Myanmar

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Akeu
[aeu] Shan state: Kengtung and Mongla townships. 1,000 (2004 E. Johnson). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akheu, Aki, Akui, Gaolkheel. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Akha
[ahk] Shan state: east Kengtung district. 200,000 (Bradley 2007a). Total users in all countries: 563,960. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Ak’a, Aka, Ikor, Yani, “Ekaw” (pej.), “Ikaw” (pej.), “Kaw” (pej.), “Kha Ko” (pej.), “Khako” (pej.), “Khao Kha Ko” (pej.), “Ko” (pej.). Autonym: A˯ka˯daw˯‎ (Avkavdawv). Dialects: Much dialectal variation; some do not understand each other. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Anal
[anm] Sagaing region: Tamu town, 10 households. 50 (2010). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Namfau. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Northwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Anong
[nun] Kachin state: Kawnglangphu, Myitkyina, Putao, Machanbaw, and Tanai townships. 400 (2000 D. Bradley), decreasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 450. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Anoong, Anu, Anung, Fuch’ye, Fuchve, Khingpang, Kwingsang, Kwinp’ang, Naw, Nawpha, Nu. Autonym: Anong. Dialects: Byabe, Kizolo, Nora. Slightly different dialects of Anong spoken in China and Myanmar, although no reported difficulty communicating with each other. Low inherent intelligibility with the Matwang variety of Rawang [raw]. Lexical similarity: 87%–89% with Anong in Myanmar and Anong in China, 73%–76% with T’rung [duu], 77%–83% with Matwang variety of Rawang [raw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish. Comments: Different from Nung (Tai family) of Viet Nam, Laos, and China, and from Chinese Nung (Cantonese) of Viet Nam. Anong is one of the five principal divisions of Rawang clans, along with Matwang [raw], Daru-Jerwang, Longmi, and Tangsar (Morse 1989:240). Christian.

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Blang
[blr] Shan state: Kengtung and Mong Yang townships. 12,000 (1994). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bulang, K’ala, Kawa, Kontoi, Plang, Pula, Pulang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang. Comments: Some urbanized in Myanmar, Thailand, and China. An official nationality in China. Buddhist, Christian.

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Burmese
[mya] Widespread in central Myanmar. 42,000,000 in Myanmar, all users. L1 users: 32,000,000 (Bradley 2007a), increasing. 250,000 Beik, 20,000 Yaw. L2 users: 10,000,000. Total users in all countries: 42,875,600 (as L1: 32,875,600; as L2: 10,000,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1974, Constitution, Articles 102, 152(b), 198). Alternate Names: Bama, Bamachaka, Myamasa, Myanma, Myanmar, Myen. Dialects: Beik (Merguese, Mergui), Yaw, Mandalay Burmese, Yangon Burmese. Diglossic high and low varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: The official language name is Myanmar. Educated speech has many Pali borrowings. Buddhist.

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Chak
[ckh] Rakhine state: 17 villages. 1,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 1,600 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ashah, Sak, Thet. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingppaw-Asakia, Asakian. Comments: Distinct from Chakma [ccp]. Buddhist.

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Chakma
[ccp] Chin state: Paletwa township, a few villages; Rakhine state: Buthidaung, Kyauktaw (main concentration), Maungdaw, and Punnakyun townships. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daingnet, Sangma. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Dialect variation by township. A variety of Bangla, not to be confused with Chak [ckh]. Buddhist.

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Chin, Anu-Hkongso
[anl] Chin state: Paletwa township, between Kaladan and Michaung rivers. 4,000 (2008), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaungso, Kaungtso, Khaungtso, Khawngso, Khong, Khongso, No. Dialects: Anu, Hkongso. Lexical similarity: 96%–98% and high intelligibility between Anu and Hkongso dialects, 72%–76% with Mru [mro] but intelligibility is low, 23%–37% lexical similarity with all neighboring Chin languages, but bilingualism is high. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Mru. Comments: Although the Anu and Hkongso varieties are not part of the Kuki-Chin-Naga branch, these groups consider themselves to be Chin. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Asho
[csh] Ayeyarwady, Bago, and Magway regions; Rakhine state. Rakhine state; Magwe region: Mindon township (Hill Asho dialect); Magway, Bago, and Ayeyarwady regions: most of the townships; Rakhine state: Tounggup township and townships further south (Plains Asho dialect). 170,000 (2015 LSDO). Total users in all countries: 174,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ashu, Hyow, Khamaw, Khamoe, Khyang, Kyang, Qin, Saingbaung, Sho, Shoa. Autonym: Asho, Asho Chin. Dialects: Hill Asho, Plains Asho. Hyow (Khyang) variety in Bangladesh is more similar to Laitu [clt] than Asho [csh] and is likely a separate language. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern, Cho-Asho, Asho. Comments: Although some consider the Uppu [cnb], Laitu [clt], Sumtu [csv], Songlai [csj], and Mro-Khimi [cmr] to be part of Asho [csh], these groups speak different languages from Asho (and each other) and view themselves as separate from Asho. Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Bawm
[bgr] Chin state: Paletwa township, Bahun Taung, Pi Taung, Mawtalar, and Rakan villages. 700 (2016 LSDO), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bawm, Bawn, Bawng, Boam, Bom, Laisaw, Laizo, Langkay. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Lai. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Bualkhaw
[cbl] Chin state: Falam township, north of Falam town, Bualkhua, Phaizawl, and Khuang villages. 2,500 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bualkhaw-Chin, Bualkhua, Phadei. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Falam Chin [cfm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Lai. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Daai
[dao] Chin state: Kanpetlet, Matupi, Mindat, and Paletwa townships, 142 villages. 37,000 (2010). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khyo, Kkhyou. Autonym: Daai Chin, Dai. Dialects: Ngxang, Nghngilo (Yang), Ma-Tu, Shiip, Vet (Yet), Daa Yindu, Duk-Msang, Kheng, Mkui. Intelligibility among Nghngilo (Yang), Daa Yindu, and Mkui groups is high, but is lower among other groups. Lexical similarity: more than 90% with Daa Yindu, Yang, Mkui, Duk, and Msang, 81%–88% with Ngxang (Paletwa township) and Kheng, 80% with Shiip (Matupi township), 91%–94% with Gah/Ng-Gha (part of Müün [mwq]), and 81%–87% with Müün [mwq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern, Cho-Asho, Cho. Comments: The name Nghmoye is used by both Yang and Daa Yindu to refer to each other. The Daai varieties in Matupi township have low intelligibility with the other varieties and should perhaps be considered a separate language. The Daa Yindu consider themselves to be a separate group from the Daai and do not accept the Daai name. Christian.

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Chin, Eastern Khumi
[cek] Chin state: Matupi township, 4 villages; Paletwa township, Sami area, 85 villages. 12,000 (2009 SIL). Total for all the Eastern Khumi groups. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Nisay (Nise, Palyng, Tao Cha), Nideun (Amlai, Ghu, Laungtha, Maru, Paru, Tahaensae, Taheunso, Uiphaw), Lemi (Akelong, Aki Along, Kaja, Kajauk), Khongtu, Likhy (Likhaeng), Rengcaa (Namboi, Nangbwe), Khenlak, Asang (Kasang, Sangtha). High degree of intelligibility among the dialect groups, although strong attitudes against sharing the same literature. Lexical similarity: Nisay, Nideun, and Khongtu dialects share 92%–97%; Khenlak and Asang dialects also share 92%–97%; all dialects share at least 74% with each other; 75%–87% with Khumi Chin [cnk]; Likhy variety shares 86%–90% with Mro-Khimi Chin [cmr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern. Comments: These dialect groups do not have a unified identity or overarching name for themselves. However, because their speech varieties are highly intelligible with each other and because they are referred to as Nisay - eastern groups - by the Khumi, the term Eastern Khumi is used here as a cover term to refer to these groups. The Likhy people live among the other Eastern Khumi peoples, but their language is very similar to the Aroeng variety of Mro-Khimi [cmr]. Some people use the name Ta-aw/Ta-oo to refer to the groups in this region. Christian.

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Chin, Falam
[cfm] Chin state: Falam township. 69,000 (1983). 9,000 Taisun, 16,000 Zanniat, 7,000 Khualsim, 4,000 Lente, 14,400 Zahau, 18,600 Laizo (1983). Total users in all countries: 107,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Falam, Fallam, Halam, Hallam Chin. Autonym: Falam Chin. Dialects: Zanniat (Zahnyiet, Zanniet), Taisun (Shunkla, Sunkhla, Taishon, Tashom, Tashon), Laizo (Laiso, Laizao, Laizo-Shimhrin), Zahau (Lyen-Lyem, Yahow, Za-How, Zahao, Zahau-Shimhrin), Khualsim (Khualshim, Kwelshin), Lente (Gunte, Lyente), Sim, Tapong, Hlawnceu. Collectively called Baro Halam. Tapong reportedly has difficult intelligibility for other dialect speakers. 75% lexical similarity with Zanniat dialect. Ngawn [cnw], Bualkhaw [cbl], and the Hualngo dialect of Mizo [lus] are often included as sub-groups of Falam, since they live in Falam township. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Lai. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Hakha
[cnh] Chin state: Hakha township; Magway region: 2 small border areas extreme north. 140,000 in Myanmar, all users. L1 users: 100,000 (1991 UBS). L2 users: 40,000 (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 165,000 (as L1: 125,000; as L2: 40,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as an LWC in church, market, business, and some media in parts of Chin state: Hakha township, Thantlang township, and parts of Matupi township. Alternate Names: Baungshe, Haka, Haka Chin, Hakha. Autonym: Lai, Lai Chin. Dialects: Thantlang (Klangklang), Zokhua. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Lai. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Kaang
[ckn] Chin state: Mindat township, 3 villages. 1,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kang, M’kaang, Makaang, Mgan, Mkan. Autonym: Kaang Chin. Dialects: Some dialectal variation among Kaang villages. Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with Rawngtu Chin [weu], 77%–79% with Müün Chin [mwq], 67%–80% with Daai [dao] varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern, Cho-Asho, Cho. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Khumi
[cnk] Chin state: Paletwa township, Kaladan river area; Rakhine state: Kyauktaw township, a few villages. 60,000 (2006). Total users in all countries: 62,090. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaladan Khumi, Yangpan, “Khweymi” (pej.). Autonym: Khumi, Khumi Chin. Dialects: Pi Chaung, Kaladan, Eastern Kaladan, Southern Paletwa. Little dialect variation within Khumi. Lexical similarity: 76%–87% with Eastern Khumi varieties, 78%–81% with Mro-Khimi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Laitu
[clj] Rakhine state: Sittwe district, Minpya, Mrauk-U, and Myepung townships; Chin state: Paletwa township. 15,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daitu, Hio Bei, Hle-tu, Laikhy, Laitu Kheu, Ledu, Leitu. Autonym: Laitu Chin. Dialects: Panmyaunggyi Stream (Kongtu), Phuntha Stream (Daaitu), Kanni Stream, Yaw Stream, Dalet Stream (Doitu, Ekai, Khulai). Dialects tend to differ by stream. High intelligibility within the main dialect area along the Kanni Stream and Yaw Stream. Lower intelligibility with more distant dialect areas, such as Dalet Stream. Intelligibility to some extent with Sumtu Chin [csv]. Low intelligibility with Uppu Chin [cnb]. Low intelligibility with Songlai [csj]. Lexical similarity: 91%–96% with Sumtu Chin [csv] and Songlai Chin [csj], 85%–89% with Uppu Chin [cnb], 82%–84% with Asho [csh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern, Cho-Asho, Asho. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Chin, Lautu
[clt] Chin state: Matupi and Thantlang townships, 17 villages. 15,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lautu, Lawhtu. Autonym: Lautu Chin. Dialects: None known. High intelligibility within Lautu. Some differences between the northern Surngen variety and the southern varieties. Lexical similarity: 90%–97% within Lautu Chin, 87%–94% with Mara Chin [mrh], 82%–85% with Zophe Chin [zyp], 80%–86% with Senthang Chin [sez]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Maraic, Mara. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Mara
[mrh] Chin state: Paletwa, Matupi, and Thantlang townships, border area with Mizoram in India, 70 villages. 20,000 (1994). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Lakher, Mara, Maram, Mira, Miram, Zao. Dialects: Tlongsai, Hlawthai, Sabeu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Maraic, Mara. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Matu
[hlt] Chin state: Matupi township. 30,000 (2012). Total users in all countries: 40,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nga La. Autonym: Matu Chin. Dialects: Ciing (Langle-Tamtlaih, Ngaleng, Phaneng, Siing, Vuitu), Doem (Ngatu, Valang), Langle-Tamtlaih, Ngaleng, Phaneng, Thlangpang (Changpyang), Ngala (Batu). Not intelligible with Hakha Chin [cnh]. Mizoram Matu reportedly not intelligible with Myanmar varieties. There are many Matu varieties in Myanmar, all intelligible to some extent with each other. Lexical similarity: 78%–89% within Matu varieties in Myanmar, 65%–76% with Rawngtu Chin [weu], 66%–71% with Thaiphum Chin [cth]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern, Cho-Asho, Cho. Comments: The Chin in Mindat Township refer to all the Matu as Batu, but the Matu use this name only for the area around Matupi Town. Christian.

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Chin, Mizo
[lus] Chin state: northwest Falam, west Tedim and Tonzang townships, near India border. 12,500 (1983 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Haulngo, Hualngo, Ka-Lin-Kaw, Le, Lusai, Lushai, Lushay, Lushei, Mizo, Whelngo. Dialects: Dulien, Ngente, Mizo, Hualngo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Mizo. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Müün
[mwq] Chin state: Mindat township; Magway region: Saw and Htilin townships. 15,000 (2011). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cho, K’cho Chin, Mindat, Mün, Müün. Autonym: K’cho. Dialects: Ng’men (Hletlong, Hmong-K’cha, Nitu), Hngiyung, Gah (Ng-Gha). Related to Daai Chin [dao]. The Daai who live close to the Müün understand Müün due to contact. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern, Cho-Asho, Cho. Comments: The ethnonyms Yawdwin, Chinbok, Tsinbok, Chinme, and Chinbe are old colonial names referring to people groups of current south Chin State and neighboring Yaw Valley and not to distinct languages. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Ngawn
[cnw] Chin state: north Falam township. 15,000 (1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngawn, Ngon, Ngorn. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Rawngtu
[weu] Chin state: Mindat township; Magway region: Htilin township, 2 villages. 5,000 (2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rongtu, Shimi, Welaung. Dialects: Kyonnam, Welaung, Boishi, Shitwanu. Most Rawngtu in Mindat township adequately comprehend the Kyonnam variety, but nearby Matu [hlt] villages in Matupi township do not. These villages also do not consider themselves Rawngtu. Lexical similarity: more than 90% within Rawngtu; 84%–89% with Matupi Daai [dao], 67%–74% with Kaang Chin [ckn], 71%–83% with Matu varieties [hlt], less than 70% with Rungtu [rtc]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Rungtu
[rtc] Magway region: Htilin, Kyaukhtu, and Saw townships, 35 villages. 4,000 (2016 LSDO), decreasing. Ethnic population: 20,000 (2016 LSDO). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rungtu, Taungtha. Dialects: Northern Rungtu, Central Rungtu, Southern Rungtu. Lexical similarity: 94%–96% within Rungtu, 60%–66% with Rawngtu Chin [weu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chin, Senthang
[sez] Chin state: Hakha township; Thantlang township, 2 villages; Magway region: Gangaw township, 15 villages; Sagaing region: Kaleymyo township, 2 villages. 33,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hsemtang, Sentang. Autonym: Senthang Chin. Dialects: Surkhua/Lungrang, Shoneshi (Shonshe), Sakta, Central Senthang (Bungzung, Khuapi, Lei-Um, Phaipha). High intelligibility among all Senthang villages, except possibly outlying dialects of Shoneshi, Surkhua (Lungrang), and Sakta. Lexical similarity: 79%–95% within Senthang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Maraic. Comments: Preliminary orthography developed and primers designed: 2007–2010. Christian, Buddhist.

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Chin, Siyin
[csy] Chin state: south Tedim township. 10,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Siyang, Siyin, Sizang. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tedim Chin [ctd] and Paite Chin [pck]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern, Sizang. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Songlai
[csj] Chin state: Paletwa township (Doitu, Hettui, and Mang Um dialects); Rakhine state: Mrauk-U township (Lai dialect); along Phunglaung river. 7,300 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hio. Dialects: Doitu, Hettui, Mang Um (Song), Lai. Lexical similarity over 90% with Laitu Chin [clj] but low intelligibility. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Chin, Sumtu
[csv] Rakhine state: Ann, Minbya, and Myebon townships. 14,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ahmyo, Chang, Hmyo, Settu, Settu Hmyo, Sungtu. Autonym: Cumtu, Sumtu Chin. Dialects: Some variation between Minbya and Myebon townships, more variation with Ann township. High intelligibility within Sumtu. Lexical similarity: 91%–96% with Laitu Chin [clj], 96%–97% with Dalet Stream variety of Laitu Chin, 84%–87% with Uppu Chin [cnb]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Tawr
[tcp] Chin state: Hakha township, Lamthok and Rovan villages. 700 (1996 D. van Bik). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tawr, Torr. Autonym: Thawr. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central. Comments: Included in official ethnic list as Torr. Not the same as Chintaw, a dialect of Achang [acn], a Northern Burmic language spoken in Yunnan, China. Christian.

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Chin, Tedim
[ctd] Chin state: Tedim and Tonzang townships; Sagaing region: Kale and Mawlaik townships. 189,000 (1990). Total users in all countries: 344,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hai-Dim, Tedim, Tiddim, Zomi. Autonym: Tidim. Dialects: Sokte, Kamhau (Kamhao, Kamhow). Other area Chin languages or dialects are Saizang [pck], Teizang [pck], and Zo [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern, Thado. Comments: Zomi may refer to Tedim [ctd] or to all Chin groups. Christian.

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Chin, Thado
[tcz] Sagaing region: Homalin, Khamti, Layshi, and Tamu townships, India border area. 26,200 (1983 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Thado-Pao, Thado-Ubiphei, Thadou, “Kuki” (pej.), “Kuki-Thado” (pej.). Dialects: Baite, Paite, Changsen, Jangshen, Kaokeep, Khongzai, Kipgen, Langiung, Sairang, Thangngen, Hawkip. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern, Thado. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Thaiphum
[cth] Chin state: Matupi township, 4 villages. 1,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thui Phum. Autonym: Thaiphum. Dialects: Very little dialectal variation among the Thaiphum villages. Thaiphum is intelligible to some extent with neighboring languages, such as the Eastern Khumi [cek] varieties of Khenlak, Asang, and Rengcaa. Lexical similarity: 72%–75% with Eastern Khumi [cek], 69%–71% with Khumi [cnk], 65%–68% with Mro-Khimi [cmr], 66%–71% with Matu Chin [hlt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Uppu
[cnb] Chin state: Kanpetlet and Paletwa townships; Magway region: Saw and Sidoktaya townships; Rakhine state: Minbya township. 19,600 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chin Pong, Chin Pung, Chinbon Chin, Chindwin Chin, Chinpon, Oo-pu, Sho, Tuishiip, Tuiship, Ütbü. Autonym: Uppu, Uppu Chin. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Asho Chin [csh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern, Cho-Asho, Cho. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Chin, Zotung
[czt] Chin state: Reizwa sub-township. 40,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yotun, Zo Mingphuin, Zobya. Autonym: Zotung, Zotung Chin. Dialects: None known. Reportedly intelligible with Hakha Chin [cnh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Maraic. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Zyphe
[zyp] Chin state: Thantlang township. 17,000 (1994). Total users in all countries: 20,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zo-pe, Zophei, Zoptei, Zyphe. Dialects: Lower Zyphe, Upper Zyphe. Reportedly similar to Mara Chin [mrh]. Myanmar and India varieties reportedly mutually intelligible. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Maraic. Comments: Christian.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Shan state: large China border area, Kokang Self-Administered Zone in Laukkai and Konkyan townships, and Muse township. 500,000 (1994). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Tayok. Dialects: Kokang (Kokant). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. The Kokang have been given a Self-Administered Zone. The Kokang dialect in Myanmar is most similar to the dialect spoken in Yunnan Province, China. Buddhist, Daoist.

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Danau
[dnu] Shan state: Kalaw township, Ang Pan area, west of Inle lake, on the road to Heho. 1,000 (Robinne 2000). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Robinne 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Danaw. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Riang Lang [ril]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Danau. Comments: Not the same as Danu [dnv], a Southern Burmic language. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Danu
[dnv] Shan state: Danu Self-Administered Zone, Pindaya and Ywa Ngan townships; Aung Ban, and Kalaw, Taunggyi, Yak Sauk, and Ye Oo townships. 100,000 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taruw. Dialects: Some dialect variation between Danu villages; however, intelligilibility is quite high. Lexical similarity: 93% with standard Burmese [mya], 93% with Intha [int], 91% with Taungyo [tco], 85%–94% with Rakhine [rki]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Officially considered a Burmese dialect. Not the same as Danau [dnu], a Palaungic language. Buddhist.

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Drung
[duu] Kachin state: Pannandin township, Talatu and Khraung villages far north. 225. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Derung, Dulong, Durung, Qiu, Rawang, T’rung, Tarong, Thrung, Trung, Tulung, Tvrung. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish. Comments: Geographically isolated from the Drung in China. Christian.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] Kachin state: Bhamo district, Momauk township; Shan State: Hseni, Kunlong, and Namtu townships, 6 villages. 10,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Man Zi, Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Miao Tsi, Mong Leng, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Hpon
[hpo] Kachin state: Bhamo district, upper Ayeyarwady gorges. No known L1 speakers, decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Hpön, Megyaw, Phon, Phun, Phön, Samong. Dialects: North Hpon, South Hpon. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern.

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Intha
[int] Shan state: Taunggyi district, Shwe Nyaung township, Inle lake area. Important Intha-speaking villages: Heha Ywama (largest), In Chan, Nan Pan, Paw Kon, and Tha Lay. 90,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inntha, Insa, Naung Ma. Dialects: Well-known nonstandard variety of Burmese [mya] with major pronunciation and vocabulary differences. Some dialect variation between Intha villages; however, intelligibility reportedly high. Some comprehension of Danu [dnv] and Taungyo [tco]. Lexical similarity: 95% with standard Burmese [mya], 93% with Danu [dnv], 89% with Taungyo [tco], 90% with Rakhine [rki]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Officially viewed as a Burmese dialect. Pa-O people call them Naung Ma, people who live on the lake. Buddhist.

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Jingpho
[kac] Kachin state: large area except north and southwest; Shan state: Lashio and Muse districts; Sagaing region: western border strip. 900,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Total users in all countries: 940,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Lingua franca for Zaiwa [atb], Lashi [lsi], and Lhao Vo [mhx]. Alternate Names: Aphu, Chingp’o, Chingpaw, Jinghpaw, Jinghpo, Jingphaw, Kachin, Phu. Dialects: Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Gauri, Guari, Hkauri), Dzili (Jili), Dulong (Dalaung, Duleng). Dzili is likely a separate language that is most likely extinct. Hkaku and Kauri are only slightly different. Lexical similarity: 50% with Singhpo [sgp] of India. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingppaw-Asakia, Jingphaw. Comments: Kachin refers to a cultural, not linguistic, group. Christian.

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Kadu
[zkd] Sagaing region: Katha district, Banmauk and Indaw townships; Homalin, Paungbyin, Pinlebu, and Wuntho townships. 30,000 (2007 SIL), decreasing. Over 30 villages in Mawteik dialect (nearly extinct); over 30 villages in Settaw dialect; 5 villages in Mawkhwin dialect. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gadu, Ka’do, Kadu-Ganaan, Kantu’, Kato, Kudo, Maw, Mawteik, Puteik, Thet. Autonym: Asak. Dialects: Mawkhwin, Settaw, Mawteik. Each Kadu dialect distinct with low comprehension between the Mawkhwin, Settaw, and Mawteik Kadu varieties. All Kadu (except possibly Mawkhwin Kadu) have low comprehension of Kanan [zkn]. Lexical similarity: 95%–98% with Settaw and Mawteik Kadu, 91%–93% with Mawkhwin Kadu and other Kadu varieties, 84%–89% with Kadu varieties and Kanan [zkn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingppaw-Asakia, Asakian. Comments: Different from Kaduo [ktp], a Sino-Tibetan language of China and Laos. The Kadu say they are descended from the Thet, also known as Sak (see Chak [ckh]). Buddhist.

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Kanan
[zkn] Sagaing region: Katha district, Banmauk township along Mu river, 24 villages; Homalin, Indaw, and Pinlebu townships, a few villages. 9,000 (2007 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganaan, Ganan, Ganon, Genan, Kana. Dialects: None known. High comprehension within all the Kanan villages. Low comprehension of, but reportedly similar to, Kadu [zkd]. Lexical similarity: 95%–99% within Kanan varieties, 84%–89% with Kadu varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingppaw-Asakia, Asakian. Comments: Buddhist.

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Karen, Bwe
[bwe] Bago region: Taungoo and Hpa-Ana townships; Kayah state: Hpruso township; Kayin state: Thandaung township, about 100 villages. 17,200 (1997 F. Bennett), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baghi, Bghai Karen, Blimaw, Bwe, Dareh, Manaw. Dialects: Western Bwe Karen, Eastern Bwe Karen. Most comprehend Western Bwe Karen dialect; some comprehend Geba [kvq] and Kayaw [kvl]; no inherent intelligibility with Kayah [eky] or Geko [ghk]. Lexical similarity: 82%–100% with Geba Karen [kvq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Western Bwe Karen more widely understood, more prestigious. Bwe is sometimes used as an overarching cover term for all high-dwelling Central Karennic groups, who are not S’gaw Karen or Pwo Karen. Bwe people are very similar to the Mobwa people in lifestyle and culture. Christian.

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Karen, Geba
[kvq] Bago region; Mandalay region: Pyinmana township; Kayah state; Kayin state: Thandaunggyi township, 140 villages; Shan state: Pekon and Pinlong townships. 40,000 (2010 Geba Literature and Culture Committee). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daneh, Geba, Kaba, Karenbyu, Kayinbyu, Kono, Koo-ong, Northern Bwe. Dialects: Sawkho, Gerkho-Geba, Thamitaik (Sawkeepho). May be same subgroup with Bwe Karen [bwe] and Kayaw [kvl]. Some comprehension of Bwe Karen [bwe]. Sawkho and Gerkho-Geba varieties slightly divergent. Lexical similarity: 82%–100% with Bwe Karen [bwe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Geko Karen [ghk] and Geba Karen are grouped together in the local Baptist Association administration and are often considered to be the same language (Geko-Geba), although they are distinct. Christian.

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Karen, Geko
[ghk] Bago region: Toungoo district; Mandalay region: Yamethin district; Kayin state: Thandaunggyi township; Shan state: Pekon township. 17,000 (Manson 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaikho, Gek’o, Gekho, Ghekhol, Ghekhu, Gheko, Kakhau, Kayan, Kayan Kakhau, Kekaungdu, Kekhong, Keku, Yathu Gekho. Dialects: Geker, Gekho, Thaidai (Htideh). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Geko Karen is often considered a sub-variety or clan of Kayan [pdu]. Geko Karen and Geba Karen [kvq] are grouped together in the local Baptist Association administration and are often considered to be the same language (Geko-Geba), although they are distinct. Christian.

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Karen, Mobwa
[jkm] Kayin state: Thandaung township, western foot of Thandaung mountains, 9 villages; some in Bago region: Taungoo township. 4,000 (2010 SIL). Also live mixed with Bwe Karen [bwe] and Paku Karen [jkp] in some villages. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bilichi, Blimaw, Dermuha, Maleh, Mobwa Karen, Monpwa, Mopwa, Pa-Le-Chi, Palachi, Palakhi, Palaychi. Dialects: Palaychi (Southern Mobwa), Dermuha (Southern Mobwa). Reportedly similar to Paku Karen [jkp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern. Comments: Similar to Bwe Karen [bwe] in lifestyle and culture. Christian.

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Karen, Paku
[jkp] Bago region: east near Kayin State border; Kayah state: south; Kayin state: hills southeast of Taungoo. 5,300 (1983 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mogpha, Mogwa, Monebwa, Monnepwa, Mopaga, Mopha, Pagu, Paku, Paku Karen, Thalwepwe. Dialects: Shwe Kyin, Mawchi, Kyauk Gyi, Bawgali. Dialects based on villages: Kyauk Gyi and Shwe Kyin are spoken in east Bago Region, Taungoo District near Kayin State border; Mawchi is spoken in Kayah State; Bawgali is spoken in north Kayin State. Some Paku dialects are reportedly quite similar to S’gaw Karen [ksw], while others are more similar to Bwe [bwe] and Geba [kvq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Karen, Pwo Eastern
[kjp] Bago region: Bago and Toungoo townships; Kayin state and Tanintharyi region: large area near Thai border. 1,000,000 (1998). Total users in all countries: 1,050,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Moulmein Pwo Karen, Phlong, Phlou, Pho. Dialects: Pa’an (Inland Eastern Pwo Karen, Moulmein), Kawkareik (Eastern Border Pwo Karen), Tavoy (Southern Pwo Karen). Not intelligible with Pwo Karen [pwo]. Reportedly fairly high comprehension among Eastern Pwo Karen dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–97% among dialects; 63%–65% with Pwo Karen [pwo]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral. Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Karen, Pwo Western
[pwo] Ayeyarwady region: Einmeh, Maubin, Pathein, Twante, others; Bago region: Kyonpyaw and Hinthada, others; Yangon region: Twante. 210,000, decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bassein Pwo Karen, Delta Pwo Karen, Mon Karen, Mutheit, Pathein Pwo Karen, Phlong, Phlong Sho, Pho, Shu, Talaing Karen. Dialects: Very little dialectal variation among Western Pwo Karen. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral. Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Karen, S’gaw
[ksw] Ayeyarwady, Bago, and Yangon regions and Kayin state; scattered in Ayeyarwady delta area, generally among Western Pwo Karen [pwo] speakers. 1,360,000 in Myanmar, all users. L1 users: 1,280,000 (1983 census). L2 users: 80,000 (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,560,000 (as L1: 1,480,000; as L2: 80,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). S’gaw Karen used in the church domain for many Karen languages. Alternate Names: Burmese Karen, Kanyaw, Kayinpyu, Kyetho, Paganyaw, Pchcknya, Pwakanyaw, S’gau, S’gaw, S’gaw Kayin, White Karen, Yang Khao. Dialects: Eastern dialect of S’gaw Karen (Pa’an), Southern dialect of Western Kayah (Dawei), Delta dialect of S’gaw Karen. Reportedly similar to Paku Karen [jkp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kawyaw
[kxf] Kayah state: West Kyèbogyi area, border of Bawlake and Hpruso townships, 23 villages. 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kayah-Munu, Kayàw, Manu, Manu Manaw, Manumanaw, Manumanaw Karen, Manö, Monu. Autonym: Kawyaw. Dialects: Tawkhu, Doloso. Reports of comprehension difficulty between the 2 dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Kayah, Eastern
[eky] Kayah state: Shadaw township east of Thanlwin river; Shan state: Langkho district. 8,000 (2007). Total users in all countries: 26,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karenni, Karennyi, Kayah Li, Kayay, Kayeh, Red Karen. Dialects: Upper Eastern Kayah, Lower Eastern Kayah. Upper Eastern Kayah and Lower Eastern Kayah are mutually intelligible; Huai Sua Thaw village (Lower Eastern) is prestigious in both dialect groups. Difficulty understanding Western Kayah [kyu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kayah, Western
[kyu] Kayah and Kayin states: east of Thanlwin river; Shan State: Pekon township south; Shan state: north of Loikaw (northern dialect); Dimawso and Hpruso townships south of Loikaw (southern dialect). 150,000 (2007). 2,000 refugees in Thailand. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karenni, Karennyi, Karieng Daeng, Kayah Li, Red Karen, Yang Daeng. Dialects: Northern dialect of Western Kayah, Southern dialect of Western Kayah, Dawtama, Dawnnyjekhu, Sounglog, Chi Kwe, Wan Cheh. Part of a dialect continuum of Central Karen varieties stretching from Thailand (Eastern Kayah [eky]) to western Kayah State. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kayan
[pdu] Kayah state; Kayin state: Thandaung township; Shan state: Pekon township; Mandalay region: Pyinmana township. Kayah state: Lahwi and northwest Dimawso townships. Shan state: south Pekon (Kayan Lahwi dialect); northwest Kayah state: Dimawso area (Kayan Kangan dialect). 133,000 (2005 E. Phan). Total users in all countries: 133,180. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ka-Yun, Kayang, Lahwi, “Long-Necked Karen” (pej.), “Padaung” (pej.), “Padaung Karen” (pej.). Autonym: Kayan, Kayan. Dialects: Standard Pekon, Kayan Lahwi, Kayan Kangan (Yeinbaw, Yinbaw). Significant dialectal variation. Most seem to understand standard Pekon (prestige) dialect. Lexical similarity: more than 90% among dialects, 71%–76% with Lahta [kvt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Kayaw
[kvl] Kayah state: 30 villages east; Kayin state: Yado area; Shan state: Pekon township. 16,600 (1983 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Deleh, Ka-yaw, Laku, Pramano, “Bre” (pej.), “Brec” (pej.), “Brek” (pej.), “Kayaw Brek” (pej.), “Paret” (pej.), “Pre” (pej.), “Pret” (pej.). Autonym: Kayaw. Dialects: Bwe-Kayaw, Upper Kayaw, Lower Kayaw. Upper Kayaw dialect is the basis for Kayaw literature. Some intelligibility with Bwe Karen [bwe], though some Kayaw who speak with the Bwe Karen may use S’gaw Karen [ksw] to communicate. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Brek and Bwe are variant names of a dialect continuum extending from southwest Kayah State to northeast Kayin (Karen) State. Bwe-Kayaw is a mixed variety spoken in the middle of this continuum. See also Karen, Bwe [bwe]. Christian.

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Khamti
[kht] Kachin state: Putao district (4,500) and Myitkyina area (3,500); Sagaing region: north. 8,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 13,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hkamti, Kam Ti, Khampti, Khampti Shan, Khamti Shan, Khandi Shan, Tai Kam Ti, Tai-Khamti. Dialects: Assam Khamti, North Burma Khamti, Sinkaling Hkamti. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Khün
[kkh] Shan state: Kentung valley area east. 100,000 (Diller and Juntanamalaga 1990). Total users in all countries: 106,880. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gon Shan, Hkun, Khuen, Khun Shan, Khyn, Tai Khun, Tai-Khuen. Dialects: Muang Lang, Kang Muang. Khün, Northern Thai [nod] and Lü [khb] traditionally all use the same ancient script. Lexical similarity: 93%–100% with Khün varieties; Khün varieties: 90%–95% with Northern Thai [nod], 92%–95% with Lü [khb], 93%–97% with Shan [shn], 80%–83% with standard Thai [tha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Different from Khuen [khf], a Mon-Khmer language of Laos. Buddhist.

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Lacid
[lsi] Kachin state: east border area. 30,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Total users in all countries: 31,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ac’ye, Chashan, La Chit, Lachi, Lachik, Lachikwaw, Lacik, Lashi, Lashi-Maru, Lasi, Lechi, Leqi, Letsi. Autonym: Lacid. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Lahta
[kvt] Nay Pyi Taw region: Pyinmana township; Shan state: Pekon and Pinlaung townships. 9,550 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kayan Lahta, Khahta, Lahta Karen, Peu, Taru, Tarulakhi, Yan Wohta. Dialects: Socially related to Kayan [pdu] but not intelligible. Zayein [kxk] may be a dialect of Lahta. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern. Comments: Officially recognized as part of Kayan [pdu]. Much dialect variation. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Lahu
[lhu] Shan state: Kentung district. 200,000 (2012 D. Bradley), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Lahuna, Launa, Lohei, Muhso, Museu, Musso, Mussuh. Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Lohei, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Luhishi, Luhushi, Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lahu Shi
[lhi] Shan state: Kentung district. 60,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kwi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Little dialect variation between Lahu Shi spoken in Myanmar and Thailand. They live among the Lahu Na [lhu]. Christian.

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Lhao Vo
[mhx] Kachin state: Chiphwe, Sawlaw, and Waimaw townships widely dispersed in east border area; Shan state: Kutkai township north. 100,000 (Bradley 1997). Total users in all countries: 103,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Diso, Lang, Laungaw, Laungwaw, Lawgore, Lawng, Lhaovo, Liangsu, Lovo, Malu, Mulu, Zi, “Maru” (pej.). Autonym: Lhao Vo. Dialects: Dago’ Lawng Bit, Zagaran Mran, Gawan Naw’, Hlo’lan, Laking, Wa Khawk, Lawng Hsu. Lawng Hsu may have difficult intelligibility with the other dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Different from Mru [mro] and Mro-Khimi [cmr] of northwest Rakhine State and Paletwa Township, South Chin State. Culturally similar to Kachin. Christian.

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Lisu
[lis] Mandalay region: Mogota township; Sagaing region: Katha and Tygyaing townships; Kachin state: Putao township toward Assam border, also Myitkyina; Shan state: Lashio and Loilen townships. 300,000 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Many use Lisu as L2. Alternate Names: Central Lisu, Li-Hsaw, Li-Shaw, Lisaw, Lu-Tzu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw Yin, Yaw-Yen, Yeh-Jeh. Dialects: Hwa Lisu (Flowery Lisu), Black Lisu, Lu Shi Lisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: All 3 dialects are found in Myanmar. Black Lisu is most distinct. The Lisu in Myanmar and Thailand have difficulties in communicating due to dialect differences. Christian.

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[khb] Shan state: Muang Yong township east. 60,000 (2013). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Lue, Pai-I, Shu-Ai-I, Tai Lu. Dialects: Muang Yong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Moken
[mwt] Tanintharyi region: widespread in Mergui archipelago islands. 4,000 (Bradley 2007a). Total users in all countries: 6,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Basing, Chau Ko’, Lawta, Mawken, Orang Laut, Salon, Salong, Selong, Selung. Dialects: Dung, Jait (Ja-It), L’be. Reportedly most similar to Moklen [mkm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen. Comments: Primarily live on boats, but occasionally settle on area islands. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mon
[mnw] Kayin and Mon states; Tanintharyi region: north. 743,000 (2004), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 851,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aleng, Mou, Mun, Peguan, Raman, Rman, Rmen, Takanoon, Talaing, Taleng, Teguan. Dialects: Martaban-Moulmein (Central Mon, Mon Te), Pegu (Mon Tang, Northern Mon), Ye (Mon Nya, Southern Mon). Intelligibility between Mon varieties high; between Mon in Thailand and Myanmar 99% (Huffman 1976). Varieties in Myanmar and Thailand “mutually intelligible” (Bauer 1990) but lexical borrowings from Thai and Burmese may cause miscommunication (Guillon 1999). Lexical similarity: 69% with Mon and Nyah Kur [cbn] (Huffman 1976). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic. Comments: Remnants of a nation that once spread over south Myanmar and west Thailand. Preferred names: Mon or Raman. Buddhist.

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Mro-Khimi
[cmr] Chin state: Paletwa township; Rakhine state: Buthidaung, Kyauktaw, Maungdaw, Mrauk U, Pauktaw, and Ponnagyun townships. 75,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa Khami, Khami, Khumi Awa, Mro, Mro-Khimi Chin, “Kwe Myi” (pej.). Autonym: Khimi, Mro-Khimi. Dialects: Arang (Ahraing Khami, Areung, Aroeng), Xengna (Hrengna), Xata, Vakung (Wakun, Wakung). Generally high comprehension of Vakung dialect among other dialect speakers. Vakung is the largest dialect and basis of literature. Lexical similarity: 91%–98% within Mro-Khimi varieties, 86%–90% with Likhy variety of Eastern Khumi [cek], 81%–85% with Lemi variety of Eastern Khumi [cek], 77%–81% with Kaladan Khumi [cnk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Mru
[mro] Rakhine state: Buthidaung, Maungdaw, and Ponnagyun townships. 20,000 (1999 ABWE). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dak, Launghu, Mro, Mrucha, Mrung, Mrusa, Murung, Niopreng, Taung Mru. Dialects: Anok, Dowpreng (Doumrong, Pongmi, Tamsa), Sungma, Launghu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Mru. Comments: Christian.

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Muak Sa-aak
[ukk] Shan state: Mong Yawng township. 4,500 (2016 E. Hall). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doi. Autonym: Muak Sa-aak. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Mok [mqt]. Lexical similarity: 42% with U [uuu], 25% with Parauk Wa [prk], and 35% with Blang [blr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic.

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Naga, Akyaung Ari
[nqy] Sagaing region: Layshi township, Heinkut, Jagram, and Ngachan villages. 1,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akyaung Ari Naga, Ngachan. Dialects: Very little (if any) dialect variation within Akyaung Ari Naga. Lexical similarity: 52% with Tanghkul Naga of Somra [ntx], 23% with Tangkhul Naga of Ukhrul in India [nmf], 23% with Kokak Naga [nxk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Tribally, the Akyaung Ari are included as part of Tangkhul Naga, but their language is very distinct. Christian.

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Naga, Chen-Kayu
[nqq] Sagaing region: Hkamti district, Lahe township, 13 villages, along India border. 9,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kyan-Karyaw Naga. Dialects: Chen (Kyan), Kayu (Kahyu, Kaiyaw, Karyaw, Kayaw). The 2 dialects are closely related. Kayu is reportedly similar to the Chuyo and Gakat dialects of Tase Naga [nst]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga.

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Naga, Jejara
[pzn] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Layshi township, 7 villages. 1,500 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bara Naga, Para Naga, Parasar. Autonym: Naga. Dialects: Very little dialect variation within Jejara. Lexical similarity: 83%–93% within Jejara Naga, 23%–25% with Long Phuri Naga [lpn], 17%–19% with Makuri Naga [jmn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Khiamniungan
[kix] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Khamti and Lahe townships, about 30 villages. 10,000 (2010). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Makware, Nokaw, Para, Tukhemmi, Welam. Dialects: Wolam, Thang, Nokhu, Ponso. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: This group is sometimes called Para by other groups, but Para typically refers to the Jejara Naga [pzn]. Christian.

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Naga, Kokak
[nxk] Sagaing region: south Layshi township; 10 villages. 2,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kokak, Koki, Koki Naga, Konke. Dialects: Very little (if any) dialect variation within Kokak. Lexical similarity within Kokak: 98%. Lexical similarity: 19%–32% with Tangkhul Naga [ntx] in Myanmar, 23% with Akyaung Ari Naga [nqy], 22%–24% with Jejara Naga [pzn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Tribally, the Kokak are included as part of Tangkhul Naga [ntx], but their language is very distinct. Not the same as Kuki Chin (Chin, Thado [tcz]). Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Konyak
[nbe] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Lahe township. 2,000 (2010). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Kun, Lonwa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Lainong
[lzn] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Lahe township, about 25 villages. 7,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Htang Ngan, Htangan, Leinong Naga, Lenaung Naga. Dialects: Yao Dyang (Northern Lainong, Zau Dyang), Southern Lainong. High intelligibility between Lainong villages. Lexical similarity: within Lainong Naga 89%–100%. Lexical similarity: 69%–75% with Ponyo-Gongwang Naga [npg], 62%–67%with Khiamniungan Naga [kix], 37%–41% with Lao Naga [nlq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: The majority group within Lahe Township. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Lao
[nlq] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Lahe township, along India border. 1,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Law, Loh. Dialects: Reportedly most similar to Chen-Kayu Naga [nqq] and the Chuyo and Gakat dialects of Tase Naga [nst]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga.

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Naga, Long Phuri
[lpn] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Layshi township, 6 villages. 1,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amimi Naga, Longpfuri, Longpfuru, Mimi. Dialects: Little (if any) dialect variation within Long Phuri. Lexical similarity: 30%–37% with Makuri Naga [jmn], 23%–25% with Jejara Naga [pzn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Makuri
[jmn] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Homalin, Lahe, and Layshi townships. 2,500 (2004). Total users in all countries: 6,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makury. Autonym: Makuri. Dialects: Makhwale, Saingphule (Saingpuri), Arale, Kyile, Kyaungphuri (Shu), Shera (Shaera). Lexical similarity: 93% within Makuri Naga, 30%–37% with Long Phuri Naga [lpn], 17%–19% with Jejara Naga [pzn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Paungnyuan
[umn] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Khamti and northeast Lahe townships, 13 villages. 4,000 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lasam, Macham Naga, Makyam, Makyan Naga, Pongnyun. Autonym: Paungnyuan Naga. Dialects: Main dialect variation is between western Paungnyuan villages and Kuku villages. Lexical similarity: 99% within western Paungnyuan, 31%–35% with Ponyo-Gongwang Naga [npg], 29%–36% with Lainong Naga [lzn], 27%–28% with Lao Naga [nlq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: Distinct language from Lainong Naga [lzn], although culturally and geographically related. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Ponyo-Gongwang
[npg] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Lahe township, 19 villages. 4,500 (2008 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Autonym: Gongwang Naga, Ponyo Naga. Dialects: Ponyo (Manauk, Mannok, Ponnyio, Pounyu), Gongwang (Gongvan, Saplo, Saplow, Solo, Tsaplo, Tsawlaw). Very little dialect variation within Gongwang and within Ponyo, but between these 2 dialects, there are differences. Comprehension seems to be high between Ponyo and Gongwang speakers. Lexical similarity: 89%–91% between Ponyo and Gongwang, 69%–75% with Lainong Naga [lzn], 67%–73% with Khiamniungan Naga [kix]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: They feel culturally and linguistically related to both Lainong Naga [lzn] and Khiamniungan Naga [kix]. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Tangkhul
[ntx] Sagaing region: Homalin township; Layshi township, Somra tract. 4,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Somara, Somra. Autonym: Tangkhul Naga. Dialects: Somra. Very little dialect variation within Tangkhul (Somra) Naga. Somra village is the prestige dialect. Lexical similarity: 93%–94% with Tangkhul (Somra) Naga, 31% with Tangkhul Naga [nmf] in India, 51%–52% with Akyaung Ari Naga [nqy], 29%–32% with Kokak Naga [nxk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangkhulic. Comments: Included in official ethnic group list as Tangkhul. The Kokak Naga [nxk] and Akyaung Ari Naga [nqy] in Myanmar are included tribally within Tangkhul, but their languages are quite distinct. The Tangkhul (Somra) Naga [ntx] language in Myanmar is very different from Tangkhul (Ukhrul) Naga [nmf] in India. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga, Tangshang
[nst] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Khamti, Lahe, Nanyun, and Pangsau townships; Kachin state: Myitkyina district, Shinbwiyan and Tanai townships. 60,000 (2010). Total users in all countries: 100,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haimi, Hawa, Heimi, Kuwa, Pangmi, Pangwa, Rangpan, Rangpang, Tangwa, Tase, Tase Naga. Autonym: Tangshang Naga. Dialects: Bote (Bongtai, Butay, Hteinpa, Nokpa, Nukpa), Chamchang (Kimsing), Ranu, Ringkhu (Rangkhu), Sansik (Sheiknyo, Siknyo, Sikpo), Shangti (Sangtai, Shangthi), Shangwan (Changwan, Shangwal, Shawvel), Shecyü (Sangche, Sanke, Shaekjeng, Shaekyeu, Shekyü), Shokra (Sawkrang, Shaukra, Shograng), Toke (Tawkay), Yangno, Chamkok (Tamko, Thamkok), Cholim (Tawlum, Tulim, Tulum), Hachum (Chumnyu, Chumsa, Gachung), Hakhun (Gakhun), Hacheng (Hakyai), Haman (Gaman), Hapaw, Hasik (Awla, Awlay, Laju), Kumka (Kum Ga, Kumga), Rera (Ronrang), Asen (Aasen, Hansin, Raqsa, Yasa), Rara, Rasa, Ranchi (Rangchein), Pingku (Pyengoo), Ngaimong (Maimong, Ngaimau), Nahen (Nahim, Nahin), Mungre (Mawrang, Morang), Mitay (Maitai), Miku (Maihku), Moshang (Mawshang), Lungri, Lumnu, Lochang (Lanchein, Langshin), Lama, Lakki (Lakai), Khalak (Hkalak), Kaisan (Kaishan, Kyetsan), Henchin (Sanching, Shangchein), Gawkchung (Kochong), Gaqchan (Gashan), Gakat (Wakka, Wanga), Gaha (Halum), Chuyo (Wanggu, Wangoo), Champhang (Thamphang), Hakhü (Gakhi, Hachi, Hakhii, Hatse), Hokuq, Jöngi (Dongai, Donghee, Dongi), Kon (Chawang, Kyawan, Yawngkon, Yongkon), Kotlum (Kawlum), Lonyung (Galawn, Galun), Lungkhi (Longkhai), Maitai (Meitei, Mitay), Riha (Lulum). A group of many Naga speech varieties, some of which are separate languages. Intelligibility high between some speech varieties; low between others. Intelligibility between varieties is higher in the north and fairly low in the south. Wide range of lexical similarity within dialects, from 35%–97%. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: The name ‘Tangsa’, which is used in India, refers to only [nst] varieties. ‘Tangshang’, which is the official name in Myanmar, also includes Nocte [njb], Tutsa [tvt], and Wancho [nnp], which are spoken in India. Christian, Buddhist.

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Ngochang
[acn] Kachin state: Japhwi and Waimaw townships, west of Ayeyarwaddy river near Bhamo (locally known as Manmaw); China border area. 35,000 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acang, Achang, Anchan, Atsang, Chung, Maingtha, Manmaw, Mönghsa, Ngac’ang, Ngachang, Tai Sa’. Dialects: Maingtha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Burmese glossonym: Maingtha, Chinese glossonym: Achang. Christian.

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Nusu
[nuf] Kachin state: Myitkyina district, Chipwi, and Hsawlaw townships, about 22 villages. 670 (2011), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nang Tsu, No Tso, No Tsu, “Naw” (pej.), “No” (pej.), “No Pha” (pej.), “No Shi” (pej.), “Nu” (pej.). Dialects: Northern Nusu (Wawa, Yuoduoluo), Central Nusu (Miangu/Laomudeng), Southern Nusu (Puluo, Tuoping). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Palaung, Ruching
[pce] Mandalay region: Katha and Pyinoolwin townships; Shan state: Taunggyi district. 258,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 272,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Da’ang, Di-Ang, Ngwe Palaung, Palay, Silver Palaung. Dialects: Pale, Rulai. Rulai dialect near Lashio has regular phonological changes and some lexical difference from Ruching. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung. Comments: Kalaw dialect tends toward loss of final consonants, could be moving to develop tones. Tense vowels change into glides with a palatal final in the Pale variety. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Palaung, Rumai
[rbb] Kachin state: Bhamo district, Mansi township; Shan state: Lashio area, north to the border in Mantong, Muse, Nam Kham, north Hsenwi, and Tawngpeng (the ancient Palaung state). 137,000. Total users in all countries: 140,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Humai, Ngwe Palaung, Rumai, Rumai Humai, Shan Rumai, Silver Palaung, Ta’ang, Ta’ang Rumai, Tai Rumai. Dialects: Nam Kham Rumai is a different dialect from Lashio Rumai but comprehension is still good. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Palaung, Shwe
[pll] Shan state: Nam Hsan is center. 148,000 (1982). Total users in all countries: 150,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Golden Palaung, Liang, Red Da’ang, Shwe Palaung, Ta’ang Samlung, Ta-Ang Palaung. Dialects: Ywama. 15 Palaung dialects in Myanmar. Ruching Palaung [pce] and Rumai Palaung [rbb] are related, but distinct languages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung. Comments: Ywama is a prestige dialect. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Pali
[pli] Widespread. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Pa’o
[blk] Kayah state: Loikaw; Kayin state: Shan State border area; Mon state: near Thaton; Shan state. 560,000 (1983 census). Total users in all countries: 560,740. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Karen, Northern Taungthu, Pa Oh, Pa’o Karen, Pa-O, Pa-U. Dialects: Southern Pa’o, Northern Pa’o. Reportedly fairly high comprehension among dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral. Comments: Buddhist.

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Pyen
[pyy] Shan state: Mong Yang township, Namt Theun and Yaw Tan villages. 600 (2013 Pyen Language Committee). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hpinba, Hpyin, Misu, Pyin. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Phunoi [pho], Bisu [bzi], and Mpi [mpz]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Hani [hni], 32% with Lahu [lhu], 31% with Lisu [lis]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid. Comments: Christian.

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Rakhine
[rki] Chin state: Paletwa township; Rakhine state: widespread; Bago region, Shwegyin and Waw townships. 1,820,000 in Myanmar, all users. L1 users: 800,000 (2013 SIL). L2 users: 1,020,000 (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 2,020,000 (as L1: 1,000,000; as L2: 1,020,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Throughout Rakhine State and in Paletwa Township, Chin State. Especially in market, business, oral language at school, and in some media. Rakhine is the largest ethnic group and dominant language in the area and Rakhine people control most business, transport, and trade. Alternate Names: Arakanese, Mogh, Moghi, Rakhain, Rakhaing, Rakkhaine. Dialects: Sittwe (Akyab), Mrauk-U, Chaungtha, Yangbye (Rambree, Yanbe, Yanbye, Yangye), Kyaukphyu, Man Aung (Chebuda Island). Intelligibility in Rakhine State of prestigious Sittwe dialect seems fairly high. Slight variations in north Rakhine speech in Sittwe, Kyauktaw, Mrauk-U, Minpya, Ponnagyun, Buthidaung, and Maungdaw townships. The variety spoken in south Rakhine State townships of Kyauk Phyu, Yangbye, Thandwe, and Toungup noticeably different from the northern variety. The southern variety, particularly in Thandwe Township, is more similar to standard Burmese [mya]. Lexical similarity: among Rakhine and Marma varieties in both Myanmar and Bangladesh is over 85%. Lexical similarity: 91% with standard Burmese [mya]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Rawang
[raw] Kachin state: Putao district, Kawnglangphu, Machanbaw, Naungmaw, Pannandin, and Putao townships. 62,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 63,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Matwang dialect is L2 or church language used by other dialect speakers. Alternate Names: Ch’opa, Chiutse, Ganung-Rawang, Kiutze, Nung Rawang, Qiuze, “Hkanung” (pej.). Autonym: Nung, Rawang. Dialects: Kyaikhu (Dangraq-Mashang, Northern Lungmi), Matwang, Daru-Jerwang, Khrangkhu-Thininglong (Southern Lungmi), Tangsar West (Langdaqgong, Renyinchi), Thaluq, Tangsar East (Changgong). Most reportedly understand Matwang, a central, written dialect. Part of a chain of related varieties with the Drung [duu] people of Nu nationality in China. Dialects near Tibet border more divergent. Lungmi varieties of Mashang and Dangraq are especially divergent. Rawang speakers from the Kunglang variety of Daru live in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Some Rawang dialects, especially Kyaikhu Lungmi and Changgong Tangsar, have less intelligibility with the standard written dialect of Matwang. Anong (Khingpang) [nun] and Drung (Thrung) [duu] are related to Rawang and are sometimes included as Rawang varieties (Morse 1989). Lexical similarity: 82%–99% among Matwang-related dialects. Lexical similarity between Matwan and the following varieties or languages: 74% with Drung [duu], 79%–80% with Anong [nun], 81%–87% with Renyinchi (Langdaqgong Tangsar), 77% with Changgong Tangsar, 74%–85% with Lungmi, 74%–80% with Daru-Jerwang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish. Comments: Traditionally, Rawang is made up of five major clan divisions (plus subclans): Lungmi, Matwang, Daru-Jerwang, Tangsar, and Anong [nun] (Morse 1989). Christian.

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Riang Lai
[yin] Shan state: Langkho district. 12,000 (2008), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ban Roi, Liang Sek, Ranei, Red Riang, Riang Saek, Riang Sak, Striped Karen, Yang, Yang Lai, Yin Kya, Yinchia, Yinja. Dialects: None known. Related to Riang Lang [ril]. Traditionally, the two groups occupy different social and geographic space, and wear different traditional clothing styles. Not related to the Riang [ria] and Kok Borok [trp]-speaking Riang people of India and Bangladesh or to Pa’o [blk], which is Sino-Tibetan. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Riang. Comments: Related to Riang Lang [ril]. Included in official ethnic group list as Yin Kya. Called Karen (‘yin’ and ‘yang’) by the Burmese [mya] and Shan [shn] due to their dress. Yinchia or Yin Kya means Striped (tiger) Karen in Burmese. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Riang Lang
[ril] Shan state: Hopang district, Pang Long area. 12,500 (2008). Total users in all countries: 15,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Black Karen, Black Riang, Black Yang, Drum, Riang, Yang, Yang Lang, Yang Wan Kun, Yanglam, Yin, Yin Net, Yinnet. Autonym: Riang Lang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Riang. Comments: Related to Riang Lai [yin]. Included in official ethnic group list as Yin Net. Called Karen (’yin’ and ’yang’) by the Burmese [mya] and Shan [shn] due to their dress. Yin Net means Black Karen in Burmese. Not related to Kok Borok [trp] or Pa’o [blk]. Riang Lang [ril] and Riang Lai [yin] difference unknown but these have been treated as separate languages; traditionally, the two groups occupy different social and geographic space, and wear different traditional clothing styles. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Rohingya
[rhg] Rakhine state: Buthidaung, Maungdaw, Rathedaung and Sittwe townships. 800,000 (2012). Due to unrest, numbers are very uncertain. Total users in all countries: 1,700,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rohinja. Autonym: Ruwainggya. Dialects: Not much contact between dialect groups living in different townships; intelligibility situation is not clear. Dialects differ by river valleys. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: About 1,000,000 refugees went to Bangladesh in recent years, the majority of whom have dispersed to other countries. Most refugees in UNHCR-controlled camps in Bangladesh were repatriated back to Myanmar, but many of these have returned to Bangladesh unofficially.

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Samtao
[stu] Shan state: east. 9,550 (2000). Total users in all countries: 13,180. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samtau, Samtuan. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Samtao is used among the Palaungic peoples to refer to unintelligible dialects of Plang [blr]. In China, Samtao refers to Plang in Burma and occasionally to Plang from other China-based varieties with low intelligibility. ‘Samtao’, also refers to south Mong La area in East Shan State between the China border and Nam Lwe River. A third meaning refers to Plang who live in the Samtao area. Wan Phii Plang is a Samtao variety similar to and intelligible with Wan Sen and Wan Nyet, ancient Plang villages along Mong La-Kentung Road further west. A fourth meaning of ‘Samtao’ refers to Palaungic varieties more similar to Wa, such as the Wa, Pangloh, who also refer to themselves as Samtao. 1 Samtao village in Veng Phu Kha insists they speak the ancient Samtao language, but lexically it is Lao [lao] with Mon-Khmer phonology. Traditional religion.

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Shan
[shn] Mandalay region: assorted north border areas; Sagaing region: Homalin and Tamu townships; Kachin state: Mansi and Mogaung townships, Bhamo, Mohnyin, west Momauk, and south Myitkyni; Kayah state: Loikaw; Shan State: north in Konkyan, Muse, and Nanhkan townships, to south in Hsihseng, Langko, Mawkwa, and Mongpan townships; southeast in Matman, Mongkhet, Monghpyak, Mongyang, and Mongyawng townships. Myanmar-Yunnan border, Mu’ang Mao Long and Namkham (Tai Mao dialect). 3,200,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). 350,000 Tai Mao (1990 A. Diller). Total users in all countries: 3,295,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Burmese Shan, Great Thai, Sam, Sha, Shan Bama, Shan Gyi, Tai Long, Tai Luang, Tai Shan, Tai Yai, Tai-Lon, Thai Yai, “Ngeo” (pej.), “Ngiao” (pej.), “Ngiaw” (pej.), “Ngio” (pej.), “Ngiow” (pej.). Dialects: Tai Mao (Mao Shan, Tai Khe), Northern Shan State, Southern Shan State. Regional dialect differences. Low intelligibility of Lü [khb]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Tai Mao (Mao Shan, Tai Khe) is linguistically closer to Tai Nüa [tdd] but political and cultural factors lead them to identify with Shan. Buddhist.

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Tai Laing
[tjl] Sagaing region: Homalin township, along Chindwin, Irrawaddy, and Uru rivers; Kachin state: Bamaw to Myitkyina townships. 100,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Red Tai, Shan Bamar, Shan Kalee, Shan Ni, Tai Laeng, Tai Lai, Tai Lang, Tai Nai, Tai Naing. Dialects: Tai Lai, Tai Nai. Two subgroups: Those who live along the railway line between Myitkyina and Mandalay and call themselves Tai Nai; Those who live along the river south of Myitkyina who call themselves Tai Lai. However, apart from the sound shift l to n among the first group, there do not seem to be any major differences in language between these 2 subgroups. Reportedly similar to Khamti [kht]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: The name Tai Laing means Red Tai. Buddhist.

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Tai Loi
[tlq] Shan state: north Mong Yawng township. 4,460 (2008). Population for Muak Sa-aak only. Population information is not yet available for the other groups known as Tai Loi. Total users in all countries: 4,960. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aw-aak, Bulang-Su, Doi, Khabe, Kon Doi, Kon Loi, Loi, Monglwe, Muak Sa-aak, Tai-Loi, Tailoi, Wakut. Dialects: Muak Sa-aak. Considerable dialectal variation between villages. Lexical similarity: The Muak Sa-aak variety shares 42% with U [uuu] of China; 40% with Pang Pung Plang [blr]; 25% with standard Wa [prk]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Tai Loi means ‘mountain Tai’ and is a cover term for multiple Palaungic groups in the area, some of which are Angkuic and some of which are Waic. Buddhist, Christian.

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Tai Nüa
[tdd] Kachin state: east; Shan State: north. 72,400 (1983 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chinese Shan, Tai Kong, Tai Neua. Dialects: Mang Shi, Ruili (Meng Mao). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Mang Shi is the prestige dialect. Tai Nüa in Laos is probably a distinct but related language. Buddhist.

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Taman
[tcl] Sagaing region: Khamti district, Homalin township, Tamanthi area. No known L1 speakers. Last Taman speaker died in 1990s. Descendants intermarried and now speak other languages. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingppaw-Asakia, Jingphaw.

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Taungyo
[tco] Shan state: Taunggyi district, Kalaw, and Pinlong townships. 40,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taru, Taung Yoe, Taung-yo, Toru, Twing Reu, Twinreu. Dialects: None known. Nonstandard variety of Burmese [mya]. Intelligibility low between distant villages; low comprehension of Intha [int]; high comprehension of Danu [dnv]. Lexical similarity: 89% with standard Burmese [mya] and Intha [int], 91% with Danu [dnv], 84%–92% with Rakhine [rki]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Officially viewed as a Burmese dialect. Buddhist.

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Tavoyan
[tvn] Tanintharyi region: southeast. 400,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dawai, Dawe, Dawei, Tavoya, Tawe-Tavoy. Dialects: None known. A well-known nonstandard Burmese with profound pronunciation and vocabulary differences from Burmese [mya]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Officially viewed as a Burmese dialect [mya]. Buddhist.

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Tibetan, Khams
[khg] Kachin state: Nomung township, Da On Dam, Dahom Dam, Mading, and San Dam villages. 300 (2010 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Khams. Comments: Buddhist.

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Wa, Parauk
[prk] Shan state: Kengtung and upper Salween river areas; resettling since 2000 in Shan state: Mong Hsat and Mong Ton townships, especially Mong Kyut, Mong Yawn, and Pong Pa Kyin town areas. 400,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 805,700. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Shan State. Alternate Names: Baraog, Phalok, Praok, Standard Wa, Wa. Dialects: Meung, Ien, Bible Wa, Nom Tum, Sau Hin, Panglao, Man Teu (Jo Phyu, Man Teey, Man Ton, Man Tong), Toi Lawng, Pang Yang (Muik Khaox), Khui Ma, Ying Phang (Sigang), La Dah, Ai Cheung, Ai Swa, Ang Krax, Awm Plawk, Caong Naong, Cuan, Kang Seu, Kaung Sang, Kawn Cawng, Kawn Jiem, Kawn Mau, Kawn Poih, Kawn Rao, Kawng Lang, Kha Lax, Kok Lah, La Kong, Lah Kreum, Lhax Tiah, Lung Kua, Man Leen, Man Shiang, Man Tong, Meung Kun, Meung Mao, Meung Yum, Hom, Muik Lhang, Muik Lhax, Muik Nghawng, Muik Nu, Muik Raix, Muik Sime, Nawng Plawx, Pa Tah, Pang Vai, Rho Mawng, Rok Tong, Savaik, Sheeiem, Shiem Tum, Shiiem Ceeim, Si Gang Rai, Si Nawk, Si Nga, Si Viex, Simung, Taoh Mie, Veng Ngeen, Vui Sai, Yaong Brex, Yaong Khrum, Yaong Krak, Yaong Kua, Yaong Leen, Yaong Lung, Yaong Nong, Yaong O, Yaong Peng, Yaong Raok, Yaong Riex, Yaong Sang, Yaong Soi, Yaong Ting. Over 70 varieties of Wa in Myanmar; 300 varieties in China (2006 Institute of Nationalities, Sun Hong Kai). Wa official nationality standard form in China based on Yong Shuai, one of many Parauk varieties. Bible Wa, a composite language, based on the Yong Shuai, Yong Rauk, Mang Toei, and Toilawng varieties, forms the standard for Myanmar. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Wa, Vo
[wbm] Shan state: Hopang township, five villages. 700 (2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Meung Hom, Peung Sux, Vhax. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Wewaw
[wea] Bago region: Karen hills, near Taungoo, Bago Yoma range between Ayeyarwady and Sittang rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wewau. Dialects: Reportedly similar to and may be a dialect of S’gaw Karen [ksw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern.

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Yinbaw
[kvu] Kayah state; Shan state: east. 7,300 (1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yeinbaw, Yinbaw Karen. Dialects: None known. Consider themselves part of Kayan ethnic group. Reportedly similar to Kayan [pdu] and Geko [ghk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Yintale
[kvy] Kayah state: Bawlakhè district, Hpasawng township, 3 villages. 1,000 (2000 D. Bradley), decreasing. Wa Awng village is main village, with 100 households. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Taliak, Yangatalet, Yangtadai, Yintale Karen, Yintalet. Dialects: Bawlake, Wa Awng. Reportedly a variety of Western Kayah [kyu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Zaiwa
[atb] Kachin state: Waimaw township, Sedan area; Shan state: Kentung district. 30,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aci, Atshi, Atsi, Atzi, Azi, Tsaiva, Tsaiwa, Zi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: The Chinese name is Tsaiwa, Jingpho is Atsi, Burmese is Zi. Christian.

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Zayein
[kxk] Shan state: south between Mobyè and Phekon towns. 9,300 (1983 census). Population including Lahta [kvt] and Zayein: 13,500 (Manson 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaungtou, Khaungtou, Zayein Karen. Dialects: None known. May be subgroup of Latha [kvt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Northern. Comments: Reportedly, Zayein is an area name where many Latha [kvt] live. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Zo
[zom] Sagaing region: Kalay, Khampat, and Tamu townships; Chin state: Hakha, Tedim, and Tonzang townships. 61,000 (2012 P. Tungdim). Total users in all countries: 81,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jou, Yo, Yos, Zohâm, Zome, Zomi, Zou, Zou Chin. Autonym: Zokam. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tedim [ctd], Paite Chin [pck], Vaiphei [vap], and Simte [smt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern, Sizang. Comments: Zomi (or Zome) is also a collective name for Tedim Chin [ctd] of Myanmar, Paite [pck], and Vaiphei [vap] of Manipur. Christian.

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