], 80%–86% with Senthang Chin [sez]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Mara
[mrh] Chin State, Paletwa, Matupi, and Thantlang townships, border area with Mizoram in India, 70 villages. 20,000 in Myanmar (1994). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Lakher, Mara, Maram, Mira, Miram, Zao. Dialects: Tlongsai, Hlawthai, Sabeu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Matu
[hlt] Chin State, Matupi township. 30,000 in Myanmar (2012). Total users in all countries: 40,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nga La. Dialects: Ciing (Langle-Tamtlaih, Ngaleng, Phaneng, Siing, Vuitu), Doem (Ngatu, Valang), Langle-Tamtlaih, Ngaleng, Phaneng, Thlangpang (Changpyang), Ngala (Batu). Not intelligible with Hakha Chin [cnh]. Mizoram Matu reportedly not intelligible with Myanmar varieties. There are many Matu varieties in Myanmar, all intelligible to some extent with each other. Lexical similarity: 78%–89% within Matu varieties in Myanmar, 65%–76% with Rawngtu Chin [weu], 66%–71% with Thaiphum Chin [cth]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: The Chin in Mindat Township refer to all the Matu as Batu, but the Matu use this name only for the area around Matupi Town. Christian.

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Chin, Mizo
[lus] Chin State, northwest Falam, western Tedim and Tonzang townships, near India border. 12,500 in Myanmar (1983 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Haulngo, Hualngo, Ka-Lin-Kaw, Le, Lusai, Lushai, Lushay, Lushei, Mizo, Whelngo. Dialects: Dulien, Ngente, Mizo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Müün
[mwq] Chin State: Mindat township; Magway region: Saw and Tilin townships. 15,000 (2011). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cho, K’cho, K’cho Chin, Mindat, Mün, Müün. Dialects: Ng’men (Hletlong, Hmong-K’cha, Nitu), Hngiyung. Related to Daai Chin [dao]. The Daai who live close to the Müün understand Müün due to contact. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: The ethnonyms Yawdwin, Chinbok, Tsinbok, Chinme, and Chinbe are old colonial names referring to people groups of current south Chin State and neighboring Yaw Valley and not to distinct languages. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Ngawn
[cnw] Chin State, north Falam township. 15,000 (1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngawn, Ngon, Ngorn. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Rawngtu
[weu] Chin State: Mindat township; Magway region: Htilin township, 2 villages. 5,000 (2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rongtu, Shimi, Welaung. Dialects: Kyonnam, Welaung, Boishi, Shitwanu. Most Rawngtu in Mindat township adequately comprehend the Kyonnam variety, but nearby Matu [hlt] villages in Matupi township do not. These villages also do not consider themselves Rawngtu. Lexical similarity: more than 90% within Rawngtu; 84%–89% with Matupi Daai [dao], 67%–74% with Kaang Chin [ckn], 71%–83% with Matu varieties [hlt], less than 70% with Rungtu [rtc]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Rungtu
[rtc] Magway Region: Htilin and Kyaukhtu townships, 25 villages. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2015 Language and Social Development Organization). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chin, Rungtu, Taungtha. Dialects: Northern Rungtu, Central Rungtu, Southern Rungtu. Lexical similarity: 94%–96% within Rungtu, 60%–66% with Rawngtu Chin [weu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Senthang
[sez] Chin State: Hakha township; Thantlang township, 2 villages; Magway region: Gangaw township, 15 villages; Sagaing region: Kaleymyo township, 2 villages. 33,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hsemtang, Sentang. Dialects: Surkhua/Lungrang, Shoneshi (Shonshe), Sakta, Central Senthang (Bungzung, Khuapi, Lei-Um, Phaipha), Shonshe. High intelligibility among all Senthang villages, except possibly outlying dialects of Shoneshi, Surkhua (Lungrang), and Sakta. Lexical similarity: 79%–95% within Senthang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic. Comments: Preliminary orthography developed and primers designed: 2007–2010. Christian, Buddhist.

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Chin, Siyin
[csy] Chin State, south Tedim township. 10,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Siyang, Siyin, Sizang. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tedim Chin [ctd] and Paite Chin [pck]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Songlai
[csj] Chin State: Paletwa township, Mang Um, Doitu, and Hettui dialects; Rakhine State: Mrauk-U township (Lai dialect); along the Laymyo or Phunglaung river. 7,300 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hio. Dialects: Doitu, Hettui, Mang Um (Song), Lai. Lexical similarity over 90% with Laitu Chin [clj] but low intelligibility. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Sumtu
[csv] Rakhine State: Ann, Minbya, and Myebon townships. 14,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ahmyo, Chang, Hmyo, Settu, Settu Hmyo, Sumtu Chin, Sungtu. Dialects: Some variation between Minbya and Myebon townships, more variation with Ann township. High intelligibility within Sumtu. Lexical similarity: 91%–96% with Laitu Chin [clj], 96%–97% with Dalet Stream variety of Laitu Chin, 84%–87% with Chinbon Chin [cnb]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Tawr
[tcp] Chin State: Haka Township, Lamthok and Rovan villages. 700 (1996 D. van Bik). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tawr, Torr. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central. Comments: Included in official ethnic list as Torr. Not the same as Chintaw, a dialect of Achang [acn], a Northern Burmic language spoken in Yunnan, China. Christian.

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Chin, Tedim
[ctd] Chin State: Tedim and Tonzang townships; Sagaing: Kale and Mawlaik townships. 189,000 in Myanmar (1990). Total users in all countries: 344,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hai-Dim, Tedim, Tiddim, Zomi. Dialects: Sokte, Kamhau (Kamhao, Kamhow). Other area Chin languages or dialects are Saizang [pck], Teizang [pck], and Zo [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Comments: Zomi may refer to Tedim [ctd] or to all Chin groups. Christian.

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Chin, Thado
[tcz] Sagaing Region, Khamti, Homalin, Layshi, and Tamu townships, India border area. 26,200 in Myanmar (1983 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: “Kuki” (pej.), “Kuki-Thado” (pej.), Thado-Pao, Thadou, Thado-Ubiphei. Dialects: Baite, Paite, Changsen, Jangshen, Kaokeep, Khongzai, Kipgen, Langiung, Sairang, Thangngen, Hawkip. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Thaiphum
[cth] Chin State, Matupi township, 4 villages. 1,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thaiphum, Thui Phum. Dialects: Very little dialectal variation among the Thaiphum villages. Thaiphum is intelligible to some extent with neighboring languages, such as the Eastern Khumi [cek] varieties of Khenlak, Asang, and Rengcaa. Lexical similarity: 72%–75% with Eastern Khumi [cek], 69%–71% with Khumi [cnk], 65%–68% with Mro-Khimi [cmr], 66%–71% with Matu Chin [hlt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Zotung
[czt] Chin State, Reizwa subtownship. 40,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yotun, Zo Mingphuin, Zobya, Zotung. Dialects: None known. Reportedly intelligible with Hakha Chin [cnh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Zyphe
[zyp] Chin State, Thantlang township. 17,000 in Myanmar (1994). Total users in all countries: 20,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zo-pe, Zophei, Zoptei, Zyphe. Dialects: Lower Zyphe, Upper Zyphe. Reportedly similar to Mara Chin [mrh]. Myanmar and India varieties reportedly mutually intelligible. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Maraic. Comments: Christian.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Shan State: large area on China border, Kokang Self-Administered Zone (Laukkai and Konkyan townships) and Muse township. 500,000 in Myanmar (1994). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Tayok. Dialects: Kokang (Kokant). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. The Kokang have been given a Self-Administered Zone. The Kokang dialect in Myanmar is most similar to the dialect spoken in Yunnan Province, China. Buddhist, Daoist.

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Danau
[dnu] Shan State: Kalaw township, Ang Pan area, just west of Inle lake, on road to Heho. 1,000 (Robinne 2000). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Robinne 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Danaw. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Riang Lang [ril]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Danau. Comments: Not the same as Danu [dnv], a Southern Burmic language. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Danu
[dnv] Shan State, Danu self-administered zone, Ywa Ngan and Pindaya townships; Taunggyi, Yak Sauk, Ye Oo, Aung Ban, and Kalaw townships. 100,000 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taruw. Dialects: Some dialect variation between Danu villages; however, intelligilibility is quite high. Lexical similarity: 93% with standard Burmese [mya], 93% with Intha [int], 91% with Taungyo [tco], 85%–94% with Rakhine [rki]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Officially considered a Burmese dialect. Not the same as Danau [dnu], a Palaungic language. Buddhist.

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Drung
[duu] Far north Kachin State, Pannandin township, Talatu and Khraung villages. 225 in Myanmar. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Derung, Dulong, Durung, Qiu, Rawang, Tarong, Thrung, Trung, T’rung, Tulung, Tvrung. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish. Comments: Geographically isolated from the Drung in China. Christian.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] Shan State, Kunlong, Hseni, and Namtu townships, 6 villages; Kachin State, Bhamo district, Momauk township. 10,000 in Myanmar (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Man Zi, Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Miao Tsi, Mong Leng, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Hpon
[hpo] Kachin State, Bhamo district, upper Ayeyarwady gorges. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Hpön, Megyaw, Phon, Phön, Phun, Samong. Dialects: North Hpon, South Hpon. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern.

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Intha
[int] South Shan State, Taunggyi district, Inle lake area, Shwe Nyaung township. Important Intha-speaking villages: Heha Ywama (largest), In Chan, Tha Lay, Nan Pan, and Paw Kon. 90,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inntha, Insa, Naung Ma. Dialects: Well-known nonstandard variety of Burmese [mya] with major pronunciation and vocabulary differences. Some dialect variation between Intha villages; however, intelligibility reportedly high. Some comprehension of Danu [dnv] and Taungyo [tco]. Lexical similarity: 95% with standard Burmese [mya], 93% with Danu [dnv], 89% with Taungyo [tco], 90% with Rakhine [rki]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Officially viewed as a Burmese dialect. Pa-O people call them Naung Ma, people who live on the lake. Buddhist.

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Jingpho
[kac] Very large area, mainly Kachin State, except for north and southwest; Shan State, Muse and Lashio districts; Sagaing region: western border strip. 900,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Total users in all countries: 940,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Lingua franca for Zaiwa [atb], Lashi [lsi], and Lhao Vo [mhx]. Alternate Names: Aphu, Chingpaw, Chingp’o, Jinghpaw, Jinghpo, Jingphaw, Kachin, Phu. Dialects: Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Gauri, Guari, Hkauri), Dzili (Jili), Dulong (Dalaung, Duleng). Dzili is likely a separate language that is most likely extinct. Hkaku and Kauri are only slightly different. Lexical similarity: 50% with Singhpo [sgp] of India. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho. Comments: Kachin refers to a cultural, not linguistic, group. Christian.

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Kadu
[zkd] Sagaing region: Katha district, Banmauk and Indaw townships; also in Homalin, Paungbyin, Pinlebu, and Wuntho townships. 30,000 (2007 SIL), decreasing. Over 30 villages in Mawteik dialect (nearly extinct); over 30 villages in Settaw dialect; 5 villages in Mawkhwin dialect. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Asak, Gadu, Ka’do, Kadu-Ganaan, Kantu’, Kato, Kudo, Maw, Mawteik, Puteik, Thet. Dialects: Mawkhwin, Settaw, Mawteik. Each Kadu dialect distinct with low comprehension between the Mawkhwin, Settaw, and Mawteik Kadu varieties. All Kadu (except possibly Mawkhwin Kadu) have low comprehension of Kanan [zkn]. Lexical similarity: 95%–98% with Settaw and Mawteik Kadu, 91%–93% with Mawkhwin Kadu and other Kadu varieties, 84%–89% with Kadu varieties and Kanan [zkn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Luish. Comments: Different from Kaduo [ktp], a Sino-Tibetan language of China and Laos. The Kadu say they are descended from the Thet, also known as Sak (see Chak [ckh]). Buddhist.

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Kanan
[zkn] Sagaing Region: Katha district, Banmauk township, along Mu river, southwest of Kadu [zkd] language area, 24 villages; Homalin, Indaw, and Pinlebu townships, a few villages. 9,000 (2007 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganaan, Ganan, Ganon, Genan, Kana. Dialects: None known. High comprehension within all the Kanan villages. Low comprehension of, but reportedly similar to, Kadu [zkd]. Lexical similarity: 95%–99% within Kanan varieties, 84%–89% with Kadu varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Luish. Comments: Buddhist.

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Karen, Bwe
[bwe] Kayin State: Thandaung township, about 100 villages; Kayah State: Hpruso township; Bago: Taungoo and Hpa-Ana townships. 17,200 (1997 F. Bennett), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baghi, Bghai Karen, Blimaw, Bwe, Dareh, Manaw. Dialects: Western Bwe Karen, Eastern Bwe Karen. Most comprehend Western Bwe Karen dialect; some comprehend Geba [kvq] and Kayaw [kvl]; no inherent intelligibility with Kayah [eky] or Geko [ghk]. Lexical similarity: 82%–100% with Geba Karen [kvq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Western Bwe Karen more widely understood, more prestigious. Bwe is sometimes used as an overarching cover term for all high-dwelling Central Karennic groups, who are not S’gaw Karen or Pwo Karen. Bwe people are very similar to the Mobwa people in lifestyle and culture. Christian.

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Karen, Geba
[kvq] North Kayin State, Thandaunggyi township, 140 villages; Bago Region; Mandalay Region, Pyinmana township; Shan State, Pekon and Pinlong townships; Kayah State. 40,000 (2010 Geba Literature and Culture Committee). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daneh, Geba, Kaba, Karenbyu, Kayinbyu, Kono, Koo-ong, Northern Bwe. Dialects: Sawkho, Gerkho-Geba, Thamitaik (Sawkeepho). May be same subgroup with Bwe Karen [bwe] and Kayaw [kvl]. Some comprehension of Bwe Karen [bwe]. Sawkho and Gerkho-Geba varieties slightly divergent. Lexical similarity: 82%–100% with Bwe Karen [bwe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Geko Karen [ghk] and Geba Karen are grouped together in the local Baptist Association administration and are often considered to be the same language (Geko-Geba), although they are distinct. Christian.

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Karen, Geko
[ghk] North Kayin State, Thandaunggyi township; south Shan State, Pekon township; Mandalay Region, Yamethin District; Bago Region, Toungoo district. 17,000 (Manson 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaikho, Gekho, Gek’o, Ghekhol, Ghekhu, Gheko, Kakhau, Kayan, Kayan Kakhau, Kekaungdu, Kekhong, Keku, Yathu Gekho. Dialects: Geker, Gekho, Thaidai (Htideh). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Geko Karen is often considered a sub-variety or clan of Kayan [pdu]. Geko Karen and Geba Karen [kvq] are grouped together in the local Baptist Association administration and are often considered to be the same language (Geko-Geba), although they are distinct. Christian.

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Karen, Mobwa
[jkm] Kayin State, Thandaung township, western foot of Thandaung mountains, 9 villages; some in Bago, Taungoo township. 4,000 (2010 SIL). Also live mixed with Bwe Karen [bwe] and Paku Karen [jkp] in some villages. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bilichi, Blimaw, Dermuha, Maleh, Mobwa Karen, Monpwa, Mopwa, Palachi, Palakhi, Palaychi, Pa-Le-Chi. Dialects: Palaychi (Southern Mobwa), Dermuha (Southern Mobwa). Reportedly similar to Paku Karen [jkp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern. Comments: Similar to Bwe Karen [bwe] in lifestyle and culture. Christian.

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Karen, Paku
[jkp] North Kayin State, hills southeast of Taungoo in east Bago Region bordering Kayin State; south Kayah State. 5,300 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mogpha, Mogwa, Monebwa, Monnepwa, Mopaga, Mopha, Pagu, Paku, Paku Karen, Thalwepwe. Dialects: Shwe Kyin, Mawchi, Kyauk Gyi, Bawgali. Dialects based on villages: Kyauk Gyi and Shwe Kyin are spoken in east Bago Region, Taungoo District near Kayin State border; Mawchi is spoken in Kayah State; Bawgali is spoken in north Kayin State. Some Paku dialects are reportedly quite similar to S’gaw Karen [ksw], while others are more similar to Bwe [bwe] and Geba [kvq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Karen, Pwo Eastern
[kjp] Kayin State and Tanintharyi region, long contiguous area near Thai border; Bago region, Bago and Toungoo townships. 1,000,000 in Myanmar (1998). Total users in all countries: 1,050,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Moulmein Pwo Karen, Phlong, Phlou, Pho. Dialects: Pa’an (Inland Eastern Pwo Karen, Moulmein), Kawkareik (Eastern Border Pwo Karen), Tavoy (Southern Pwo Karen). Not intelligible with Pwo Karen [pwo]. Reportedly fairly high comprehension among Eastern Pwo Karen dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–97% among dialects; 63%–65% with Pwo Karen [pwo]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral. Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Karen, Pwo Western
[pwo] Ayeyarwady: Einmeh, Maubin, Pathein, Twante, others; Bago: including Kyonpyaw and Hinthada towns; Yangon: Twante. 210,000, decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bassein Pwo Karen, Delta Pwo Karen, Mon Karen, Mutheit, Pathein Pwo Karen, Phlong, Phlong Sho, Pho, Shu, Talaing Karen. Dialects: Very little dialectal variation among Western Pwo Karen. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral. Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Karen, S’gaw
[ksw] Scattered. Ayeyarwady delta area, Ayeyarwady, Bago, Kayin, and Rangon regions; generally along with Pwo Karen speakers. 1,280,000 in Myanmar (1983 census). L2 users: 80,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,560,000 (as L1: 1,480,000; as L2: 80,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). S’gaw Karen used in the church domain for many Karen languages. Alternate Names: Burmese Karen, Kanyaw, Kayinpyu, Kyetho, Paganyaw, Pchcknya, Pwakanyaw, S’gau, S’gaw, S’gaw Kayin, White Karen, Yang Khao. Dialects: Eastern dialect of S’gaw Karen (Pa’an), Southern dialect of Western Kayah (Dawei), Delta dialect of S’gaw Karen. Reportedly similar to Paku Karen [jkp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kawyaw
[kxf] Kayah State: West Kyèbogyi area, border of Bawlake and Hpruso townships, 23 villages. 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kayah-Munu, Kayàw, Manö, Manu, Manu Manaw, Manumanaw, Manumanaw Karen, Monu. Dialects: Tawkhu, Doloso. Reports of comprehension difficulty between the 2 dialects. Reportedly similar to Western Kayah [kyu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Kayah, Eastern
[eky] Kayah State, Shadaw township, east of Thanlwin river; Shan State, Langkho district. 8,000 in Myanmar (2007). Total users in all countries: 26,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karenni, Karennyi, Kayah Li, Kayay, Kayeh, Red Karen. Dialects: Upper Eastern Kayah, Lower Eastern Kayah. Upper Eastern Kayah and Lower Eastern Kayah are mutually intelligible; Huai Sua Thaw village (Lower Eastern) is prestigious in both dialect groups. Difficulty understanding Western Kayah [kyu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kayah, Western
[kyu] Kayah State and Kayin State, east of Thanlwin river; south Shan State, Pekon township; northern dialect: Shan State, north of Loikaw, southern dialect: Hpruso and Dimawso townships, south of Loikaw. 150,000 (2007). 2,000 refugees in Thailand. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karenni, Karennyi, Karieng Daeng, Kayah Li, Red Karen, Yang Daeng. Dialects: Northern dialect of Western Kayah, Southern dialect of Western Kayah, Dawtama, Dawnnyjekhu, Sounglog, Chi Kwe, Wan Cheh. Part of a dialect continuum of Central Karen varieties stretching from Thailand (Eastern Kayah [eky]) to western Kayah State. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kayan
[pdu] South Shan State, Pekon township; northwest Kayah State; Kayin State, Thandaung township; Mandalay Region, Pyinmana township. Kayan Lahwi dialect: Kayah State, Lahwi and northwest Dimawso; Shan State, south Pekon. Kayan Kangan dialect: northwest Kayah State, Dimawso area. 133,000 in Myanmar (2005 E. Phan). Total users in all countries: 133,180. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kayang, Ka-Yun, Lahwi, “Long-Necked Karen” (pej.), “Padaung” (pej.), “Padaung Karen” (pej.). Dialects: Standard Pekon, Kayan Lahwi, Kayan Kangan (Yeinbaw, Yinbaw). Significant dialectal variation. Most seem to understand standard Pekon (prestige) dialect. Lexical similarity: more than 90% among dialects, 71%–76% with Lahta [kvt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Kayaw
[kvl] East Kayah State, 30 villages; northeast Kayin State, Yado area; south Shan State, Pekon township. 16,600 (1983 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Bre” (pej.), “Brec” (pej.), “Brek” (pej.), Deleh, Ka-yaw, “Kayaw Brek” (pej.), Laku, “Paret” (pej.), Pramano, “Pre” (pej.), “Pret” (pej.). Dialects: Bwe-Kayaw, Upper Kayaw, Lower Kayaw. Upper Kayaw dialect is the basis for Kayaw literature. Some intelligibility with Bwe Karen [bwe], though some Kayaw who speak with the Bwe Karen may use S’gaw Karen [ksw] to communicate. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Brek and Bwe are variant names of a dialect continuum extending from southwest Kayah State to northeast Kayin (Karen) State. Bwe-Kayaw is a mixed variety spoken in the middle of this continuum. See also Karen, Bwe [bwe]. Christian.

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Khamti
[kht] Kachin State: Putao district (4,500) and Myitkyina area (3,500); north Sagaing Region. 8,000 in Myanmar (2000). Total users in all countries: 13,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hkamti, Kam Ti, Khampti, Khampti Shan, Khamti Shan, Khandi Shan, Tai Kam Ti, Tai-Khamti. Dialects: Assam Khamti, North Burma Khamti, Sinkaling Hkamti. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Khün
[kkh] East Shan State, Kentung valley area. 100,000 in Myanmar (Diller and Juntanamalaga 1990). Total users in all countries: 106,880. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gon Shan, Hkun, Khuen, Khun Shan, Khyn, Tai Khun, Tai-Khuen. Dialects: Muang Lang, Kang Muang. Khün, Northern Thai [nod] and Lü [khb] traditionally all use the same ancient script. Lexical similarity: 93%–100% with Khün varieties; Khün varieties: 90%–95% with Northern Thai [nod], 92%–95% with Lü [khb], 93%–97% with Shan [shn], 80%–83% with standard Thai [tha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Different from Khuen [khf], a Mon-Khmer language of Laos. Buddhist.

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Kokak
[nxk] Sagaing region: south Layshi township; 10 villages. 2,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koki, Konke, Naga, Koki. Dialects: Very little (if any) dialect variation within Kokak. Lexical similarity within Kokak: 98%. Lexical similarity: 19%–32% with Tangkhul Naga [ntx] in Myanmar, 23% with Akyaung Ari Naga [nqy], 22%–24% with Para Naga [pzn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified. Comments: Tribally, the Kokak are included as part of Tangkhul Naga [ntx], but their language is very distinct. Not the same as Kuki Chin (Chin, Thado [tcz]). Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Lacid
[lsi] Kachin State, east border area. 30,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). Total users in all countries: 31,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ac’ye, Chashan, La Chit, Lachi, Lachik, Lachikwaw, Lacik, Lashi, Lashi-Maru, Lasi, Lechi, Leqi, Letsi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Lahta
[kvt] Shan State: Pekon and Pinlaung townships; Mandalay Region, Pyinnmana township. 9,550 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kayan Lahta, Khahta, Lahta Karen, Peu, Taru, Tarulakhi, Yan Wohta. Dialects: Socially related to Kayan [pdu] but not intelligible. Zayein [kxk] may be a dialect of Lahta. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern. Comments: Officially recognized as part of Kayan [pdu]. Much dialect variation. Called Yan Wohta by the Shan [shn]. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Lahu
[lhu] Shan State, Kentung district. 200,000 in Myanmar (2012 D. Bradley), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Lahuna, Launa, Lohei, Muhso, Museu, Musso, Mussuh. Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Lohei, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Luhishi, Luhushi, Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lahu Shi
[lhi] Shan State, Kentung district. 60,000 in Myanmar (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Kwi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Little dialect variation between Lahu Shi spoken in Myanmar and Thailand. They live among the Lahu Na [lhu]. Christian.

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Lhao Vo
[mhx] Kachin State, east border area, Waimaw, Chiphwe, and Sawlaw townships, widely dispersed; north Shan State, Kutkai township. 100,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 1997). Total users in all countries: 103,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diso, Lang, Laungaw, Laungwaw, Lawgore, Lawng, Lhaovo, Liangsu, Lovo, Malu, “Maru” (pej.), Mulu, Zi. Dialects: Dago’ Lawng Bit, Zagaran Mran, Gawan Naw’, Hlo’lan, Laking, Wa Khawk, Lawng Hsu. Lawng Hsu may have difficult intelligibility with the other dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Different from Mru [mro] and Mro-Khimi [cmr] of northwest Rakhine State and Paletwa Township, South Chin State. Culturally similar to Kachin. Christian.

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Lisu
[lis] Kachin State: Putao township toward Assam border, also Myitkyina; Mandalay region: Mogota township; Sagaing region: Katha and Tygyaing townships; Shan State: Lashio and Loilen townships. 300,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007a). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Many use Lisu as L2. Alternate Names: Central Lisu, Li-Hsaw, Lisaw, Li-Shaw, Lu-Tzu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw Yin, Yaw-Yen, Yeh-Jeh. Dialects: Hwa Lisu (Flowery Lisu), Black Lisu, Lu Shi Lisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: All 3 dialects are found in Myanmar. Black Lisu is most distinct. The Lisu in Myanmar and Thailand have difficulties in communicating due to dialect differences. Christian.

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[khb] East Shan State, Muang Yong township. 60,000 in Myanmar (2013). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Lue, Pai-I, Shu-Ai-I, Tai Lu. Dialects: Muang Yong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Moken
[mwt] South. Tanintharyi Region, widespread throughout the islands of the Mergui archipelago. 4,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007a). Total users in all countries: 6,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Basing, Chau Ko’, Lawta, Mawken, Orang Laut, Salon, Salong, Selong, Selung. Dialects: Dung, Jait (Ja-It), L’be. Reportedly most similar to Moklen [mkm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen. Comments: Primarily live on boats, but occasionally settle on area islands. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mon
[mnw] Mon State and Kayin State: also in northern Tanintharyi region. 743,000 in Myanmar (2004), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 851,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aleng, Mou, Mun, Peguan, Raman, Rman, Rmen, Takanoon, Talaing, Taleng, Teguan. Dialects: Martaban-Moulmein (Central Mon, Mon Te), Pegu (Mon Tang, Northern Mon), Ye (Mon Nya, Southern Mon). Intelligibility between Mon varieties high; between Mon in Thailand and Myanmar 99% (Huffman 1976). Varieties in Myanmar and Thailand “mutually intelligible” (Bauer 1990) but lexical borrowings from Thai and Burmese may cause miscommunication (Guillon 1999). Lexical similarity: 69% with Mon and Nyah Kur [cbn] (Huffman 1976). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic. Comments: Remnants of a nation that once spread over south Myanmar and west Thailand. Preferred names: Mon or Raman. Buddhist.

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Mro-Khimi
[cmr] Chin State: Paletwa township; Rakhine State: Kyauktaw, Buthidaung, Ponnagyun, Pauktaw, Mrauk U, and Maungdaw townships. 75,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa Khami, Chin, Mro-Khimi, Khimi, Khumi Awa, “Kwe Myi” (pej.), Mro. Dialects: Arang (Ahraing Khami, Areung, Aroeng), Xengna (Hrengna), Xata, Vakung (Wakun, Wakung). Generally high comprehension of Vakung dialect among other dialect speakers. Vakung is the largest dialect and basis of literature. Lexical similarity: 91%–98% within Mro-Khimi varieties, 86%–90% with Likhy variety of Eastern Khumi [cek], 81%–85% with Lemi variety of Eastern Khumi [cek], 77%–81% with Kaladan Khumi [cnk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Mru
[mro] Rakhine State, Buthidaung, Maungdaw, and Ponnagyun townships. 20,000 in Myanmar (1999 ABWE). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dak, Launghu, Mro, Mrucha, Mrung, Mrusa, Murung, Niopreng, Taung Mru. Dialects: Anok, Dowpreng (Doumrong, Pongmi, Tamsa), Sungma, Launghu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Mru. Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Akyaung Ari
[nqy] Sagaing region: Layshi township, Heinkut, Jagram, and Ngachan villages. 1,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akyaung Ari Naga, Ngachan. Dialects: Very little (if any) dialect variation within Akyaung Ari Naga. Lexical similarity: 52% with Tanghkul Naga of Somra [ntx], 23% with Tangkhul Naga of Ukhrul in India [nmf], 23% with Koki Naga [nxk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified. Comments: Tribally, the Akyaung Ari are included as part of Tangkhul Naga, but their language is very distinct. Christian.

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Naga, Jejara
[pzn] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Layshi township; 7 villages. 1,500 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bara Naga, Naga, Para Naga, Parasar. Dialects: Very little dialect variation within Para. Lexical similarity: 83%–93% with Para Naga, 23%–25% with Long Phuri Naga [lpn], 17%–19% with Makuri Naga [jmn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Khiamniungan
[kix] Sagaing Region: Khamti district, Lahe and Khamti townships; about 30 villages. 10,000 in Myanmar (2010). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Makware, Nokaw, Para, Tukhemmi, Welam. Dialects: Wolam, Thang, Nokhu, Ponso. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga. Comments: This group is sometimes called Para by other groups, but the Para [pzn] are a different Naga group. Christian.

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Naga, Konyak
[nbe] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Lahe township. 2,000 in Myanmar (2010). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Kun, Lonwa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga. Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Kyan-Karyaw
[nqq] Sagaing region: Hkamti district, Lahe township, 13 villages, along the border with India. 9,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chen, Kaiyaw, Karyaw, Kayaw, Kayu, Kyan. Dialects: Kyan, Karyaw. The 2 dialects are closely related. Karyaw is reportedly similar to the Chuyo and Gakat dialects of Tase Naga [nst]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga.

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Naga, Lao
[nlq] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Lahe township, along the border with India. 1,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Law, Loh. Dialects: Reportedly most similar to Kyan-Karyaw Naga [nqq] and the Chuyo and Gakat dialects of Tase Naga [nst]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga.

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Naga, Leinong
[lzn] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Lahe township; about 25 villages. 7,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Htang Ngan, Htangan, Lainong Naga, Lenaung Naga. Dialects: Yao Dyang (Northern Leinong, Zau Dyang), Southern Leinong. High intelligibility in Leinong villages. Lexical similarity: within Leinong Naga 89%–100%. Lexical similarity: 69%–75% with Ponyo-Gongwang Naga [npg], 62%–67%with Khiamniungan Naga [kix], 37%–41% with Lao variety of Konyak Naga [nbe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga. Comments: The majority group within Lahe Township. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Long Phuri
[lpn] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Layshi township, 6 villages. 1,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amimi Naga, Longpfuri, Longpfuru, Mimi. Dialects: Little (if any) dialect variation within Long Phuri. Lexical similarity: 30%–37% with Makuri Naga [jmn], 23%–25% with Para Naga [pzn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Makuri
[jmn] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Layshi, Homalin, and Lahe townships. 2,500 in Myanmar (2004). Total users in all countries: 6,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makuri, Makury. Dialects: Makhwale, Saingphule (Saingpuri), Arale, Kyile, Kyaungphuri (Shu), Shera (Shaera). Lexical similarity: 93% with Makuri Naga, 30%–37% with Long Phuri Naga [lpn], 17%–19% with Para Naga [pzn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Unclassified. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Makyan
[umn] Sagaing region: Hkamti district, northeast Lahe and Hkamti townships, 13 villages. 4,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lasam, Macham Naga, Makyam, Pongnyun. Dialects: Main dialect variation is between western Makyan villages and Kuku villages. Lexical similarity: 99% with western Makyan, 31%–35% with Ponyo-Gongwang Naga [npg], 29%–36% with Leinong Naga [lzn], 27%–28% with Lao variety of Konyak Naga [nbe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga. Comments: Endoglossonym: Makyam. Distinct language from Leinong Naga [lzn], although culturally and geographically related. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Ponyo-Gongwang
[npg] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Lahe township, 19 villages. 4,500 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gongvan, Gongwang, Gongwang Naga, Manauk, Mannok, Ponyo, Ponyo Naga, Pounyu, Saplow, Solo, Tsawlaw. Dialects: Ponyo, Gongwang. Very little dialect variation within Gongwang and within Ponyo, but between these 2 dialects, there are differences. Comprehension seems to be high between Ponyo and Gongwang speakers. Lexical similarity: 89%–91% between Ponyo and Gongwang, 69%–75% with Leinong Naga [lzn], 67%–73% with Khiamniungan Naga [kix]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga. Comments: They feel culturally and linguistically related to both Leinong Naga [lzn] and Khiamniungan Naga [kix]. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Tangkhul
[ntx] Sagaing region: Layshi township, Somra tract; Homalin township. 4,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Somara, Somra, Tangkhul Naga. Dialects: Somra. Very little dialect variation within Tangkhul (Somra) Naga. Somra village is the prestige dialect. Lexical similarity: 93%–94% with Tangkhul (Somra) Naga, 31% with Tangkhul Naga [nmf] in India, 51%–52% with Akyaung Ari Naga [nqy], 29%–32% with Koki Naga [nxk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Tangkhul. Comments: Included in official ethnic group list as Tangkhul. The Koki Naga [nxk] and Akyaung Ari Naga [nqy] in Myanmar are included tribally within Tangkhul, but their languages are quite distinct. The Tangkhul (Somra) Naga [ntx] language in Myanmar is very different from Tangkhul (Ukhrul) Naga [nmf] in India. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Tase
[nst] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Nanyun, Pangsau, Lahe, and Khamti townships; Kachin State: Myitkyina district, Shinbwiyan and Tanai townships. 60,000 in Myanmar (2010). Total users in all countries: 100,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haimi, Hawa, Heimi, Kuwa, Pangmi, Pangwa, Rangpan, Rangpang, Tangshang, Tangwa, Tase. Dialects: Bote (Bongtai, Butay, Hteinpa, Nokpa, Nukpa), Chamchang (Kimsing), Champhang (Thamphang), Chuyo (Wanggu, Wangoo), Gaha (Halum), Gakat (Wakka, Wanga), Gaqchan (Gashan), Gawkchung (Kochong), Henchin (Sanching, Shangchein), Kaisan (Kyetsan), Khalak (Hkalak), Lakki (Lakai), Lama, Lochang (Lanchein, Langshin), Lumnu, Lungri, Moshang (Mawshang), Miku (Maihku), Mitay (Maitai), Mungre (Mawrang, Morang), Nahen (Nahim, Nahin), Ngaimong (Maimong, Ngaimau), Pingku (Pyengoo), Ranchi (Rangchein), Rasa, Rara, Ranu, Ringkhu (Rangkhu), Sansik (Sheiknyo, Siknyo, Sikpo), Shangti (Sangtai, Shangthi), Shangwan (Changwan, Shangwal, Shawvel), Shekyü (Sangche, Sanke, Shaekjeng, Shaekyeu), Shokra (Sawkrang, Shaukra, Shograng), Toke (Tawkay), Yangno, Chamkok (Tamko, Thamkok), Cholim (Tawlum, Tulim, Tulum), Hachum (Chumnyu, Chumsa, Gachung), Hakhun (Gakhun), Hacheng (Hakyai), Haman (Gaman), Hapaw, Hasik (Awla, Awlay, Laju), Kumka (Kum Ga, Kumga), Rera (Ronrang), Asen (Aasen, Hansin, Raqsa, Yasa), Hakhü (Gakhi, Hachi, Hakhii, Hatse), Hokuq, Jöngi (Dongai, Donghee, Dongi), Kon (Chawang, Kyawan, Yawngkon, Yongkon), Kotlum (Kawlum), Lonyung (Galawn, Galun), Lungkhi (Longkhai), Maitai (Meitei, Mitay), Riha (Lulum). A group of many Naga speech varieties, some of which are separate languages. Intelligibility high between some speech varieties; low between others. Intelligibility between varieties is higher in the north and fairly low in the south. Wide range of lexical similarity within dialects, from 35%–97%. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Northern Naga. Comments: This group is called Tangshang in Myanmar and Tangsa in India. Tase is the Chamchang (Kimsing) pronunciation of the name. Christian, Buddhist.

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Ngochang
[acn] Kachin State, Waimaw and Japhwi townships, west of Ayeyarwaddy river near Bhamo (locally known as Manmaw), scattered among the Lashi [lsi] language area; China border. 35,000 in Myanmar (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acang, Achang, Anchan, Atsang, Chung, Manmaw, Mönghsa, Ngac’ang, Ngachang, Tai Sa’. Dialects: Maingtha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Burmese glossonym: Maingtha, Chinese glossonym: Achang. Christian.

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Nusu
[nuf] Kachin State: Myitkyina district, Chipwi, and Hsawlaw townships, About 22 villages. 670 in Myanmar (2011), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nang Tsu, “Naw” (pej.), “No” (pej.), “No Pha” (pej.), “No Shi” (pej.), No Tso, No Tsu, “Nu” (pej.). Dialects: Northern Nusu (Wawa, Yuoduoluo), Central Nusu (Miangu/Laomudeng), Southern Nusu (Puluo, Tuoping). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Palaung, Ruching
[pce] Mandalay Region, Katha and Pyinoolwin townships; Shan State, Taunggyi district. 258,000 in Myanmar (2000). Total users in all countries: 272,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Da’ang, Di-Ang, Ngwe Palaung, Palay, Silver Palaung. Dialects: Pale, Rulai. Rulai dialect near Lashio has regular phonological changes and some lexical difference from Ruching. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung. Comments: Kalaw dialect tends toward loss of final consonants, could be moving to develop tones. Tense vowels change into glides with a palatal final in the Pale variety. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Palaung, Rumai
[rbb] Kachin State: Bhamo district, Mansi township; Shan State: Lashio area; the road north to the border, Nam Kham and Muse, Mantong, North Hsenwi, and Tawngpeng (the ancient Palaung State). 137,000 in Myanmar. Total users in all countries: 140,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Humai, Ngwe Palaung, Rumai, Rumai Humai, Shan Rumai, Silver Palaung, Ta’ang, Ta’ang Rumai, Tai Rumai. Dialects: Nam Kham Rumai is a different dialect from Lashio Rumai but comprehension is still good. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Palaung, Shwe
[pll] North Shan State, centered in Nam Hsan. 148,000 in Myanmar (1982). Total users in all countries: 150,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Golden Palaung, Liang, Red Da’ang, Shwe Palaung, Ta-Ang Palaung, Ta’ang Samlung. Dialects: Ywama. 15 Palaung dialects in Myanmar. Ruching Palaung [pce] and Rumai Palaung [rbb] are related, but distinct languages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung. Comments: Ywama is a prestige dialect. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Pali
[pli] Widespread; Buddhist literary language. No known L1 speakers in Myanmar. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Pa’o
[blk] Southwest Shan State; Kayah State, Loikaw; Kayin State areas near Shan State border; Mon State near Thaton. 560,000 in Myanmar (1983 census). Total users in all countries: 560,740. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Karen, Northern Taungthu, Pa Oh, Pa-O, Pa’o Karen, Pa-U. Dialects: Southern Pa’o, Northern Pa’o. Reportedly fairly high comprehension among dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral. Comments: Buddhist.

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Pyen
[pyy] East Shan State, Mong Yang township, Namt Theun and Yaw Tan villages. 600 (2013 Pyen Language Committee). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hpinba, Hpyin, Misu, Pyin. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Phunoi [pho], Bisu [bzi], and Mpi [mpz]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Hani [hni], 32% with Lahu [lhu], 31% with Lisu [lis]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid. Comments: Christian.

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Rakhine
[rki] Bay of Bengal, widespread throughout Rakhine State; Bago, Shwegyin and Waw townships; some in Chin State, Paletwa township. 800,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL). L2 users: 1,020,000 in Myanmar (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 2,020,000 (as L1: 1,000,000; as L2: 1,020,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Throughout Rakhine State and in Paletwa Township, Chin State. Especially in market, business, oral language at school, and in some media. Rakhine is the largest ethnic group and dominant language in the area and Rakhine people control most business, transport, and trade. Alternate Names: Arakanese, Mogh, Moghi, Rakhain, Rakhaing, Rakkhaine. Dialects: Sittwe (Akyab), Mrauk-U, Chaungtha, Yangbye (Rambree, Yanbe, Yanbye, Yangye), Kyaukphyu, Man Aung (Chebuda Island). Intelligibility in Rakhine State of prestigious Sittwe dialect seems fairly high. Slight variations in north Rakhine speech in Sittwe, Kyauktaw, Mrauk-U, Minpya, Ponnagyun, Buthidaung, and Maungdaw townships. The variety spoken in south Rakhine State townships of Kyauk Phyu, Yangbye, Thandwe, and Toungup noticeably different from the northern variety. The southern variety, particularly in Thandwe Township, is more similar to standard Burmese [mya]. Lexical similarity: among Rakhine and Marma varieties in both Myanmar and Bangladesh is over 85%. Lexical similarity: 91% with standard Burmese [mya]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Rawang
[raw] North Kachin State, Putao district, Putao, Machanbaw, Naungmaw, Kawnglangphu, and Pannandin townships. 62,000 in Myanmar (2000). Total users in all countries: 63,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Matwang dialect is L2 or church language used by other dialect speakers. Alternate Names: Chiutse, Ch’opa, Ganung-Rawang, Hkanung, Kiutze, Nung, Nung Rawang, Qiuze. Dialects: Kyaikhu (Dangraq-Mashang, Northern Lungmi), Matwang, Daru-Jerwang, Khrangkhu-Thininglong (Southern Lungmi), Tangsar West (Langdaqgong, Renyinchi), Thaluq, Tangsar East (Changgong). Most reportedly understand Matwang, a central, written dialect. Part of a chain of related varieties with the Drung [duu] people of Nu nationality in China. Dialects near Tibet border more divergent. Lungmi varieties of Mashang and Dangraq are especially divergent. Rawang speakers from the Kunglang variety of Daru live in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Some Rawang dialects, especially Kyaikhu Lungmi and Changgong Tangsar, have less intelligibility with the standard written dialect of Matwang. Anong (Khingpang) [nun] and Drung (Thrung) [duu] are related to Rawang and are sometimes included as Rawang varieties (Morse 1989). Lexical similarity: 82%–99% among Matwang-related dialects. Lexical similarity between Matwan and the following varieties or languages: 74% with Drung [duu], 79%–80% with Anong [nun], 81%–87% with Renyinchi (Langdaqgong Tangsar), 77% with Changgong Tangsar, 74%–85% with Lungmi, 74%–80% with Daru-Jerwang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish. Comments: Traditionally, Rawang is made up of five major clan divisions (plus subclans): Lungmi, Matwang, Daru-Jerwang, Tangsar, and Anong [nun] (Morse 1989). Christian.

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Riang Lai
[yin] South Shan State, Langkho district. 12,000 (2008), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ban Roi, Liang Sek, Ranei, Riang Seak, Striped Karen, Yang, Yang Lai, Yin Kya, Yinchia. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Riang. Comments: Included in official ethnic group as Yin Net and Yin Kya. Called Karen by the Burmese or Shan yin or yang due to their colorful dress. Yin Net means Black Karen and Yinchia or Yin Kya means Striped (tiger) Karen in Burmese. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Riang Lang
[ril] Shan State: Hopang district, near southern Shan town of Pang Long. 12,500 in Myanmar (2008). Total users in all countries: 15,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Black Karen, Black Riang, Black Yang, Drum, Riang, Yang, Yang Lang, Yang Wan Kun, Yanglam, Yin, Yin Net, Yinnet. Dialects: Black Riang, Red Riang, Yinja. Not related to Kok Borok [trp]-speaking Riang of India and Bangladesh or to Pa’o [blk], which is Sino-Tibetan. Red and Black Riang difference unknown but these have been treated as separate languages; traditionally, the two groups occupy different social and geographic space, and wear different traditional clothing styles. May be the same language as Shwe Palaung [pll]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Riang. Comments: Different from Riang [ria] of India, a Tibeto-Burman language. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Rohingya
[rhg] North Rakhine State, Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships; Sittwe and Rathedaung townships. 800,000 in Myanmar (2012). Due to unrest, numbers are very uncertain. Total users in all countries: 1,700,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rohinja, Ruwainggya. Dialects: Not much contact between dialect groups living in different townships; intelligibility situation is not clear. Dialects differ by river valleys. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: About 1,000,000 refugees went to Bangladesh in recent years, the majority of whom have dispersed to other countries. Most refugees in UNHCR-controlled camps in Bangladesh were repatriated back to Myanmar, but many of these have returned to Bangladesh unofficially.

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Samtao
[stu] East Shan State. 9,550 in Myanmar (2000). Total users in all countries: 13,180. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samtau, Samtuan. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Samtao is used among the Palaungic peoples to refer to unintelligible dialects of Plang [blr]. In China, Samtao refers to Plang in Burma and occasionally to Plang from other China-based varieties with low intelligibility. ‘Samtao’, also refers to south Mong La area in East Shan State between the China border and Nam Lwe River. A third meaning refers to Plang who live in the Samtao area. Wan Phii Plang is a Samtao variety similar to and intelligible with Wan Sen and Wan Nyet, ancient Plang villages along Mong La-Kentung Road further west. A fourth meaning of ‘Samtao’ refers to Palaungic varieties more similar to Wa, such as the Wa, Pangloh, who also refer to themselves as Samtao. 1 Samtao village in Veng Phu Kha insists they speak the ancient Samtao language, but lexically it is Lao [lao] with Mon-Khmer phonology. Traditional religion.

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Shan
[shn] Mostly Shan State: broad swath from north (Nanhkan, Muse, and Konkyan townships), east of Taunggyi, to the south (Hsihseng, Mawkwa, Langko, and Mongpan townships), with 2 distinct areas southeastward, Matman, Mongkhet, Mongyang, Monghpyak, and Mongyawng townships; Sagaing region: Homalin and Tamu townships; Kachin State: Mohnyin, Mogaung, south Myitkyni, western Momauk, Bhamo and Mansi township; Kayah State: Loikaw; north Mandalay, assorted border areas; Tai Mao is on Myanmar-Yunnan border, centered at Mu’ang Mao Long or Namkham. 3,200,000 in Myanmar (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). 350,000 Tai Mao (1990 A. Diller). Total users in all countries: 3,295,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Burmese Shan, Great Thai, “Ngeo” (pej.), “Ngiao” (pej.), “Ngiaw” (pej.), “Ngio” (pej.), “Ngiow” (pej.), Sam, Sha, Shan Bama, Shan Gyi, Tai Long, Tai Luang, Tai Shan, Tai Yai, Tai-Lon, Thai Yai. Dialects: Tai Mao (Mao Shan, Tai Khe), Northern Shan State, Southern Shan State. Regional dialect differences. Low intelligibility of Lü [khb]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Tai Mao (Mao Shan, Tai Khe) is linguistically closer to Tai Nüa [tdd] but political and cultural factors lead them to identify with Shan. Buddhist.

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Tai Laing
[tjl] Kachin State: from Myitkyina to Bamaw township; Sagaing Region: Homalin township, along the Irrawaddy, Chindwin, and Uru rivers. 100,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Red Tai, Shan Bamar, Shan Kalee, Shan Ni, Tai Laeng, Tai Lai, Tai Lang, Tai Nai, Tai Naing. Dialects: Tai Lai, Tai Nai. Two subgroups: Those who live along the railway line between Myitkyina and Mandalay and call themselves Tai Nai; Those who live along the river south of Myitkyina who call themselves Tai Lai. However, apart from the sound shift l to n among the first group, there do not seem to be any major differences in language between these 2 subgroups. Reportedly similar to Khamti [kht]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: The name Tai Laing means Red Tai. Buddhist.

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Tai Loi
[tlq] East Shan State, north Mong Yawng township and into China. 4,460 in Myanmar (2008). Population for Muak Sa-aak only. Population information is not yet available for the other groups known as Tai Loi. Total users in all countries: 4,960. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aw-aak, Bulang-Su, Doi, Khabe, Kon Doi, Kon Loi, Loi, Monglwe, Muak Sa-aak, Tailoi, Tai-Loi, Wakut. Dialects: Muak Sa-aak. Considerable dialectal variation between villages. Lexical similarity: The Muak Sa-aak variety shares 42% with U [uuu] of China; 40% with Pang Pung Plang [blr]; 25% with standard Wa [prk]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Tai Loi means ‘mountain Tai’ and is a cover term for multiple Palaungic groups in the area, some of which are Angkuic and some of which are Waic. Buddhist, Christian.

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Tai Nüa
[tdd] North Shan State; east Kachin State. 72,400 in Myanmar (1983 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chinese Shan, Tai Kong, Tai Neua. Dialects: Mang Shi, Ruili (Meng Mao). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Mang Shi is the prestige dialect. Tai Nüa in Laos is probably a distinct but related language. Buddhist.

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Taman
[tcl] Sagaing region: Khamti deistrict, Homalin township, Tamanthi area. No known L1 speakers. Last Taman speaker died in 1990s. Descendants intermarried and now speak other languages. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho.

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Taungyo
[tco] East central Shan State, Taunggyi district, Kalaw, and Pinlong townships. 40,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taru, Taung-yo, Toru, Twing Reu, Twinreu. Dialects: None known. Nonstandard variety of Burmese [mya]. Intelligibility low between distant villages; low comprehension of Intha [int]; high comprehension of Danu [dnv]. Lexical similarity: 89% with standard Burmese [mya] and Intha [int], 91% with Danu [dnv], 84%–92% with Rakhine [rki]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Officially viewed as a Burmese dialect. Buddhist.

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Tavoyan
[tvn] Southeast, Tanintharyi Region. 400,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dawai, Dawe, Dawei, Tavoya, Tawe-Tavoy. Dialects: None known. A well-known nonstandard Burmese with profound pronunciation and vocabulary differences from Burmese [mya]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Officially viewed as a Burmese dialect [mya]. Buddhist.

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Tibetan, Khams
[khg] Far north, Kachin State, Nomung township, Da On Dam, San Dam, Mading, and Dahom Dam villages. 300 in Myanmar (2010 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Khams. Comments: Buddhist.

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Wa, Parauk
[prk] Northeast Shan State, upper Salween river area; East Shan State, Kengtung area; resettling since 2000 in southeast Shan State, Mong Hsat and Mong Ton townships, especially Mong Yawn, Pong Pa Kyin, and Mong Kyut town areas. 400,000 in Myanmar (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 805,700. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Shan State. Alternate Names: Baraog, Phalok, Praok, Standard Wa, Wa. Dialects: Meung, Ien, Bible Wa, Nom Tum, Sau Hin, Panglao, Man Teu (Jo Phyu, Man Teey, Man Ton, Man Tong), Toi Lawng, Pang Yang (Muik Khaox), Khui Ma, Ying Phang (Sigang), La Dah, Ai Cheung, Ai Swa, Ang Krax, Awm Plawk, Caong Naong, Cuan, Kang Seu, Kaung Sang, Kawn Cawng, Kawn Jiem, Kawn Mau, Kawn Poih, Kawn Rao, Kawng Lang, Kha Lax, Kok Lah, La Kong, Lah Kreum, Lhax Tiah, Lung Kua, Man Leen, Man Shiang, Man Tong, Meung Kun, Meung Mao, Meung Yum, Hom, Muik Lhang, Muik Lhax, Muik Nghawng, Muik Nu, Muik Raix, Muik Sime, Nawng Plawx, Pa Tah, Pang Vai, Rho Mawng, Rok Tong, Savaik, Sheeiem, Shiem Tum, Shiiem Ceeim, Si Gang Rai, Si Nawk, Si Nga, Si Viex, Simung, Taoh Mie, Veng Ngeen, Vui Sai, Yaong Brex, Yaong Khrum, Yaong Krak, Yaong Kua, Yaong Leen, Yaong Lung, Yaong Nong, Yaong O, Yaong Peng, Yaong Raok, Yaong Riex, Yaong Sang, Yaong Soi, Yaong Ting. Over 70 varieties of Wa in Myanmar; 300 varieties in China (2006 Institute of Nationalities, Sun Hong Kai). Wa official nationality standard form in China based on Yong Shuai, one of many Parauk varieties. Bible Wa, a composite language, based on the Yong Shuai, Yong Rauk, Mang Toei, and Toilawng varieties, forms the standard for Myanmar. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Wa, Vo
[wbm] Shan State: Hopang township, five villages. 700 in Myanmar (2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Meung Hom, Peung Sux, Vhax. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Wewaw
[wea] Bago Region, Karen hills, near Taungoo, Bago Yoma range between Ayeyarwady and Sittang rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wewau. Dialects: Reportedly similar to and may be a dialect of S’gaw Karen [ksw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern.

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Yinbaw
[kvu] East Shan State; Kayah State. 7,300 (1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yeinbaw, Yinbaw Karen. Dialects: None known. Consider themselves part of Kayan ethnic group. Reportedly similar to Kayan [pdu] and Geko [ghk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Yintale
[kvy] Kayah State, Bawlakhè district, Hpasawng township. 3 villages. 1,000 (2000 D. Bradley), decreasing. Wa Awng village is main village, with 100 households. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Taliak, Yangatalet, Yangtadai, Yintale Karen, Yintalet. Dialects: Bawlake, Wa Awng. Reportedly a variety of Western Kayah [kyu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Zaiwa
[atb] Kachin State, Waimaw township, Sedan area; Shan State, Kentung district. 30,000 in Myanmar (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aci, Atshi, Atsi, Atzi, Azi, Tsaiva, Zi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: The Chinese name is Tsaiwa, Jingpho is Atsi, Burmese is Zi. Christian.

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Zayein
[kxk] South Shan State, between Mobyè and Phekon towns. 9,300 (1983 census). Population including Lahta [kvt] and Zayein: 13,500 (Manson 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaungtou, Khaungtou, Zayein Karen. Dialects: None known. May be subgroup of Latha [kvt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern. Comments: Reportedly, Zayein is an area name where many Latha [kvt] live. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Zo
[zom] Chin State, Tonzang, Hakha, and Tedim townships; Sagaing Region, Kalay, Khampat, and Tamu townships. 61,000 in Myanmar (2012 P. Tungdim). Total users in all countries: 81,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jou, Yo, Yos, Zohâm, Zokam, Zome, Zomi, Zou, Zou Chin. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tedim [ctd], Paite Chin [pck], Vaiphei [vap], and Simte [smt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern. Comments: Zomi (or Zome) is also a collective name for Tedim Chin [ctd] of Myanmar, Paite [pck], and Vaiphei [vap] of Manipur. Christian.

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